Herpes Simplex Virus Combined Subunit Vaccines And Methods Of Use Thereof

HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS COMBINED SUBUNIT VACCINES AND METHODS

OF USE THEREOF

FIELD OF INVENTION

[001] This invention provides vaccines comprising two or more recombinant Herpes

Simplex Virus (HSV) proteins selected from a gD protein, a gC protein and a gE protein; and methods of vaccinating a subject against HSV to impede immune evasion thereby and treating, impeding, inhibiting, reducing the incidence of, and/or suppressing an HSV infection or a symptom or manifestation thereof, comprising administration of a vaccine of the present invention.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[002] Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-I) and Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HS V-2) are common human pathogens and cause a variety of clinical illnesses, including oral-facial infections, genital herpes, ocular infections, herpes encephalitis, and neonatal herpes. HSV-I is more frequently associated with non-genital infection and is mostly acquired during childhood via nonsexual contact. In the last decade, however, it has become an important cause of genital herpes. HSV-2 is the cause of most cases of genital herpes, and it infects an estimated 500,000 persons annually in the United States. Despite the availability of antiviral agents to treat HSV disease, genital HSV-2 infections have remained a persistent problem with a seroprevalence of approximately 17% among 14-49 year old subjects in the United States, with much greater prevalence rates in parts of South America and Africa.

[003] Methods for preventing primary (first time) infection and preventing recurrences of HSV-I and HSV-2 are urgently needed in the art.

[004] Herpes simplex virus is also a major risk factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Individuals who are seropositive for HSV-2 have a 2-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV. Acquisition rates appear greatest following initial HSV-2 infection, when HSV-2 reactivation is most frequent. Treatments and vaccine strategies aimed at reducing HSV infection may prevent HIV transmission, acquisition, and disease progression. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[005] This invention provides vaccines comprising two or more recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) proteins selected from a gD protein, a gC protein and a gE protein; and methods of vaccinating a subject against HSV and treating, impeding, inhibiting, reducing the incidence of, or suppressing an HSV infection or a symptom or manifestation thereof, comprising administration of a vaccine of the present invention. In one embodiment, the vaccine additionally comprises an adjuvant.

[006] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof; (c) a recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof; and (d) an adjuvant.

[007] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant.

[008] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant.

[009] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant.

[0010] In one embodiment, each of the recombinant HSV proteins is a recombinant HSV-I protein. In another embodiment, each of the recombinant HSV proteins is a recombinant HSV-2 protein. In yet another embodiment, the recombinant HSV proteins are a mixture of recombinant HSV-I protein(s) and recombinant HSV-2 protein(s).

[001 1] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of inducing an anti- HSV immune response in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[0012] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating, suppressing, inhibiting, or reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In one embodiment, the HSV infection is an HSV-I infection. In one embodiment, the HSV infection is an HSV-2 infection. In one embodiment, the HSV infection is a primary HSV infection. In one embodiment, the HSV infection is a flare, recurrence, or HSV labialis following a primary HSV infection. In one embodiment, the HSV infection is HSV encephalitis. In one embodiment, the HSV infection is an HSV neonatal infection. In one embodiment, the subject is HIV-infected.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0013] Figure 1: Rosetting assay to detect antibodies that block C3b binding to gC on HSV- 1 infected cells. (A) Top: Symbolic depiction of a rosetting assay to measure C3b binding to gC-1. HSV-I infected Vero cells express gC on the cell surface and bind C3b-coated sheep red blood cells to form rosettes around infected Vero cells. Bottom: Symbolic depiction of antibodies that block rosetting. In the presence of anti-gC antibodies, C3b-coated red blood cells fail to bind to gC and no rosettes form. (B) Serum from mock or gC-1 immunized mice was used to block rosetting of C3b-coated red blood cells (+/- standard errors).

[0014] Figure 2: Disease scores in gC-1 immunized mice challenged by flank infection with a lethal dose of WT virus. Mice were mock immunized or immunized with 0.1 , 1 or 10 μg of gC-1. Immunized mice were scored for severity of disease at the inoculation and zosteriform sites from days 3 to 7 post-challenge.

[0015] Figure 3: Disease scores in mice immunized and then challenged by flank infection with a lethal dose of WT virus. Mice were either mock immunized or immunized with gD-1 alone, or both gD-1 and gC-1. Mice were scored for disease severity at the inoculation and zosteriform sites from 3 to 14 days post-challenge.

[0016] Figure 4: Survival in mice immunized and then challenged with a lethal dose of WT virus. Mice were either mock immunized, or immunized with gD-1 alone, or both gD-1 and gC-1. Survival was monitored from 3-15 days post-challenge.

[0017] Figure 5: Recovery of virus from DRG. Mice were either mock immunized, or immunized with gD-1 alone or both gD- 1 and gC-1. Each group was then challenged with a lethal dose of HSV-I . Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were harvested and assayed for infectious virus. [0018] Figure 6: Anti-gC-1 IgG does not neutralize HSV-I. Mice were immunized three times intramuscularly (IM) with 5 μg of gC-1 mixed with CpG (50 μg /mice) and alum (25 μg/μg protein). Serum was obtained 2 weeks after the third immunization, IgG was purified from the mouse serum on a protein G column and tested for neutralizing antibody activity. As controls, neutralization was performed using anti-gDl monoclonal antibody DLI l, anti-gC-1 monoclonal antibody 1C8 that binds to the domain on gC-1 that interacts with C3b and blocks C3b rosetting to HSV-I infected cells, and non-immune murine IgG. Approximately 80 PFU of HSV-I, strain NS was incubated with anti-gC-1 IgG obtained from immunized mice or with DLI l, 1C8 or non-immune murine IgG for 1 hour at 37°C. Virus titers were then determined by plaque assay on Vero cells.

[0019] Figure 7: Complement-intact mice (C57B1/6) or C3knockout mice (C3KO) were passively immunized with 200 μg/mice of anti-gC-1 IgG, 1C8 (200 μg/mice), or non-immune murine IgG (200 μg/mice) 24 hours before flank infection with 5xlO5 HSV-I. Mice were evaluated for inoculation and zosteriform site disease for 1 1 days.

[0020] Figure 8: (A) Western blot analysis of gC2 expression in HSV-2 wild-type- and gC2- null-infected cell extracts. The blot was probed with rabbit anti-gC2 antibody R81 or rabbit anti-VP5 as a loading control. (B to E) Neutralization of HSV-I (NS) and HSV-2 (G, 333, and 2.12) wild-type and gC-null strains by normal human serum (NHS). Viruses were incubated with PBS (control) or NHS as the source of complement at the concentrations indicated for 1 h at 37°C. Results are expressed as PFU/ml (% of control) and were calculated as follows: (PFU with NHS/PFU with PBS) X 100. Results represent the mean titers ± standard deviations of 4 separate experiments for strain G and of three experiments for strains 333, 2.12, and NS. Area under the curve (AUC) comparing wild-type and gC-null viruses: P < 0.0001 for strain G, P < 0.002 for strain 333, P < 0.001 for strain 2.12, and P < 0.05 for strain NS.

[0021] Figure 9: (A) Total hemolytic complement activity of NHS, NHS depleted of CIq (CIq depleted), and Clq-depleted serum reconstituted with CIq (CIq depleted + CIq). EA (Sheep erythrocyte coated with IgM) were incubated with serum and the percentage of EA lysed was determined. (B) gC l -null and gC2-null viruses are neutralized by the classical complement pathway. Neutralization experiments were performed with 20% NHS that was

CI q depleted or reconstituted. Results depicted represent mean titers ± standard deviations of three independent experiments. P < 0.02, comparing heat-inactivated NHS and either NHS or Clq-restored serum for NS-gClnull and G-gC2null. In contrast, values are not significant, P < 0.23 and 0.86, comparing heat-inactivated NHS with Clq-depleted serum for NS-gClnull and G-gC2null, respectively.

[0022] Figure 10: Neutralization of HSV-I and HSV-2 gC-null viruses by NHS from 4 donors occurs in the absence of specific antibodies against HSV. Neutralization experiments were performed on virus incubated with PBS, heat-inactivated NHS (inactive NHS), or 20%

NHS. The four serum samples are labeled 1 to 4. Results shown represent the mean titers ± standard deviations of three separate experiments. P was < 0.001 for all four sera, comparing

PBS with NHS for NS-gClnull, and P ranged from 0.006 to < 0.001 for G-gC2null viruses. In contrast, values were not significant for PBS versus heat-inactivated NHS.

[0023] Figure 11: Neutralization of HSV-I and HSV-2 gC-null viruses is dependent upon C3 activation. Neutralization experiments were performed on virus treated with PBS, 20% NHS, or NHS treated with either inactive compstatin (NHS + Linear) or active compstatin (NHS + 4W9A). Results represent mean titers ± standard deviations of three independent experiments for NS-gClnull and three independent experiments for G-gC2null. For both viruses, differences were significant between PBS and NHS (P < 0.01) and PBS and NHS treated with inactive compstatin (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were detected between PBS and NHS treated with active compstatin.

[0024] Figure 12: (A) Total hemolytic complement activity of NHS, NHS depleted of C5 (C5 depleted), and C5-restored serum (C5 depleted + C5). (B) Neutralization of gCl-null and gC2-null viruses requires the presence of C5. Virus was incubated with PBS, 20% NHS, 20%

NHS depleted of C5 (C5 depleted), or C5-restored serum (C5 depleted + C5). Results are expressed as the mean titers ± standard deviations of 4 independent experiments for NS- gClnull and 2 for G-gC2null. P < 0.005 for both viruses, comparing NHS and C5-restored NHS with PBS. No significant differences were detected between PBS and C5-depleted

NHS. (C) Total hemolytic complement activity of NHS, NHS depleted of C6 (C6 depleted), and C6-restored serum (C6 depleted + C6). (D) Neutralization of gCl -null or gC2-null virus is not dependent on the presence of C6. Neutralization assays were performed on virus treated with PBS, 20% NHS, Cό-depleted NHS (C6 depleted), and Cό-restored serum (C6 depleted + C6). The results represent the mean titers ± standard deviations of three independent experiments for NS-gCl null and seven experiments for G-gC2null. P < 0.01 for both viruses, comparing PBS with NHS, Cό-depleted, and Cό-reconstituted serum. [0025] Figure 13: (A) Total hemolytic complement activity using NHS and NHS depleted of IgM (IgM depleted). Hemolytic assays were performed using antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes to demonstrate an intact classical complement pathway in IgM-depleted serum. (B) Natural IgM antibody is required for neutralization of HSV-I and HSV-2 gC-null viruses. The gC-null viruses were incubated with 20% NHS, heat-inactivated NHS (inactive NHS), 20% NHS depleted of IgM (IgM depleted), and IgM-restored serum (IgM depleted + IgM). The results shown represent the mean titers + standard deviations of 4 independent experiments. P < 0.05, comparing IgM-depleted with reconstituted sera for NS-gClnull and G-gC2null. In contrast, values were not significant when comparing PBS with IgM-depleted serum for NS-gClnull and G-gC2null, P 0.83 and 0.31, respectively. (C to F) ELISA detects natural IgM antibody binding to gC2-null virus. Heat-inactivated 20% NHS from 4 donors was serially diluted and added to microtiter wells coated with G-gC2null or control wells. The experiment was performed twice with similar results. Results of 1 experiment are depicted.

[0026] Figure 14: NS-gE264 disease in the murine flank model. Mice were infected at 5 x 105 PFXJ with NS-gE264 or rescue NS-gE264 and scored for zosteriform disease days 3-7 post-infection. (A) No passive transfer of IgG: NS-gE264 causes comparable disease as the rescue virus. (B) Passive transfer of human anti-HSV IgG: NS-gE264 disease scores were significantly lower than the rescue strain (P < .001). (C) Passive transfer of human non- immune IgG: No significant differences were present between NS-gE264 and the rescue strain. N=5 mice per group, except N=IO for the NS-gE264 with no IgG.

[0027] Figure 15: Virus titers in DRG 3 and 4 dpi. Balb/C mice were inoculated in the flank with 105 PFU NS (WT) or 5 x 105 PFU NS-gCδελταC3. DRG from each mouse was titered separately. Results represent the average ± SE of three mice per group. Line reflects the lower limit of detection (2 PFU).

[0028] Figure 16 (A) 2.12-gC null is less virulent than 2.12 in complement-intact mice. HSV-2 strain 2.12 and 2.12-gCnull were scratch-inoculated at 5 x 105 PFU onto the flanks of complement intact C57B1/6 mice (n=10), and disease was scored from days 3-7 pi. 2.12- gCnull caused significantly less disease at the inoculation (left panel) and zosteriform (right panel) sites (P < .001 ). (B) 2.12-gCnull is as virulent as 2.12 in C3KO mice. The same experiment was performed in C3KO mice (n=4). No differences were detected between 2.12- gCnull and 2.12. Error bars represent SD. [0029] Figure 17: Antibodies in mouse serum measured against the inducing immunogen. Data are plotted as mean ± standard error of the mean of 5 mice immunized with bac-gE fragments or three mock-immunized mice.

[0030] Figure 18: Murine and rabbit antibody binding to gE and blocking biotin-labeled nonimmune human IgG binding to the FcγR. (A) Infected cells were incubated with serum from immunized mice (n = 5 per group) or mock-immunized controls (n = 3). Serum (1: 10 dilution) was evaluated for binding to gE on infected cells by flow cytometry. (B) Serum (undiluted) was added to infected cells to block binding of 10 μg of biotin-labeled nonimmune human IgG. Bars indicate median values for each group.

[0031] Figure 19: Anti-gD antibody responses to gD/gC vaccination. Mice were immunized three times with gD alone (first three bars) or gC and gD given together in the same syringe (last 2 bars). Results demonstrate that administering gC and gD simultaneously blunts the antibody response to gD 50ng.

[0032] Figure 20: (A) Mice were immunized as in Figure 19, and mice that had received 50 ng gD and 10 μg gC were boosted with 50 ng gD. Antibody response to gD improved (last bar). (B) Ability of antisera to inhibit rosette formation by C3b coated erythrocytes.

[0033] Figure 21: (A) ELISA antibody responses to immunization with gC mixed with CpG and alum as adjuvants. (B) Ability of antisera to inhibit rosette formation of C3b-coated erythrocytes.

[0034] Figure 22: Survival in gC-2-immunized mice after flank exposure to HSV-2. Balb/C mice were immunized EVI in the gastrocnemius muscle three times at two-week intervals with 0.5, 1 , 2, or 5 μg of gC-2 using CpG (50 μg/mice) mixed with alum (25 μg/μg protein), or mock-immunized with CpG and alum but without gC-2. Fourteen days after the third immunization, mice were challenged on the shaved and chemically denuded flank by scratch inoculation with 4x105 PFU of HSV-2 strain 2.12. Survival was recorded from days 0-14.

[0035] Figure 23: Disease severity at the inoculation and zosteriform sites in gC-2- immunized mice after flank exposure to HSV-2. Expeiments were performed as in Figure 22. After scratch inoculation challenge with 4x105 PFU of HSV-2 strain 2.12, animals were scored for disease severity at the inoculation and zosteriform sites from days 3-14 (N = 5 mice per group). [0036] Figure 24. Survival in gC-2-immunized mice after vaginal exposure to HSV-2. Balb/C mice were mock-immunized IM in the gastrocnemius muscle with CpG (50 μg/mice) and alum (25 μg/μg protein) or immunized with 1, 2, or 5 μg of gC-2 with CpG and alum at two-week intervals. Five animals in each group were immunized three times, except one group was immunized with the 5 μg dose twice [labeled as 5 μg(2x)], while another group of five mice was immunized three times [labeled as 5 μg(3x)]. Nine days after the third immunization or 23 days after the 5 μg(2x) immunization, mice were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with Depo Provera® (2 mg/mouse) to synchronize the estrus cycle. Five days later, mice were challenged intra- vaginally with 2x105 PFU of HSV-2 strain 2.12. Animals were observed for mortality from days 0-14.

[0037] Figure 25: Mean disease score in gC-2-immunized mice after vaginal exposure to HSV-2. Experiments were performed as in Figure 24. After intra-vaginal challenge with 2xlO5 PFU of HSV-2 strain 2.12, animals were scored for disease severity from days 3-14.

[0038] Figure 26: Vaginal HSV-2 viral titers in gC-2-immunized mice after vaginal exposure to HSV-2. Experiments were performed as in Figure 24. Vaginal swabs were obtained daily from days 1-11 post-challenge, and viral titers were determined.

[0039] Figure 27: Survival in gD-2-immunized mice after flank exposure to HSV-2. Balb/C mice were mock immunized or immunized PM in gastrocnemius muscle three times with 10, 25, 50, or 100 ng of gD-2 with CpG (50 μg/mice) and alum (25 μg/μg protein). Mice were challenged by flank inoculation with 4x105 PFU/lOml of HSV-2 strain 2.12.

[0040] Figure 28: Mean disease score in gD-2-immunized mice after flank exposure to HSV-2. Experiments were conducted as described in Figure 27. After flank inoculation with 4x105 PFU/10ml of HSV-2 strain 2.12, animals were scored for disease severity at the inoculation and zosteriform sites from days 3-14.

[0041] Figure 29: Survival in gD-2-immunized mice after vaginal exposure to HSV-2. Balb/C mice were immunized IM three times (3x) with 50, 100, or 250 ng (3x) of gD-2 or twice (2x) with 250 ng of gD-2. The gD-2 was combined with CpG (50 μg/mice) and alum (25 μg/μg protein) prior to inoculation as described in Figure 24 for gC-2. Mice were treated with Depo Provera® and challenged with 2x105 PFU of HSV-2 srain 2.12 as described in Figure 24 for gC-2 immunization and evaluated for survival and disease severity. [0042] Figure 30: Mean disease score in gD-2-immunized mice after vaginal exposure to HSV-2. Experiments were conducted as described in Figure 29. After intra-vaginal challenge with 2x105 PFU of HSV-2 strain 2.12, animals were scored for disease severity from days 3- 14.

[0043] Figure 31: Vaginal HSV-2 viral titers in gD-2-immunized mice after vaginal exposure to HSV-2. Experiments were performed as in Figure 29. Vaginal swabs were obtained daily from days 1-11 post-challenge, with three mice in each group.

[0044] Figure 32: (A) Complement levels are maintained in HIV/HSV-1+/2- co-infected subjects. Serum total hemolytic complement activity (CH50) was measured in HIV-positive subjects with CD4 T-cell counts < 200/μl, 200-500/μl, and > 500/μl and from HIV uninfected controls. Results shown represent mean +/- standard error (SE). (B) Neutralization of HSV-I WT and gC/gE mutant viruses by antibody alone or antibody and complement. WT or gC/gE mutant virus was incubated for 1 h at 370C with PBS, 1% serum treated with EDTA to inactivate complement (labeled as Ab), or 1% serum containing active complement (labeled as Ab&C).

[0045] Figure 33: The gC/gE mutant virus expresses similar or slightly greater concentrations of HSV-I glycoproteins on the virion surface than WT virus. Purified gC/gE mutant and WT viruses were evaluated for VP5, gB, gC, gD, gE, gH/gL, and gl expression by Western blot and densitometry analysis to compare relative glycoprotein concentrations.

[0046] Figure 34: The role of the HSV-I FcγR in antibody neutralization. (A) Possible model to explain the greater susceptibility of the gC/gE mutant virus to neutralization by antibody alone. On the left side of the WT virus model, gE binds the Fc domain of IgG preventing the F(ab')2 from binding antigen (shown here as gD). On the right side of the WT virus model, antibody bipolar bridging is shown in which the Fab domain binds to gD and the Fc domain of the same IgG molecule binds to gE. If antibody binding occurs as shown on the left side, but not the right side of the WT virus model, the HSV-I FcγR (comprised of gE/gl) may prevent some F(ab')2 domains from interacting with their target antigen. In the model of the gC/gE mutant virus, ΔgE fails to bind the IgG Fc domain, allowing the F(ab')2 domain to bind antigen (shown as gD) and neutralize the virus. (B) A nonfunctional viral FcγR does not explain the increased susceptibility of the gC/gE mutant virus to antibody neutralization. Viruses were incubated with pooled human IgG from HIV negative donors and the amount of neutralization determined.

[0047] Figure 35: gC and gE immune evasion domains shield critical neutralizing epitopes. (A) WT and gC/gE mutant viruses were incubated rabbit serum against gB, gC, gD, gH/gL, or gl. Results shown represent the neutralization (Logw) +/- SE of 2-3 determinations with each individual antibody. (B) WT and gC/gE mutant viruses were incubated with rabbit serum against each individual glycoprotein. Results shown represent the neutralization +/- SE of 2-3 assays for each antibody.

[0048] Figure 36: Binding of anti-glycoprotein immunoglobulin to HSV-I WT and gC/gE mutant viruses. (A) Comparing anti-gD binding to gC/gE mutant and WT virus. (B) Comparing anti-gB binding to gC/gE mutant and WT virus. (C) Comparing anti-gH/gL binding to gC/gE mutant and WT virus. Figures A-C represent the mean of three independent experiments. Error bars indicate standard deviation. (D) Binding of chicken anti-gD immunoglobulins. Figure D was performed once.

[0049] Figure 37: Model of epitope masking. On the left, gC blocks epitopes on gD preventing binding of neutralizing IgG antibodies to WT virus. On the right, gC on the mutant virus fails to block epitopes on gD enabling neutralizing antibodies to bind. Epitope shielding by gE is not shown in the figure; however, our findings support a similar model for gE.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0050] This invention provides vaccines comprising two or more recombinant Herpes

Simplex Virus (HSV) proteins selected from a gD protein, a gC protein and a gE protein; and methods of vaccinating a subject against HSV and treating, impeding, inhibiting, reducing the incidence of, or suppressing an HSV infection or a symptom or manifestation thereof, comprising administration of a vaccine of the present invention. In one embodiment, the vaccine additionally comprises an adjuvant.

[0051 ] In another embodiment, this invention provides vaccines comprising a recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) gD protein and a recombinant protein selected from at least one of a HSV gC protein and a HSV gE protein. In one embodiment, the vaccine additionally comprises an adjuvant.

10052] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus- 1 (HSV-I ) gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV-I gC protein or fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant. In another embodiment, administration of the vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV-1 gC antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to the recombinant HSV-I gC protein. In another embodiment, the gC fragment includes an immune evasion domain thereof. In another embodiment, immunization with gC and gD, or fragments thereof, in combination limits the ability of HSV-I to evade a host immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, immunization with gC or a fragment thereof limits the ability of HSV-I to evade a host anti-gD immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the host immune response referred to comprises anti-gD antibodies induced by the vaccine.

[0053] In another embodiment, "HSV protein" refers to an HSV-I or HSV-2 protein. In another embodiment, "HSV protein" refers to an HSV-I protein. In another embodiment, "HSV protein" refers to an HSV-2 protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to an HSV-I gD protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to a fragment of an HSV-I gD protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to an HSV-I gC protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to a fragment of an HSV-I gC protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to an HSV-I gE protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to a fragment of an HSV-I gE protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to an HSV-2 gD protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to a fragment of an HSV-2 gD protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to an HSV-2 gC protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to a fragment of an HSV-2 gC protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to an HSV-2 gE protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to a fragment of an HSV-2 gE protein. In one embodiment, a fragment referred to herein is an immunogenic fragment. In one embodiment, an "immunogenic fragment" refers to a portion of a oligopeptide, polypeptide or protein that is immunogenic and elicits a protective immune response when administered to a subject.

[0054] In one embodiment, "immunogenicity" or "immunogenic" is used herein to refer to the innate ability of a protein, peptide, nucleic acid, antigen or organism to elicit an immune response in an animal when the protein, peptide, nucleic acid, antigen or organism is administered to the animal. Thus, "enhancing the immunogenicity" in one embodiment, refers to increasing the ability of a protein, peptide, nucleic acid, antigen or organism to elicit an immune response in an animal when the protein, peptide, nucleic acid, antigen or organism is administered to an animal. The increased ability of a protein, peptide, nucleic acid, antigen or organism to elicit an immune response can be measured by, in one embodiment, a greater number of antibodies to a protein, peptide, nucleic acid, antigen or organism, a greater diversity of antibodies to an antigen or organism, a greater number of T- cells specific for a protein, peptide, nucleic acid, antigen or organism, a greater cytotoxic or helper T-cell response to a protein, peptide, nucleic acid, antigen or organism, and the like.

[0055] In one embodiment, "functional" within the meaning of the invention, is used herein to refer to the innate ability of a protein, peptide, nucleic acid, fragment or a variant thereof to exhibit a biological activity or function. In one embodiment, such a biological function is its binding property to an interaction partner, e.g., a membrane-associated receptor, and in another embodiment, its trimerization property. In the case of functional fragments and the functional variants of the invention, these biological functions may in fact be changed, e.g., with respect to their specificity or selectivity, but with retention of the basic biological function.

[0056] Numerous methods for measuring the biological activity of a protein, polypeptide, or molecule are known from the related art, for example, protein assays, which use labeled substrates, substrate analyses by chromatographic methods, such as HPLC or thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometric methods, etc. (see, e.g., Maniatis et al. (2001) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.).

[0057] In one embodiment, the term "fragment" is used herein to refer to a protein or polypeptide that is shorter or comprises fewer amino acids than the full length protein or polypeptide. In another embodiment, fragment refers to a nucleic acid that is shorter or comprises fewer nucleotides than the full length nucleic acid. In another embodiment, the fragment is an N-terminal fragment. In another embodiment, the fragment is a C-terminal fragment. In one embodiment, the fragment is an intrasequential section of the protein, peptide, or nucleic acid. In another embodiment, the fragment is an immunogenic intrasequential section of the protein, peptide or nucleic acid. In another embodiment, the fragment is a functional intrasequential section within the protein, peptide or nucleic acid. In another embodiment, the fragment is an N-terminal immunogenic fragment. In one embodiment, the fragment is a C-terminal immunogenic fragment. In another embodiment, the fragment is an N-terminal functional fragment. In another embodiment, the fragment is a C-terminal functional fragment. [0058] Thus, in one embodiment, an "immunogenic fragment" of a protein as described in the present invention (e.g. gC-1, gC-2, gE-1, gE-2, gD-1, gD-2, etc) refers to a portion of the protein that is immunogenic, in one embodiment and in another embodiment, elicits a protective immune response when administered to a subject.

[0059] In one embodiment, any reference to HSV in the composition and methods of the instant invention refers, in one embodiment, to HSV-I, and in another embodiment, to HSV- 2, and in another embodiment, to both HSV-I and HSV-2, and in another embodiment, to HSV-I or HS V-2.

[0060] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV-2 gC protein or fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant. In another embodiment, administration of the vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV-2 gC antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to the recombinant HSV-2 gC protein. In another embodiment, the gC fragment includes an immune evasion domain thereof. In another embodiment, immunization with gC and gD, or fragments thereof, in combination limits the ability of HSV-2 to evade a host immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, immunization with gC or a fragment thereof, limits the ability of HSV-2 to evade a host anti-gD immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the host immune response referred to comprises anti-gD antibodies induced by the vaccine.

[0061] As provided herein, gC-1 subunit vaccines are protective against HSV-I infection (Figure 2). Further, in one embodiment, combination gC-l/gD-1 vaccines confer superior protection compared with vaccines containing gD-1 alone (Figure 3) or gC-1 alone and reduce or prevent infection of dorsal root ganglia (Figure 5). Further, gC-2 subunit vaccines are protective against HSV-2 infection (Figures 22-26), and combination gC-2/gD-2 vaccines confer protection superior to vaccines containing gD-2 alone or gC-2 alone.

[0062] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV-I gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV-I gE protein or fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant. In another embodiment, administration of the vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV-1 gE antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to the recombinant HSV-I gE protein. In another embodiment, the gE fragment includes an immune evasion domain thereof. In another embodiment, immunization with gE and gD, or fragments thereof, in combination limits the ability of HSV-I to evade a host immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, immunization with gE or a fragment thereof, limits the ability of HSV-I to evade a host anti-gD immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the host immune response referred to comprises anti-gD antibodies induced by the vaccine.

[0063] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV-2 gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV-2 gE protein or fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant. In another embodiment, administration of the vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV-2 gE antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to the recombinant HSV-2 gE protein. In another embodiment, the gE fragment includes an immune evasion domain thereof. In another embodiment, immunization with gE and gD, or fragments thereof, in combination limits the ability of HSV-2 to evade a host immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, immunization with gE or a fragment thereof, limits the ability of HSV-2 to evade a host anti-gD immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the host immune response referred to comprises anti-gD antibodies induced by the vaccine.

[0064] As provided herein, gE-1 subunit vaccines are protective against HSV-I infection. Further, combination gE-l/gD-1 vaccines confer superior protection compared with vaccines containing gD-1 alone or gE-1 alone. Further, gE-2 subunit vaccines are protective against HSV-2 infection, and combination gE-2/gD-2 vaccines confer protection superior to vaccines containing gD-2 alone or gE-2 alone.

[0065] In another embodiment, the immune-potentiating effect of gC and gE together is greater than the effect of either alone. In another embodiment, the immune-potentiating effects of gC and gE exhibit synergy.

[0066] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus- 1 (HSV-I) gC protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV-I gE protein or fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant. In another embodiment, administration of the vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV-1 gC antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to the recombinant HSV-I gC protein. In another embodiment, the gC fragment includes an immune evasion domain thereof. In another embodiment, immunization with gC and gE, or fragments thereof, in combination limits the ability of HSV-I to evade a host immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, immunization with gC, or a fragment thereof, limits the ability of HSV-I to evade a host anti-gE immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, immunization with gE, or a fragment thereof, limits the ability of HSV-I to evade a host anti-gC immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the host immune response referred to comprises anti-gC antibodies induced by the vaccine. In another embodiment, the host immune response referred to comprises anti-gE antibodies induced by the vaccine.

[0067] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) gC protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV-2 gE protein or fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant. In another embodiment, administration of the vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV-2 gC antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to the recombinant HSV-2 gC protein. In another embodiment, the gC fragment includes an immune evasion domain thereof. In another embodiment, immunization with gC and gE, or fragments thereof, in combination limits the ability of HSV-2 to evade a host immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, immunization with gC, or a fragment thereof, limits the ability of HSV-2 to evade a host anti-gE immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, immunization with gE, or a fragment thereof, limits the ability of HSV-2 to evade a host anti-gC immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the host immune response referred to comprises anti-gC antibodies induced by the vaccine. In another embodiment, the host immune response referred to comprises anti-gE antibodies induced by the vaccine.

[0068] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV-I gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV-I gC protein or fragment thereof; (c) a recombinant HSV-I gE protein or fragment thereof; and (d) an adjuvant. In another embodiment, administration of the vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV-1 gC antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to the recombinant HSV-I gC protein. In another embodiment, administration of the vaccine elicits an anti-HSV-1 gE antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to the recombinant HSV- I gE protein. In another embodiment, the gC fragment includes an immune evasion domain thereof. In another embodiment, the gE fragment includes an immune evasion domain thereof. In another embodiment, immunization with gC, gD, and gE, or fragments thereof, in combination limits the ability of HSV-I to evade a host immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, immunization with gC and gE, or fragments thereof, limits the ability of HSV-I to evade a host anti-gD immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the host immune response comprises anti-gD antibodies induced by the vaccine. In another embodiment, the immune-potentiating effect of gC and gE, or fragments thereof, together is greater than the effect of either alone. In another embodiment, the immune-potentiating effects of gC and gE exhibit synergy.

[0069] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV-2 gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV-2 gC protein or fragment thereof; (c) a recombinant HSV-2 gE protein or fragment thereof; and (d) an adjuvant. In another embodiment, administration of the vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV-2 gC antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to the recombinant HSV-2 gC protein. In another embodiment, administration of the vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV-2 gE antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to the recombinant HSV-2 gE protein. In another embodiment, the gC fragment includes an immune evasion domain thereof. In another embodiment, the gE fragment includes an immune evasion domain thereof. In another embodiment, immunization with gC, gD, and gE, or fragments thereof, in combination limits the ability of HSV-2 to evade a host immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, immunization with gC and gE, or fragments thereof, limits the ability of HSV-2 to evade a host anti-gD immune response during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the host immune response comprises anti-gD antibodies induced by the vaccine. In another embodiment, the immune-potentiating effect of gC and gE, or fragments thereof, together is greater than the effect of either alone. In another embodiment, the immune-potentiating effects of gC and gE, or fragments thereof, exhibit synergy.

[0070] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV-I gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV-I gC protein or fragment thereof; or (c) a recombinant HSV-I gE protein or fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV-2 gD protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV-2 gC protein or fragment thereof; or (c) a recombinant HSV-2 gE protein or fragment thereof. In one embodiment, the vaccine further comprises an adjuvant.

[0071] In another embodiment, a vaccine of the present invention includes a recombinant HSV-I gD protein. In another embodiment, the vaccine includes a fragment of an HSV-I gD protein. In another embodiment, the vaccine includes an HSV-2 gD protein. In another embodiment, the vaccine includes a fragment of an HSV-2 gD protein.

[0072] In another embodiment, a gD protein fragment utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is an immunogenic fragment. In another embodiment, a gD immunoprotective antigen need not be the entire protein. The protective immune response generally involves, in another embodiment, an antibody response. In another embodiment, mutants, sequence conservative variants, and functional conservative variants of gD are useful in methods and compositions of the present invention, provided that all such variants retain the required immuno-protective effect.

[0073] In another embodiment, the immunogenic fragment can comprise an immuno- protective gD antigen from any strain of HSV. In another embodiment, the immunogenic fragment can comprise sequence variants of HSV, as found in infected individuals.

[0074] In one embodiment, an immunogenic polypeptide is also antigenic. "Antigenic" refers, in another embodiment, to a peptide capable of specifically interacting with an antigen recognition molecule of the immune system, e.g. an immunoglobulin (antibody) or T cell antigen receptor. An antigenic peptide contains, in another embodiment, an epitope of at least about 8 amino acids (AA). In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 9 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 10 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 1 1 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 12 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 15 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 20 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 25 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 30 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 40 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 50 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 70 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 100 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 150 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 200 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 250 AA. In another embodiment, the term refers to a peptide having at least about 300 AA. In certain embodiments, the peptide has an upper limit of 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 70, 100, 150, 200, 250 or 300 AA. An antigenic portion of a polypeptide, also called herein the epitope in one embodiment, can be that portion that is immunodominant for antibody or T cell receptor recognition, or it can be a portion used to generate an antibody to the molecule by conjugating the antigenic portion to a carrier polypeptide for immunization. A molecule that is antigenic need not be itself immunogenic, i.e., capable of eliciting an immune response without a carrier.

[0075] In another embodiment, the gD protein fragment of methods and compositions of the present invention is a gD-1 fragment. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of the gD-1 ectodomain. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment comprises the gD-1 ectodomain. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of a fragment of the gD-1 ectodomain. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment comprises a fragment of the gD-1 ectodomain. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment is any other gD-1 fragment known in the art.

[0076] The gD-1 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention has, in another embodiment, the sequence:

[0077] MGGAAARLGAVILFVVIVGLHGVRGKYALADASLKLADPNRFRRKDLPVLD QLTDPPGVRRVYHIQAGLPDPFQPPSLPITVYYA VLERACRSVLLNAPSEAPQIVRGA SEDVRKQPYNLTIAWFRMGGNCAIPITVMEYTECSYNKSLGACPIRTQPRWNYYDSF SAVSEDNLGFLMHAPAFETAGTYLRLVKINDWTEITQFILEHRAKGSCKYALPLRIPP SACLSPQA YQQGVTVDSIGMLPRFIPENQRTVA VYSLKIAGWHGPKAPYTSTLLPPE

LSETPNATQPELAPEAPEDSALLEDPVGTVAPQIPPNWHIPSIQDAATPYHPPATPNN MGLIAGAVGGSLLAALVICGIV YWMRRRTQKAPKRIRLPHIREDDQPSSHQPLFY (SEQ ID No: 1). In another embodiment, a gD-1 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is a homologue of SEQ ID No: 1. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is an isoform of SEQ ID No: 1. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is a variant of SEQ ID No: 1. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is a fragment of SEQ ID No: 1. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is a fragment of an isoform of SEQ ID No: 1. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is a fragment of a variant of SEQ ID No: 1.

[0078] In another embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encoding a gD-1 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is set forth in a GenBank entry having one of the following Accession Numbers: NC_001806, X14112, E03111, E03023, E02509, E00402, E00401, E00395, AF487902, AF487901, AF293614, L09242, J02217, L09244, L09245, and L09243. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is encoded by a nucleotide molecule having a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is a homologue of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is a fragment of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is a fragment of an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the gD-1 protein is a fragment of a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries.

[0079] In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about amino acids (AA) 26- 306. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 36-296. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 46-286. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 56-276. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 66-266. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 76-256. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 86-246. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 96-236. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 106-226. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 1 16- 216. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 126-206. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 136-196. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 26-286. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 26-266. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 26-246. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 26-206. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 26-166. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 26-126. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 26-106. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 46-306. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 66-306. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 86-306. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 106-306. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 126-306. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 146-306. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 166-306. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 186-306. In another embodiment, the gD-1 fragment consists of about AA 206-306. In alternative embodiments, the gD-1 fragment consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residues.

[0080] In another embodiment, an HSV-I gD AA sequence is utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention. In another embodiment, an HSV-I gD protein or peptide is utilized.

[0081] In another embodiment, the gD protein fragment of methods and compositions of the present invention is a gD-2 fragment. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of the gD-2 ectodomain. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment comprises the gD-2 ectodomain. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of a fragment of the gD-2 ectodomain. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment comprises a fragment of the gD-2 ectodomain. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment is any other gD-2 fragment known in the art.

[0082] The gD-2 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention has, in another embodiment, the sequence:

[0083] MGRLTSGVGTAALLVVAVGLRVVCAKYALADPSLKMADPNRFRGKNLPVL DQLTDPPGVKRVYHIQPSLEDPFQPPSIPITVYYAVLERACRSVLLHAPSEAPQIVRGA SDEARKHTYNLTIAW YRMGDNCAIPITVMEYTECPYNKSLGVCPIRTQPRWS YYDSF

SAVSEDNLGFLMHAP AFETAGTYLRLVKIND WTEΓΓQFILEHRARASCKY ALPLRIPP

AACLTSKA YQQGVTVDSIGMLPRFIPENQRTV ALYSLKIAGWHGPKPPYTSTLLPPEL SDTTNATQPELVPEDPEDSALLEDPAGTVSSQIPPNWHIPSIQDVAPHHAPAAPSNPG LIIGALAGSTLAVLVIGGIAFWVRRRAQMAPKRLRLPHIRDDDAPPSHQPLFY (SEQ ID No: 2). In another embodiment, a gD-2 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is a homologue of SEQ ID No: 2. In another embodiment, the protein is an isoform of SEQ ID No: 2. In another embodiment, the protein is a variant of SEQ ID No: 2. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of SEQ ID No: 2. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of an isoform of SEQ ID No: 2. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a variant of SEQ ID No: 2.

[0084] In another embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encoding a gD-2 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is set forth in a GenBank entry having one of the following Accession Numbers: NC_001798, E00205, Z86099, AY779754, AY779753, AY779752, AY779751, AY779750, AY517492, AY155225, and K01408. In another embodiment, the gD-2 protein is encoded by a nucleotide molecule having a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a homologue of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries.

[0085] In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 26-306. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 36-296. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 46-286. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 56-276. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 66-266. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 76-256. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 86-246. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 96-236. In another embodiment, the fragment consists of about AA 106-226. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 1 16-216. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 126-206. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 136-196. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 26-286. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 26-266. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 26-246. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 26-206. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 26-166. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 26-126. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 26-106. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 46-306. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 66-306. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 86-306. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 106-306. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 126-306. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 146-306. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 166-306. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 186-306. In another embodiment, the gD-2 fragment consists of about AA 206-306. In alternative embodiments, the gD-2 fragment consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residues.

[0086] In another embodiment, the recombinant gD protein fragment thereof elicits antibodies that inhibit binding of gD to a cellular receptor. In another embodiment, the receptor is herpesvirus entry mediator A (HveA/HVEM). In another embodiment, the receptor is nectin-1 (HveC). In another embodiment, the receptor is nectin-2 (HveB). In another embodiment, the receptor is a modified form of heparan sulfate. In another embodiment, the receptor is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. In another embodiment, the receptor is any other gD receptor known in the art.

[0087] In another embodiment, the recombinant gD protein or fragment thereof includes AA 26-57. In another embodiment, inclusion of these residues elicits antibodies that inhibit binding to HVEM. In another embodiment, the gD protein or fragment includes Y63. In another embodiment, the gD protein or fragment includes Rl 59. In another embodiment, the gD protein or fragment includes D240. In another embodiment, the gD protein or fragment includes P246. In another embodiment, the recombinant gD protein or fragment includes a residue selected from Y63, Rl 59, D240, and P246. In another embodiment, inclusion of one of these residues elicits antibodies that inhibit binding to nectin- 1.

[0088] The above nomenclature for gD AA residues includes the residues of the signal sequence. Thus, residue one of the mature protein is referred to as "26."

[0089] In another embodiment, an HSV-2 gD AA sequence is utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention. In another embodiment, an HSV-2 gD protein or peptide is utilized. [0090] Each recombinant gD-1 and gD-2 protein or fragment thereof represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[0091] In another embodiment, a vaccine of the present invention includes a recombinant HSV-I gC protein. In another embodiment, the vaccine includes a fragment of an HSV-I gC protein. In another embodiment, the vaccine includes an HSV-2 gD protein. In another embodiment, the vaccine includes a fragment of an HSV-2 gD protein.

[0092] The gC-1 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention has, in another embodiment, the sequence:

[0093] MAPGRVGLA VVLWGLLWLGAGVAGGSETASTGPTITAGA VTNASEAPTSGS PGSAASPEVTPTSTPNPNNVTQNKTTPTEPASPPTTPKPTSTPKSPPTSTPDPKPKNNT TPAKSGRPTKPPGPVWCDRRDPLAR YGSRVQIRCRFRNSTRMEFRLQIWRYSMGPSP PIAPAPDLEEVLTNIT APPGGLLVYDSAPNLTDPHVLW AEGAGPG ADPPLYSVTGPLP TQRLIIGEVTPATQGMYYLAWGRMDSPHEYGTWVRVRMFRPPSLTLQPHAVMEGQ PFKATCTAAAYYPRNPVEFDWFEDDRQVFNPGQIDTQTHEHPDGFTTVSTVTSEAV GGQVPPRTFTCQMTWHRDS VTFSRRNATGLALVLPRPTΓΓMEFGVRHVVCTAGCVP

EGVTFAWFLGDDPSPAAKSAVTAQESCDHPGLATVRSTLPIS YD YSEYICRLTGYPA GIPVLEHHGSHQPPPRDPTERQVIEAIEWVGIGIGVLAAGVLVVTAIVYVVRTSQSRQ RHRR (SEQ ID No: 3). In another embodiment, a gC-1 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is a homologue of SEQ ID No: 3. In another embodiment, the protein is an isoform of SEQ ID No: 3. In another embodiment, the protein is a variant of SEQ ID No: 3. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of SEQ ID No: 3. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of an isoform of SEQ ID No: 3. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a variant of SEQ ID No: 3.

[0094] In another embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encoding a gC-1 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is set forth in a GenBank entry having one of the following Accession Numbers: NCJ301806, X141 12, AJ421509, AJ421508,

AJ421507, AJ421506, AJ421505, AJ421504, AJ421503, AJ421502, AJ421501 , AJ421500,

AJ421499, AJ421498, AJ421497, AJ421496, AJ421495, AJ421494, AJ421493, AJ421492,

AJ421491 , AJ421490, AJ421489, AJ421488, and AJ421487. In another embodiment, the gC-1 protein is encoded by a nucleotide molecule having a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a homologue of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries.

[0095] The gC-2 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention has, in another embodiment, the sequence:

[0096] MALGRVGLA VGLWGLLWVGVVVVLANASPGRTΓΓVGPRGNASNAAPSASP RNASAPRTTPTPPQPRKATKSKASTAKPAPPPKTGPPKTSSEPVRCNRHDPLARYGSR VQIRCRFPNSTRTEFRLQIWRYATATDAEIGTAPSLEEVMVNVSAPPGGQLVYDSAP NRTDPHVIWAEGAGPGASPRLYSVVGPLGRQRLIIEELTLETQGMYYWVWGRTDRP SAYGTWVRVRVFRPPSLTIHPHAVLEGQPFKATCTAATYYPGNRAEFVWFEDGRRV FDPAQIHTQTQENPDGFSTVSTVTSAAVGGQGPPRTFTCQLTWHRDSVSFSRRNASG TASVLPRPTITMEFTGDHA VCTAGCVPEGVTFAWFLGDDSSPAEKVA V ASQTSCGRP

GTATIRSTLPVSYEQTEYICRLAGYPDGIP VLEHHGSHQPPPRDPTERQVIRA VEGAGI GVAVLVAVVLAGTAVVYLTHASSVRYRRLR (SEQ ID NO: 4). In another embodiment, a gC-2 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is a homologue of SEQ ED No: 4. In another embodiment, the protein is an isoform of SEQ ID No: 4. In another embodiment, the protein is a variant of SEQ ED No: 4. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of SEQ ED No: 4. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of an isoform of SEQ ED No: 4. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a variant of SEQ ED No: 4.

[0097] In another embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encoding a gC-2 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is set forth in a GenBank entry having one of the following Accession Numbers: NCJ)Ol 798, Z86099, M 10053, AJ297389, AF021341 , Ul 2179, U 12177, Ul 2176, and Ul 2178. In another embodiment, the gC-2 protein is encoded by a nucleotide molecule having a sequence set forth in one of the above

GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a homologue of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries.

[0098] The gC protein fragment utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is, in another embodiment, an immunogenic fragment. In another embodiment, a gC immunoprotective antigen need not be the entire protein. The protective immune response generally involves, in another embodiment, an antibody response. In another embodiment, mutants, sequence conservative variants, and functional conservative variants of gC are useful in methods and compositions of the present invention, provided that all such variants retain the required immuno-protective effect.

[0099] In another embodiment, the immunogenic fragment can comprise an immunoprotective gC antigen from any strain of HSV. In another embodiment, the immunogenic fragment can comprise sequence variants of HSV, as found in infected individuals.

[00100] In another embodiment, the gC protein fragment comprises a gC immune evasion domain. In another embodiment, the gC protein fragment comprises a portion of a gC immune evasion domain. In another embodiment, the gC protein fragment is a gC immune evasion domain. In another embodiment, the gC protein fragment is a portion of a gC immune evasion domain. In another embodiment, an HSV-I gC AA sequence is utilized. In another embodiment, an HSV-I gC protein or peptide is utilized.

[00101 ] In another embodiment, the gC protein fragment is a C3b-binding domain. In another embodiment, the gC protein fragment is a portion of a C3b-binding domain. "C3b-binding domain" refers, in another embodiment, to a domain that mediates binding of gC with a host C3b molecule. In another embodiment, the term refers to a domain that mediates interaction of gC with a host C3b molecule.

|00102] In another embodiment, (e.g. in the case of gC-1 ), the gC domain consists of approximately AA 26-457. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 46-457. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 66-457. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 86-457. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 106-457. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 126- 457. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 146-457. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 166-457. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 186-457. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 206- 457. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 226-457. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 246-457. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-447. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-437. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-427. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-417. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-407. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-387. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-367. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-347. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-327. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-307. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-287. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-267. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 26-247. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 36-447. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 46-437. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 56-427. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 66-417. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 76-407. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 86-397. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 96-387. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 106-377. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 116-367. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 126-357. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 136-347. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 147-337. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 124-366. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 124-137. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 223- 246. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 276-292. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 339-366. In alternative embodiments, the gC domain consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residues.

OO 103 J In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 124-246. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 124-292. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 223-292. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 223- 366. In another embodiment, the gC domain is selected from AA 124-137, 223-246, 276- 292, and 339-366. In another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 124-137 and 223-246. In another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 124-137 and 276-292. In another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 124-137 and 339-366. In another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 223-246 and 276-292. In another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 223-246 and 339-366. In another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 276-292 and 339-366. hi another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 124-137, 223-246, and 276-292. In another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 124-137, 223-246, and 339-366. In another embodiment, the gC domain is selected from AA 124-137, 276-292, and 339-366. In another embodiment, the gC domain is selected from AA 223-246, 276-292, and 339-366. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 164-366. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 204-366. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 244-366. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 124-326. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 124- 286. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 124-246. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 204-326. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 244-326. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 204- 286. In alternative embodiments, the range consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residues.

[00104] In another embodiment, the gC-1 protein is modified with an antigenic tag. In another embodiment, one of the above gC-1 fragments is modified with an antigenic tag. In another embodiment, the tag is a histidine ("His") tag. In another embodiment, the His tag consists of 5 histidine residues. In another embodiment, the His tag consists of 6 histidine residues. In another embodiment, the His tag consists of another number of histidine residues. In another embodiment, the gC-1 fragment utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is AA 26-457 modified with a His tag.

[00105] In another embodiment, (e.g. in the case of gC-2), the gC domain consists of approximately AA 27-426. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 47-426. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 67-426. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 87-426. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 107-426. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 127- 426. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 147-426. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 167-426. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 187-426. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 207- 426. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 227-426. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 247-426. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 27-406. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 27-386. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 27-366. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 27-346. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 27-326. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 27-306. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 27-286. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 27-266. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 27-246. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 37-416. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 47-406. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 57-396. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 67-386. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 77-376. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 87-366. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 97-356. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 107-346. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 117-326. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 127-316. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 137- 306. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 147-296. In alternative embodiments, the gC domain consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residues.

[00106] In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 102-107. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 222-279. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 307-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 94-355. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 102-279. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 102-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 222-379. In another embodiment, the gC domain is selected from AA 102-107, 222-279, and 307-379. In another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 102-107 and 222-279. In another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 102-107 and 307-379. In another embodiment, the domain is selected from AA 222-279 and 307-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 122-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 142-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 162-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 182-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 202-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 222-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 242-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 102- 359. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 102-339. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 102-319. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 102-299. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 102- 279. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 102-259. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 102-239. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 112-369. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 122- 359. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 132-349. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 142-339. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 152-329. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 162- 319. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 172-309. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 182-299. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 192-289. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 202- 279. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 232-279. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 242-279. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 252-279. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 262- 279. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 222-269. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 222-259. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 222-249. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 222- 239. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 227-274. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 232-269. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 237-264. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 242-259. In another embodiment, the domain consists of approximately AA 307-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 317- 379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 327-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 337-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 347-379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 357- 379. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 307-369. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 307-359. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 307-349. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 307- 339. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 307-329. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 312-374. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 317-369. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 322- 364. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 327-359. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 332-354. In another embodiment, the range is approximately AA 337-349. In alternative embodiments, the gC domain consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residues.

[00107] In another embodiment, the gC-2 protein is modified with an antigenic tag. In another embodiment, one of the above gC-2 fragments is modified with an antigenic tag. In another embodiment, the tag is a histidine ("His") tag. In another embodiment, the His tag consists of 5 histidine residues. In another embodiment, the His tag consists of 6 histidine residues. In another embodiment, the His tag consists of another number of histidine residues. In another embodiment, the gC-2 fragment utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is AA 27-426 modified with a His tag.

[00108] In another embodiment, the gC domain is any other gC domain known in the art to mediate binding or interaction of gC with a host C3b molecule.

[00109] In another embodiment, the gC protein fragment is a properdin interfering domain. In another embodiment, the gC protein fragment is a portion of a properdin interfering domain. "Properdin-interfering domain" refers, in another embodiment, to a domain that blocks or inhibits binding of a host C3b molecule with a host properdin molecule. In another embodiment, the term refers to a domain that blocks or inhibits an interaction of a host C3b molecule with a host properdin molecule. In another embodiment, (e.g. in the case of gC-1), the gC domain consists of approximately AA 33-133. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 33-73. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 33-83. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 33-93. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 33-103. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 33-1 13. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 33-123. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 43-133. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 53-133. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 63-133. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 73- 133. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 83-133. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 93-133. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 103-133. In another embodiment, the gC domain consists of approximately AA 43-93. In alternative embodiments, the gC domain consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residues.

[00110] In another embodiment, the gC domain is any other gC domain known in the art to interfere with binding of a host C3b molecule with a host properdin molecule.

[00111] In another embodiment, the gC protein fragment is a C5 interfering domain. In another embodiment, the gC protein fragment is a portion of a C5 interfering domain. "C5- interfering domain" refers, in another embodiment, to a domain that interferes with binding of a host C3b molecule with a host C5 molecule. In another embodiment, the term refers to a domain that interferes with the interaction of a host C3b molecule with a host C5 molecule. In another embodiment, (e.g. in the case of gC-1), the gC domain consists of approximately AA 33-133. In another embodiment, the gC domain is any other gC domain known in the art to interfere with or inhibit binding or interaction of a host C3b molecule with a host C5 molecule.

[00112] Each recombinant gC-1 or gC-2 protein or fragment thereof represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00113] In another embodiment, a vaccine of the present invention comprises a recombinant HSV-I gE protein. In another embodiment, the vaccine comprises a fragment of an HSV-I gE protein. In another embodiment, the vaccine includes an HSV-2 gE protein. In another embodiment, the vaccine includes a fragment of an HSV-2 gE protein.

[00114] The gE-1 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention has, in another embodiment, the sequence:

[00115] MDRGA VVGFLLGVCVVSCLAGTPKTSWRRVSVGEDVSLLPAPGPTGRGPTQ KLLW AVEPLDGCGPLHPSWVSLMPPKQVPETVVD AACMRAPVPLAMA YAPPAPSA TGGLRTDFVWQERAAVVNRSLVIYGVRETDSGLYTLSVGDIKDPARQVASVVLVVQ

PAPVPTPPPTPADYDEDDNDEGEGEDESLAGTPASGTPRLPPSPAPPRSWPSAPEVSH VRGVTVRMETPEAILFSPGEAFSTNVSIHAIAHDDQTYTMDVVWLRFDVPTSCAEM RIYESCLYHPQLPECLSPADAPCAASTWTSRLAVRSYAGCSRTNPPPRCSAEAHMEP FPGLAWQAASVNLEFRDASPQHSGLYLCVVYVNDHIHAWGHITINTAAQYRNAVV EQPLPQRGADLAEPTHPHVGAPPHAPPTHGALRLGAVMGAALLLSALGLSVWACM

TCWRRRAWRAVKSRASGKGPTYIRVADSELYADWSSDSEGERDQVPWLAPPERPD SPSTNGSGFEILSPTAPSVYPRSDGHQSRRQLTTFGSGRPDRRYSQASDSSVFW (SEQ ID No: 5). In another embodiment, a gE-1 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is a homologue of SEQ ID No: 5. In another embodiment, the protein is an isoform of SEQ ID No: 5. In another embodiment, the protein is a variant of SEQ ID No: 5. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of SEQ ID No: 5. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of an isoform of SEQ ID No: 5. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a variant of SEQ ID No: 5.

[00116] In another embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encoding a gE-1 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is set forth in a GenBank entry having one of the following Accession Numbers: NC_001806, X14112, DQ889502, X02138, and any of AJ626469-AJ626498. In another embodiment, the gE-1 protein is encoded by a nucleotide molecule having a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a homologue of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries.

[001 17] The gE-2 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention has, in another embodiment, the sequence:

[001 18] MARGAGLVFFVGVWVVSCLAAAPRTSWKRVTSGEDVVLLPAPAERTRAHK LLWAAEPLDACGPLRPSWVALWPPRRVLETVVDAACMRAPEPLAIAYSPPFPAGDE GLYSELAWRDRVAVVNESLVIYGALETDSGLYTLSVVGLSDEARQVASVVLVVEPA PVPTPTPDDYDEEDDAGVTNARRSAFPPQPPPRRPPVAPPTHPRVIPEVSHVRGVTVH METLEAILFAPGETFGTNVSIHAIAHDDGPYAMDVVWMRFDVPSSCADMRIYEACL YHPQLPECLSPADAPCAVSSWA YRLAVRS YAGCSRTTPPPRCFAEARMEPVPGLAW

LASTVNLEFQHASPQHAGLYLCVVYVDDHIHAWGHMTISTAAQYRNAVVEQHLPQ RQPEPVEPTRPHVRAPHPAPSARGPLRLGAVLGAALLLAALGLSAWACMTCWRRRS WRA VKSRASATGPTY1RVADSEL YADWSSDSEGERDGSLWQDPPERPDSPSTNGSG FEILSPTAPSVYPHSEGRKSRRPLTTFGSGSPGRRHSQASYPSVLW (SEQ ID NO: 6). In another embodiment, a gE-2 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is a homologue of SEQ ID No: 6. In another embodiment, the protein is an isoform of SEQ ID No: 6. In another embodiment, the protein is a variant of SEQ ID No: 6. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of SEQ ID No: 6. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of an isoform of SEQ ID No: 6. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a variant of SEQ ID No: 6.

[00119] In another embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encoding a gE-2 protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is set forth in a GenBank entry having one of the following Accession Numbers: NC_001798, Z86099, D00026, X04798, and

M 14886. In another embodiment, the gE-2 protein is encoded by a nucleotide molecule having a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a homologue of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries.

In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of an isoform of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries. In another embodiment, the protein is a fragment of a variant of a protein encoded by a sequence set forth in one of the above GenBank entries.

[00120] In another embodiment, a gE fragment utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention comprises an IgG Fc-binding domain of the gE protein. In another embodiment, the gE fragment comprises AA 24-224. In another embodiment, the gE fragment comprises a portion of AA 24-224. In another embodiment, the portion is sufficient to elicit antibodies that block immune evasion by the IgG Fc-binding domain of the gE protein.

[00121 ] In another embodiment, the gE fragment comprises a portion of a gE IgG Fc-binding domain. In another embodiment, (e.g. in the case of gE-1) the gE domain consists of about

AA 24-409. In another embodiment, the domain consists of about 24-224. In alternative embodiments, the gE domain consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residue ranges.

[00122] In another embodiment, the range is about AA 34-399. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 54-379. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 74-359. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 94-339. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 114-319. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 134-299. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 154-279. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 54-409. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 84-409. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 114-409. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 144-409. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 174-409. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 204-409. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 234-409. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-389. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-369. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-349. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-329. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-309. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-289. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-269. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-249. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-229. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-209. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 24-189. In alternative embodiments, the gE domain consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residue ranges.

[00123] In another embodiment, the range is about 223-396. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 230-390. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 235-380. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 245-380. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 255-380. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 265-380. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 275-380. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 285-380. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 295-380. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 305-380. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 235-370. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 235-370. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 235-360. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 235-350. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 235-340. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 235-330. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 235-320. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 235-310. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 235-300. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 322-359. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 327-359. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 332-359. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 337-359. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 322-354. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 322-349. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 322-344. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 327-354. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 332-349. In another embodiment, the gE domain includes AA 380. In alternative embodiments, the gE domain consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residue ranges.

[00124] In another embodiment, the gE protein is modified with an antigenic tag. In another embodiment, one of the above gE fragments is modified with an antigenic tag. In another embodiment, the tag is a histidine ("His") tag. In another embodiment, the His tag consists of 5-6 histidine residues. In another embodiment, the gE fragment utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is approximately AA 24-409 with a 6 His tag at the C- terminus.

[00125] In another embodiment, (e.g. in the case of gE-2) the gE domain consists approximately of AA 218-391. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 223-386. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 228-280. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 230-375. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 228-373. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 238-373. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 248-373. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 258-373. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 268-373. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 278-373. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 288-373. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 298-373. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 308-373. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 228-363. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 228-353. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 228-343. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 228-333. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 228-323. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 228-313. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 228-303. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 238-363. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 248-353. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 258-343. In another embodiment, the gE range is about AA 315-352. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 320-352. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 325-352. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 330-352. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 335-352. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 315-347. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 315-342. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 315-337. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 315-332. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 320-347. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 325-347. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 320-342. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 325-342. In another embodiment, the gE domain includes AA 373. In alternative embodiments, the gE domain consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residue ranges.

[00126] In another embodiment, the gE domain is any other gE domain known in the art to mediate binding to IgG Fc.

[00127] In another embodiment, the gE protein comprises a gE domain involved in cell-to-cell spread. In another embodiment, the gE domain consists approximately of AA 256-291. In another embodiment, the gE domain consists approximately of AA 348-380. In another embodiment, the gE domain includes AA 380. In another embodiment, the gE domain is any other gE domain known in the art to be involved in cell-to-cell spread. In another embodiment, the gE domain is known to facilitate cell-to-cell spread. In another embodiment, the gE domain is known to be required for cell-to-cell spread.

[00128] In another embodiment, a gE fragment utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is an immunogenic fragment. "Immunogenic fragment" refers, in another embodiment, to a portion of gE that is immunogenic and elicits a protective immune response when administered to a subject. In another embodiment, a gE immunoprotective antigen need not be the entire protein. The protective immune response generally involves, in another embodiment, an antibody response. In another embodiment, mutants, sequence conservative variants, and functional conservative variants of gE are useful in methods and compositions of the present invention, provided that all such variants retain the required immuno-protective effect.

[00129] In another embodiment, the immunogenic fragment can comprise an immuno- protective gE antigen from any strain of HSV. In another embodiment, the immunogenic fragment can comprise sequence variants of HSV, as found in infected individuals.

[00130] In another embodiment, the gE fragment comprises an immune evasion domain. In another embodiment, the gE fragment comprises a portion of an immune evasion domain. In another embodiment, the gE fragment is an immune evasion domain. In another embodiment, the gE fragment is a portion of an immune evasion domain. In another embodiment, an HSV-

1 gE AA sequence is utilized. In another embodiment, an HSV-I gE protein or peptide is utilized.

[00131] In another embodiment, (e.g. in the case of gE-1) the gE protein fragment consists of about AA 21-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 31-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 41-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 61-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 81-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 101-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 121-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 141-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 161-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 181-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 201-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 221-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 241-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 261-419. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-399. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-379.In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-359. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-339. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-319. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-299. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-279. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-259. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-239. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-219. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-199. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-179. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-159. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 21-139. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 31-409. In another embodiment, the range is about AA

41-399. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 51-389. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 61-379. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 71-369. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 81 -359. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 91-349. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 101-339. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 1 1 1 -329. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 121-319. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 131-309. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 141-299. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 151-279. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 161 -269. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 171 -259. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 181 -249. In another embodiment, the range is about AA 191 -239. In alternative embodiments, the gE protein fragment consists essentially of, or comprises, any of the specified amino acid residues. [00132] In another embodiment, (e.g. in the case of gE-2) the gE protein fragment consists of about AA 21-416. In another embodiment, the range is any of the ranges specified in the preceding paragraphs.

[00133] Each recombinant gE-1 or gE-2 protein or fragment thereof represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00134] "Immune evasion domain" refers, in another embodiment, to a domain that interferes with or reduces in vivo anti-HSV efficacy of anti-HSV antibodies (e.g. anti-gD antibodies). In another embodiment, the domain interferes or reduces in vivo anti-HSV efficacy of an anti-HSV immune response. In another embodiment, the domain reduces the immunogenicity of an HSV protein (e.g. gD) during subsequent infection. In another embodiment, the domain reduces the immunogenicity of an HSV protein during subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the domain reduces the immunogenicity of HSV during subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the domain reduces the immunogenicity of an HSV protein in the context of ongoing HSV infection. In another embodiment, the domain reduces the immunogenicity of HSV in the context of ongoing HSV infection.

[00135] The present invention also provides for analogs of HSV proteins or polypeptides, or fragments thereof. Analogs may differ from naturally occurring proteins or peptides by conservative amino acid sequence substitutions or by modifications which do not affect sequence, or by both.

[00136] For example, conservative amino acid changes may be made, which although they alter the primary sequence of the protein or peptide, do not normally alter its function. Conservative amino acid substitutions typically include substitutions within the following groups: (a) glycine, alanine; (b) valine, isoleucine, leucine; (c) aspartic acid, glutamic acid; (d) asparagine, glutamine; (e) serine, threonine; (f) lysine, arginine; (g) phenylalanine, tyrosine.

[00137] Modifications (which do not normally alter primary sequence) include in vivo, or in vitro chemical derivatization of polypeptides, e.g., acetylation, or carboxylation. Also included are modifications of glycosylation, e.g., those made by modifying the glycosylation patterns of a polypeptide during its synthesis and processing or in further processing steps; e.g., by exposing the polypeptide to enzymes which affect glycosylation, e.g., mammalian glycosylating or deglycosylating enzymes. Also included are sequences which have phosphorylated amino acid residues, e.g., phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine, or phosphothreonine.

[00138] Also included are polypeptides which have been modified using ordinary molecular biological techniques so as to improve their resistance to proteolytic degradation or to optimize solubility properties or to render them more suitable as a therapeutic agent. Analogs of such polypeptides include those containing residues other than naturally occurring L- amino acids, e.g., D-amino acids or non-naturally occurring synthetic amino acids. The peptides of the invention are not limited to products of any of the specific exemplary processes listed herein.

[00139] In one embodiment, the vaccines of the present invention comprise an adjuvant, while in another embodiment, the vaccines do not comprise an adjuvant. "Adjuvant" refers, in another embodiment, to compounds that, when administered to an individual or tested in vitro, increase the immune response to an antigen in the individual or test system to which the antigen is administered. In another embodiment, an immune adjuvant enhances an immune response to an antigen that is weakly immunogenic when administered alone, i.e., inducing no or weak antibody titers or cell-mediated immune response. In another embodiment, the adjuvant increases antibody titers to the antigen. In another embodiment, the adjuvant lowers the dose of the antigen effective to achieve an immune response in the individual.

[00140] The adjuvant utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is, in another embodiment, a CpG-containing nucleotide sequence. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a CpG-containing oligonucleotide. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a

CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN). In another embodiment, the adjuvant is

ODN 1826, which in one embodiment, is acquired from Coley Pharmaceutical Group.

[00141 ] "CpG-containing nucleotide," "CpG-containing oligonucleotide," "CpG oligonucleotide," and similar terms refer, in another embodiment, to a nucleotide molecule of 8-50 nucleotides in length that contains an unmethylated CpG moiety. In another embodiment, any other art-accepted definition of the terms is intended.

[00142] In another embodiment, a CpG-containing oligonucleotide of methods and compositions of the present invention is a modified oligonucleotide. "Modified oligonucleotide" refers, in another embodiment, to an oligonucleotide in which at least two of its nucleotides are covalently linked via a synthetic internucleoside linkage (i.e., a linkage other than a phosphodiester linkage between the 5' end of one nucleotide and the 31 end of another nucleotide). In another embodiment, a chemical group not normally associated with nucleic acids has been covalently attached to the oligonucleotide. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is a phosphorothioate linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is an alkylphosphonate linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is a phosphorodithioate linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is a phosphate ester linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is an alkylphosphonothioate linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is a phosphoramidate linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is a carbamate linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is a carbonate linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is a phosphate trimester linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is an acetamidate linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is a carboxymethyl ester linkage. In another embodiment, the synthetic internucleoside linkage is a peptide linkage.

[00143] In another embodiment, the term "modified oligonucleotide" refers to oligonucleotides with a covalently modified base and/or sugar. In another embodiment, modified oligonucleotides include oligonucleotides having backbone sugars covalently attached to low molecular weight organic groups other than a hydroxyl group at the 3' position and other than a phosphate group at the 5' position. In another embodiment, modified oligonucleotides include a 2'-O-alkylated ribose group. In another embodiment, modified oligonucleotides include sugars such as arabinose instead of ribose. In another embodiment, modified oligonucleotides include murine TLR9 polypeptides, together with pharmaceutically acceptable carriers.

[00144] In another embodiment, the CpG-containing oligonucleotide is double-stranded. In another embodiment, the CpG-containing oligonucleotide is single-stranded. In another embodiment, "nucleic acid" and "oligonucleotide" refer to multiple nucleotides (i.e., molecules comprising a sugar (e.g. ribose or deoxyribose) linked to a phosphate group and to an exchangeable organic base, which is either a substituted pyrimidine (e.g. cytosine (C), thymine (T) or uracil (U)) or a substituted purine (e.g. adenine (A) or guanine (G)) or a modified base. In another embodiment, the terms refer to oligoribonucleotides as well as oligodeoxyribonucleotides. In another embodiment, the terms include polynucleosides (i.e., a polynucleotide minus the phosphate) and any other organic base-containing polymer. In another embodiment, the terms encompass nucleic acids or oligonucleotides with a covalently modified base and/or sugar, as described herein.

[00145] In another embodiment, a CpG-containing oligonucleotide of methods and compositions of the present invention comprises a substituted purine and pyrimidine. In another embodiment, the oligonucleotide comprises standard purines and pyrimidines such as cytosine as well as base analogs such as C-5 propyne- substituted bases. Wagner R W e/ al, Nat Biotechnol 14:840-844 (1996). In another embodiment, purines and pyrimidines include but are not limited to adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, 5-methylcytosine, 2- aminopurine, 2-amino-6-chloropurine, 2,6-diaminopurine, hypoxanthine, and other naturally and non-naturally occurring nucleobases, substituted and unsubstituted aromatic moieties. In another embodiment, CpG-containing oligonucleotide is a linked polymer of bases or nucleotides. In another embodiment, "linked" refers to 2 entities bound to one another by any physicochemical means.

[00146] In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 7909, which in one embodiment, is 5' TCGTCGTTTTGTCGTTTTGTCGTT. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 2216, which in one embodiment, is 5' GGGGGACGATCGTCGGGGGG. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 8916. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 1826. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 2007. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 10104. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 2395. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 2336. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 2137. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 2138. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is 2243. In one embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule referenced above is acquired from Coley Pharmaceutical Group. In another embodiment, the sequence of the CpG-containing nucleotide molecule is CTAGACGTTAGCGT (SEQ ID NO: 7). In another embodiment, the sequence of the CpG- containing nucleotide molecule is TCAACGTT (SEQ ID No: 8). In another embodiment, the sequence TCC ATG ACG TTC CTG ACG TT (SEQ ID No: 9) (fully phosphorothioate backbone). In another embodiment, the sequence is TCG TCG TTT CGT CGT TTT GTC GTT (SEQ ID No: 10) (fully phosphorothioate backbone). In another embodiment, the sequence is TCG TCG TTG TCG TTT TGT CGT T (SEQ ID No: 1 1 ) (fully phosphorothioate backbone). In another embodiment, the sequence is TCG TCG TTT TCG GCG CGC GCC G (SEQ ID No: 12) (fully phosphorothioate backbone). In another embodiment, the sequence is TGC TGC TTT TGT GCT TTT GTG CTT (SEQ ID No: 13) (fully phosphorothioate backbone). In another embodiment, the sequence is TCC ATG AGC TTC CTG AGC TT (SEQ ID No: 14) (fully phosphorothioate backbone). In another embodiment, the sequence is G*G*G GAC GAC GTC GTG G*G*G* G*G*G (SEQ ID No: 15) (* denotes phosphorothioate bonds; others are phosphodiester bonds, for this and the next sequence). In another embodiment, the sequence is G*G*G GGA GCA TGC TGG *G*G*G *G*G (SEQ ED No: 16). In another embodiment, the sequence of the CpG- containing nucleotide molecule is any other CpG-containing sequence known in the art. In another embodiment, the CpG nucleotide molecule is any other CpG-containing nucleotide molecule known in the art.

[00147] The dose of the CpG oligonucleotide is, in another embodiment, 10 meg (microgram). In another embodiment, the dose is 15 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 20 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 30 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 50 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 70 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 150 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 200 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 300 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 500 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 700 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 3 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is more than 5 mg.

[00148] In another embodiment, the dose of the CpG oligonucleotide is 10-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 10-30 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 20-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 30-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 50-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 100-200 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 100-250 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 50-250 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 150-300 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 200-400 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 250-500 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 300-600 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 500-1000 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 700- 1500 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 0.25-2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 0.5-2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1 -2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.5-2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 2-3 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 3- 5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 5-8 mg. [00149] Methods for use of CpG oligonucleotides are well known in the art and are described, for example, in Sur S et al. (Long term prevention of allergic lung inflammation in a mouse model of asthma by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. J Immunol. 1999 May 15;162(10):6284-93); Verthelyi D. (Adjuvant properties of CpG oligonucleotides in primates. Methods MoI Med. 2006;127: 139-58); and Yasuda K et al. (Role of immunostimulatory DNA and TLR9 in gene therapy. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst. 2006;23(2):89-l 10). Each method represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00150] In another embodiment, "nucleic acids" or "nucleotide" refers to a string of at least 2 base-sugar-phosphate combinations. The term includes, in another embodiment, DNA and RNA. "Nucleotides" refers, in one embodiment, to the monomelic units of nucleic acid polymers. RNA is, in one embodiment, in the form of a tRNA (transfer RNA), snRNA (small nuclear RNA), rRNA (ribosomal RNA), mRNA (messenger RNA), anti-sense RNA, small inhibitory RNA (siRNA), micro RNA (miRNA) and ribozymes. The use of siRNA and miRNA has been described (Caudy AA et al., Genes & Devel 16: 2491-96 and references cited therein). DNA can be, in other embodiments, in form of plasmid DNA, viral DNA, linear DNA, or chromosomal DNA or derivatives of these groups. In addition, these forms of DNA and RNA can be single, double, triple, or quadruple stranded. The term also includes, in another embodiment, artificial nucleic acids that contain other types of backbones but the same bases. In one embodiment, the artificial nucleic acid is a PNA (peptide nucleic acid). PNA contain peptide backbones and nucleotide bases and are able to bind, in one embodiment, to both DNA and RNA molecules. In another embodiment, the nucleotide is oxetane modified. In another embodiment, the nucleotide is modified by replacement of one or more phosphodiester bonds with a phosphorothioate bond. In another embodiment, the artificial nucleic acid contains any other variant of the phosphate backbone of native nucleic acids known in the art. The use of phosphothiorate nucleic acids and PNA are known to those skilled in the art, and are described in, for example, Neilsen PE, Curr Opin Struct Biol 9:353- 57; and Raz NK et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 297: 1075-84. The production and use of nucleic acids is known to those skilled in art and is described, for example, in Molecular Cloning, (2001 ), Sambrook and Russell, eds. and Methods in Enzymology: Methods for molecular cloning in eukaryotic cells (2003) Purchio and G. C. Fareed. Each nucleic acid derivative represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00151 ] Each type of modified oligonucleotide represents a separate embodiment of the present invention. [00152] Methods for production of nucleic acids having modified backbones are well known in the art, and are described, for example in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,723,335 and 5,663,153 issued to Hutcherson et al. and related PCT publication WO95/26204. Each method represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00153] In another embodiment, the adjuvant is an aluminum salt adjuvant. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt adjuvant is an alum-precipitated vaccine. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt adjuvant is an alum-adsorbed vaccine. Aluminum-salt adjuvants are well known in the art and are described, for example, in Harlow, E. and D. Lane (1988; Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) and Nicklas, W. (1992; Aluminum salts. Research in Immunology 143:489-493). In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is hydrated alumina. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is alumina hydrate. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is alumina trihydrate (ATH). In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is aluminum hydrate. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is aluminum trihydrate. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is alhydrogel. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is Superfos. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is Amphogel. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is aluminum (III) hydroxide. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is amorphous alumina. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is trihydrated alumina. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is trihydroxyaluminum. In another embodiment, the aluminum salt is any other aluminum salt known in the art.

[00154] In another embodiment, a commercially available Al(OH)3 (e.g. Alhydrogel or Superfos of Denmark/Accurate Chemical and Scientific Co., Westbury, NY) is used to adsorb proteins in a ratio of 50 - 200 g protein/mg aluminum hydroxide. Adsorption of protein is dependent, in another embodiment, on the pi (Isoelectric pH) of the protein and the pH of the medium. A protein with a lower pi adsorbs to the positively charged aluminum ion more strongly than a protein with a higher pi. Aluminum salts establishing, in another embodiment, a depot of Ag that is released slowly over a period of 2-3 weeks, nonspecific activation of macrophages and complement activation.

[00155] The dose of the alum salt is, in another embodiment, 10 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 15 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 20 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 25 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 30 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 50 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 70 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 150 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 200 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 300 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 500 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 700 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 3 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is more than 5 mg. In one embodiment, the dose of alum salt described above is per meg of recombinant protein.

[00156] In another embodiment, the dose of the alum salt is 10-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 20-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 30-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 50-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 100-200 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 150-300 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is

200-400 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 300-600 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 500-1000 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 700-1500 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1-2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.5-2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 2-3 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 3-5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 5-8 mg. In one embodiment, the dose of alum salt described above is per meg of recombinant protein.

[00157] In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a Montanide ISA adjuvant. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a trimer of complement component C3d. In another embodiment, the trimer is covalently linked to the protein immunogen. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is MF59. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) protein. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising a GM-CSF protein. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a nucleotide molecule encoding GM-CSF. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising a nucleotide molecule encoding GM-CSF.

In another embodiment, the adjuvant is saponin QS21. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising saponin QS21. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising MPL. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is SBAS2. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising SBAS2. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is an unmethylated CpG-containing oligonucleotide. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising an unmethylated CpG-containing oligonucleotide. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is an immune-stimulating cytokine. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising an immune-stimulating cytokine. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a nucleotide molecule encoding an immune-stimulating cytokine. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising a nucleotide molecule encoding an immune-stimulating cytokine. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising a quill glycoside. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising a bacterial mitogen. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising a bacterial toxin. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture comprising any other adjuvant known in the art. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture of 2 of the above adjuvants. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture of 3 of the above adjuvants. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture of more than three of the above adjuvants. In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a mixture of MPL, and 500 μg of alum.

[00158] In another embodiment, blocking immune evasion by anti-gC or anti-gE antibodies elicited by a vaccine of the present invention enables a lower dose of adjuvant to be required to elicit an effective anti-gD immune response. In another embodiment, a lower dose of adjuvant is required for a vaccine of the present invention to elicit an effective anti-HSV immune response. In another embodiment, a lower dose of vaccine is required to elicit an effective anti-HSV immune response when an adjuvant is used.

[00159] In another embodiment, the adjuvant is a carrier polypeptide. "Carrier polypeptide" refers, in another embodiment, to a protein or immunogenic fragment thereof that can be conjugated or joined with an HSV protein of the present invention to enhance immunogenicity of the polypeptide. Examples of carrier proteins include, but are by no means limited to, keyhole limpet Hemocyanin (KLH), albumin, cholera toxin, heat labile enterotoxin (LT), and the like. In another embodiment, the 2 components are prepared as a chimeric construct for expression as a fusion polypeptide. In another embodiment, chemical cross-linking is used to link an HSV protein with a carrier polypeptide.

[00160] In another embodiment, a vaccine of methods and compositions of the present invention comprises recombinant HSV-I proteins. In another embodiment, the vaccine comprises recombinant HSV-2 proteins. In another embodiment, the vaccine comprises both HSV-I and HSV-2 proteins.

[00161 ] In another embodiment, a recombinant HSV- I -protein-containing vaccine of methods and compositions of the present invention further comprises a recombinant HSV-2 protein. In another embodiment, the recombinant HSV-2 protein is a gD2 protein or fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the recombinant HSV-2 protein is a gC2 protein or fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the recombinant HSV-2 protein is a gE2 protein or fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the recombinant HSV-I -protein-containing vaccine further comprises a gD2 protein and a gC2 protein or fragments thereof. In another embodiment, the vaccine further comprises a gD2 protein and a gE2 protein or fragments thereof. In another embodiment, the vaccine further comprises a gE2 protein and a gC2 protein or fragments thereof. In another embodiment, the vaccine further comprises a gD2 protein, a gE2 protein, and a gC2 protein or fragments thereof.

[00162] In another embodiment, a recombinant HSV-2-protein-containing vaccine of methods and compositions of the present invention further comprises a recombinant HSV-I protein. In another embodiment, the recombinant HSV-I protein is a gDl protein or fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the recombinant HSV-I protein is a gCl protein or fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the recombinant HSV-I protein is a gEl protein or fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the recombinant HSV-2-protein-containing vaccine further comprises a gDl protein and a gCl protei or fragments thereof n. In another embodiment, the vaccine further comprises a gDl protein and a gEl protein or fragments thereof. In another embodiment, the vaccine further comprises a gEl protein and a gCl protein or fragments thereof. In another embodiment, the vaccine further comprises a gDl protein, a gEl protein, and a gCl protein or fragments thereof.

[00163] In another embodiment, a vaccine regimen of the present invention further comprises the step of administering to the subject a booster vaccination, wherein the booster vaccination comprises a recombinant HSV-I gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof used in the priming vaccination, but not the other recombinant proteins present in the priming vaccinations. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination contains both and HSV-I gD protein and an HSV-2 gD protein. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-I gC protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-I gE protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise either (a) a recombinant HSV-I gC protein or fragment thereof or (b) a recombinant HSV-I gE protein or fragment thereof, both of which are present in the priming vaccination. [00164] In another embodiment, a vaccine regimen of the present invention further comprises the step of administering to the subject a booster vaccination, wherein the booster vaccination comprises a recombinant HSV-I gE protein or immunogenic fragment thereof used in the priming vaccination, but not the other recombinant proteins contained in the priming vaccinations. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination contains both and HSV-I gE protein and an HSV-2 gE protein. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-I gC protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-I gD protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise either (a) a recombinant HSV-I gC protein or fragment thereof or (b) a recombinant HSV-I gD protein or fragment thereof, both of which are present in the priming vaccination.

[00165] In another embodiment, a vaccine regimen of the present invention further comprises the step of administering to the subject a booster vaccination, wherein the booster vaccination comprises a recombinant HSV-I gC protein or immunogenic fragment thereof used in the priming vaccination, but not the other recombinant proteins contained in the priming vaccinations. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination contains both and HSV-I gC protein and an HSV-2 gC protein. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-I gD protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-I gE protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise either (a) a recombinant HSV-I gD protein or fragment thereof or (b) a recombinant HSV-I gE protein or fragment thereof, both of which are present in the priming vaccination.

[00166] In another embodiment, a vaccine regimen of the present invention further comprises the step of administering to the subject a booster vaccination, wherein the booster vaccination comprises a recombinant HSV-2 gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof used in the priming vaccination, but not the other recombinant proteins contained in the priming vaccinations. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination contains both and HSV-I gD protein and an HSV-2 gD protein. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-2 gC protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-2 gE protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise either (a) a recombinant HSV-2 gC protein or fragment thereof or (b) a recombinant HSV-2 gE protein or fragment thereof, both of which are present in the priming vaccination.

[00167] In another embodiment, a vaccine regimen of the present invention further comprises the step of administering to the subject a booster vaccination, wherein the booster vaccination comprises a recombinant HSV-2 gE protein or immunogenic fragment thereof used in the priming vaccination, but not the other recombinant proteins contained in the priming vaccinations. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination contains both and HSV-I gE protein and an HSV-2 gE protein. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-2 gC protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-2 gD protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise either (a) a recombinant HSV-2 gC protein or fragment thereof or (b) a recombinant HSV-2 gD protein or fragment thereof, both of which are present in the priming vaccination.

[00168] In another embodiment, a vaccine regimen of the present invention further comprises the step of administering to the subject a booster vaccination, wherein the booster vaccination comprises a recombinant HSV-2 gC protein or immunogenic fragment thereof used in the priming vaccination, but not the other recombinant proteins contained in the priming vaccinations. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination contains both and

HSV-I gC protein and an HSV-2 gC protein. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-2 gD protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise a recombinant HSV-2 gE protein or fragment thereof present in the priming vaccination. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination does not comprise either (a) a recombinant HSV-2 gD protein or fragment thereof or (b) a recombinant HSV-2 gE protein or fragment thereof, both of which are present in the priming vaccination.

[00169] In one embodiment, any of the booster vaccinations described hereinabove is administered following a priming vaccination comprising one or more HSV-I proteins or immunogenic fragments thereof. In another embodiment, any of the booster vaccinations described hereinabove is administered following a priming vaccination comprising one or more HSV-2 proteins or immunogenic fragments thereof. [00170] In another embodiment, a vaccine regimen of the present invention further comprises the step of administering to the subject a booster vaccination, wherein the booster vaccination consists essentially of a recombinant HSV-I gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination consists of a recombinant HSV-I gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof and an adjuvant. In one embodiment, the HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is an HSV-I gD protein, while in another embodiment, it's an HSV-2 gD protein, while in another embodiment, it's both an HSV-I and HSV-2 gD protein. .In another embodmient, the booster vaccination consists essentially of a recombinant HSV gE protein or immunogenic fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination consists of a recombinant HSV gE protein or immunogenic fragment thereof and an adjuvant. In one embodiment, the HSV gE protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is an HSV-I gE protein, while in another embodiment, it's an HSV-2 gE protein, while in another embodiment, it's both an HSV-I and HSV-2 gE protein. In another embodmient, the booster vaccination consists essentially of a recombinant HSV gC protein or immunogenic fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the booster vaccination consists of a recombinant HSV gC protein or immunogenic fragment thereof and an adjuvant. In one embodiment, the HSV gC protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is an HSV-I gC protein, while in another embodiment, it's an HSV-2 gC protein, while in another embodiment, it's both an HSV-I and HSV-2 gC protein.

[00171] In another embodiment, the booster vaccination follows a single priming vaccination.

"Priming vaccination" refers, in another embodiment, to a vaccination that comprises a mixture of (a) a gD protein and (b) either a gC protein, a gE protein, or a mixture thereof. In another embodiment, a priming vaccination refers to a vaccination that comprises two or more recombinant HSV proteins selected from a gD protein, a gC protein and a gE protein. In another embodiment, the term refers to a vaccine initially administered. In another embodiment, two priming vaccinations are administered before the booster vaccination. In another embodiment, three priming vaccinations are administered before the booster vaccination. In another embodiment, four priming vaccinations are administered before the booster vaccination.

[00172] In another embodiment, a single booster vaccination is administered after the priming vaccinations. In another embodiment, two booster vaccinations are administered after the priming vaccinations. In another embodiment, three booster vaccinations are administered after the priming vaccinations. [00173] In one embodiment, gD and gE are administered in a single syringe at the same site, while in another embodiment, gD and gE are administered in separate syringes at separate sites, or in another embodiment, gD and gE are administered simultaneously at a single site and followed by a booster dose of gD without gE.

[00174] In one embodiment, gD and gC are administered in a single syringe at the same site, while in another embodiment, gD and gC are administered in separate syringes at separate sites, or in another embodiment, gD and gC are administered simultaneously at a single site and followed by a booster dose of gD without gC.

[00175] In one embodiment, gE and gC are administered in a single syringe at the same site, while in another embodiment, gE and gC are administered in separate syringes at separate sites, or in another embodiment, gE and gC are administered simultaneously at a single site and followed by a booster dose of gE without gC or, in another embodiment, followed by a booster dose of gC without gE.

[00176] In one embodiment, gD, gC, and gE are administered in a single syringe at the same site, while in another embodiment, gD, gC, and gE are administered in separate syringes at separate sites, or in another embodiment, gD, gC, and gE are administered simultaneously at a single site and followed by a booster dose of gD without gC and gE.

[00177] In another embodiment, the dose of recombinant HSV gD-1 utilized in a vaccination or in a booster vaccination is 20 meg per inoculation, e.g. for a human subject. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 22 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 18 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 16 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 14 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 13 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 9 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 7 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 1 meg/inoculation.

[00178] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 meg/kg body mass (per inoculation). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.13 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.12 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.11 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.09 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.08 mcg/kg.

In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.07 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 0.02 mcg/kg.

[00179] In another embodiment, the dosage is 1-2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-4 meg/inoculation.

In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4-8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-10 meg/inoculation.

In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-20 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-40 mcg/protein/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40-60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-50 meg/inoculation.

In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-50 meg/inoculation.

[00180] Each dose of gD-1 represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00181 ] In another embodiment, the dose of recombinant HSV gD-2 utilized in a vaccination or in a booster vaccination is 10 ng/inoculation, which in one embodiment, is for a human subject. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 150 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 250 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 400 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 500 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 750 ng/inoculation.

[00182] In another embodiment, the dosage is 20 meg per inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 22 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 18 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 16 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 14 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 13 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 11 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 9 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 7 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 1 meg/inoculation.

[00183] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 mcg/kg body mass (per inoculation). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.13 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.12 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 1 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.09 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.08 mcg/kg.

In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.07 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 0.02 mcg/kg.

[00184] In another embodiment, the dosage is 500 ng/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 .25 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2.5 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is lOmcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12.5 mcg/kg.

[00185] In another embodiment, the dosage is 1-2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4-8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-20 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-40 meg/protein/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40-60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-50 meg/inoculation.

[00186] Each dose of gD-2 represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00187] In another embodiment, the dose of recombinant HSV gC-1 utilized in a vaccination or in a booster vaccination is 20 meg per inoculation, e.g. for a human subject. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 22 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 18 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 16 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 14 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 13 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 9 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 7 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 400 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 220 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 250 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 180 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 160 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 150 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 140 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 130 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 120 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 110 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 90 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 70 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40 meg/inoculation.

[00188] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 meg/kg body mass (per inoculation). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.13 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.12 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.11 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.09 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.08 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.07 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 0.02 mcg/kg.

[00189] In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-100 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-250 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-250 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-500 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200-300 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1-2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4-8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5- 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5- 15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-20 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30- 40 meg/protein/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40-60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-100 meg/inoculation. Li another embodiment, the dosage is 50-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80-100 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 20-200 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 30- 200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-200 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 80-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-300 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 50-300 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 80- 300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200-300 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 20-500 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 30-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-500 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 80-500 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 100-500 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 200-500 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 300-500 meg/inoculation.

[00190] Each dose of gC-1 represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00191] In another embodiment, the dose of recombinant HSV gC-2 utilized in a vaccination or in a booster vaccination is 20 meg per inoculation, e.g. for a human subject. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 7.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 22 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 18 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 16 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 14 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 13 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 9 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 7 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 400 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 220 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 250 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 180 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 160 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 150 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 140 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 130 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 120 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 110 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 90 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 70 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40 meg/inoculation.

[00192] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 meg/kg body mass (per inoculation). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.13 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.12 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.11 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.09 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.08 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.07 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 0.02 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 250 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 500 mcg/kg. [00193] In another embodiment, the dosage is 1-2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4-8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-20 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-40 mcg/protein/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40-60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20- 200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50- 300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80- 500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300-500 meg/inoculation.

[00194] Each dose of gC-2 represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00195] In another embodiment, the dose of recombinant HSV gE-1 utilized in a vaccination or in a booster vaccination is 20 meg per inoculation, e.g. for a human subject. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 22 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 18 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 16 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 14 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 13 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 11 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 9 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 7 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 400 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 220 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 250 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 180 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 160 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 150 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 140 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 130 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 120 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 110 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 90 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 70 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40 meg/inoculation.

[00196] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 mcg/kg body mass (per inoculation). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.13 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.12 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.11 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.09 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.08 mcg/kg.

In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.07 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 0.02 mcg/kg. [00197] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.5-2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.5-10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2.5-7.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1-2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4-8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-20 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20- 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-40 mcg/protein/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40-60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20- 200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50- 300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80- 500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300-500 meg/inoculation.

[00198] Each dose of gE-1 represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00199] In another embodiment, the dose of recombinant HSV gE-2 utilized in a vaccination or in a booster vaccination is 20 meg per inoculation, e.g. for a human subject. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 22 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 18 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 16 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 14 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 13 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 11 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 mcmcg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 9 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 7 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 400 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 220 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 250 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 180 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 160 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 150 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 140 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 130 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 120 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 110 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 90 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 70 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40 meg/inoculation.

[00200] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 mcg/kg body mass (per inoculation). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.13 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.12 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 1 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.09 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.08 mcg/kg.

In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.07 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 0.02 mcg/kg.

[00201] In another embodiment, the dosage is 1-2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4-8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-20 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-40 mcg/protein/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40-60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20- 200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50- 300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80- 500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200-500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300-500 meg/inoculation.

[00202] Each dose of gE-2 represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00203] In another embodiment, the booster vaccination comprises an adjuvant. In another embodiment, the adjuvant comprises a CpG oligonucleotide. In another embodiment, the adjuvant comprises an aluminum salt. In another embodiment, the adjuvant comprises both a

CpG oligonucleotide and an aluminum salt. In another embodiment, the adjuvant comprises any other adjuvant disclosed hereinabove. In another embodiment, the adjuvant comprises any combination of adjuvants disclosed hereinabove.

[00204] The dose of the CpG oligonucleotide in a vaccination or booster vaccination of the present invention is, in another embodiment, 10 meg (microgram). In another embodiment, the dose is 15 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 20 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 30 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 50 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 70 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 150 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 200 meg. hi another embodiment, the dose is 300 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 500 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 700 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1 mg. hi another embodiment, the dose is 1.2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 3 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is more than 5 mg.

[00205] In another embodiment, the dose of the CpG oligonucleotide is 10-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 20-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 30-100 meg. hi another embodiment, the dose is 50-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 100-200 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 150-300 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 200-400 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 300-600 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 500-1000 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 700-1500 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1-2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.5-2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 2-3 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 3-5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 5-8 mg.

[00206] The dose of the alum salt in the booster vaccination is, in another embodiment, 10 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 15 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 20 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 30 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 50 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 70 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 150 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 200 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 300 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 500 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 700 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 3 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is more than 5 mg. [00207] In another embodiment, the dose of the alum salt is 10-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 20-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 30-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 50-100 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 100-200 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 150-300 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 200-400 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 300-600 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 500-1000 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 700-1500 meg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1-2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.5-2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 2-3 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 3-5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 5-8 mg.

[00208] In another embodiment, the dose of the alum salt is 10 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 15 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 20 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 30 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 50 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 70 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 100 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 150 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 200 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 300 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 500 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 700 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 1 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 3 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is more than 5 mg.

[00209] In another embodiment, the dose of the alum salt is 10-100 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 20-100 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 30-100 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 50-100 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 100-200 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 150-300 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 200-400 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 300-600 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 500- 1000 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 700-1500 meg per meg recombinant protein. In another embodiment, the dose is 1 -2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 1.5-2 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 2-3 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 3-5 mg. In another embodiment, the dose is 5-8 mg.

[00210] In another embodiment, a vaccine of the present invention elicits antibodies that inhibit binding of gD to a cellular receptor. In another embodiment, the receptor is herpesvirus entry mediator A (HveA/HVEM). In another embodiment, the receptor is nectin- 1 (HveC). In another embodiment, the receptor is nectin-2 (HveB). In another embodiment, the receptor is a modified form of heparan sulfate. In another embodiment, the receptor is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. In another embodiment, the receptor is any other gD receptor known in the art.

[00211] In another embodiment, inclusion in the vaccine of a gC protein, a gE protein, and/or an adjuvant of the present invention increases the efficaciousness of anti-gD antibodies elicited by the vaccine. In another embodiment, inclusion of a gC protein, a gE protein, and/or an adjuvant of the present invention increases the dose of recombinant gD required to elicit antibodies that inhibit binding of gD to a cellular receptor (Figure 19). In another embodiment, a gC protein, a gE protein, and/or an adjuvant of the present invention decreases the dose of recombinant gD required to elicit antibodies that inhibit binding of gD to a cellular receptor when a dose of gD is administered separately from the gC protein (Figure 20A) or gE protein.

[00212] In another embodiment, inclusion in the vaccine of a gC protein, a gE protein, and/or an adjuvant of the present invention enhances the effectiveness of an innate immune response. In another embodiment, the innate immune response is an antibody-mediated immune response. In another embodiment, the innate immune response is a non-antibody- mediated immune response. In another embodiment, the innate immune response is an NK (natural killer) cell response. In another embodiment, the innate immune response is any other innate immune response known in the art.

[00213] In one embodiment, inclusion in the vaccine of a gC-1 protein, and/or an adjuvant protects from disease and death, while in another embodiment, inclusion in the vaccine of a gC-2 protein, protects from disease and death (for e.g., figures 22-26). In one embodiment, the greatest reduction in inoculation and zosteriform site disease scores reduced is achieved using a dose of 5 meg. In another embodiment, the reduction in inoculation and zosteriform site disease scores is achieved using a dose of 2 meg. In one embodiment, the reduction in inoculation and zosteriform site disease scores is achieved using a dose of 1 meg. In another embodiment, the reduction in inoculation and zosteriform site disease scores is achieved using a dose of 0.5 meg. In one embodiment, the dose of gC-2 useful in a vaccine for humans is estimated based on mouse experimental data as is known in the art.

[00214] In one embodiment, inclusion in the vaccine of a gD-1 protein, and/or an adjuvant protects from disease and death, while in another embodiment, inclusion in the vaccine of a gD-2 protein, protects from disease and death (for e.g., figures 27-31). In one embodiment, the greatest reduction in inoculation and zosteriform site disease scores reduced is achieved using a dose of 250 ng. In one embodiment, the reduction in inoculation and zosteriform site disease scores is achieved using a dose of 100 ng. In another embodiment, the reduction in inoculation and zosteriform site disease scores is achieved using a dose of 50 ng. In one embodiment, the reduction in inoculation and zosteriform site disease scores is achieved using a dose of 25 ng. In another embodiment, the reduction in inoculation and zosteriform site disease scores is achieved using a dose of 10 ng. In one embodiment, the dose of gD-2 useful in a vaccine for humans is estimated based on mouse experimental data as is known in the art.

[00215] In another embodiment, a vaccine of the present invention further comprises another HSV glycoprotein involved in cell binding and/or cellular entry. In another embodiment, the glycoprotein is gH. In another embodiment, the glycoprotein is gL. In another embodiment, the glycoprotein is gB.

[00216] In another embodiment, a vaccine of the present invention further comprises an additional HSV glycoprotein. In another embodiment, the glycoprotein is gM. In another embodiment, the glycoprotein is gN. In another embodiment, the glycoprotein is gK. In another embodiment, the glycoprotein is gG. In another embodiment, the glycoprotein is gl. In another embodiment, the glycoprotein is gJ.

[00217] In one embodiment, vaccines and compositions of the present invention comprise a single recombinant HSV glycoprotein, which in one embodiment is gC, gE, or gD and, optionally, an adjuvant. In one embodiment, the HSV glycoprotein is an HSV-I glycoprotein, while in another embodiment, the HSV glycoprotein is an HSV-2 glycoprotein. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a recombinant vaccine vector encoding a recombinant HSV glycoprotein. [00218] In another embodiment, inclusion in the vaccine of a gC protein, a gE protein, and/or an adjuvant of the present invention increases the efficaciousness of antibodies elicited by the vaccine against one of the above glycoproteins. In another embodiment, a gC protein, a gE protein, and/or an adjuvant of the present invention decreases the dose of one of the above glycoproteins required to elicit antibodies that inhibit binding of the glycoprotein to a cellular receptor thereof (Figure 19), when a dose of one of the glycoproteins is administered separately from one of the other glycoproteins (Figure 20A).

[00219] In another embodiment, a vaccine of the present invention is a recombinant nucleotide vaccine. In another embodiment, the vaccine is a recombinant DNA vaccine. In another embodiment, the DNA vaccine encodes an HSV gC protein and an HSV gD protein. In another embodiment, the DNA vaccine encodes an HSV gE protein and an HSV gD protein. In another embodiment, the DNA vaccine encodes an HSV gE protein, an HSV gC protein, and an HSV gD protein. In another embodiment, the recombinant proteins are HSV- 2 proteins, hi another embodiment, the recombinant proteins are HSV-I proteins. In another embodiment, the proteins comprise both HSV-I and HSV-2 proteins.

[00220] In another embodiment, a vaccine of the present invention comprises dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with HSV antigens of the present invention. In another embodiment, the DCs have been exposed to HSV antigens of the present invention. In another embodiment, the DCs are loaded with a nucleotide encoding HSV antigens of the present invention. In another embodiment, the DCs have been activated.

[00221] In another embodiment, the present invention provides an immunogenic composition comprising a combination of recombinant HSV proteins of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides an immunogenic composition comprising a nucleotide molecule encoding recombinant HSV proteins of the present invention. In another embodiment, the immunogenic composition further comprises an adjuvant.

[00222] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a recombinant vaccine vector encoding recombinant HSV proteins of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a recombinant vaccine vector comprising recombinant HSV proteins of the present invention.

[00223] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a recombinant vaccine vector comprising a nucleotide molecule of the present invention. In another embodiment, the expression vector is a plasmid. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method for the introduction of a nucleotide molecule of the present invention into a cell. Methods for constructing and utilizing recombinant vectors are well known in the art and are described, for example, in Sambrook et al. (2001, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York), and in Brent et al. (2003, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, New York). In another embodiment, the vector is a bacterial vector. In other embodiments, the vector is selected from Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., BCG, L. monocytogenes and S. gordonii. In another embodiment, the recombinant HSV proteins are delivered by recombinant bacterial vectors modified to escape phagolysosomal fusion and live in the cytoplasm of the cell. In another embodiment, the vector is a viral vector. In other embodiments, the vector is selected from Vaccinia, Avipox, Adenovirus, AAV, Vaccinia virus NYVAC, Modified vaccinia strain Ankara (MVA), Semliki Forest virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, herpes viruses, and retroviruses. In another embodiment, the vector is a naked DNA vector. In another embodiment, the vector is any other vector known in the art.

[00224] In another embodiment, a nucleotide of the present invention is operably linked to a promoter/regulatory sequence that drive expression of the encoded peptide in cells into which the vector is introduced. Promoter/regulatory sequences useful for driving constitutive expression of a gene are well known in the art and include, but are not limited to, for example, the cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter enhancer sequence, the SV40 early promoter, and the Rous sarcoma virus promoter. In another embodiment, inducible and tissue specific expression of the nucleic acid encoding a peptide of the present invention is accomplished by placing the nucleic acid encoding the peptide under the control of an inducible or tissue specific promoter/regulatory sequence. Examples of tissue specific or inducible promoter/regulatory sequences which are useful for his purpose include, but are not limited to the MMTV LTR inducible promoter, and the SV40 late enhancer/promoter. In another embodiment, a promoter that is induced in response to inducing agents such as metals, glucocorticoids, and the like, is utilized. Thus, it will be appreciated that the invention includes the use of any promoter/regulatory sequence, which is either known or unknown, and which is capable of driving expression of the desired protein operably linked thereto.

[00225] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a cell comprising a vector of the present invention. Methods for producing cells comprising vectors and/or exogenous nucleic acids are well-known in the art. See, for example, Sambrook et al. (1989, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York), and in Ausubel et al. (1997, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, New York).

[00226] In other embodiments, the vaccines of any of the methods described above have any of the characteristics of a vaccine of compositions of the present invention. Each characteristic represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00227] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of inhibiting a primary HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to the subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating an HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of inhibiting a flare following a primary HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00228] In one embodiment, a "flare" or "recurrence" refers to reinfection of skin tissue following latent neuronal HSV infection. In another embodiment, the terms refer to reactivation of HSV after a latency period. In another embodiment, the terms refer to symptomatic HSV lesions following a non-symptomatic latency period.

[00229] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of inhibiting spread of HSV. In one embodiment, the spread from DRG to skin is inhibited. In one embodiment, cell-to-cell spread of HSV is inhibited. In one embodiment, anterograde spread is inhibited. In one embodiment, retrograde spread is inhibited. "DRG" refers, in one embodiment, to a neuronal cell body and in another embodiment, contain the nuron cell bodies of nerve fibers.

In another embodiment, the term refers to any other definition of "DRG" used in the art. In another embodiment, spread of HSV to neural tissue is inhibited.

[00230] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of inhibiting a recurrence following a primary HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of preventing a recurrence following a primary HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00231] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of inhibiting an HSV labialis following a primary HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00232] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of preventing a recurrence of an HSV infection, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of diminishing the severity of a recurrence of an HSV infection, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing the frequency of a recurrence of an HSV infection, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In one embodiment, the present invention provides any of the described methods in an HIV-infected subject.

[00233] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating an HSV encephalitis in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing an incidence of an HSV encephalitis in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. "HSV encephalitis" refers, in one embodiment, to an encephalitis caused by a Herpes Simplex

Virus- 1 (HSV). In another embodiment, the term refers to an encephalitis associated with HSV. In another embodiment, the term refers to any other type of HSV-mediated encephalitis known in the art.

[00234] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating or reducing an HSV neonatal infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00235] It is to be understood that reference to HSV herein refers in one embodiment, to HSV-I , while in another embodiment, to HSV-2, while in another embodiment, to HSV-I and HSV-2.

[00236] "HSV-I " refers, in another embodiment, to a Herpes Simplex Virus- 1. In another embodiment, the term refers to a KOS strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to an F strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to an NS strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to a CLlOl strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to a "17" strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to a "17+syn" strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to a Maclntyre strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to an MP strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to an HF strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to any other HSV-I strain known in the art.

[00237] "HSV-2" refers, in another embodiment, to a Herpes Simplex Virus-2. In another embodiment, the term refers to an HSV-2 333 strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to a 2.12 strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to an HG52 strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to an MS strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to a G strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to an 186 strain. In another embodiment, the term refers to any other HSV-2 strain known in the art.

[00238] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of vaccinating a subject against an HSV infection, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of suppressing an HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of impeding an HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of impeding a primary HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of impeding neuronal HSV spread in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00239] The terms "impeding a HSV infection" and "impeding a primary HSV infection" refer, in another embodiment, to decreasing the titer of infectious virus by 90%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 50%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 55%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 60%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 65%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 70%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 75%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 80%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 85%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 92%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 95%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 96%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 97%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 98%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by 99%. In another embodiment, the titer is decreased by over 99%.

[00240] In another embodiment, the terms refer to decreasing the extent of viral replication by 90%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 50%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 55%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 60%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 65%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 70%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 75%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 80%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 85%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 92%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 95%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 96%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 97%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 98%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by 99%. In another embodiment, replication is reduced by over 99%.

[00241] Methods of determining the extent of HSV replication and HSV infection are well known in the art, and are described, for example, in Lambiase A et al. (Topical treatment with nerve growth factor in an animal model of herpetic keratitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007 May 4), Ramaswamy M et al. (Interactions and management issues in HSV and HIV coinfection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2007 Apr;5(2):231 -43), and Jiang C et al. (Mutations that decrease DNA binding of the processivity factor of the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase reduce viral yield, alter the kinetics of viral DNA replication, and decrease the fidelity of DNA replication. J Virol. 2007 Apr;81(7):3495-502). Each method represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00242] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing an incidence of an HSV-mediated herpetic ocular disease in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating an HSV-I corneal infection or herpes keratitis in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing an incidence of an HSV-I corneal infection or herpes keratitis in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00243] Methods for determining the presence and extent of herpetic ocular disease, corneal infection, herpes keratitis are well known in the art, and are described, for example, in Labetoulle M et al. (Neuronal propagation of HSVl from the oral mucosa to the eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Aug; 41(9):2600-6) and Majumdar S et al (Dipeptide monoester ganciclovir prodrugs for treating HSV-I -induced corneal epithelial and stromal keratitis: in vitro and in vivo evaluations. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Dec; 21(6):463-74). Each method represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00244] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating, suppressing or inhibiting an HSV genital infection, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating, suppressing or inhibiting any manifestation of recurrent HSV infection, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00245] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing an incidence of an HSV-mediated genital ulcer disease in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of impeding an establishment of a latent HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00246] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing an incidence of an HSV-mediated encephalitis in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00247] In another embodiment, the herpes-mediated encephalitis treated or prevented by a method of the present invention is a focal herpes encephalitis. In another embodiment, the herpes-mediated encephalitis is a neonatal herpes encephalitis. In another embodiment, the herpes-mediated encephalitis is any other type of herpes-mediated encephalitis known in the art.

[00248] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating or reducing an incidence of a disease, disorder, or symptom associated with or secondary to a HSV-mediated encephalitis in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00249] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating, reducing the pathogenesis of, ameliorating the symptoms of, ameliorating the secondary symptoms of, reducing the incidence of, prolonging the latency to a relapse of a Herpes Simplex Virus

(HSV) infection in a subject, comprising the step of administering to the subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00250] According to any of the methods of the present invention and in one embodiment, the subject is human. In another embodiment, the subject is murine, which in one embodiment, is a mouse, and, in another embodiment, is a rat. In another embodiment, the subject is canine, feline, bovine, ovine, or porcine. In another embodiment, the subject is mammalian.

In another embodiment, the subject is any organism susceptible to infection by HSV.

[00251] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of protecting a subject against formation of a zosteriform lesion or an analogous outbreak in a human subject. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of inhibiting the formation of an HSV zosteriform lesion or an analogous outbreak in a human subject.

[00252] "Zosteriform" refers, in one embodiment, to skin lesions characteristic of an HSV infection, particularly during reactivation infection, which, in one embodiment, begin as a rash and follow a distribution near dermatomes, commonly occurring in a strip or belt-like pattern. In one embodiment, the rash evolves into vesicles or small blisters filled with serous fluid. In one embodiment, zosteriform lesions form in mice as a result of contact with HSV. In another embodiment, zosteriform lesions form in humans as a result of contact with HSV. "Zosteriform spread" refers, in one embodiment, to an HSV infection that spreads from the ganglia to secondary skin sites within the dermatome. In another embodiment, the term refers to spread within the same dermatome as the initial site of infection. In another embodiment, the term refers to any other definition of "zosteriform spread" known in the art. "Outbreak", in another embodiment, refers to a sudden increase in symptoms of a disease or in the spread or prevalence of a disease, and in one embodiment, refers to a sudden increase in zosteriform lesions, while in another embodiment, "outbreak" refers to a sudden eruption of zosteriform lesions. [00253] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method of impeding the formation of a dermatome lesion or an analogous condition in a subject. In one embodiment, dermatome lesions form as a result of contact with HSV. In another embodiment, dermatome lesions most often develop when the virus reactivates from latency in the ganglia and in one embodiment, spreads down nerves, in one embodiment, causing a recurrent infection.

[00254] It is to be understood that the methods of the present invention may be used to treat, inhibit, suppress, etc an HSV infection or primary or secondary symptoms related to such an infection following exposure of the subject to HSV. In another embodiment, the subject has been infected with HSV before vaccination. In another embodiment, the subject is at risk for HSV infection. In another embodiment, whether or not the subject has been infected with HSV at the time of vaccination, vaccination by a method of the present invention is efficacious in treating, inhibiting, suppressing, etc an HSV infection or primary or secondary symptoms related to such an infection.

[00255] In one embodiment, "treating" refers to either therapeutic treatment or prophylactic or preventative measures, wherein the object is to prevent or lessen the targeted pathologic condition or disorder as described hereinabove. Thus, in one embodiment, treating may include directly affecting or curing, suppressing, inhibiting, preventing, reducing the severity of, delaying the onset of, reducing symptoms associated with the disease, disorder or condition, or a combination thereof. Thus, in one embodiment, "treating" refers inter alia to delaying progression, expediting remission, inducing remission, augmenting remission, speeding recovery, increasing efficacy of or decreasing resistance to alternative therapeutics, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, "preventing" refers, inter alia, to delaying the onset of symptoms, preventing relapse to a disease, decreasing the number or frequency of relapse episodes, increasing latency between symptomatic episodes, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, "suppressing" or "inhibiting", refers inter alia to reducing the severity of symptoms, reducing the severity of an acute episode, reducing the number of symptoms, reducing the incidence of disease-related symptoms, reducing the latency of symptoms, ameliorating symptoms, reducing secondary symptoms, reducing secondary infections, prolonging patient survival, or a combination thereof.

[00256] In one embodiment, symptoms are primary, while in another embodiment, symptoms are secondary. In one embodiment, "primary" refers to a symptom that is a direct result of the subject viral infection, while in one embodiment, "secondary" refers to a symptom that is derived from or consequent to a primary cause. In one embodiment, the compositions and strains for use in the present invention treat primary or secondary symptoms or secondary complications related to HSV infection.

[00257] In another embodiment, "symptoms" may be any manifestation of a HSV infection, comprising blisters, ulcerations, or lesions on the urethra, cervix, upper thigh, and/or anus in women and on the penis, urethra, scrotum, upper thigh, and anus in men, inflammation, swelling, fever, flu-like symptoms, sore mouth, sore throat, pharyngitis, pain, blisters on tongue, mouth or lips, ulcers, cold sores, neck pain, enlarged lymph nodes, reddening, bleeding, itching, dysuria, headache, muscle pain, etc., or a combination thereof.

[00258] In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is fever. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is headache. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is stiff neck. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is seizures. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is partial paralysis. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is stupor. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is coma. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is any other disease, disorder, or symptom known in the art that is associated with or secondary to a herpes-mediated encephalitis.

[00259] Methods of determining the presence and severity of herpes-mediated encephalitis are well known in the art, and are described, for example, in Bonkowsky JL et al. (Herpes simplex virus central nervous system relapse during treatment of infantile spasms with corticotropin. Pediatrics. 2006 May; 1 17(5):elO45-8) and Khan OA, et al. (Herpes encephalitis presenting as mild aphasia: case report. BMC Fam Pract. 2006 Mar 24; 7:22). Each method represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00260] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating or reducing an incidence of a disease, disorder, or symptom associated with an HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00261 ] In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom secondary to an HSV infection is oral lesions. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is genital lesions. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is oral ulcers. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is genital ulcers. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is fever. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is headache. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is muscle ache. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is swollen glands in the groin area. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is painful urination. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is vaginal discharge. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is blistering. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is flu-like malaise. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is keratitis. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is herpetic whitlow. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is Bell's palsy. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is herpetic erythema multiforme. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is a lower back symptom (e.g. numbness, tingling of the buttocks or the area around the anus, urinary retention, constipation, and impotence). In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is a localized eczema herpeticum. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is a disseminated eczema herpeticum. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is a herpes gladiatorum. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is a herpetic sycosis. In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is an esophageal symptom (e.g. difficulty swallowing or burning, squeezing throat pain while swallowing, weight loss, pain in or behind the upper chest while swallowing). In another embodiment, the disease, disorder, or symptom is any other disease, disorder, or symptom that is known in the art. Each disease, disorder, and symptom represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00262] Thus, in one embodiment, the compositions and methods of the instant invention treat, suppress, inhibit, or reduce the incidence of the infection itself, while in another embodiment, the compositions and methods of the instant invention treat, suppress, inhibit, or reduce the incidence of primary symptoms of the infection, while in another embodiment, the compositions and methods of the instant invention treat, suppress, inhibit, or reduce the incidence of secondary symptoms of the infection. It is to be understood that the compositions and methods of the instant invention may affect any combination of the infection, the primary symptoms caused by the infection, and secondary symptoms related to the infection.

[00263] The HSV infection that is treated or ameliorated by methods and compositions of the present invention is, in another embodiment, a genital HSV infection. In another embodiment, the HSV infection is an oral HSV infection. In another embodiment, the HSV infection is an ocular HSV infection. In another embodiment, the HSV infection is a dermatologic HSV infection.

[00264] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing an incidence of a disseminated HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00265] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing an incidence of a neonatal HSV infection in an offspring of a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00266] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing a transmission of an HSV infection from a subject to an offspring thereof, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00267] In another embodiment, the offspring is an infant. In another embodiment, the transmission that is reduced or inhibited is transmission during birth. In another embodiment, transmission during breastfeeding is reduced or inhibited. In another embodiment, the transmission that is reduced or inhibited is any other type of parent-to-offspring transmission known in the art.

[00268] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing a severity of a neonatal HSV infection in an offspring of a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00269] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating, suppressing, inhibiting, or reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in a subject infected with HIV, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof; (b) a recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating, suppressing, inhibiting, or reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in a subject infected with HIV, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine comprising: (a) a recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof, wherein said fragment comprises either a C3b-binding domain thereof, a properdin interfering domain thereof, a C5 interfering domain thereof, or a fragment of said C3b- binding domain, properdin interfering domain, or C5-interfering domain; (b) a recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof, wherein said fragment comprises AA 24-409 or a fragment thereof; and (c) an adjuvant.

[00270] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of treating an HSV infection in a subject infected with HIV, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of suppressing an HSV infection in a subject infected with HIV, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of inhibiting an HSV infection in a subject infected with HIV, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in a subject infected with HIV, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of preventing an HIV infection, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject an HSV vaccine of the present invention. In one embodiment, HSV infection increases the risk of HIV infection, and protection against HSV infection decreases the risk of HIV infection. Thus, in one embodiment, present invention provides a method of decreasing the risk of an HIV infection, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention.

[00271] In one embodiment, the vaccine for use in the methods of the present invention elicits an immune response against HSV. In another embodiment, the vaccine for use in the methods of the present invention elicits an immune response against HSV-I. In another embodiment, the vaccine for use in the methods of the present invention elicits an immune response against HSV-2. In another embodiment, the vaccine comprises recombinant gD and gC proteins. In another embodiment, the vaccine comprises recombinant gE and gD proteins. In another embodiment, the vaccine comprises recombinant gC and gE proteins. In another embodiment, the vaccine comprises recombinant gE, gD, and gC proteins. In another embodiment, the vaccine comprises recombinant gE, gD, or gC protein. In another embodiment, the recombinant proteins are HSV-I proteins. In another embodiment, the recombinant proteins are HSV-2 proteins. In another embodiment, the proteins comprise both HSV-I and HSV-2 proteins. [00272] It is to be understood that, in one embodiment, a subject according to any of the embodiments described herein may be a subject infected with, or in another embodiment, susceptible to infection with HSV. In one embodiment, a subject may be infected with, or in another embodiment, susceptible to infection with at least one other pathogen. In one embodiment, a subject may be immunocompromised. In one embodiment, the subject is infected by HSV, while in another embodiment, the subject is at risk for infection by HSV, which in one embodiment, is a subject who is a neonate, in another embodiment, immunocompromised, in another embodiment, elderly, and in another embodiment, an immunocompromised neonate or an immunocompromised elderly subject.

[00273] In another embodiment, the compositions or vaccines of the present invention and their related uses may suppress, inhibit, prevent or treat an HIV infection in a subject. In one embodiment, the compositions or vaccines of the present invention and their related uses may treat secondary complications of HIV infection, which in one embodiment, are opportunistic infections, neoplasms, neurologic abnormalities, or progressive immunologic deterioration. In another embodiment, the methods comprise treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In another embodiment, the methods comprise treating a decline in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes.

[00274] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing HIV- 1 transmission to an offspring, the method comprising the step of administering to a subject a vaccine of the present invention. As is known in the art, HSV-2 infection increases HIV-I viral shedding in genital secretions (Nagot N et al., Reduction of HIV-I RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 22; 356(8):790-9). Thus, methods of the present invention of inhibiting HSV-2 infection are also efficacious for reducing HIV-I transmission to an offspring. In another embodiment, the mutant HSV strain is an HSV-I strain. In another embodiment, the mutant HSV strain is an HSV-2 strain.

[00275] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing HIV-I transmission to a sexual partner, the method comprising the step of administering to a subject a vaccine of the present invention. As is known in the art, HSV-2 infection increases HIV-I viral shedding in genital secretions. Thus, methods of the present invention of inhibiting HSV-2 infection are also efficacious for reducing HIV-I transmission to a sexual partner. In another embodiment, the mutant HSV strain is an HSV-I strain. In another embodiment, the mutant HSV strain is an HSV-2 strain. [00276] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of reducing susceptibility to HIV-I, the method comprising the step of administering to a subject a vaccine of the present invention. As is known in the art, HSV-2 infection increases HIV-I replication (Ouedraogo A et ai, Impact of suppressive herpes therapy on genital HIV-I RNA among women taking antiretroviral therapy: a randomized controlled trial. AIDS. 2006 Nov 28;20(18):2305-13). Thus, methods of the present invention of inhibiting HSV-2 infection are also efficacious for reducing susceptibility to HIV-I. In another embodiment, the mutant HSV strain is an HSV-I strain. In another embodiment, the mutant HSV strain is an HSV-2 strain.

[00277] Thus, in one embodiment, the invention provides a method of inhibiting a primary HSV infection in an HIV-infected subject, comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of treating or reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in an HIV-infected subject, comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of inhibiting a flare, recurrence, or HSV labialis following a primary HSV infection in an HIV-infected subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine of the present invention. In one embodiment, administration of a vaccine of the present invention an anti-HSV immune response.

[00278] It is to be understood that, in one embodiment, a subject according to any of the embodiments described herein may be a subject infected with, or in another embodiment, susceptible to infection with HIV. In another embodiment, a subject according to any of the embodiments described herein is an HIV-positive subject. In one embodiment, the compositions or vaccines of the present invention and their related uses may suppress, inhibit, prevent or treat an HSV infection in an HIV-infected subject. In one embodiment, the HIV-infected subject may have CD4 T-cell counts lower than 200/μl, in another embodiment, the HIV-infected subject may have CD4 T-cell counts between 200-500/μl, or in another embodiment, the HIV-infected subject may have CD4 T-cell counts greater than 500/μl. In one embodiment, HIV-infected subjects have high hemolytic serum complement (CH50) levels, while in another embodiment, HIV-infected subjects have low CH50 levels.

[00279] In one embodiment, HIV-infected subjects may be identified by characteristic symptoms and/or pathologies, and in another embodiment, the vaccines and methods of the present invention may alleviate one or more symptoms and/or pathologies associated with HIV infection. In one embodiment, non-limiting examples of symptoms associated with or caused by HIV infection or pathogenesis (e.g., illness) include, fever, fatigue, headache, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, weight loss, rash, boils, warts, thrush, shingles, chronic or acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), coughing and shortness of breath, seizures and lack of coordination, difficult or painful swallowing, neuropsychological symptoms such as confusion and forgetfulness, severe and persistent diarrhea, fever, vision loss, nausea, abdominal cramps, and vomiting, coma, dry cough, bruising, bleeding, numbness or paralysis, muscle weakness, an opportunistic disorder, nerve damage, encephalopathy, dementia and death. In another embodiment, the subjects may also be prone to developing various cancers, especially those caused by viruses such as Kaposi's sarcoma and cervical cancer, or lymphomas.

[00280] In another embodiment, non-limiting examples of pathologies associated with or caused by HIV infection or pathogenesis include opportunistic infections (e.g., bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections) such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, lungs or esophagus, Candida albicans, cervical cancer, Coccidioidomycosis, Cryptococcosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptosporidiosis, Bacillary Angiomatosis, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Cytomegalovirus retinitis, Herpes virus, Hepatitis virus, papilloma virus, Histoplasmosis, Isosporiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii, Pneumonia, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), Salmonelosis, Toxoplasmosis, Wasting syndrome and Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia/pulmonary lymphoid type. Other symptoms and pathologies of HIV infection or pathogenesis (e.g., illness), are known in the art and treatment thereof in accordance with the invention is provided.

[00281] In another embodiment, a vaccine of the present invention elicits an anti-gC neutralizing antibody. In another embodiment, the antibody is capable of inhibiting rosette formation. In another embodiment, the antibody inhibits rosette formation.

[00282] In another embodiment, a vaccine of the present invention elicits an immune response that is enhanced relative to a vaccine containing gD alone. In another embodiment, utilization of an adjuvant of the present invention enables an enhanced anti-gD immune response. In another embodiment, an enhanced anti-gD immune response is enabled by combination of gD with a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC. In another embodiment, a further enhanced anti-gD immune response is enabled by combination of gD with both an adjuvant of the present invention and a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC.

[00283] In one embodiment, gC shields epitopes on viral glycoproteins from neutralizing antibodies. In another embodiment, gE shields epitopes on viral glycoproteins from neutralizing antibodies.

[00284] In another embodiment, utilization of an adjuvant of the present invention enables an enhanced anti-HSV immune response. In another embodiment, an enhanced anti-HSV immune response is enabled by combination of gD with a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC. In another embodiment, a further enhanced anti-HSV immune response is enabled by combination of gD with both an adjuvant of the present invention and a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC.

[00285] In another embodiment, an enhanced anti-gD immune response is enabled by combination of gD with a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE. In another embodiment, a further enhanced anti-gD immune response is enabled by combination of gD with both an adjuvant of the present invention and a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE.

[00286] In another embodiment, an enhanced anti-HSV immune response is enabled by combination of gD with a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE. In another embodiment, a further enhanced anti-HSV immune response is enabled by combination of gD with both an adjuvant of the present invention and a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE.

[00287] In another embodiment, a further enhanced anti-gD immune response is enabled by combination of gD with both a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE and a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC. In another embodiment, a further enhanced anti-gD immune response is enabled by combination of gD with: (a) an adjuvant of the present invention, (b) a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE, and (c) a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC. [00288] In another embodiment, a further enhanced anti-HSV immune response is enabled by combination of gD with both a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE and a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC. In another embodiment, a further enhanced anti-HSV immune response is enabled by combination of gD with: (a) an adjuvant of the present invention, (b) a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE, and (c) a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC.

[00289] The dose of recombinant HSV gD protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is, in another embodiment, 20 meg per inoculation. In one embodiment, "protein" refers to a recombinant HSV glycoprotein or, in another embodiment, to a fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 22 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 18 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 16 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 14 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 13 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 11 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 9 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 7 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 150 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 250 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 400 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 500 ng/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 750 ng/inoculation. [00290] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 mcg/kg body mass (per inoculation). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.13 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.12 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.11 mcmcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.09 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.08 mcg/kg. hi another embodiment, the dosage is 0.07 mcg/kg. hi another embodiment, the dosage is 0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05 mcg/kg. hi another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04 mcg/kg. hi another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02 mcg/kg. hi another embodiment, the dosage is less than 0.02 mcg/kg. hi another embodiment, the dosage is 500 ng/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1.25 mcg/kg. hi another embodiment, the dosage is 2.5 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is lOmcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12.5 mcg/kg.

[00291] In another embodiment, the dosage is 1-2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-3 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 2-4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-6 meg/inoculation, hi another embodiment, the dosage is 4-8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-20 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-40 mcg/protein/inoculation. hi another embodiment, the dosage is 40-60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20-50 meg/inoculation.

[00292] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.01-0.02 mcg/kg body mass (per injection). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02-0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02-0.04 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03-0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04-0.08 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05-0.1 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05-0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 -0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2-0.3 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.3-0.4 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.4-0.6 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.5-0.8 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.8-1 mcg/kg.

[00293] In another embodiment, the dosage of gD protein for human vaccination is determined by extrapolation from animal studies to human data. In another embodiment, the dosage of gD protein is determined by using a ratio of protein efficacious in human vs. mouse studies. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:400 (ratio of gD-1 protein used in the present Examples to gD-2 used in human vaccination). In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:100. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:150. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:300. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:500. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:600. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:700. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:800. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:900. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:1000. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:1200. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:1500. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:2000. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:3000. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :4000. In another embodiment, the dosage of gD protein for human vaccination is determined empirically. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:5000.

[00294] In another embodiment, the dosage of total recombinant gD protein (gD-1 protein and gD-2 protein) is one of the above amounts. In another embodiment, utilization of an adjuvant of the present invention enables a lower effective dosage of gD. In another embodiment, a lower effective dosage of gD is enabled by combination of gD with a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC. In another embodiment, a still lower effective dosage of gD is enabled by combination of gD with both an adjuvant of the present invention and a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC.

[00295] In another embodiment, a lower effective dosage of gD is enabled by combination of gD with a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE (e.g. 10 meg instead of 20 meg per dose is required in humans). In another embodiment,

15 meg instead of 20 meg is required. In another embodiment, 12 meg instead of 20 meg is required. In another embodiment, 8 meg instead of 20 meg is required. In another embodiment, 7 meg instead of 6 meg is required. In another embodiment, 5 meg instead of 20 meg is required. In another embodiment, 3 meg instead of 20 meg is required. In another embodiment, the reduction in amount required is any amount mentioned herein.

[00296] In another embodiment, a lower effective dosage of gD is enabled by combination of gD with both an adjuvant of the present invention and a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE.

[00297] In another embodiment, a lower effective dosage of gD is enabled by combination of gD with both a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE and a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC. In another embodiment, a still lower effective dosage of gD is enabled by combination of gD with: (a) an adjuvant of the present invention, (b) a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE, and (c) a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC.

[00298] In another embodiment, one of the above gD doses is utilized in a priming vaccination of the present invention. In another embodiment, the gD doses hereinabove may refer to doses of gD-1, gD-2, or a combination thereof. Each possibility and each dosage of gD represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00299] The dose of recombinant HSV gC protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is, in another embodiment, 20 meg per inoculation. In one embodiment, "protein" refers to a recombinant HSV glycoprotein or, in another embodiment, to a fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 70 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 90 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 120 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 130 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 140 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 150 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 160 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 170 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 180 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 220 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 250 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 270 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 350 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 400 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 450 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 22 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 18 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 16 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 14 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 13 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 11 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 9 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 7 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 1 meg/inoculation.

[00300] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 mcg/kg body mass (per inoculation). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.13 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.12 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.11 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.09 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.08 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.07 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 0.02 mcg/kg.

[00301] In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40-80 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-150 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300-400 mcg/protein/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1-2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4-8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-20 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20- 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-40 mcg/protein/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40-60 meg/inoculation.

[00302] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.01-0.02 meg/kg body mass (per injection). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02-0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is

0.02-0.04 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03-0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04-0.08 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05-0.1 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05-0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1-0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2-0.3 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.3-0.4 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.4-0.6 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.5-0.8 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.8-1 mcg/kg.

[00303] In another embodiment, the dosage of gC protein for human vaccination is determined by extrapolation from animal studies to human data. In another embodiment, the dosage for humans is determined by using a ratio of protein efficacious in human vs. mouse studies. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :400. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 : 100. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :150. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :300. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :500. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :600. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :700. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :800. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :900. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 : 1000. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 : 1200. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 : 1500. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :2000. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :3000. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :4000. In another embodiment, the dosage of gC protein for human vaccination is determined empirically. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :5000.

[00304] In another embodiment, the dosage of total recombinant gC protein (gC-1 protein and gC-2 protein) is one of the above amounts. In another embodiment, utilization of an adjuvant of the present invention enables a lower effective dosage of total recombinant gC protein. [00305] In another embodiment, utilization of an adjuvant of the present invention enables a lower effective dosage of gC. In another embodiment, a lower effective dosage of gC is enabled by combination of gC with a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE. In another embodiment, a still lower effective dosage of gC is enabled by combination of gC with both an adjuvant of the present invention and a gE immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gE.

[00306] In another embodiment, one of the above gC doses is utilized in a priming vaccination of the present invention. In another embodiment, the gC doses hereinabove may refer to doses of gC-1, gC-2, or a combination thereof. Each possibility and each dosage of gC represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00307] The dose of recombinant HSV gE protein utilized in methods and compositions of the present invention is, in another embodiment, 20 meg per inoculation. In one embodiment, "protein" refers to a recombinant HSV glycoprotein or, in another embodiment, to a fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 70 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 80 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 90 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 110 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 120 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 130 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 140 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 150 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 160 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 170 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 180 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 220 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 250 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 270 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 350 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 400 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 450 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 500 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 25 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 22 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 18 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 16 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 14 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 13 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 12 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 11 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 9 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 7 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1.5 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 1 meg/inoculation.

[00308] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1 mcg/kg body mass (per inoculation). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.13 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.12 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.11 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.09 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.08 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.07 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is

0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04 mcg/kg. hi another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is less than 0.02 mcg/kg.

[00309] In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-60 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40-80 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-100 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 50-150 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 100-200 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 200-300 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 300-400 meg/protein/ inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 1 -2 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-3 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 2-4 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 3-6 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 4-8 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5- 10 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 5-15 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 10-20 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 20- 30 meg/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 30-40 meg/protein/inoculation. In another embodiment, the dosage is 40-60 meg/inoculation.

[00310] In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.01-0.02 meg/kg body mass (per injection). In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02-0.03 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.02-0.04 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.03-0.06 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.04-0.08 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05-0.1 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.05-0.15 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.1-0.2 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.2-0.3 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.3-0.4 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.4-0.6 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.5-0.8 mcg/kg. In another embodiment, the dosage is 0.8-1 mcg/kg.

[00311 ] In another embodiment, the dosage of gE protein for human vaccination is determined by extrapolation from animal studies to human data. In another embodiment, the dosage for humans is determined by using a ratio of protein efficacious in human vs. mouse studies. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:400. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :100.

In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :150. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1:300. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :500. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :600. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :700. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :800. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :900. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1: 1000. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 : 1200. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 : 1500. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :2000. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :3000. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :4000. In another embodiment, the dosage of gE protein for human vaccination is determined empirically. In another embodiment, the ratio is 1 :5000.

[00312] In another embodiment, the dosage of total recombinant gE protein (gE-1 protein and gE-2 protein) is one of the above amounts. In another embodiment, utilization of an adjuvant of the present invention enables a lower effective dosage of total recombinant gE protein.

[00313] In another embodiment, utilization of an adjuvant of the present invention enables a lower effective dosage of gE. In another embodiment, a lower effective dosage of gE is enabled by combination of gE with a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC. In another embodiment, a still lower effective dosage of gE is enabled by combination of gE with both an adjuvant of the present invention and a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC.

[00314] In another embodiment, one of the above gE doses is utilized in a priming vaccination of the present invention. In another embodiment, the gE doses hereinabove may refer to doses of gE- 1 , gE-2, or a combination thereof. Each possibility and each dosage of gE represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00315] In another embodiment, the dosage of recombinant gE protein is one of the above amounts. In another embodiment, utilization of an adjuvant of the present invention enables a lower effective dosage of gE. In another embodiment, a lower effective dosage of gE is enabled by combination of gE with a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC. In another embodiment, a still lower effective dosage of gE is enabled by combination of gE with both an adjuvant of the present invention and a gC immunogen that induces antibodies that block an immune evasion function of gC. Each possibility and each dosage of gE represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00316] "Effective dose" of a glycoprotein refers, in another embodiment, the dose required to elicit antibodies that significantly block an immune evasion function of an HSV virus during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the term refers to the dose required to elicit antibodies that effectively block an immune evasion function of an HSV virus during a subsequent challenge. In another embodiment, the term refers to the dose required to elicit antibodies that significantly reduce infectivity of an HSV virus during a subsequent challenge.

[00317] Each dosage of each recombinant glycoprotein, and each combination thereof, represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00318] Methods for measuring the dose of an immunogen (e.g. in human subjects) are well known in the art, and include, for example, dose-escalating trials. Each method represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00319] In another embodiment, the strategy demonstrated herein is utilized for another virus and/or another pathogen. In another embodiment, a combined subunit vaccine is utilized, containing both a first protein that plays a role in infection and a (or more than one) second protein with an immune evasion function, whereby antibodies elicited against the second protein by the vaccine block the immune evasion function. [00320] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method for improvement of an existing HSV-I vaccine, the method comprising the steps of (1) screening a combination of recombinant gC-1 proteins and adjuvants for ability to block an immune evasion property of gC-1; and (2) adding recombinant gD protein, and comparing the resulting vaccine to a vaccine containing adjuvant and gD protein alone.

[00321] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method for improvement of an existing HSV-I vaccine, the method comprising the steps of (1) screening a combination of recombinant gE-1 proteins and adjuvants for ability to block immune evasion property of gE-1; and (2) adding recombinant gD protein, and comparing the resulting vaccine to a vaccine containing adjuvant and gD protein alone.

[00322] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method for improvement of an existing HSV-I vaccine, the method comprising the steps of (1) screening a combination of recombinant gC-1 proteins, recombinant gE-1 proteins, and adjuvants for ability to block immune evasion property of gC-1 and gE-1; and (2) adding recombinant gD protein, and comparing the resulting vaccine to a vaccine containing adjuvant and gD protein alone.

[00323] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method for improvement of an existing HSV-2 vaccine, the method comprising the steps of (1) screening a combination of recombinant gC-2 proteins and adjuvants for ability to block immune evasion property of gC-2; and (2) adding recombinant gD protein, and comparing the resulting vaccine to a vaccine containing adjuvant and gD protein alone.

[00324] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method for improvement of an existing HSV-2 vaccine, the method comprising the steps of (1 ) screening a combination of recombinant gE-2 proteins and adjuvants for ability to block immune evasion property of gE-2; and (2) adding recombinant gD protein, and comparing the resulting vaccine to a vaccine containing adjuvant and gD protein alone.

[00325] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method for improvement of an existing HSV-2 vaccine, the method comprising the steps of (1 ) screening a combination of recombinant gC-2 proteins, recombinant gE-2 proteins, and adjuvants for ability to block immune evasion property of gC-2 and gE-2; and (2) adding recombinant gD protein, and comparing the resulting vaccine to a vaccine containing adjuvant and gD protein alone.

[00326] In some embodiments, any of the HSV vaccines of and for use in the methods of this invention will comprise an HSV protein or combination of HSV proteins of the present invention, in any form or embodiment as described herein. In some embodiments, any of the HSV vaccines of and for use in the methods will consist of an HSV protein or combination of HSV proteins of the present invention, in any form or embodiment as described herein. In some embodiments, the HSV vaccines of this invention will consist essentially of a an HSV protein or combination of HSV proteins of the present invention, in any form or embodiment as described herein. In some embodiments, the term "comprise" refers to the inclusion of other recombinant HSV proteins, as well as inclusion of other proteins that may be known in the art. In some embodiments, the term "consisting essentially of refers to a vaccine, which has the specific HSV protein or fragment thereof. However, other peptides may be included that are not involved directly in the utility of the HSV protein(s). In some embodiments, the term "consisting" refers to a vaccine having a particular HSV protein or fragment or combination of HSV proteins or fragments of the present invention, in any form or embodiment as described herein.

[00327] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a composition for treating HSV-I or a symptom or manifestation thereof, the composition comprising a vaccine of the present invention.

[00328] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a composition for treating HSV-2 or a symptom or manifestation thereof, the composition comprising a vaccine of the present invention.

[00329] In another embodiment, of methods of the present invention, a vaccine of the present invention is administered as a single inoculation. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered twice. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered three times. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered four times. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered at least four times. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered more than four times. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered at separate sites with gD separate from gC or gE. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered at 1 week intervals. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered at 2 week intervals. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered at 3 week intervals. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered at 4 week intervals. In another embodiment, the vaccine is administered at 1 month intervals.

[00330] It is to be understood that the compositions/vaccines, and methods of the present invention may be used in non-HSV herpesvirus as well, which in one embodiment, comprise gD, gE, or gC proteins that are, in one embodiment, 70% homologous, in another embodiment, 80% homologous, in another embodiment, 85% homologous, in another embodiment, 90% homologous, in another embodiment, 95% homologous, in another embodiment, 98% homologous, and in another embodiment, 100% homologous to the gD, gE, or gC proteins of HSV-I, or in another embodiment, of HSV-2. In one embodiment, such vaccines may be useful in suppressing, inhibiting, preventing, or treating, cancers, or in another embodiment, tumors. In one embodiment, non-HSV herpesvirus comprise Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), EBNA, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6).

[00331] In another embodiment, a recombinant protein of the present invention is homologous to a sequence set forth hereinabove, either expressly or by reference to a GenBank entry. The terms "homology," "homologous," etc, when in reference to any protein or peptide, refer, in one embodiment, to a percentage of AA residues in the candidate sequence that are identical with the residues of a corresponding native polypeptide, after aligning the sequences and introducing gaps, if necessary, to achieve the maximum percent homology, and not considering any conservative substitutions as part of the sequence identity. Methods and computer programs for the alignment are well known in the art.

[00332] Homology is, in another embodiment, determined by computer algorithm for sequence alignment, by methods well described in the art. For example, computer algorithm analysis of nucleic acid sequence homology can include the utilization of any number of software packages available, such as, for example, the BLAST, DOMAIN, BEAUTY (BLAST Enhanced Alignment Utility), GENPEPT and TREMBL packages.

[00333] In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to a sequence selected from SEQ ID No: 1 -6 of greater than 70%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to a sequence selected from SEQ ID No: 1 -6 of greater than 72%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ ID No: 1 -6 of greater than 75%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to a sequence selected from SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 78%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ ID No: 1 -6 of greater than 80%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of

SEQ ID NO: 1 -6 of greater than 82%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to a sequence selected from SEQ ID No: 1 -6 of greater than 83%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 85%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ K) No: 1-6 of greater than 87%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to a sequence selected from SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 88%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 90%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 92%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to a sequence selected from SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 93%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 95%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to a sequence selected from SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 96%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 97%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 98%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ ID No: 1-6 of greater than 99%. In another embodiment, "homology" refers to identity to one of SEQ ID No: 1-6 of 100%.

[00334] In another embodiment, homology is determined via determination of candidate sequence hybridization, methods of which are well described in the art (See, for example, "Nucleic Acid Hybridization" Hames, B. D., and Higgins S. J., Eds. (1985); Sambrook et al., 2001, Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Press, N. Y.; and Ausubel et al., 1989, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Green Publishing Associates and Wiley Interscience, N. Y). In other embodiments, methods of hybridization are carried out under moderate to stringent conditions, to the complement of a DNA encoding a native caspase peptide. Hybridization conditions being, for example, overnight incubation at 42 0C in a solution comprising: 10-20 % formamide, 5 X SSC (150 mM NaCl, 15 mM trisodium citrate), 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7. 6), 5 X Denhardt's solution, 10 % dextran sulfate, and 20 μg/ml denatured, sheared salmon sperm DNA.

[00335] Protein and/or peptide homology for any AA sequence listed herein is determined, in another embodiment, by methods well described in the art, including immunoblot analysis, or via computer algorithm analysis of AA sequences, utilizing any of a number of software packages available, via established methods. Some of these packages include the FASTA, BLAST, MPsrch or Scanps packages, and, in another embodiment, employ the use of the Smith and Waterman algorithms, and/or global/local or BLOCKS alignments for analysis, for example. Each method of determining homology represents a separate embodiment of the present invention. [00336] In one embodiment, "variant" refers to an amino acid or nucleic acid sequence (or in other embodiments, an organism or tissue) that is different from the majority of the population but is still sufficiently similar to the common mode to be considered to be one of them, for example splice variants. In one embodiment, the variant may a sequence conservative variant, while in another embodiment, the variant may be a functional conservative variant. In one embodiment, a variant may comprise an addition, deletion or substitution of 1 amino acid. In one embodiment, a variant may comprise an addition, deletion, substitution, or combination thereof of 2 amino acids. In one embodiment, a variant may comprise an addition, deletion or substitution, or combination thereof of 3 amino acids. In one embodiment, a variant may comprise an addition, deletion or substitution, or combination thereof of 4 amino acids. In one embodiment, a variant may comprise an addition, deletion or substitution, or combination thereof of 5 amino acids. In one embodiment, a variant may comprise an addition, deletion or substitution, or combination thereof of 7 amino acids. In one embodiment, a variant may comprise an addition, deletion or substitution, or combination thereof of 10 amino acids. In one embodiment, a variant may comprise an addition, deletion or substitution, or combination thereof of 2-15 amino acids. In one embodiment, a variant may comprise an addition, deletion or substitution, or combination thereof of 3-20 amino acids. In one embodiment, a variant may comprise an addition, deletion or substitution, or combination thereof of 4-25 amino acids.

[00337] In one embodiment, "isoform" refers to a version of a molecule, for example, a protein, with only slight differences to another isoform of the same protein. In one embodiment, isoforms may be produced from different but related genes, or in another embodiment, may arise from the same gene by alternative splicing. In another embodiment, isoforms are caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms.

[00338] In another embodiment, methods and compositions of the present invention utilize a chimeric molecule, comprising a fusion of a recombinant HSV protein with a tag polypeptide that provides an epitope to which an anti-tag antibody can selectively bind. The epitope tag is placed, in other embodiments, at the amino- or carboxyl -terminus of the protein or in an internal location therein. The presence of such epitope-tagged forms of the recombinant HSV protein is detected, in another embodiment, using an antibody against the tag polypeptide. In another embodiment, inclusion of the epitope tag enables the recombinant HSV protein to be readily purified by affinity purification using an anti-tag antibody or another type of affinity matrix that binds to the epitope tag. Various tag polypeptides and their respective antibodies are known in the art. Examples include poly-histidine (poly-his) or poly-histidine-glycine (poly-his-gly) tags; the flu HA tag polypeptide and its antibody 12CA5 (Field et al, MoI. Cell. Biol., 8: 2159-2165 (1988)); the c-myc tag and the 8F9, 3C7, 6E10, G4, B7 and 9E10 antibodies thereto (Evan et al, Molecular and Cellular Biology, 5: 3610-3616 (1985)); and the Herpes Simplex virus glycoprotein D (gD) tag and its antibody (Paborsky et al, Protein Engineering, 3(6): 547-553 (1990)). Other tag polypeptides include the Flag-peptide (Hopp et al, BioTechnology, 6: 1204-1210 (1988)); the KT3 epitope peptide (Martin et al, Science, 255: 192-194 (1992)); a tubulin epitope peptide (Skinner et al, J. Biol. Chem., 266:15163- 15166 (1991)); and the T7 gene 10 protein peptide tag (Lutz-Freyermuth et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 87: 6393-6397 (1990)). In another embodiment, the chimeric molecule comprises a fusion of the recombinant HSV protein with an immunoglobulin or a particular region of an immunoglobulin. Methods for constructing fusion proteins are well known in the art, and are described, for example, in LaRochelle et al, J. Cell Biol., 139(2): 357-66 (1995); Heidaran et al, FASEB J., 9(1): 140-5 (1995); Ashkenazi et al, Int. Rev. Immunol., 10(2-3): 219-27 (1993) and Cheon et al, PNAS USA, 91(3): 989-93 (1994).

[00339] In another embodiment, the present invention provides a kit comprising a vaccine utilized in performing a method of the present invention. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a kit comprising a vaccine of the present invention.

[00340] "Administering," in another embodiment, refers to directly introducing into a subject by injection or other means a composition of the present invention. In another embodiment, "administering" refers to contacting a cell of the subject's immune system with a vaccine or recombinant HSV protein or mixture thereof.

Pharmaceutical Compositions and Methods of Administration

[00341] In another embodiment, methods of the present invention comprise administering a recombinant HSV protein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The pharmaceutical compositions containing the vaccine can be, in another embodiment, administered to a subject by any method known to a person skilled in the art, such as parenterally, transmucosally, transdermally, intramuscularly, intravenously, intra-dermally, intra-nasally, subcutaneously, intra-peritonealy, intra-ventricularly, intra-cranially, or intra-vaginally. In another embodiment, vaccines of the instant invention are administered via epidermal injection, in another embodiment, intramuscular injection, in another embodiment, subcutaneous injection, and in another embodiment, intra-respiratory mucosal injection. [00342] In another embodiment, of methods and compositions of the present invention, the pharmaceutical compositions are administered orally, and are thus formulated in a form suitable for oral administration, i.e., as a solid or a liquid preparation. Suitable solid oral formulations include tablets, capsules, pills, granules, pellets and the like. Suitable liquid oral formulations include solutions, suspensions, dispersions, emulsions, oils and the like. In another embodiment, of the present invention, the vaccine is formulated in a capsule. In another embodiment, compositions of the present invention comprise a hard gelating capsule.

[00343] In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions are administered by intravenous, intra-arterial, or intra-muscular injection of a liquid preparation. Suitable liquid formulations include solutions, suspensions, dispersions, emulsions, oils and the like. In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions are administered intravenously and are thus formulated in a form suitable for intravenous administration. In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions are administered intra-arterially and are thus formulated in a form suitable for intra-arterial administration. In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions are administered intra-muscularly and are thus formulated in a form suitable for intra-muscular administration.

[00344] In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions are administered topically to body surfaces and are thus formulated in a form suitable for topical administration. Suitable topical formulations include gels, ointments, creams, lotions, drops and the like.

[00345] In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is administered as a suppository, for example a rectal suppository or a urethral suppository. In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is administered by subcutaneous implantation of a pellet. In another embodiment, the pellet provides for controlled release of antigen agent over a period of time.

[00346] In another embodiment, the vaccine is delivered in a vesicle, e.g. a liposome.

[00347] In other embodiments, carriers or diluents used in methods of the present invention include, but are not limited to, a gum, a starch (e.g. corn starch, pregeletanized starch), a sugar (e.g. lactose, mannitol, sucrose, dextrose), a cellulosic material (e.g. microcrystalline cellulose), an acrylate (e.g. polymethylacrylate), calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide, talc, or mixtures thereof. [00348] In other embodiments, pharmaceutically acceptable carriers for liquid formulations are aqueous or non-aqueous solutions, suspensions, emulsions or oils. Examples of nonaqueous solvents are propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and injectable organic esters such as ethyl oleate. Aqueous carriers include water, alcoholic/aqueous solutions, emulsions or suspensions, including saline and buffered media. Examples of oils are those of animal, vegetable, or synthetic origin, for example, peanut oil, soybean oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, fish-liver oil, another marine oil, or a lipid from milk or eggs.

[00349] In another embodiment, parenteral vehicles (for subcutaneous, intravenous, intraarterial, or intramuscular injection) include sodium chloride solution, Ringer's dextrose, dextrose and sodium chloride, lactated Ringer's and fixed oils. Intravenous vehicles include fluid and nutrient replenishers, electrolyte replenishers such as those based on Ringer's dextrose, and the like. Examples are sterile liquids such as water and oils, with or without the addition of a surfactant and other pharmaceutically acceptable adjuvants. In general, water, saline, aqueous dextrose and related sugar solutions, and glycols such as propylene glycols or polyethylene glycol are preferred liquid carriers, particularly for injectable solutions. Examples of oils are those of animal, vegetable, or synthetic origin, for example, peanut oil, soybean oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, fish-liver oil, another marine oil, or a lipid from milk or eggs.

[00350] In other embodiments, the compositions further comprise binders (e.g. acacia, cornstarch, gelatin, carbomer, ethyl cellulose, guar gum, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, povidone), disintegrating agents (e.g. cornstarch, potato starch, alginic acid, silicon dioxide, croscarmelose sodium, crospovidone, guar gum, sodium starch glycolate), buffers (e.g. Tris-HCL, acetate, phosphate) of various pH and ionic strength, additives such as albumin or gelatin to prevent absorption to surfaces, detergents (e.g. Tween 20, Tween 80, Pluronic F68, bile acid salts), protease inhibitors, surfactants (e.g. sodium lauryl sulfate), permeation enhancers, solubilizing agents (e.g. glycerol, polyethylene glycerol), anti-oxidants (e.g. ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole), stabilizers (e.g. hydroxypropyl cellulose, hyroxypropylmethyl cellulose), viscosity increasing agents(e.g. carbomer, colloidal silicon dioxide, ethyl cellulose, guar gum), sweeteners (e.g. aspartame, citric acid), preservatives (e.g. Thimerosal, benzyl alcohol, parabens), lubricants

(e.g. stearic acid, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, sodium lauryl sulfate), flow-aids (e.g. colloidal silicon dioxide), plasticizers (e.g. diethyl phthalate, triethyl citrate), emulsifiers (e.g. carbomer, hydroxypropyl cellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate), polymer coatings (e.g. poloxamers or poloxamines), coating and film forming agents (e.g. ethyl cellulose, acrylates, polymethacrylates) and/or adjuvants. Each of the above excipients represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[0035I] In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions provided herein are controlled-release compositions, i.e., compositions in which the antigen is released over a period of time after administration. Controlled- or sustained-release compositions include formulation in lipophilic depots (e.g. fatty acids, waxes, oils). In another embodiment, the composition is an immediate-release composition, i.e., a composition in which all the antigen is released immediately after administration.

[00352] In another embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is delivered in a controlled release system. In another embodiment, the agent is administered using intravenous infusion, an implantable osmotic pump, a transdermal patch, liposomes, or other modes of administration. In another embodiment, a pump is used (see Langer, supra; Sefton, CRC Crit. Ref. Biomed. Eng. 14:201 (1987); Buchwald et al, Surgery 88:507 (1980); Saudek et al, N. Engl. J. Med. 321 :574 (1989). In another embodiment, polymeric materials are used; e.g. in microspheres in or an implant.

[00353] The compositions also include, in another embodiment, incorporation of the active material into or onto particulate preparations of polymeric compounds such as polylactic acid, polglycolic acid, hydrogels, etc, or onto liposomes, microemulsions, micelles, unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles, erythrocyte ghosts, or spheroplasts.) Such compositions will influence the physical state, solubility, stability, rate of in vivo release, and rate of in vivo clearance.

[00354] Also included in the present invention are particulate compositions coated with polymers (e.g. poloxamers or poloxamines) and the compound coupled to antibodies directed against tissue-specific receptors, ligands or antigens or coupled to ligands of tissue-specific receptors.

[00355] Also comprehended by the invention are compounds modified by the covalent attachment of water-soluble polymers such as polyethylene glycol, copolymers of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol, carboxymethyl cellulose, dextran, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone or polyproline. The modified compounds are known to exhibit substantially longer half-lives in blood following intravenous injection than do the corresponding unmodified compounds (Abuchowski et al, 1981 ; Newmark et al, 1982; and Katre et al, 1987). Such modifications also increase, in another embodiment, the compound's solubility in aqueous solution, eliminate aggregation, enhance the physical and chemical stability of the compound, and greatly reduce the immunogenicity and reactivity of the compound. In another embodiment, the desired in vivo biological activity is achieved by the administration of such polymer-compound abducts less frequently or in lower doses than with the unmodified compound.

[00356] The preparation of pharmaceutical compositions that contain an active component, for example by mixing, granulating, or tablet-forming processes, is well understood in the art. An active component is, in another embodiment, formulated into the composition as neutralized pharmaceutically acceptable salt forms. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include the acid addition salts (formed with the free amino groups of the polypeptide or antibody molecule), which are formed with inorganic acids such as, for example, hydrochloric or phosphoric acids, or such organic acids as acetic, oxalic, tartaric, mandelic, and the like. Salts formed from the free carboxyl groups can also be derived from inorganic bases such as, for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, or ferric hydroxides, and such organic bases as isopropylamine, trimethylamine, 2-ethylamino ethanol, histidine, procaine, and the like.

[00357] Each of the above additives, excipients, formulations and methods of administration represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[00358] It is to be understood that the present invention also encompasses compositions comprising one or more recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) proteins selected from a gD protein, a gC protein and a gE protein, as described for vaccines herein.

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS SECTION

EXAMPLE 1: HS V-I gC-1 SUBUNIT VACCINES ARE PROTECTIVE AGAINST

HSV l INFECTION

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS (EXAMPLES 1-2)

Rosette inhibition assays

[00359] Vero cells were infected with WT HSV-I at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2 for 20 h. IgG was added to the infected cells for 1 h at room temperature. C3b-coated sheep erythrocytes were added for 1 h at 370C and viewed by light microscopy for rosettes. The percentage of cells that form rosettes of C3b-coated erythrocytes is calculated as (number of cells that have four or more erythrocytes bound divided by total number of cells counted times 100%). Inhibition of C3b-coated rosettes indicates that antibodies are present that block C3b binding to gC-1.

Murine flank model [00360] BALB/c or C57B1/6 female mice (Charles River, Wilmington, MA) or C3 knockout mice 5-7 weeks old were anesthetized, and flanks of the mice were shaved and chemically denuded. 16-20 h later, mice were infected with purified HSV-I WT virus by adding 10 μl containing 5 X 104 or 5 X 105 PFU and scratching the skin with the bevel of a 30-gauge needle. Disease at the inoculation site was scored as follows. Erythema or swelling with no vesicles was assigned 0.5 points, and individual vesicles were scored as 1 point each, with a total maximum daily score of 5. If lesions coalesced, up to 5 points were assigned based on the size of the lesions. Zosteriform disease was scored similarly, except that the maximum daily score was 10, because more lesions could be counted over the larger skin area involved. For some experiments with HSV-2 (Figures 16A and 16B) the scoring system was modified to distinguish among animals at the severe end of the disease spectrum, since HSV-2 causes more severe flank disease than HSV-I . At the inoculation site, scores range from 0-3, with 0 representing no disease, 1 for redness or isolated lesions, 2 for ulcers, and 3 for areas with tissue necrosis. At the zosteriform site, scores range from 0-4, with 0 for no disease, 1 for isolated lesions, 2 for confluent lesions, 3 for ulcers, and 4 for areas with tissue necrosis.

Vaccines

[00361] Vaccines contained recombinant HSV-I bac-gD-l(306t) (AA 26-306 with a C- terminal 6 His tag) and an HSV-I bac-gC-1 fragment (AA 26-457 modified with a 5 His tag).

RESULTS

[00362] Optimum dose of gC-1 subunit vaccine: This experiment defined the dose of gC-1 immunization that generates anti-gC antibodies capable of blocking immune evasion, measured by inhibiting C3b binding to gC-1. Mice were mock-immunized or immunized with 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of gC-1, and resulting sera was tested for ability to block C3b binding, using a rosetting assay (Figure 1 , left panel). Mice immunized with 10 μg of gC-1 produced anti-gC antibodies that blocked rosetting by 85% (Figure 1, right panel). Mice were then challenged with a lethal dose of HSV-I and scored for disease at the inoculation and zosteriform sites from days 3 to 7 post-challenge (Figures 2A and B). Inoculation site disease was not altered significantly by gC-1 immunization, but zosteriform disease was reduced (P < .001) compared with mock-immunized mice.

[00363] Mock and gC-1 immunized mice were scored for survival for 14 days post-challenge. At 10 μg gC-1, 40% survived, compared with none at the lower doses. Therefore, immunization with 10 μg gC-1 generates antibodies that protect mice from zosteriform disease and death.

EXAMPLE 2: COMBINATION gC-l/gD-1 VACCINES CONFER PROTECTION SUPERIOR TO VACCINES CONTAINING gP-1 OR gC-1 ALONE

[00364] Optimum dose of gP-1 subunit vaccine: The mouse flank model was used to define a gD-1 dose that partially protects mice from disease, to simulate a partially protective gD-1 subunit vaccine. Based on these studies, a gD-1 dose of 50 ng was chosen; which provided minimal protection at the inoculation site and moderate protection against zosteriform disease (results included in Figure 3).

[00365] gD-1 and gC-1 combined subunit vaccine: Mice were either mock-immunized or immunized with gD-1 alone (50 ng), or with both gD-1 (50 ng) and gC-1 (10 μg) and challenged with a lethal dose of HSV-I (Figure 3). Disease severity was significantly reduced at the inoculation site (P < 0.02), and zosteriform site disease was completely prevented in mice administered the gD-l/gC-1 combination vaccine, a significant result (P <

0.001) compared with gD-1 alone or gC-1 alone (Figure 2A and 2B). Further, the combination vaccine conferred survival upon 100% of the mice (Figure 4).

[00366] Thus, combination gC-l/gD-1 vaccines confer superior protection, compared with vaccines containing gD-1 alone or gC-1 alone.

EXAMPLE 3: COMBINATION gC-l/gD-1 VACCINES PREVENT INFECTION OF

DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

[00367] Harvesting of DRG was performed at 5 days post-infection. The mice were euthanized, and the ganglia that innervate the inoculated skin were identified under a magnifying dissecting microscope. The ganglia were removed and homogenized in DMEM, and virus in the ganglia was titrated by plaque assay. RESULTS

[00368] HSV-I develops latency in the neuronal cell bodies within dorsal root ganglia

(DRG). To test whether immunization with gD-1 and gC-1 prevents infection of DRG, DRG were harvested at 5 days post-challenge (the time of peak titers) with a lethal dose of HSV-I. No infectious virus was found in mice immunized with gD-1 and gC-1, while virus was recovered from mock or gD-1 immunized mice (Figure 5).

[00369] Thus, combination gC-l/gD-1 vaccines better protect mice from disease, death and DRG infection than immunization with gD-1 or gC-1 alone.

EXAMPLE 4: PROTECTION MEDIATED BY ANTI-gC-1 IgG IN MICE IMMUNIZED WITH gD-1 & gC-1 IS DEPENDENT ON C3b.

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

Flank Model

[00370] Experiments were performed to demonstrate that anti-gC-1 IgG protection of mice occurs by blocking the interaction between gC-1 and C3b. Mice were immunized three times IM with 5 μg of gC-1 mixed with CpG (# 1826, Coley Pharmaceuticals Group) (50 μg/mice) and alum (25 μg/μg protein) (Accurate Chemicals and Scientific Corp). Serum was obtained 2 weeks after the third immunization and shown to interact with gC-1 protein by Western blot (result not shown) and to block C3b rosetting on HSV-I infected cells (as described in Figure 1). IgG was purified from the mouse serum on a protein G column (Hi-TrapTM,

Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden) and tested for neutralizing antibody activity. An anti-gDl monoclonal antibody DLI l (Eisenberg, RJ et al. J. Virol 53: 634-644, 1985), anti- gC-1 monoclonal antibody 1C8 that binds to the domain on gC-1 that interacts with C3b and blocks C3b rosetting to HSV-I infected cells (Judson KA et al. J Virol 77: 12639-45, 2003), and non-immune murine IgG were included as controls. Approximately 80 PFU of HSV-I, strain NS was incubated with anti-gC-1 IgG obtained from immunized mice, or with DLI l, 1C8 or non-immune murine IgG for 1 hour at 37°C. Virus titers were then determined by plaque assay on Vero cells.

[00371] To test the ability of the anti-gC-1 IgG to protect mice, complement-intact mice (C57B1/6) or C3 knockout mice (C3KO) were passively immunized with 200 μg/mouse of anti-gC-1 IgG 24 hours before flank infection with 5x lO5 HSV-I . Mice were evaluated for inoculation and zosteriform site disease for 11 days. Controls included passive transfer of (200 μg/mice) 1C8 or non-immune murine IgG (200 μg/mice). The scoring system for disease at the inoculation site was 0 for no disease and a score of 1-5 depending on the size of the lesion(s) at the inoculation site. The scoring system for disease at the zosteriform site was 0 for no disease and score of 1 for each lesion up to a maximum score of 10. Animals that died before the end of the experiment were assigned the score at the last evaluation for the duration of the study period.

RESULTS [00372] DLl 1 was highly effective at neutralizing HSV- 1 , even at 0.1 μg/ml, while anti-gC- 1 IgG failed to neutralize HSV-I when used at 100 μg/ml, which is 3 logto higher concentrations (Figure 6). Anti-gC-1 monoclonal antibody 1C8 and non-immune murine IgG also failed to neutralize HSV-I. Mouse anti-gC-1 IgG failed to neutralize HSV-I, indicating that protection offered by this antibody cannot be attributed to its neutralizing activity. [00373] Figure 7 shows protection by passive immunization with anti-gCl IgG or monoclonal anti-gC-1 1C8 in complement intact C57B1/6 mice or C3 knockout (C3KO) mice. Passive immunization with anti-gCl IgG or monoclonal anti-gC-1 1C8 had little effect on inoculation site disease (not statistically different from non-immune IgG); however, anti-gCl IgG or monoclonal anti-gC-1 1C8 greatly reduced zosteriform site disease in C57B1/6 mice (P < .001 for anti-gC-1 or 1C8 compared with non-immune IgG). In contrast, anti-gC-1 IgG or 1C8 had little effect in C3KO mice (no statistical differences comparing anti-gC-1 or 1C8 with nonimmune IgG at the inoculation or zosteriform sites).

[00374] We conclude from these experiments that anti-gC-1 IgG does not neutralize HSV-I and that the protective effect detected in complement intact mice is dependent on complement. These results support our findings presented in figures 1 -5 that addition of gC-1 to gD-1 immunization improves vaccine efficacy by preventing gC-mediated immune evasion.

EXAMPLE 5: gC2 FROM MULTIPLE STRAINS PROTECTS HSV-2 FROM COMPLEMENT-MEDIATED NEUTRALIZATION BY NORMAL HUMAN SERUM

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS (EXAMPLES 5-11)

Cells and viruses [00375] African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, 10 mM HEPES (pH 7.3), 2 mM L-glutamine, 20 μg/ml gentamicin, and 1 μg/ml Fungizone (Life Technologies, Rockville, MD). Purified virus pools were prepared by infecting Vero cells at a multiplicity of infection of 0.005. Supernatant fluids at 48 h postinfection were harvested for cell-free virus and centrifuged onto a 5% to 70% sucrose gradient.

[00376] The HSV-I gC deletion mutant NS-gCnull was derived from strain NS and is referred to as NS-gClnull. The gCl protein-coding region is replaced with a β-galactosidase expression cassette under the control of the HSV-I infected-cell protein 6 (ICP6) early promoter (Friedman et al., 1996. J. Virol. 70:4253-4260; Goldstein and Weller, 1988. J. Virol. 62:2970-2977). Wild-type HSV-2 strains include HSV-2(G), HSV-2(333), and HSV- 2.12, a low-passage HSV-2 isolate obtained from a genital lesion of an 18-year-old female. The HSV-2 gC deletion mutants were derived from HSV-2 strain G and strain 333 and are referred to as G-gC2null and 333-gC2Δ, respectively. The G-gC2null virus contains the β- galactosidase gene in place of gC2, while the 333-gC2Δ virus contains a 130-base-pair deletion in gC2, corresponding to 0.613 to 0.626 map units, that results in no gC2 protein expression. A gC2-null strain was constructed from HSV-2.12 by cotransfecting Vero cells with HSV-2.12 DNA and a flanking sequence vector expressing an ICP6::lacZ expression cassette flanked by 848 bp on the 5' end and 738 bp on the 3' end of gC2 sequence that replaced most of the gC2 protein-coding region starting -1 bp prior to the start site and extending to 16 bp prior to the stop site. Recombinant viruses were generated and 2.12- gC2null was isolated by selection of blue plaques and triple plaque-purified prior to use.

Complement reagents

[00377] The source of complement was HSV-I - and HSV-2- nonimmune human serum (referred to as normal human serum [NHS]) obtained from four healthy adult volunteers. Blood was clotted at room temperature for 20 min and overnight at 4°C, and serum was then separated, aliquoted, and frozen at -800C. The absence of HSV-I- and HSV-2-specific IgG antibodies was verified by HSV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed by the Clinical Virology Laboratory at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and by virus neutralization assays as described in this paper. Serum from each donor had normal concentrations of immunoglobulins, as measured by the Clinical Immunology Laboratory at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. For donor 1 , IgA was 131 mg/dl (normal, 50 to 500 mg/dl); IgG was 984 mg/dl (normal, 650 to 2,000 mg/dl); and IgM was 55 mg/dl (normal, 40 to 270 mg/dl). For donor 2, IgA was 147 mg/dl; IgG was 1023 mg/dl; and IgM was 205 mg/dl. For donor 3, IgA was 170 mg/dl; IgG was 905 mg/dl; and IgM 237 mg/dl. For donor 4, IgA was 253 mg/dl; IgG was 1,140 mg/dl; and IgM was 155 mg/dl.

[00378] When indicated, NHS was heated to 560C for 30 min to inactivate complement. To identify the complement pathways responsible for virus neutralization, NHS was treated with

10 mM EDTA to inactivate the classical, mannan-binding lectin, and alternative pathways; 8 raM EGTA and 2 mM Mg2+ to inactivate the classical and mannan-binding lectin pathways; and 100 mM D-mannose to interfere with activation of the mannan-binding lectin pathway.

To interfere with C3 activation, NHS was treated with the small synthetic peptide compstatin (4W9A; Hook, et al. 2006. J. Virol. 80:4038-4046; Sahu, et al. 1996, J. Immunol. 157:884-

891; Kase, et al. 1999, Immunology 97:385-392; Klepeis, et al. 2003, J. Am. Chem. Soc.

125:8422-8423) at a concentration of 40 μM, while 40 μM linear compstatin was used as an inactive control.

Depletion of IgM and complement components from NHS [00379] NHS was IgM depleted by adding 30 mM EDTA and passing the serum over an anti- human IgM column (Sigma, St. Louis, MO). The IgM purification was repeated twice to remove 90 to 95% of IgM. Serum was then dialyzed against phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 1 mM EDTA to reduce the EDTA concentrations and supplemented with 1 mMMg2+ and 2 mM Ca2+ prior to use in neutralization experiments.

[0038O] To deplete NHS of complement components CIq, C5, and C6, immunoadsorbant columns were prepared by coupling IgG fractions of sheep or goat antiserum prepared against CIq, C5, or C6 to cyanogen bromide-Sepharose (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, NJ) at a final concentration of 10 mg/ml IgG. Isolated protein fractions were concentrated and dialyzed against PBS containing 0.1 mM EDTA to reduce EDTA concentrations and to remove sodium azide. The original volume of serum was restored with dialysis buffer and supplemented with 1 mM Mg2+ and 2 mM Ca2+ prior to use. Complement-depleted NHS was reconstituted with 550 μg/ml IgM, 100 μg/ml CIq, 75 μg/ml C5, or 60 μg/ml C6 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) to restore physiologic concentrations.

Purified IgM [0038I ] IgM was purified from NHS using an anti-IgM column (Sigma, St. Louis, MO). Protein-containing fractions were pooled, dialyzed against PBS at 4°C, concentrated by ultracentrifugation using membranes with a 50-kDa cutoff, and stored in aliquots at -80°C.

Neutralization assay

[00382] Purified virus was incubated with the NHS or with heat- or EDTA-inactivated serum or PBS as controls for 1 h at 370C. Viral titers were determined by plaque assay on Vero cells.

Assay for classical complement pathway hemolytic activity

[00383] The total hemolytic complement activity (CH50) of NHS or complement component- depleted serum was determined by incubating serial twofold dilutions of serum with antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes (EA) (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) for 45 min at 37°C in 96- well microtiter plates. Intact EA were removed by centrifugation for 3 min at 120 x g, the supernatant fluids were transferred to a new 96-well plate, and the percentage of EA lysed was determined by spectrophotometry at 405 nm.

ELISA to measure IgM binding to G-gC2null virus

[00384] Sucrose gradient-purified G-gC2null virus was added to 96-well High Binding Costar microtiter plates (Corning Incorporated, Corning, NY) at 2 x 106 PFU/well in Dulbecco's

PBS (pH 7.1), incubated for 2 h at room temperature, and blocked overnight at 4°C with 5%

(wt/vol) nonfat milk. Serial twofold dilutions of heat-inactivated NHS diluted in PBS/0.05%

Tween 20 were added for 1 h at 37°C to virus-coated wells or to control wells coated with nonfat milk in PBS-Tween. Bound IgM was detected at an optical density of 405 nm using horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat F(ab')2 IgG anti-human IgM μ-chain (Sigma, St.

Louis, MO). The endpoint titer was the serum dilution resulting in an optical density greater than 0.1 and at least twice the optical density of control wells.

Western blot analysis

[00385] Infected-cell extracts were run on 4 to 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), transferred to Immobilon-P transfer membranes

(Millipore Corp., Bedford, MA), and reacted with rabbit anti-gC2 antibody R81 and rabbit anti-VP5 antibody.

Statistical analysis

[00386] The area under the curve (AUC) was used to compare percent virus neutralization. Student's t test (Microsoft Excel software) was used to determine P values. Results were considered significant at a probability (P) of <0.05. RESULTS

[00387] The protective effects conferred by gC2 in multiple HSV-2 strains, including strains G, 333, and 2.12, were examined. Western blots confirmed expression of gC2 in wild-type- but not in gC2-null-infected cells (Figure 8A). Neutralization assays were performed by incubating each virus with increasing concentrations of NHS as the source of complement for 1 h at 37°C. Virus incubated with PBS served as the control. All three wild-type HSV-2 viruses were more resistant to complement-mediated neutralization than the gC2-null viruses (Figure 8B to D). Similar results were obtained with HSV-I wild-type and gCl-null viruses (Figure 8E). Although little or no neutralization of HSV-2 wild-type viruses occurred at a concentration of 20% NHS, the titers of 333-gCΔ, 2.12-gC2null, and G-gC2null were reduced approximately 25%, 75%, and 85%, respectively (Figure 8B to D). The increased susceptibility to complement neutralization of gC2- null viruses persisted over the range of complement concentrations evaluated. Generally, fourfold or greater concentrations of NHS were required to achieve similar levels of neutralization of wild-type virus compared with gC2-null virus. The results indicate that gC2 protects the virus from complement-mediated neutralization.

EXAMPLE 6: NEUTRALIZATION OF gC-NULL VIRUSES INVOLVES CIq

[00388] To determine whether CIq, the first component of the classical complement pathway, is required to neutralize HSV-I or HSV-2 gC-null virus, CIq was depleted from NHS, which resulted in a reduction of total hemolytic complement activity that was restored upon reconstitution with CIq (Figure 9A). Clq-depleted serum showed residual activity despite being depleted by greater than 95%, indicating that relatively small CIq concentrations are sufficient to initiate the classical complement cascade and lyse antibody-coated erythrocytes. Neutralization experiments were performed to compare 20% NHS, Clq-depleted NHS, and Clq-depleted NHS reconstituted with CIq. As a control, virus was incubated with 20% NHS that had been heat inactivated. Clq-depleted serum did not neutralize NS-gClnull or G- gC2null, while serum reconstituted with CIq restored neutralization (Figure 9B). Thus, neutralization of the gC-null viruses involves CIq and occurs through activation of the classical complement pathway. EXAMPLE 7: NHS FROM MULTIPLE DONORS NEUTRALIZES gC-NULL

VIRUSES

[00389] Complement neutralization of NS-gClnull and G-gC2null was measured using four HSV-I and HSV-2 seronegative human donors, to determine whether NHS neutralization varies among subjects. All samples neutralized the gC-null viruses at 20% NHS, while heat- inactivated NHS failed to neutralize; thus, all samples exhibited complement-mediated neutralization of the gC-null viruses (Figure 10).

EXAMPLE 8; NEUTRALIZATION OF gC-NULL VIRUSES INVOLVES

ACTIVATION OF C3

[00390] C3 is a component of all three complement pathways. High concentrations of C3 present in NHS make it difficult to deplete; therefore, compstatin was used to inhibit C3 activation and determine whether C3 is necessary to neutralize gC-null viruses. Compstatin (4W9A) is a small synthetic peptide that interferes with complement at low concentrations by binding C3, preventing its activation. Experiments were performed to examine neutralization following treatment with 20% NHS or 20% NHS treated with either active (4W9A) or inactive (linear) compstatin. As a control, virus was left untreated. NS-gClnull and G-gC2null viruses were neutralized following treatment with NHS or NHS treated with inactive compstatin (Figure 11). NHS treated with active compstatin did not reduce viral titers, indicating that neutralization of the gC-null viruses involves C3 activation.

EXAMPLE 9: NEUTRALIZATION OF G-gC2NULL VIRUS INVOLVES C5

[00391] It was next determined whether G-gC2null neutralized involves C5-dependent antibody-independent complement neutralization. Depletion of C5 from NHS reduced the total hemolytic activity, which was restored when C5 was reconstituted (Figure 12A). NS- gClnull and G-gC2null were incubated with 20% NHS, serum depleted of C5, and C5- reconstituted serum. C5-depleted serum did not neutralize the viruses, while NHS and reconstituted serum did (Figure 12B). Thus, G-gC2null neutralization involves C5.

[00392] Additional studies showed .that neutralization of G-gClnull and G-gC2null viruses did not require activation of the alternative complement pathway, activation of the mannan- binding lectin complement pathway, or C6 (C6 result shown in Figures 12C and 12D). EXAMPLE 10: NATURAL IgM ANTIBODY IS INVOLVED IN NEUTRALIZING gC-NULL VIRUSES

[00393] Activation of the classical complement pathway occurs when CIq binds to IgM or two IgG molecules on the virion surface. Activation can also occur when CIq binds directly to viral membrane proteins, as reported for human cytomegalovirus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus. The role of natural IgM antibody in mediating complement neutralization was evaluated. NHS was depleted of IgM, which resulted in no loss of total hemolytic complement activity, indicating that classical complement pathway components were not depleted along with the IgM (Figure 13A). Experiments were performed comparing neutralization after treatment with 20% NHS, 20% NHS depleted of IgM, and IgM-restored NHS. IgM-depleted serum did not neutralize NS-gClnull or G-gC2null, while NHS or IgM- reconstituted NHS neutralized these viruses (Figure 13B). Therefore, both IgM and complement participate in neutralization of gC-null viruses.

EXAMPLE 11: IgM ANTIBODY BINDS TO G-gC2NULL VIRUS

[00394] ELISA was utilized to measure binding of IgM in heat-inactivated NHS to G- gC2null. Serial twofold dilutions of serum, starting with 20% NHS, were incubated with G- gC2null or control wells. IgM in NHS from each of four donors was detected bound to G- gC2null (Figure 13C-F). Endpoint titers varied among the 4 donors (donor 1, 1:20; donors 2 and 3, 1:320; and donor 4, 1:80), which correlated with the IgM concentrations in the sera (donor 1, 55 mg/dl; donor 2, 205 mg/dl; donor 3, 237 mg/dl; and donor 4, 155 mg/dl). Thus, IgM binds to G-gC2null virus.

EXAMPLE 12: IDENTIFICATION OF gE DOMAINS INVOLVED IN Fc

RECEPTOR ACTIVITY

[00395] FcγR (IgG Fc receptor) activity and virus spread are 2 functions of gE that are carried out by overlapping but distinct domains. HSV-I gE mediates virus spread from one epithelial cell to another, and transport within neurons. To delineate contributions of the HSV FcγR to recurrent infections, a mutant virus defective in FcγR activity but intact for spread functions was utilized; namely, an HSV-I gE mutant virus with 4 AA (ALEG) inserted after gE amino acid 264 (NS-gE264).

[003961 NS-gE264 mutant in the murine flank model: The murine flank model measures virus spread without consideration of FcγR function, since murine IgG Fc does not bind to the HSV-I FcγR. Therefore the HSV-I FcγR phenotype has no impact on virulence in mice. The murine flank model was modified to assess FcγR function by passively immunizing mice with IgG from humans or rabbits, since the Fc domain of human and rabbit IgG binds to the HSV-I FcγR. In the absence of passive immunization, zosteriform disease can be used as an indicator of the virus spread phenotype. Therefore, if NS-gE264 causes zosteriform disease similar to WT virus, spread phenotype is intact. NS-gE264 is FcγR negative, as evidenced by lack of rosettes formation by IgG-coated erythrocytes around NS-gE264- infected cells. The spread phenotype of NS-gE264 was evaluated in the mouse flank model.

[00397] Mice were inoculated on the flank with 5 x 105 PFU of NS-gE264 or rescue NS- gE264, which restores the WT gE gene. Animals were scored for zosteriform disease on days 3-7 post infection (pi) by assigning 1 point for each lesion up to a maximum of 10 per day. NS-gE264 exhibited an intact spread phenotype, since zosteriform disease scores were similar in the mutant and rescue strains (Figure 14A). To evaluate FcγR activity, mice were passively immunized with human immune (anti-HSV) IgG (capable of binding to HSV antigens by the F(ab')2 domain and to the HSV-I FcγR by the Fc domain, which blocks IgG Fc activities) or with nonimmune human IgG as a control (capable of binding only by the Fc domain to the FcγR). 16 hours later, mice were infected and evaluated for zosteriform disease on days 3-7 post-infection,. Less disease was present in NS-gE264 than rescue NS- gE264 infected mice passively immunized with human anti-HSV IgG (Figure 14B). Therefore, HSV antibody is more effective against the FcγR mutant than the rescue strain. Nonimmune human IgG had no effect against either virus (Figure 14C).

[00398] Thus, NS-gE264 has an intact spread but impaired FcγR phenotype, and the lack of an FcγR renders the virus susceptible to clearance by HSV antibodies.

EXAMPLE 13: gC-1 CONTRIBUTES TO VIRULENCE IN VIVO

[00399] In the murine flank model, virus spreads from the inoculation site to neurons within DRG, replicates and spreads to adjacent neurons, and then returns to the skin to produce lesions in a band-like (zosteriform) distribution. In complement intact mice, an HSV-I mutant strain defective in C3b binding (NS-gCΔC3; Δ275-367) caused less disease than WT virus at the flank inoculation and zosteriform sites, while in C3KO mice the disease was comparable to WT virus at both the inoculation and zosteriform sites. [00400] To determine the contribution of gC to viral infection of DRG during primary (acute) infection, BALB/c mice were infected by scratch inoculation of the flank with 5 x 105 PFU of WT virus (NS) or NS-gCΔC3, an HSV-I mutant virus that lacks gC-1 (AA 275-367) and does not bind C3b. At 3 and 4 days post-infection, mice were euthanized, DRG harvested and tissues titered for infectious virus (Figure 15). By day 4, 3 logio of WT virus were recovered from DRG, while no gC mutant virus was detected. The inoculation titer of NS- gCΔC3 was increased to 3x106 PFU and compared with NS at 5 x 105 PFU at day 5. At the higher inoculum, NS-gCΔC3 was detected in the DRG; however, titers were still 1000-fold lower than NS, indicating that gC provides at least 3 orders of magnitude protection in enabling virus to infect DRG.

[00401] Thus, under the conditions utilized, complement accounts for the decrease in DRG infection and gC-mediated immune evasion accounts for the contribution of gC-1 to virulence.

EXAMPLE 14: gC-2 CONTRIBUTES TO HSV-2 VIRULENCE IN VIVO

[00402] To determine the role of HSV-2 gC in protecting the virus against complement attack in vivo, complement-intact C57B1/6 or C3KO mice were scratch-inoculated on the flank with 5 x 105 PFU WT HSV-2 strain 2.12 or a gC-2 null mutant, 2.12-gCnull, then scored for inoculation and zosteriform site disease from days 3-7 post-infection. The scoring system was modified to distinguish among animals at the severe end of the disease spectrum, since HSV-2 causes more severe flank disease than HSV-I. At the inoculation site, scores range from 0-3, with 0 representing no disease, 1 for redness or isolated lesions, 2 for ulcers, and 3 for areas with tissue necrosis. At the zosteriform site, scores range from 0-4, with 0 for no disease, 1 for isolated lesions, 2 for confluent lesions, 3 for ulcers, and 4 for areas with tissue necrosis. Disease scores of 2.12-gCnull compared with 2.12 were markedly reduced in complement intact mice (Figure 16A), but were comparable to WT virus in C3KO mice (Figure 16B).

[00403] Thus, HSV-2 gC mediates immune evasion, including evasion of complement, in vivo. EXAMPLE 15: IMMUNIZATION WITH gE-1 INDUCES ANTIBODIES THAT BIND gE AND BLOCK gE IMMUNE EVASION DOMAINS

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

Cell cultures and virus strains [00404] COS-I cells were grown at 37°C in 5% CO2 in an humidified incubator in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, 20 μg of gentamicin per ml and 20 mM HEPES (pH 7.3). Cells were infected with HSV-I wild-type strain, NS. Virus pools were prepared using African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells.

Construction of bac-gE24-224, bac-gE225-398 and bac-gE24-409 viruses

[00405] Baculoviruses bac-gE24-224, bac-gE225-398 and bac-gE24-409 were constructed using ThermalAce DNA polymerase (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA) PCR to amplify gE AA 24-224, 225-398 and 24-409 from pCMV3-gE. A six histidine-tag was incorporated into the 3' primer in front of a stop codon. BamHl and Pstl sequences were included on the 5' and 3' primers, respectively, and the BamHl-Pstl fragment was cloned into pVT-Bac using a rapid DNA ligation kit (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). This subcloning strategy placed gE24-224, gE225-398 and gE24-409 sequences immediately 3' of the honeybee mellitin signal sequence and under the control of the baculopolyhedrin promoter. Sf9 insect cells (Gibco BRL, Grand Island, NY) were co-transfected with pVT-Bac constructs and Baculogold® DNA (PharMingen, San Diego, CA) to produce bac-gE24-224, bac-gE225-398 and bac-gE24-409 viruses.

Purification and identification of gE24-224, gE225-398 and gE24-409

[00406] Baculoviruses were grown in Sf9 insect cells for the first three passages, and in H5 insect cells (Gibco BRL) to obtain higher yields of protein expression at passage 4. The supernatants from 150 ml of infected H5 cells were tested for protein expression by Western

Blot, and used for protein purification. The supernatant fluids were passed through a nickel column (QIAGEN Inc., Valencia, CA), and eluted with 50-250 mM imidazole. Eluted fragments were concentrated with an Ultrafree-15® centrifugal filter device (Millipore Corp., Bedford, MA), and identified on a 4-15% SDS-PAGE using GelCode® Blue Stain Reagent (Pierce). Samples of the purified proteins were electrophoresed on a 4-15% SDS-

PAGE, transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane, and probed with a mouse anti-His tag monoclonal antibody (MAb), 1 BA10, that recognizes gE sequences between AA 103-120 or rabbit polyclonal antibody R575 against gE AA 1-409.

Immunizations with gE fragments

[00407] Five 8-9-week-old female BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington,

MA) were immunized intraperitoneally with 10 μg of purified gE24-224, gE225-398 or gE24-409, and three mice were injected with PBS as controls. Complete Freund's adjuvant was used for primary immunizations and incomplete Freund's adjuvant for booster injections at intervals of 10 to 14 days. Serum was collected two weeks after the third to fifth immunization. Two rabbits each were immunized with purified gE24-224, gE225-398 or gE24-409 (COCALICO Biologicals, Inc., Reamstown, PA), and serum was collected after the fourth to sixth immunization.

Antibody detection by ELISA

[00408] Purified gE24-224, gE225-398 and gE24-409 fragments were diluted to 2 μg/ml in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DuPBS), pH 7.1, and 200 ng was used to coat Covalink® NH 96 well-microtiter plates (Nalge Nunc International, Naperville, IL). Coated plates were incubated overnight at 4°C and blocked for 2 h at 37°C with 5% (w/v) nonfat milk in DuPBS. IgG samples were diluted to 2 μg/100 μl in DuPBS and 0.1% BSA. A 1 :1000 dilution of horseradish peroxidase (HRPO)-conjugated, affinity-purified donkey anti- rabbit IgG (H+L) or sheep anti-mouse IgG (H+L) (Amersham Life Science, Piscataway, NJ) was prepared in DuPBS and 0.01% BSA. The reaction was developed by adding 1 mg/ml ABTS in buffer solution (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) for 10 min at room temperature, and the optical density (OD) was measured at 405 nm using an ELISA plate reader (Dynatech, Chantilly, VA).

Flow cytometry assays

[00409] The assay to determine whether antibodies block IgG Fc binding to HSV-I infected cells included two components; first measuring whether antibodies bind to HSV-I infected cells, then determining if the bound antibodies block biotin-labeled non-immune human IgG binding to the HSV-I FcγR. For antibody binding, COS-I cells were infected with wild-type virus at an M.O.I, of 2 for 16 h, dispersed with cell dissociation buffer (Life Technologies Inc., Rockville, MD), and treated with 0.05 U neuraminidase (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO), which enhances IgG Fc binding. Binding of IgG antibodies to HSV-I infected cells surface was measured using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated F(ab')? fragments against mouse or rabbit IgG or against rabbit IgG F(ab')2 fragments. Cells were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde and analyzed by FACScan flow cytometry (Becton- Dickinson, San Jose, CA). Antibody binding was reported as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). For assays to measure blocking of IgG binding, neuraminidase-treated HSV-I infected cells were incubated with IgG or F(ab')2 fragments and then 10 μg of biotin-labeled nonimmune human IgG was added, which was detected using streptavidin-7?-phycoerythrin (PE) (Sigma). Percent blocking was calculated as: ((MFI without blocking antibody - MFI with blocking antibody) / MFI without blocking antibody) x 100.

RESULTS

[00410] Production of gE fragments in baculovirus. To determine whether gE immunization can induce antibodies that bind to gE by the F(ab')2 domains, three gE fragments were prepared that span almost the entire gE ectodomain, gE24-224, gE225-398, and gE24-409.

The gE225-398 fragment spans much, or perhaps all, of the IgG Fc domain. gE24-409 contains sequences included in each of the smaller fragments.

[00411] Supernatant fluids of baculovirus infected cells yielded 6-8 mg/L of fragments gE24- 224, gE225-398 and gE24-409, which were purified on a nickel column and concentrated to

1 mg/ml. Purity was > 95%, as shown by GelCode Blue® staining on SDS-PAGE. The gE24-224 and gE24-409 fragments reacted with anti-His MAb, anti-gE MAb 1BA10, and rabbit polyclonal antibody R575. Fragment gE225-398 reacted with anti-His MAb, rabbit polyclonal antibody R575, and as expected, not with MAb 1BA10, which recognizes AA sequences between 103 and 120.

[00412] Baculovirus RE immunization of mice. To determine whether the elicited antibodies block IgG Fc binding to the HSV-I FcγR, mice were immunized with gE24-224, gE225-398, gE24-409 or mock-immunized as controls. Mouse serum was collected after the fifth immunizations with gE24-224 and gE225-398 or third immunizations with gE24-409, and tested for antibody titers by ELISA against the corresponding immunogens. Immunized, but not mock-immunized, mice produced antibodies that reacted with the immunizing antigen. Antibody levels were highest against the gE24-409 fragment (Figure 17).

[00413] Blocking the HSV-I FcγR using mouse antibodies. Flow cytometry assays were performed 16 h post-infection to evaluate whether antibodies bind to gE expressed on HSV-I infected cells. Antibodies from gE24-224 and gE24-409 immunized mice bound to gE

(Figure 18A), while antibodies from gE225-398 immunized mice exhibited lower levels of binding. Unlike human or rabbit IgG, murine IgG Fc does not bind to the HSV-I FcγR; therefore, binding by mouse antibodies can only be mediated by the IgG F(ab')2 domain. Thus, gE expressed on infected cells binds to F(ab')2 domains of antibodies elicited by gE24- 224 and gE24-409, and to a lesser extent gE225-398. Under the conditions utilized, the conformation of gE225-398 epitope expressed on the infected cell either differs from the gE conformation in the baculovirus fragment, or this epitope is hidden on infected cells.

[00414] Undiluted serum from the immunized mice was tested for ability to block binding of biotin-labeled nonimmune human IgG to the HSV-I FcγR. Antibodies elicited by gE24-224 and gE24-409 blocked the HSV-I FcγR (median blocking 76% and 80%, respectively), while antibodies to gE225-398 exhibited little blocking (median blocking 17%) (Figure 18B). Therefore, antibodies to gE24-224 and gE24-409 bind to gE by their F(ab')2 domains and block IgG Fc binding to the HSV-I FcγR.

EXAMPLE 16: DEFINING AN EFFECTIVE IMMUNIZATION DOSE AND SCHEDULE OF HSV-I gD AND gC

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

[00415] Balb/C mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with three doses of gD at 10 ng/dose with or without gC at 10 microgram (μg)/dose or gD at 50 ng/dose, with or without gC at 10 μg/dose. Injections were given at 14-day intervals. The first inoculation was with Freund's complete adjuvant and the two subsequent inoculations were with Freund's incomplete adjuvant. The mock-vaccinated mice (0 gD or 0 gC) received adjuvant alone. After three inoculations serum was obtained, and analyzed for anti-gD and anti-gC antibody responses by ELISA. Rosette inhibition assays were performed as described for Example 1.

RESULTS

[00416] Three inoculations with 50 ng of gD in the absence of gC generated a robust anti-gD antibody response, which was reduced when 10 μg of gC was administered with the gD

(Figure 19). To improve the anti-gD response, mice were inoculated with a fourth dose of 50 ng gD in the absence of gC. Two weeks later, sera were collected, and the antibody response to gD and gC was analyzed. The fourth dose of gD significantly increased the anti-gD antibody response (Figure 2OA, bar furthest to right). In addition, the gC antibody induced following the fourth dose was able to block C3b binding, as evidenced by 85-90% inhibition of rosette formation relative to the mock group (Figure 20B), further confirming the efficacy of this vaccine regimen.

[00417] Thus, inoculation with recombinant gC + a second HSV antigen, followed by inoculation with the second antigen alone, is an effective method for induction of anti-HSV antibody responses. Alternatively, the gC protein and the second antigen can be administered at separate sites or at separate times.

EXAMPLE 17: USE OF CPG + ALUM AS AN ADJUVANT FOR gD + gC

MATERIALS AND EXPERMENTAL METHODS

[00418] Mice were inoculated three times at 14-day intervals with 2 μg of gC per inoculation (a five-fold lower concentration than used with Freund's adjuvant above), 50 μg of CpG (ODN no. 1826) per inoculation and 25 μg of alum (Alhydragel® (Aluminum Hydroxide gel- Adjuvant, Accurate Chemical and Scientific Corp., Westbury NY, 11590) per μg of protein inoculated (final amount 50 μg alum). Serum was collected after the 2nd and 3rd inoculations.

RESULTS

[00419] The ability of gC + alum + CpG oligonucleotide vaccines to elicit anti-gC antibodies was tested. The vaccines elicited robust antibody responses, as measured after both the 2" and 3rd inoculations (Figure 21A). Moreover, the antisera exhibited ability to potently block C3b binding site resetting (Figure 21B).

[00420] Thus, vaccination with recombinant HSV proteins in combination with alum + CpG oligonucleotide vaccines is an effective means of eliciting anti-gC antibodies. Further, combining recombinant HSV proteins with alum + CpG oligonucleotides enables effective vaccination at a lower antigen dose than used with other adjuvants.

EXAMPLE 18: COMBINATION gC-2/gD-2 VACCINES CONFER PROTECTION SUPERIOR TO VACCINES CONTAINING gP-2 ALONE

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

[00421] Combination vaccines containing gC-2 and gD-2 (e.g. AA 27-426 of gC-2 with a C- terminal 6 His tag and AA 26-306 of gD-2 with a C-terminal 6 His tag) are administered to mice as described for gC-l/gD-1 vaccines in Examples 2-3. Virulence is assessed as described in Example 14. 250 ng of gD-2 and 5 μg of gC-2 are administered to mice intra- vaginally infected with 5x105 HSV-2 strain 2.12. Mice are scored for survival and vaginal disease. Vaginal swabs are performed for viral titers on days 1-11 post challenge, and whether immunization reduces HSV-2 infection of ganglia at 5 days post challenge is evaluated.

RESULTS

[00422] Combination gC-2/gD-2 vaccines are compared to vaccines containing gD-2 alone or gC-2 alone for ability to confer protection against HSV-2. The protection conferred by the combination vaccines compares favorably with gD-2 or gC-2 vaccines.

EXAMPLE 19: COMBINATION gC-l/gD-1 VACCINES PREVENT RECURRENT INFECTION IN HSV-I INFECTED SUBJECTS

[00423] Combination gC-l/gD-1 vaccines (e.g. those described in Examples 2-3) are assessed for their ability to prevent recurrent HSV-I infection (e.g. as assessed by occurrence of flares) in the mouse flank model. Following infection, mice are immunized up to 5 times with gC-l/gD-1 vaccines, vaccines containing gC-1 or gD-1 alone, or are mock-immunized, then monitored for recurrent infection. The combination gC-l/gD-1 vaccines are believed to confer protection that compares favorably with gC-1 or gD-1 vaccines.

EXAMPLE 20: COMBINATION gC-2/gD-2 VACCINES PREVENT RECURRENT INFECTION IN HSV-2 INFECTED SUBJECTS

[00424] Combination gC-2/gD-2 vaccines (e.g. those described in Examples 2-3) are assessed for ability to prevent recurrent HSV-2 infection (e.g. as assessed by occurrence of flares). Following infection, mice are immunized up to 5 times with gC-2/gD-2 vaccines, vaccines containing gC-2 or gD-2 alone, or are mock-immunized, then monitored for recurrent infection. The combination gC-2/gD-2 vaccines are believed to confer protection that compares favorably with gC-2 or gD-2 vaccines.

EXAMPLE 21: gE-l/gP-1 VACCINES ARE IMMUNOGENIC AND PROTECTIVE

AGAINST HSV-I INFECTION

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS [00425] Combination gE-l/gD-1 vaccines (e.g. AA 24-409 of gE-1 with a C-terminal 6 His tag and AA 26-306 of gD-1 with a C-terminal 6 His tag) are administered to mice and immunogenicity is assessed as described for gC-l/gD-1 vaccines in Examples 2-3 and 13.

RESULTS

[00426] Combination gE-l/gD-1 vaccines are compared to vaccines containing gE-1 alone or gD-1 alone for immunogenicity. The immunogenicity of the combination vaccines is believed to compare favorably with gE-1 or gD-1 vaccines. Next, the vaccines are compared for their ability to confer protection against HSV-I. The protection conferred by the combination vaccines is believed to compare favorably with gE-1 or gD-1 vaccines.

[00427] Next, combination gE-1/gD-l/gC-l vaccines are compared to gE-l/gD-1 and gD- 1/gC-l vaccines for immunogenicity. The immunogenicity of the gE-1/gD-l/gC-l combination vaccines is believed to compare favorably with gE-l/gD-1 and gD-l/gC-1 vaccines. Next, the vaccines are compared for their ability to confer protection against HSV-

1. The protection conferred by the gE-1/gD-l/gC-l combination vaccines is believed to compare favorably with gE-l/gD-1 and gD-l/gC-1 vaccines.

EXAMPLE 22: gE-2/gD-2 SUBUNIT VACCINES ARE PROTECTIVE AGAINST

HSV-2 INFECTION

[00428] Combination gE-2/gD-2 vaccines (e.g. AA 24-409 of gE-2 with a C-terminal 6 His tag and AA 26-306 of gD-2 with a C-terminal 6 His tag) are compared to vaccines containing gE-2 alone or gD-2 alone for immunogenicity. The immunogenicity of the combination vaccines is believed to compare favorably with gE-2 or gD-2 vaccines. Next, the vaccines are compared for their ability to confer protection against HSV-2. The protection conferred by the combination vaccines is believed to compare favorably with gE-2 or gD-2 vaccines.

[00429] Next, combination gE-2/gD-2/gC-2 vaccines are compared to gE-2/gD-2 and gD- 2/gC-2 vaccines for immunogenicity. The immunogenicity of the gE-2/gD-2/gC-2 combination vaccines is believed to compare favorably with gE-2/gD-2 and gD-2/gC-2 vaccines. Next, the vaccines are compared for their ability to confer protection against HSV-

2. The protection conferred by the gE-2/gD-2/gC-2 combination vaccines is believed to compare favorably with gE-2/gD-2 and gD-2/gC-2 vaccines. EXAMPLE 23: HSV-2 gC-2 SUBUNIT VACCINES ARE PROTECTIVE AGAINST HSV-2 INFECTION IN MURINE FLANK AND VAGINAL HSV-2 MODELS

Flank model [00430] Balb/C mice were immunized intramuscularly (IM) in the gastrocnemius muscle three times at two-week intervals with 0.5, 1, 2, or 5 μg of gC-2 using CpG (50 μg/mice) mixed with alum (25 μg/μg protein), or mock-immunized with CpG (50 μg/mice) and alum (25 μg/μg) but without gC-2. Fourteen days after the third immunization, mice were challenged on the shaved and chemically denuded flank by scratch inoculation with 4x105 PFU of HSV- 2 strain 2.12. Survival was recorded from days 0-14 and animals were scored for disease severity at the inoculation and zosteriform sites from days 3-14 (N = 5 mice per group). The scoring system for disease at the inoculation and zosteriform sites was as described in the anti-gC-1 passive transfer experiments.

Vaginal model [00431] Balb/C mice were mock-immunized IM in the gastrocnemius muscle with CpG (# 1826, Coley Pharmaceuticals Group) (50 μg/mice) and alum (25 μg/μg protein) (Accurate Chemicals) or immunized with 1, 2, or 5 μg of gC-2 with CpG and alum at two-week intervals. Five animals in each group were immunized three times, except one group was immunized with the 5 μg dose twice [labeled as 5 μg(2x) in contrast to the group labeled 5 μg(3x)]. Nine days after the third immunization or 23 days after the 5 μg(2x) immunization, mice were injected IP with Depo Provera® (a 150 mg aqueous suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate for depot injection by Pfizer; 2 mg/mouse) to synchronize the estrus cycle. Five days later, mice were challenged intra-vaginally with 2x105 PFU of HSV-2 strains 2.12.

[00432] Animals were observed for mortality from days 0-14 and for disease scores from days 3-14 post-challenge. The scoring system for vaginal disease assigned one point for each of the following: redness or swelling, exudate, loss of hair around the vaginal and anal areas, and necrosis. The maximum score per day was four points. Animals that died before the end of the experiment were assigned the score at the last evaluation for the duration of the study period. Vaginal swabs were performed daily from days 1-1 1. The swabs were placed in one ml DMEM and viral titers were performed by plaque assay on Vero cells. RESULTS

[00433] For flank inoculation, mice were protected against death at each gC-2 immunization dose compared with mock-immunized mice. However, 100% survival was only observed at the 5 μg dose, which was the highest dose tested (Figure 22).

[00434] Figure 23 demonstrates that inoculation and zosteriform site disease scores were reduced in mice immunized with 0.5 μg, 1 μg, 2 μg, and 5 μg of gC-2 compared with mock- immunized mice from days 3-14 post-challenge with the greatest reduction at the zosteriform site noted with the 5 μg dose (comparing Area Under the Curve for the 5 μg dose with mock- immunized mice at the inoculation and zosteriform sites, P < .01).

[00435] For intra-vaginal inoculation, all mock-immunized mice died, while immunization with gC-2 5μg (3x) offered the best protection against death. All mice immunized with gC-2

5μg (2x) died, although time to death was delayed compared with mock-immunized mice.

Mice immunized three times with 1 or 2 μg survived slightly longer and fewer died compared to mock-immunized mice, but protection was not as good as with gC-2 5μg (3x) (Figure 24).

[00436] Disease scores of mock-immunized or gC-2-immunized mice challenged intravaginally with 2x105 PFU of HSV-2 strains 2.12 are shown in Figure 25. All mice died in the mock-immunized group by day 8; therefore, the score at the last evaluation was assigned from days 9-14. Immunization with 1 or 2 μg of gC-2 provided little protection from vaginal disease, while immunization with gC-2 at 5 μg(3x) provided significant protection, P < .01.

[00437] Vaginal swabs were obtained daily from days 1-11 post-challenge (Figure 26). Results shown are the average titers of three mice per group. Immunizations with gC-2 reduced vaginal titers by 1-2 logio on day 1 post-challenge, but had little effect on subsequent days.

EXAMPLE 24: HSV-2 gP-2 SUBUNIT VACCINES ARE PROTECTIVE AGAINST HSV-2 INFECTION IN MURINE FLANK AND VAGINAL HSV-2

MODELS

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

Flank model [00438] Balb/C mice were mock immunized or immunized IM in gastrocnemius muscle three times as described above for gC-2 except that the gD-2 doses were 10, 25, 50, or 100 ng combined with CpG (50 μg/mice) and alum (25 μg/μg protein). Mice were challenged with 4x 105 PFU/10ml of HSV-2 strain 2.12. Five mice per group were inoculated.

Vaginal model

[00439] Balb/C mice were immunized DvI three times (3x) with 50, 100, or 250 ng of gD-2 or twice (2x) with 250 ng of gD-2. The gD-2 was combined with CpG (50 μg/mice) and alum (25 μg/μg protein) prior to inoculation with 2x105 PFU of HSV-2 strain 2.12. Mice were treated with Depo Provera® and challenged as described above for gC-2 immunization and evaluated for survival and disease severity. Each group comprised five animals. Vaginal swabs were obtained daily from days 1-11 post-challenge, with three mice in each group.

RESULTS

[00440] For flank inoculation, the highest rate of survival was observed in mice immunized with 100 ng gD-2 and then in mice immunized with 50 ng (Figure 27).

[00441] Immunizations with gD-2 at 10 ng and 25 ng doses provided minimal protection against inoculation or zosteriform site disease; however, at 50 ng and 100 ng doses disease scores were significantly reduced (P < .01 comparing mock and the 50 ng dose at the inoculation and zosteriform sites, P < .001 comparing mock and the 100 ng dose at the inoculation and zosteriform sites) (Figure 28).

[00442] For intravaginal inoculation, none of the mice survived in the mock-immunized group beyond day 9 (Figure 29). Immunization with 50 ng, 100 ng and 250 ng 2x of gD-2 provided some protection; however, 250 ng 3x provided complete protection against death.

[00443] Only mice immunized with gD-2 at 250 ng 3x were significantly protected from vaginal disease (comparing Area Under the Curve of mock and gD-2 250 ng 3x, P < 0.001) (Figure 30).

[00444] Immunizations with gD-2 250 ng 3x reduced vaginal titers by ~ 1 logio on days 1 -7 post-challenge (P < 0.001 compared with mock-immunized mice), while the other doses had a smaller effect compared with mock-immunized mice (p values not significantly different) (Figure 31 ). [00445] This experiment described a dose of gC-2 (5 μg) and gD-2 (250 ng) for immunization capable of protecting mice against HSV-2-mediated death, and inoculation and zosteriform site disease in both flank and vaginal models of HSV-2.

EXAMPLE 25: TESTING ABILITY OF HUMAN ANTI-gC-2 ANTIBODIES TO DISRUPT C3b BINDING TO gC-2

[00446] ELISA is used to determine whether human antibodies elicited by gC-2 vaccines (e.g. as described in Examples 2-3) disrupt C3b binding to gC-2. 96-well plates are coated overnight at 4°C with 400 ng purified C3b. Bac-gC2(426t) protein (gC-2 AA 27-426) (300 ng) is incubated with IgG from humans immunized with bac-gC2(426t) for 1 h at 40C. The IgG-gC-2 mixture is added to triplicate wells coated with C3b, and bound gC-2 is detected using rabbit anti-gC-2 IgG.

EXAMPLE 26: CpG OLIGONUCLEOTIDES ENABLE SMALLER DOSES OF RECOMBINANT HSV GLYCOPROTEINS

[00447] CpG ODNs are tested for ability to enable smaller doses of HSV glycoproteins. 10 μg of gC-1 is administered to mice (e.g. as described in previous Examples), and is compared with 2 μg gC-1, 10 μg gC-1 + ODN 1826, and 2 μg gC-1 + ODN 1826 for ability to induce antibodies that block immune evasion by gC-1. CpG ODN is expected to reduce the dose of

HSV gC required for inhibition of immune invasion.

EXAMPLE 27: HSV GLYCOPROTEINS gC- AND gE-MEDIATED IMMUNE EVASION IN HIV-INFECTED SUBJECTS

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

Sera isolation

[00448] Sera from HIV subjects at various stages of HIV disease (CD4 count < 200/μl, 200- 500/μl, >500/μl) were obtained from the Clinical Core Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania Center for AIDS Research. Sera were tested for antibodies to HSV-I and HSV- 2 by HerpeSelectTM 1 and 2 ELISA IgG (Focus Technologies, Cypress, CA), which is a gG- based assay that can detect type-specific IgG antibodies. Subjects were 75% male: 56% African-American, 35% Caucasian, 7% Hispanic, and 2% Other; with an average age of 41 years. Subject risks for HIV infection included 51 % men who have sex with men, 5% intravenous drug users, 41% heterosexual, and 3% unknown. HIV seronegative sera were obtained from healthy volunteers who participated in the GlaxoSmithKline HSV-2 gD2 vaccine trial. Enrolled subjects were seronegative to HIV, HSV-I and HSV-2 prior to receiving either the gD2 vaccine or adjuvant alone (placebo group).

IgG purification

[00449] Patient IgG was purified from sera using the HiTrapTM protein G column according to the manufacturer's instructions (Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden). Fractions containing protein were pooled, dialyzed against PBS at 40C, concentrated, and stored in aliquots at -2O0C. Rabbit IgG was purified from pre-immune rabbit serum or from rabbits inoculated with purified baculovirus proteins gB, gD, or gH/gL.

Assay for classical complement pathway hemolytic activity (CHW)

[00450] Serum total hemolytic complement activity (CH50) was measured in HIV subjects with CD4 T-cell counts < 200/μl, 200-500/μl, and > 500/μl and from HIV uninfected controls. Serial dilutions of serum were incubated with antibody sensitized sheep erythrocytes for 1 h at 370C in 96-well microtiter plates. Plates were centrifuged for 3 min at 120 X g, the supernatants transferred to fresh plates, and the extent of hemolysis was measured by spectrophotometry at 405 nm.

Antibody and complement neutralization assays

[00451] Approximately 105 plaque-forming units (PFU) of purified virus were incubated with IgG, HSV 1+/2- serum, HSV 1+/2- serum treated with EDTA to inactivate complement, or PBS for 1 h at 370C. Viral titers remaining were determined by plaque assay on Vero cells. Neutralization mediated by antibody alone or antibody and complement was calculated as the difference in titer when virus was incubated with PBS and EDTA-treated serum (antibody alone), or PBS and serum without EDTA (antibody and complement).

RESULTS

[00452] Serum was tested for antibodies to HSV-I and HSV-2 from the first 133 subjects enrolled in the Center for AIDS Research Clinical Core database from whom both serum and CD4 T-cell counts were available to identify HIV subjects co-infected with HSV-I (HSV 1 +/2-). Overall, 39% had CD4 T-cell counts > 500/μl, 28% 200-500/μl, and 33% < 200/μl. Sixty-nine percent were HSV-I seropositive (41% HSV 1+/2+ and 28% HSV 1+/2-), and 64% were HSV-2 seropositive (41% HSV 1+/2+ and 23% HSV 1-/2+). Eight percent of subjects were seronegative to both HSV-I and HSV-2. Sera from HSV 1+/2- subjects were selected for further studies.

[00453] Total hemolytic serum complement (CH50) levels in HSV 1+/2- subjects who were not infected with HIV or in HIV/HSV-1 co-infected subjects at various stages of HIV disease were measured (Figure 32A). Serum total hemolytic complement levels were maintained, even in HIV/HSV-1 co-infected subjects with advanced disease.

[00454] Next, antibody-mediated neutralization was measured using 1 % serum treated with EDTA to inactivate complement. Antibody neutralized both WT and gC/gE mutant viruses at all stages of HIV disease, including in subjects with CD4 T-cells <200/μl (Figure 32B gray bars).

[00455] The effects of antibody and complement on neutralizing WT and gC/gE mutant viruses using 1 % serum and active complement (without EDTA treatment) were compared. Neutralization of the gC/gE mutant virus was greater than WT virus in the HIV negative controls and the HIV infected subjects all levels of CD4 T-cell counts (Figure 32B, black bars). These results were surprising, because earlier studies reported that gC and gE inhibit virus neutralization via inhibition of complement activation (Lubinski et al., Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 9:329-37; Nagashunmugam et al., J Virol 72:5351-9). Therefore, further experiments were performed to evaluate additional mechanisms by which gC and gE mediate immune evasion.

EXAMPLE 28: HSV gC AND gE EPITOPES ON VIRAL GLYCOPROTEINS

INCREASES EFFICACY OF IMMUNE EVASION BY BLOCKING ANTIBODY

ACCESS TO GLYCOPROTEINS INVOLVED IN VIRUS ENTRY

MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

Cells and viruses

[00456] African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, 2 mM L- glutamine, 10 mM HEPES (pH 7.3), 20 μg/ml gentamicin, and 1 μg/ml Fungizone (Life Technologies, Rockville, MD). Pools of purified virus were prepared by infecting Vero cells at a multiplicity of infection of 2-5. Supernatant fluids 24 h post-infection were harvested for cell free virus and centrifuged onto a 5% to 70% sucrose gradient. Virus-containing fractions were isolated and dialyzed against Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline with Ca2+ and Mg2+ (PBS), aliquoted, and stored at -7O0C.

[00457] The WT strain, HSV-I NS, is a low passage clinical isolate obtained from an infected child. Mutant viruses derived from the NS strain, NS-gCΔC3, NS-gE339, and the double mutant, NS-gCΔC3,gE339, have been described previously. The gC mutant virus, NS- gCΔC3, has a deletion from amino acid 275 to 367, resulting in a loss of C3b binding. The gE mutant virus, NS-gE339, has a 4 amino acid insert at gE amino acid 339, resulting in loss of IgG Fc binding. The gC/gE double mutant virus, NS-gCΔC3, gE339, contains both the gC and gE mutations in a single virus.

Antibody and complement neutralization assays

[00458] Approximately 105 plaque-forming units (PFU) of purified virus were incubated with pooled human IgG (Michigan State Health Laboratories) or rabbit antibodies to purified baculovirus proteins gB, gC, gD, gH/gL, or gl were used. The antibody to gl was produced in rabbits using as antigen baculovirus-expressed gl amino acids 24-264 (HMF, unpublished).

Western blot and densitometry analyses

[00459] Approximately 2 X 106 PFU of purified virus was run on a 4-15% SDS-PAGE, transferred to Immobilon-P Transfer Membranes (Millipore Corp., Bedford, MA), and detected using polyclonal rabbit antibodies to gB, gC, gD, gE, gH/gL, gl, and VP5. Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG and enhanced chemiluminescence (Amersham Pharmacia, Piscataway, NJ) were used to visualize the primary antibodies. Densitometry analyses were performed using ScanMaker i900 (Microtek Lab Inc., Carson, CA) to compare protein levels.

Viral ELISA

[00460] Approximately 106 PFU of purified WT or NS-gCΔC3,gE339 virus was diluted in

50μl PBS, added to Costar® high-binding 96-well plates and incubated at 4°C overnight. As controls, some wells were incubated with 50μl PBS without virus. Wells were blocked at room temperature for 2h with 5% milk and 0.05% Tween20 in PBS. Serial dilutions of purified rabbit IgG against gB, gD, gH/gL, or pre-immune rabbit IgG were prepared in blocking buffer and added at decreasing concentrations ranging from 2ug to 0.015ug in 50μl of blocking buffer. Antibody was incubated at room temperature for 1 h, washed three times with 0.05% Tween20 in PBS and incubated with horseradish peroxidase conjugated donkey anti-rabbit IgG (Amersham Bioscience) at a 1:1,000 dilution in blocking buffer for 30 min. Plates were washed twice with 0.05% Tween20 in PBS and once with PBS alone, then ABTS substrate (Roche) was added and after 25 min read at 405nm. For some experiments, anti-gD serum from chickens was used in the viral ELISA. Chickens were immunized and boosted four times with a baculovirus-gD construct and serum obtained as a source of IgY antibodies. The serum had high antibody titers to gD as measured by ELISA on a gD-coated plate.

RESULTS

[00461] Densitometry analysis on Western blots of purified WT and gC/gE mutant viruses was performed to evaluate the relative concentrations of the glycoproteins, including those essential for virus entry, gB, gD, gH/gL. Analysis of HSV-I capsid protein VP5 was included to ensure comparable loading of WT and gC/gE mutant virus particles on the gel. Some differences in the relative concentrations of HSV-I glycoproteins expressed on the WT and the gC/gE mutant virus were detected (Figure 33); however, concentrations of gB, gD, and gH/gL were slightly higher on the gC/gE mutant than WT virus suggesting that the greater neutralizing activity is not caused by lower concentrations of target glycoproteins on the mutant virus.

[00462] Figure 34A depicts possible mechanisms by which the HSV-I FcγR may interfere with antibody neutralization. By binding the Fc domain of IgG, the HSV-I FcγR on WT virus may prevent the F(ab')2 domain from interacting with its target antigen (left side of WT model). In contrast, the gE mutation in the gC/gE virus eliminates FcγR activity, which may facilitate interactions between the F(ab')2 domain and the antibody target resulting in greater neutralization.

[00463] To evaluate this possibility, IgG pooled from HIV negative human donors was used to compare neutralization of a gE mutant virus that is defective in FcγR activity (NS-gE339) with a mutant virus that has an intact FcγR, but has a mutation in gC (NS-gCΔC3). Viruses were incubated with PBS or 100 μg pooled human IgG as the source of HSV antibodies. Antibody was equally effective neutralizing the FcγR intact and FcγR defective viruses and was even more active against the gC/gE double mutant virus (NS-gCΔC3, gE339) (Figure 34B). Since the gC/gE double mutant virus was more readily neutralized than either single mutant virus from which it was derived, we conclude that the mutations in gC and gE both contribute to increasing the susceptibility of the gC/gE mutant virus to neutralizing antibody.

[00464] We next evaluated whether the gC and gE mutations expose previously shielded epitopes on other viral glycoproteins to neutralizing antibody, possibly because of altered glycoprotein conformation on the virion envelope. Assays were performed comparing neutralization of WT and gC/gE mutant viruses following incubation with rabbit antibodies that selectively interact with gB, gC, gD, gH/gL, or gl. Antibodies to gB, gD, gH/gL neutralized the viruses, as expected, since these glycoproteins are required for virus entry; however, differences between the viruses were not significant. Antibodies to gC and gl, which are not required for entry, failed to neutralize either virus.

[00465] Since the human sera used in figures 32B and 34B contain antibodies to multiple glycoproteins, we performed neutralization experiments using combinations of antibodies directed against gB, gD, and gH/gL (Figure 35B). When used in combination, greater neutralization was detected for the gC/gE mutant than the WT virus, suggesting that the mutations within gC and gE expose neutralizing epitopes on multiple glycoproteins. Differences between the WT and gC/gE mutant viruses were comparable whether or not gH/gL antibodies were included in the neutralization reaction, indicating that the epitopes blocked are primarily on gB and gD.

[00466] A viral ELISA was performed using WT and gC/gE mutant viruses to further evaluate whether the mutations on the gC/gE mutant virus expose epitopes on gB, gD and gH/gL. The gC/gE mutant virus bound greater concentrations of gD (Figure 36A), gB (Figure 36B) and gH/gL (Figure 24C) antibodies than WT virus. Additional experiments were performed using chicken anti-gD antibodies. Chickens produce IgY antibodies that do not have domains that bind to Fc receptors. These antibodies were used to evaluate the potential contribution of the viral FcγR in the ELISA experiments. When chicken anti-gD antibody was added to WT or gC/gE mutant virus, greater binding was detected to the gC/gE mutant than WT virus (Figure 36D). These results indicate that differences in antibody binding occur independent of Fc binding to the viral FcγR and support the hypothesis that gC and gE block epitopes on viral glycoproteins essential for entry, particularly on gB and gD. [00467] Mutations in gC and gE enable access of antibodies to viral glycoproteins, including gB, gD and gH/gL, suggesting that gC and gE on WT virus shield epitopes on viral glycoproteins from neutralizing antibodies (see model Figure 37).

[00468] HIV subjects maintain high levels of neutralizing antibody and complement throughout the course of the HIV infection. Therefore, blocking immune evasion domains on gC and gE via subunit vaccines may allow endogenous antibody and complement to be more effective against HSV in HIV patients.

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A vaccine comprising:

a. a recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof;

b. a recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof, wherein said fragment comprises either a C3b-binding domain thereof, a properdin interfering domain thereof, a C5 interfering domain thereof, or a fragment of said C3b-binding domain, properdin interfering domain, or C5 -interfering domain;

c. a recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof, wherein said fragment comprises AA 24-409 or a fragment thereof; and

d. an adjuvant.

2. The vaccine of claim 1 , wherein said adjuvant comprises a CpG-containing nucleotide molecule, an aluminum salt adjuvant, or a combination thereof.

3. The vaccine of claim 1, wherein said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is present in an amount of 2-10 micrograms per dose.

4. The vaccine of claim 1 , wherein said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is present in an amount of 10-250 nanograms per dose.

5. The vaccine of claim 1 , wherein said recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof is present in an amount of 0.5-100 micrograms per dose.

6. The vaccine of claim 1 , wherein said recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof is present in an amount of 2-100 micrograms per dose.

7. The vaccine of claim 1 , wherein said recombinant HSV proteins are recombinant HSV-I proteins.

8. The vaccine of claim 7, further comprising a recombinant HSV-2 protein selected from a gD2 protein, a gC2 protein, and a gE2 protein.

9. The vaccine of claim 1 , wherein said recombinant HSV proteins are recombinant HSV-2 proteins.

10. The vaccine of claim 9, further comprising a recombinant HSV-I protein selected from a gD2 protein, a gC2 protein, and a gE2 protein.

11. A method of inducing an anti-HSV immune response in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject the vaccine of claim 1.

12. The method of claim 11 , further comprising the step of administering to said subject a booster vaccination, wherein said booster vaccination (a) comprises said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof; (b) does not comprise recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof; and (c) does not comprise said recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is present in said booster vaccination an amount of 2-10 micrograms per dose.

14. A method of treating, suppressing, inhibiting, or reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject the vaccine of claim 1.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV-I infection.

16. The method of claim 14, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV-2 infection.

17. The method of claim 14, wherein said HSV infection is a primary HSV infection.

18. The method of claim 14, wherein said HSV infection is a flare, recurrence, or HSV labialis following a primary HSV infection.

19. The method of claim 14, wherein said HSV infection is HSV encephalitis.

20. The method of claim 14, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV neonatal infection.

21. The method of claim 14, wherein said subject is HIV-infected.

22. A vaccine comprising:

a. a recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof;

b. a recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof, wherein said fragment comprises either a C3b-binding domain thereof, a properdin interfering domain thereof, a C5 interfering domain thereof, or a ragment o sa 3b-binding domain, properdin interfering domain, or C5-interfering domain; and

c. an adjuvant;

wherein administration of said vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV gC antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to said recombinant HSV gC protein.

23. The vaccine of claim 22, wherein said adjuvant comprises a CpG-containing nucleotide molecule, an aluminum salt adjuvant, or a combination thereof.

24. The vaccine of claim 22, wherein said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is present in an amount of 2-10 micrograms per dose.

25. The vaccine of claim 22, wherein said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is present in an amount of 10-250 ng per dose.

26. The vaccine of claim 22, wherein said recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof is present in an amount of 0.5-100 micrograms per dose.

27. The vaccine of claim 22, wherein said recombinant HSV proteins are recombinant HSV-I proteins.

28. The vaccine of claim 27, further comprising a recombinant HSV-2 protein selected from a gD2 protein, a gC2 protein, and a gE2 protein.

29. The vaccine of claim 22, wherein said recombinant HSV proteins are recombinant HSV-2 proteins.

30. The vaccine of claim 29, further comprising a recombinant HSV-I protein selected from a gD2 protein, a gC2 protein, and a gE2 protein.

31. A method of inducing an anti-HSV immune response in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject the vaccine of claim 22.

32. The method of claim 31 further comprising the step of administering to said subject a booster vaccination, wherein said booster vaccination (a) comprises said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof; and (b) does not comprise recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof.

33. The method of claim 32, wherein said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is present in said booster vaccination an amount of 2-10 micrograms per dose.

34. A method of treating, suppressing, inhibiting, or reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject the vaccine of claim 22.

35. The method of claim 34, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV-I infection.

36. The method of claim 34, wherein said HSV infection is an HS V-2 infection.

37. The method of claim 34, wherein said HSV infection is a primary HSV infection.

38. The method of claim 34, wherein said HSV infection is a flare, recurrence, or HSV labialis following a primary HSV infection.

39. The method of claim 34, wherein said HSV infection is HSV encephalitis.

40. The method of claim 34, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV neonatal infection.

41. The method of claim 34, wherein said subject is HIV-infected.

42. A vaccine comprising:

a. a recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof;

b. a recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof, wherein said fragment comprises AA 24-409 or a fragment thereof; and

c. an adjuvant,

wherein administration of said vaccine to a human subject elicits an anti-HSV gE antibody that blocks an immune evasion function of an HSV protein corresponding to said recombinant HSV gE protein.

43. The vaccine of claim 42, wherein said adjuvant comprises a CpG-containing nucleotide molecule, an aluminum salt adjuvant, or a combination thereof.

44. The vaccine of claim 42, wherein said recombinant HSV gD protein or fragment thereof is present in an amount of 2-10 micrograms per dose. Λ C , , . „„ , . . , . . UCΛ, ^

45. me vaccine of claim 42, wherein said recombinant HSV gD protein or fragment thereof is present in an amount of 10-250 nanograms per dose.

46. The vaccine of claim 42, wherein said recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof is present in an amount of 2-100 micrograms per dose.

47. The vaccine of claim 42, wherein said recombinant HSV proteins are recombinant HSV-I proteins.

48. The vaccine of claim 47, further comprising a recombinant HSV-2 protein selected from a gD2 protein, a gC2 protein, and a gE2 protein.

49. The vaccine of claim 42, wherein said recombinant HSV proteins are recombinant HSV-2 proteins.

50. The vaccine of claim 49, further comprising a recombinant HSV-I protein selected from a gD2 protein, a gC2 protein, and a gE2 protein.

51. A method of inducing an anti-HSV immune response in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject the vaccine of claim 42.

52. The method of claim 51, further comprising the step of administering to said subject a booster vaccination, wherein said booster vaccination (a) comprises said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof; (b) does not comprise said recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof.

53. The method of claim 52, wherein said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is present in said booster vaccination an amount of 2-10 micrograms per dose.

54. A method of treating, suppressing, inhibiting, or reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject the vaccine of claim 42.

55. The method of claim 54, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV-I infection.

56. The method of claim 54, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV-2 infection.

57. The method of claim 54, wherein said HSV infection is a primary HSV infection.

58. The method of claim 54, wherein said HSV infection is a flare, recurrence, or HSV labialis following a primary HSV infection.

59. The method of claim 54, wherein said HSV infection is HSV encephalitis.

60. The method of claim 54, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV neonatal infection.

61. The method of claim 54, wherein said subject is HIV-infected.

62. A vaccine comprising:

a. a recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof, wherein said fragment comprises either a C3b-binding domain thereof, a properdin interfering domain thereof, a C5 interfering domain thereof, or a fragment of said C3b-binding domain, properdin interfering domain, or C5-interfering domain;

b. a recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof, wherein said fragment comprises AA 24-409 or a fragment thereof; and

c. an adjuvant.

63. The vaccine of claim 62, wherein said adjuvant comprises a CpG-containing nucleotide molecule, an aluminum salt adjuvant, or a combination thereof.

64. The vaccine of claim 62, wherein said recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof is present in an amount of 0.5-100 micrograms per dose.

65. The vaccine of claim 62, wherein said recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof is present in an amount of 2-100 micrograms per dose.

66. The vaccine of claim 62, wherein said recombinant HSV proteins are recombinant HSV-I proteins.

67. The vaccine of claim 66, further comprising a recombinant HSV-2 protein selected from a gD2 protein, a gC2 protein, and a gE2 protein.

68. The vaccine of claim 62, wherein said recombinant HSV proteins are recombinant HSV-2 proteins.

69. The vaccine of claim 64, further comprising a recombinant HSV-I protein selected from a gD2 protein, a gC2 protein, and a gE2 protein.

70. A method of inducing an anti-HSV immune response in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject the vaccine of claim 62.

71. The method of claim 70, further comprising the step of administering to said subject a booster vaccination, wherein said booster vaccination (a) comprises said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof; (b) does not comprise said recombinant HSV gE protein or fragment thereof.

72. The method of claim 71, wherein said recombinant HSV gD protein or immunogenic fragment thereof is present in said booster vaccination an amount of 2-10 micrograms per dose.

73. A method of treating, suppressing, inhibiting, or reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in a subject, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject the vaccine of claim 62.

74. The method of claim 73, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV-I infection.

75. The method of claim 73, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV-2 infection.

76. The method of claim 73, wherein said HSV infection is a primary HSV infection.

77. The method of claim 73, wherein said HSV infection is a flare, recurrence, or HSV labialis following a primary HSV infection.

78. The method of claim 73, wherein said HSV infection is HSV encephalitis.

79. The method of claim 73, wherein said HSV infection is an HSV neonatal infection.

80. The method of claim 73, wherein said subject is HIV-infected.

81. A method of treating, suppressing, inhibiting, or reducing an incidence of an HSV infection in a subject infected with HIV, the method comprising the step of administering to said subject a vaccine comprising:

a. a recombinant HSV gC protein or fragment thereof, wherein said fragment comprises either a C3b-binding domain thereof, a properdin interfering domain thereof, a C5 interfering domain thereof, or a fragment of said C3b-binding domain, properdin interfering domain, or C5-interfering domain; b. a recom nant g protein or ragment t ereo , w ere n sa ragment comprises AA 24-409 or a fragment thereof; and

c. an adjuvant.

82. The method of claim 79, wherein said reducing an incidence of an HSV infection comprises preventing a recurrence of an HSV infection.

83. The method of claim 79, wherein said suppressing an HSV infection comprises diminishing the severity of a recurrence of an HSV infection.

84. The method of claim 79, wherein said reducing an incidence of an HSV infection comprises reducing the frequency of a recurrence of an HSV infection.

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