*US09126946B2*
  US009126946B2                                 
(12)United States Patent(10)Patent No.: US 9,126,946 B2
 Carlos et al. (45) Date of Patent:Sep.  8, 2015

(54)Processes useful for the preparation of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)urea and crystalline forms related thereto 
    
(75)Inventors: Marlon Carlos,  Chula Vista, CA (US); 
  Weitong Dong,  Shanghai (CN); 
  Mark Macias,  San Diego, CA (US); 
  Suzanne Michiko Sato,  San Diego, CA (US); 
  Lee Alani Selvey,  Poway, CA (US) 
(73)Assignee:Arena Pharmaceuticals, Inc.,  San Diego, CA (US), Type: US Company 
(*)Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 519 days. 
(21)Appl. No.: 13/126,563 
(22)PCT Filed:Oct.  27, 2009 
(86)PCT No.: PCT/US2009/005809 
 § 371 (c)(1), (2), (4) Date: Apr.  28, 2011  
(87)PCT Pub. No.:WO20/10/062321 
 PCT Pub. Date:Jun.  3, 2010 
(65)Prior Publication Data 
 US 2011/0207790 A1 Aug.  25, 2011 
 Related U.S. Patent Documents 
(60)Provisional application No. 61/197,499, filed on Oct.  28, 2008.
 
Jan.  1, 2013 C 07 D 231 16 F I Sep.  8, 2015 US B H C
(51)Int. Cl. A61K 031/415 (20060101); C07C 231/16 (20060101); C07D 231/16 (20060101)
(58)Field of Search  514/406; 548/356, 377.1

 
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     * cited by examiner
 
     Primary Examiner —Kamal Saeed
     Assistant Examiner —Janet L Coppins
     Art Unit — 1672
     Exemplary claim number — 1

(57)

Abstract

The present invention is directed to processes and intermediates useful for the preparation of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I), crystalline forms and solvate forms thereof; and compositions comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, crystalline forms and solvate forms thereof prepared by processes as described herein.
66 Claims, 31 Drawing Sheets, and 31 Figures


[0001] This application is a §371 National Stage Application of International Application PCT/US2009/005809, filed Oct. 27, 2009, which claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Application 61/197,499, filed Oct. 28, 2008, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention is directed to processes and intermediates useful for the preparation of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I), crystalline forms and solvate forms thereof; and compositions comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, crystalline forms and solvate forms thereof prepared by processes as described herein.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] The compound, 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I, shown below), which is described in PCT Application PCT/US2004/023488 and incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, belongs to a class of serotonin 5-HT2A-receptor modulators that are useful in the treatment of serotonin 5-HT2A-receptor associated diseases and disorders.
[0004]  [see pdf for image]

1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)

[0005] Certain synthetic processes for preparing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea have been described in PCT Applications PCT/US2004/023880 and PCT/US2006/002721, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
[0006] PCT Application PCT/US2004/023880 discloses processes that prepare 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-methyl-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine and 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of toluene (Example 5, PCT Application PCT/US2004/023880) with an impurity of 0.9 mole % identified as the desbromo of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea and an overall purity of 98.2% purity by HPLC. While the solid state properties for 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea were not characterized, it was found in a subsequent experiment that the toluene process as described in Example 5 (PCT Application PCT/US2004/023880) was observed to be a mixture of at least Form I and Form II.
[0007] PCT Application PCT/US2006/002721 discloses processes that prepare 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-methyl-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine and 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of an alcoholic solvent, such as methanol and n-propanol (Examples 1-5, PCT Application PCT/US2006/002721) to give substantially Form II.
[0008] Although Form II is considered the more thermodynamically stable polymorph, Form I was identified as the desirable crystalline form based on, inter alia, improved pharmacokinetic characteristics. Accordingly, there exists a need for efficient synthetic procedures for preparing Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea that are economically effective, provide batch-to-batch consistency, as well as the preparation of Form I that is substantially pure and/or free of harmful contaminants in bulk quantity. The synthetic procedures and intermediates for 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I), as described herein, meet one or more of these and other needs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0009] The present invention provides, inter alia, processes and intermediates for preparing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I), crystalline forms and solvate forms thereof.
[0010] One aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea comprising the step of:
[0011] converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0012] One aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea comprising the steps of:
[0013] a) reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of acetonitrile to form a reaction mixture comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; and
[0014] b) crystallizing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the reaction mixture to form the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0015] One aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine, the process comprising:
[0016] reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base in the presence of a mixture of an aromatic solvent and a C1-C6 alkanol to form 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine.
[0017] One aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea comprising the steps of:
[0018] a) reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with a brominating agent in the presence of a brominating solvent to form N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide;
[0019] b) reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base in the presence of a mixture of an aromatic solvent and a C1-C6 alkanol to form 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine; and
[0020] c) reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of a urea-forming solvent to form 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0021] One aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, the process comprising:
[0022] a) dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran to form a solution;
[0023] b) adding an aliphatic solvent to the solution to form a mixture comprising a first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea;
[0024] c) isolating the first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the mixture to provide an isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea;
[0025] d) washing the isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea with acetonitrile to form a second solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; and
[0026] e) converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0027] One aspect of the present invention relates to compositions comprising Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared according to any of the processes described herein, wherein the composition comprises less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea.
[0028] One aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing pharmaceutical compositions comprising admixing:
[0029] a composition comprising Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared according to any of the processes described herein, wherein said composition comprises less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea; and
[0030] a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
[0031] One aspect of the present invention relates to an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. In some embodiments, the acetonitrile solvate solvate has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
[0032] One aspect of the present invention relates to an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. In some embodiments; the acetonitrile solvate has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
[0033] One aspect of the present invention relates to compositions comprising an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared according to any of the processes described herein.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0034] FIG. 1 depicts APD125 plasma exposure in monkeys after oral administration of wet-granulation tablets (composition: 30 mg APD125 Form I or Form II in a ratio of 1:8 to PVP) or SGCs (composition: 40 mg APD125 in Cremophor®:Labrasol® [1:1], Dose Adjusted to 30 mg).
[0035] FIG. 2 depicts APD125 plasma exposure in monkeys after oral administration of wet-granulation tablets (composition: 10 mg APD125 Form I:PVP [1:8]) or SGC (composition: 10 mg APD125 in Cremophor®:Labrasol® [1:1]).
[0036] FIG. 3: depicts monkey PK exposure results for 10-mg and 30-mg APD125 Form I wet-granulation tablets versus 10-mg and 40-mg SGCs.
[0037] FIG. 4 depicts the 1-month and 3-month PXRD results for the wet-granulation Form I based tablet. The PXRD patterns show that the samples substantially comprise Form I at both time points.
[0038] FIG. 5 depicts the 1-month and 3-month PXRD results for the wet-granulation Form II based tablet. The PXRD patterns show that the samples substantially comprise Form II at both time points.
[0039] FIG. 6 depicts PXRD patterns for micronized APD125 Form I, before and after grinding with a mortar and pestle for 1 minute, 5 minutes and 10 minutes. The PXRD patterns show that the samples all substantially comprise Form I.
[0040] FIG. 7 depicts PXRD patterns of APD125 Form I compressed at 2 kp, 5 kp and 10 kp compared with uncompressed Form I. The PXRD patterns show that the samples all substantially comprise Form I.
[0041] FIG. 8 depicts a PXRD pattern of an aqueous 0.5% w/w methyl cellulose solution of Form I at room temperature and 40° C. after 16 days. The PXRD pattern shows that the sample has substantially converted to Form II.
[0042] FIG. 9 depicts PXRD patterns of a Form I paste in water alone at room temperature and 40° C. after 24 h. The PXRD pattern shows that the sample has substantially converted to Form II.
[0043] FIG. 10 depicts PXRD patterns for the wet-granulation Form I tablet blend post-mixing without water at t=0, and with 50% w/w water at t=0 and 24-h storage at room temperature and 40° C. The PXRD patterns show that each sample substantially comprises Form I.
[0044] FIG. 11 depicts PXRD patterns for the Form I wet-granulation tablet blend post-mixing with 50% w/w water at t=0.24-h, 7-days and 21-days storage at room temperature. The PXRD patterns show that at t=0.24-h and 7-days the samples substantially comprise Form I, and at t=21 days the sample has substantially converted to Form II.
[0045] FIG. 12 depicts PXRD patterns for PVP-based direct-compression Form I tablets, containing 0% w/w, 2% w/w, 5% w/w and 8% w/w methyl cellulose and a coPVP-based direct-compression Form I tablet, containing 5% w/w methyl cellulose, post-mixing with 50% w/w water at t=0. The PXRD patterns show that each sample substantially comprises Form I.
[0046] FIG. 13 depicts PXRD patterns for PVP-based direct-compression Form I tablets, containing 0% w/w, 2% w/w, 5% w/w and 8% w/w methyl cellulose, and a coPVP-based direct-compression tablet, containing 5% w/w methyl cellulose, post-mixing with 50% w/w water after 24 h at 40° C. The PXRD patterns show that the sample containing 0% methyl cellulose has substantially converted to Form II and all other samples substantially comprise Forth I.
[0047] FIG. 14 depicts PXRD patterns for PVP-based direct-compression Form I tablets, containing 0% w/w, 2% w/w, 5% w/w and 8% w/w methyl cellulose, and a coPVP-based direct-compression Form I tablet, containing 5% w/w methyl cellulose, post-mixing with 50% w/w water after 1 week at 40° C. The PXRD patterns show that the sample containing 2% methyl cellulose has substantially converted to Form II and all other samples substantially comprise Form I.
[0048] FIG. 15 depicts PXRD patterns for PVP-based direct-compression Form I tablets, containing 5% w/w and 8% w/w methyl cellulose, and a coPVP-based direct-compression From I tablet, containing 5% w/w methyl cellulose, post-mixing with 50% w/w water after 1 month at 40° C. The PXRD patterns show that the sample containing PVP and 5% methyl cellulose substantially comprises Form I, the sample containing PVP and 8% methyl cellulose has partially converted to Form II, and the sample containing coPVP has substantially converted to Form II. Note that the tablet PXRD data acquisition scan window was reduced to two smaller regions of 6.5° to 8°2θ and 11.8° to 13.3°2θ to reduce the overall sample analysis time, while maintaining the ability to discriminate Form I from Form II.
[0049] FIG. 16 depicts the effect of APD125/Pvp ratio on the APD125 plasma exposure in monkeys after oral administration of 10-mg direct-compression (dry) tablets.
[0050] FIG. 17 depicts the effect of PVP and coPVP on the APD125 plasma exposure in monkeys after oral administration of 10-mg direct-compression (dry) tablets, containing either APD125:PVP (1:8) or APD125:coPVP (1:8).
[0051] FIG. 18 depicts APD125 plasma exposure in monkeys after oral administration of direct-compression tablets (composition: 40 mg APD125 Form I:PVP [1:8], containing 2% w/w methyl cellulose) or SGCs (composition: 40 mg APD125 in Cremophor®:Labrasol® [1:1]).
[0052] FIG. 19 depicts a hygroscopicity plot for Plasdone™ S-630 (coPVP) copolymer versus Plasdone™ K-29/32 (PVP) homopolymer.
[0053] FIG. 20 depicts APD125 plasma exposure in monkeys after oral administration of direct-compression tablets (10 mg) containing either APD125:PVP (1:8) or APD125:coPVP (1:8).
[0054] FIG. 21 depicts a powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern for Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I), which was recorded using a PANalytical X'Pert Plus Powder X-Ray Diffractometer in the theta/theta geometry; scanning angles 5.0°-40.0°2θ.
[0055] FIG. 22 depicts a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram for Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I), which was recorded using a TA Instruments DSC Q1000; at 10° C./min.
[0056] FIG. 23 depicts an FT Raman spectrum for Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I), which was recorded using a ThermoFisher NXR6700FT-Raman Spectrometer (EQ1874) using the FT-Raman Micro-Stage Accessory.
[0057] FIG. 24 depicts a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) thermogram for Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I), which was recorded using a TA Instruments TGA Q500 in a nitrogen atmosphere. The percent change in weight as a function of temperature was recorded.
[0058] FIG. 25 depicts a pictorial representation of the hemi-acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Form IV) as generated by Mercury v. 1.4.2 (build 2) based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.
[0059] FIG. 26 depicts the comparison of calculated PXRD pattern of hemi-acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Form IV), based upon single-crystal X-diffraction results obtained at ca. 150° K versus bulk Form IV isolated from acetonitrile and analyzed at ca. 298° K.
[0060] FIG. 27 depicts a powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern for a Acetonitrile Solvate of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, which was recorded using a PANalytical X'Pert Plus Powder X-Ray Diffractometer in the 2θ geometry; scanning angles 5.0°-40.0°2θ.
[0061] FIG. 28 depicts the transient X-ray powder diffraction patterns observed as Form IV of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea converts into Form I, which was recorded using a PANalytical X'Pert Plus Powder X-Ray Diffractometer in the 2θ geometry; scanning angles 5.0°-40.0°2θ.
[0062] FIG. 29 depicts a powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern for a tetrahydrofuran solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, which was recorded using a PANalytical X'Pert Plus Powder X-Ray Diffractometer in the 2θ geometry; scanning angles 5.0°-40.0°2θ.
[0063] FIG. 30 depicts a powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern for a Heptane Solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, which was recorded using a PANalytical X'Pert Plus Powder X-Ray Diffractometer in the theta/theta geometry; scanning angles 5.0°-40.0°2θ.
[0064] FIG. 31 depicts a powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern for Form II of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I), which was recorded using a PANalytical X'Pert Plus Powder X-Ray Diffractometer in the theta/theta geometry; scanning angles 5.0°-40.0°2θ.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0065] 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) is a potent inverse agonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A-receptor and as such is useful for the treatment of serotonin 5-HT2A-receptor associated diseases and disorders, for example, increasing slow wave sleep, improving sleep consolidation, improving sleep maintenance and improving sleep quality, and for treating insomnia and related sleep disorders, dyssomnias, parasomnias and nonrestorative sleep and the like; and treating platelet aggregation, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, angina, stroke, atrial fibrillation, thrombosis, asthma or symptoms thereof, agitation or symptoms thereof, behavioral disorders, drug induced psychosis, excitative psychosis, Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, manic disorder, organic or NOS psychosis, psychotic disorders, psychosis, acute schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, NOS schizophrenia and related disorders, diabetic-related disorders and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and the like.

Definitions

[0066] The term “C5-C10 alkane” as used herein refers to a straight chain or branched chain alkane with 5 to 10 carbon atoms. Examples include hexane, heptane and the like.
[0067] The term “C1-C6 alkanol” as used herein refers to a compound of formula C1-C6 alkyl-OH where the alkyl group has 1 to 6 carbon atoms. Examples include methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, t-butanol and the like.
[0068] The term “aromatic solvent” as used herein refers to a solvent or an isomeric mixture of solvents that contains one aromatic ring and is optionally substituted with 1, 2 or 3 substituents provided that the solvent is a liquid at ambient temperature. Examples include benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, xylenes and the like.
[0069] The term “C5-C8 cycloalkane” as used herein refers to a cyclic alkane with 5 to 8 carbon atoms. Examples include cyclohexane, cycloheptane and the like.
[0070] The term “inorganic base” as used herein refers to a base selected from an alkali metal hydroxide and alkaline earth hydroxide. Examples include lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and the like.
[0071] The term “ICH” as used herein refers to The International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH).
[0072] The terms “5-HT2A serotonin receptor-related disorder” and “5-HT2A serotonin receptor-related disease” as used herein respectively refer to a disorder or disease in an individual, which may be prevented, inhibited, ameliorated, treated or cured by modulation (e.g. agonsim, antagonism or inverse agonism) of the 5HT2A serotonin receptor, for example, by administering to the individual in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition of the present invention comprising a 5HT2A serotonin receptor modulator.
[0073] The term “in need of treatment” as used herein refers to a judgment made by a caregiver (e.g. physician, nurse, nurse practitioner, etc. in the case of humans; veterinarian in the case of animals, including non-human mammals) that an individual or animal requires or will benefit from treatment. This judgment is made based on a variety of factors that are in the realm of a caregiver's expertise, but that includes the knowledge that the individual or animal is ill, or will become ill, as the result of a disease, condition or disorder that is treatable by the compounds of the invention. Accordingly, the compounds of the invention can be used in a protective or preventive manner; or compounds of the invention can be used to alleviate, inhibit or ameliorate the disease, condition or disorder.
[0074] The term “individual” as used herein refers to any animal, including mammals, preferably mice, rats, other rodents, rabbits, dogs, cats, swine, cattle, sheep, horses, or primates, and most preferably humans.
[0075] The term “inverse agonists” as used herein refers to moieties that bind the endogenous form of the receptor or to the constitutively activated form of the receptor, and which inhibit the baseline intracellular response initiated by the active form of the receptor below the normal base level of activity which is observed in the absence of agonists or partial agonists, or decrease GTP binding to membranes. Preferably, the baseline intracellular response is inhibited in the presence of the inverse agonist by at least 30%, more preferably by at least 50%, and most preferably by at least 75%, as compared with the baseline response in the absence of the inverse agonist.
[0076] The term “therapeutically effective amount” as used herein refers to the amount of active compound or pharmaceutical agent that elicits the biological or medicinal response in a tissue, system, animal, individual or human that is being sought by a researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor or other clinician, which includes one or more of the following:
[0077] (1) Preventing the disease; for example, preventing a disease, condition or disorder in an individual that may be predisposed to the disease, condition or disorder but does not yet experience or display the pathology or symptomatology of the disease;
[0078] (2) Inhibiting the disease; for example, inhibiting a disease, condition or disorder in an individual that is experiencing or displaying the pathology or symptomatology of the disease, condition or disorder (i.e., arresting further development of the pathology and/or symptomatology); and
[0079] (3) Ameliorating the disease; for example, ameliorating a disease, condition or disorder in an individual that is experiencing or displaying the pathology or symptomatology of the disease, condition or disorder (i.e., reversing the pathology and/or symptomatology).
[0080] The term “sleep maintenance” as used herein refers to the ability to sleep without persistent interruptions or extended periods of wakefulness. Sleep Maintenance Insomnia is a disturbance in maintaining sleep after sleep onset is achieved. It is characterized by persistently interrupted sleep without difficulty falling asleep, and sleep-continuity disturbance. Parameters used for measuring sleep maintenance include but are not limited to, wake time after sleep onset (WASO) and number of awakenings (NAW).
[0081] The term “sleep quality” as used herein refers to both the subjective assessment given by an individual of how restorative and undisturbed sleep has been (via a standardized questionnaire) and to a series of objective measures derived from polysomnography. Examples of standardized sleep questionnaires, include but are not limited to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse et al., Psychiatry Research (1989), 28(2), 193-213). Examples of objective measures of sleep quality include, but are not limited to, the amount and depth of nonREM sleep, the amount of REM sleep and the temporal organization of nonREM and REM stages. Subjective and objective measures of sleep quality are not necessarily concordant.
[0082] The term “nonrestorative sleep” as used herein refers to a disorder characterized by the subjective assessment given by an individual that sleep is restless, light, or of poor quality even though the duration may appear normal. NRS is associated with other symptoms including, but not limited to, excessive daytime sleepiness, mood swings and cognitive impairments.
[0083] The term “coPVP” as used herein refers to a vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer, CAS registry number 25086-89-9. The term is used interchangeably with the terms copolyvidonum Plasdone™, copovidone and copolyvidone. coPVP has following structural formula:
[0084]  [see pdf for image]
In some embodiments coPVP is a copolymer of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and vinyl acetate in a ratio of 6:4 by mass, wherein n≈1.2 m. Examples of coPVP include but are not limited to Kollidon™ VA 64, Plasdone™ S-630 and the like.
[0085] The term “cps” as used herein is intended to refer to the unit of dynamic viscosity known as the centipoise (cP). 1 cP=1 millipascal second.
[0086] The term “DFA” as used herein refers to 2,4-difluoroaniline, CAS registry number 367-25-9, which represented by the following formula:
[0087]  [see pdf for image]
[0088] The term “HDPE” as used herein refers to high-density polyethylene.
[0089] The term “MCC” as used herein refers to microcrystalline cellulose, CAS registry number 9004-34-6. The term is used interchangeably with the terms cellulose gel, crystalline cellulose and E460. MCC has the following structural formula:
[0090]  [see pdf for image]
[0091] wherein n≈220.

Examples of MCC include, but are not limited to, Avicel™ PH, Avicel™ PH 102, Celex™, Celphere™, Ceolus™ KG, Emcocel™, Ethispheres™, Fibrocel™, Pharmacel™, Tabulose™ and Vivapur™.

[0092] The term “PIC” as used herein refers to powder in capsule.
[0093] The term “Poloxamer” as used herein refers to a class of pharmaceutical excipients comprising or consisting essentially of either a single compound or a mixture of compounds prepared from synthetic block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. In some embodiments, an excipient in this class comprises or consists essentially of a single compound or a mixture of compounds of the following formula:
[0094]  [see pdf for image]
[0095] wherein “b” at each occurrence is independently an integer between 1 to 102; “c” is an integer between 1 and 57; b+c+b is 3 to 327; and the average molecule weight of the poloxamer is about 17500 or less. Poloxamers are known or can be prepared by methods in the art. A number of poloxamers are commercially available. Representative examples of a Poloxamer include, but are not limited to, Poloxamer 124 (Pluronic® L44NF), Poloxamer 188 (Pluronic® F68NF), Poloxamer 237 (Pluronic® F87NF), Poloxamer 338 (Pluronic® F108NF), Poloxamer 407 (Pluronic® F127NF) and the like.
[0096] The term “PVA” as used herein refers to polyvinyl alcohol, CAS registry number 9002-89-5. The term is used interchangeably with the term vinyl alcohol polymer. PVA has the following structural formula:
[0097]  [see pdf for image]
[0098] wherein n lies between 500 and 5000, equivalent to a molecular weight range of approximately 20,000 to 200,000. In some embodiments PVA is high viscosity with a molecular weight≈200,000. In some embodiments PVA is medium viscosity with a molecular weight≈130,000. In some embodiments PVA is medium viscosity with a molecular weight≈20,000. Examples of PVA include but are not limited to Airvol™, Elvanol™ and Gohsenol™.
[0099] The term “PVP” as used herein refers to polyvinylpyrrolidone. The term is used interchangeably with the terms, E1201, povidone, povidonum, poly[1-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylene, polyvidone and 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone polymer. PVP has the following structural formula:
[0100]  [see pdf for image]
[0101] wherein the molecular weight is from about 2500 to about 3,000,000. Examples of PVP include, but are not limited to, Kollidon™, Kollidon™ VA 64, Plasdone™, Plasdone™ K-29/32 and Kollidon™ 30.
[0102] The term “% RSD” as used herein refers to the relative standard deviation, which is the absolute value of the coefficient of variation expressed as a percentage. The term is widely used in analytical chemistry to express the precision of an assay:
          (standard deviation of array X)×100/(average of array X)=relative standard deviation.
[0103] The term “SGC” as used herein refers to a soft gelatin capsule.
[0104] The term “SLS” as used herein refers to sodium lauryl sulfate, which has the following structural formula:
[0105]  [see pdf for image]
[0106] The term “xCMC” as used herein refers to croscarmellose sodium, CAS Registry Number 74811-65-7. The term is used interchangeably with the terms carmellosum natricum conexum, crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose sodium and modified cellulose gum. xCMC is a crosslinked polymer of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium. Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has the following structural formula:
[0107]  [see pdf for image]
[0108] Examples of xCMC include, but are not limited to, Ac-Di-Sol™, Explocel™, Nymcel™ ZSX, Pharmacel™ XL, Primellose™, Solutab™ and Vivasol™.
[0109] The term “xPVP” as used herein refers to crosslinked povidone, CAS registry number 9003-39-8, wherein povidone has the same definition as described herein. The term is used interchangeably with the terms crospovidone, crospovidonum, E1202, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, PVPP, 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone and 1-ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone homopolymer. Examples of xPVP include, but are not limited to, PolyPlasdone™ XL, PolyPlasdone™ XL-10, Kollidon™ CL and Kollidon™ CL-M.
[0110] It is appreciated that certain features of the invention, which are, for clarity, described in the context of separate embodiments, may also be provided in combination in a single embodiment. Conversely, various features of the invention, which are, for brevity, described in the context of a single embodiment, may also be provided separately or in any suitable subcombination.
[0111] All combinations of the embodiments pertaining to the aspects described herein are specifically embraced by the present invention just as if each and every combination was individually explicitly recited, to the extent that such combinations embrace possible aspects. In addition, all subcombinations of the embodiments contained within the aspects described herein, as well as all subcombinations of the embodiments contained within all other aspects described herein, are also specifically embraced by the present invention just as if each and every subcombination of all embodiments are explicitly recited herein.

Certain Aspects of the Present Invention

1. Form I of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)

Processes and Compositions Related Thereto

[0112] One aspect of the present invention is directed to the preparation of Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) and compositions thereof. Form I can be identified by its unique solid state signature with respect to, for example, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), IR Raman spectroscopy and other solid state methods. Further characterization with respect to water or solvent content of the crystalline form can be gauged by any of the following methods for example, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), DSC and the like. For DSC, it is known that the temperatures observed for thermal events will depend upon the rate of temperature change as well as sample preparation technique and the particular instrument employed. Thus, the values reported herein relating to DSC thermograms can vary by plus or minus about 4° C. The values reported herein relating to DSC thermograms can also vary by plus or minus about 20 joules per gram. In samples contaminated with Form II of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea the values reported herein relating to DSC thermograms can vary by plus or minus>20 joules per gram. For PXRD, the relative intensities of the peaks can vary, depending upon the sample preparation technique, the sample mounting procedure and the particular instrument employed. Moreover, instrument variation and other factors can often affect the 2θ values. Therefore, the peak assignments of diffraction patterns can vary by plus or minus about 0.2°2θ. For TGA, the features reported herein can vary by about ±5° C. The TGA features reported herein can also vary by about ±2% weight change due to, for example, sample variation. Further characterization with respect to hygroscopicity of the crystalline form can be gauged by, for example, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). The DVS features reported herein can vary by about ±5% relative humidity. The DVS features reported herein can also vary and by about ±5% weight change.
[0113] The physical properties of crystalline Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) are summarized in Table A below.
[0114] 
[00001] [TABLE-US-00001]
  TABLE A
 
  Characterization of Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-
  4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)
 
 
  PXRD   FIG. 21: Peaks of about 17% or greater relative intensity at
    5.6°, 7.4°, 11.2°, 21.1° and 25.0° 2θ
  DSC   FIG. 22: an endotherm with an extrapolated onset temperature
    of about 170° C., an associated heat flow of about 64 joules
    per gram and a peak temperature of about 172° C.
  FT   FIG. 23: Peaks at 3086, 2955, 2840, 1656, 1622, 1605, 1572,
  RAMAN   1534, 1004, 1004, 964, 911, 759, 751, 732, 723, 673, 505,
  390, 335 and 315 cm−1
  TGA   FIG. 24: negligible weight loss below about 150° C.
 
[0115] The negligible weight loss observed in the TGA data suggests that Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) is an anhydrous, non-solvated crystalline form. The DSC thermogram further reveals a melting endotherm with an onset at about 170° C.
[0116] A further aspect of the present invention is directed to compositions comprising Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea and less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea.
[0117] One aspect of the present invention is directed to compositions comprising Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, wherein the compositions comprise less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 0.1% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 1% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 5% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 10% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 15% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 20% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 30% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 40% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 50% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 60% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 70% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 80% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 90% by weight of the composition. In some embodiments, Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea constitutes at least about 95% by weight of the composition.
[0118] One aspect of the present invention is directed to compositions comprising Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea and less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea and further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. In some embodiments, the composition is formulated for oral administration. In some embodiments, the composition is in the form of a pill, capsule or tablet.

2. Converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)

[0119] One aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea comprising the step of:
[0120] converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0121] In some embodiments, the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2 (i.e., hemi-acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea).
[0122] A single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated the acetonitrile solvate to exist as a hemi-acetonitrile solvate, containing a theoretical acetonitrile content of 4.75% w/w, having the molecular formula C18H15BrF2N2O2.0.5(CH3CN), referred herein as Form IV and hemi-acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. A pictorial representation of the hemi-acetonitrile solvate as generated by is Mercury v. 1.4.2 (build 2) is shown in FIG. 25. A calculated X-ray powder diffraction pattern of Form IV, derived from the single-crystal results, is provided in FIG. 26, which is overlaid with an experimentally obtained X-ray powder diffraction pattern of bulk acetonitrile solvate Form N isolated from acetonitrile. FIG. 27 shows the experimentally obtained X-ray powder diffraction pattern without the calculated PXRD.
[0123] Upon solvent content reduction, by evaporation and/or heating, Form N will convert to Form I, exhibiting a range of X-ray powder diffraction patterns (FIG. 28) potentially intermediate in appearance between Forms N and I and/or having the appearance of binary mixtures of Forms N and I until the sample in question has fully converted to Form I. Once Form N is isolated from acetonitrile the conversion from Form N to Form I can occur within minutes to weeks, depending upon storage or drying conditions. Since the conversion to Form I can potentially occur quite quickly upon isolation from acetonitrile at room temperature, X-ray powder diffraction patterns obtained during the conversion process can be complicated by potential Form IV to Form I conversion during acquisition of a single X-ray powder diffraction pattern. Once conversion of Form IV to Form I is complete, a well-defined and characteristic X-ray powder diffraction pattern of Form I is observed.
[0124] The conversion of the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (for example, Form IV) to Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea can be conducted under a variety of reduced pressures and temperatures.
[0125] In some embodiments, the converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted under reduced pressure. In some embodiments, the converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 100 mm Hg or less. In some embodiments, the converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less. In some embodiments, the converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 10 mm Hg or less. In some embodiments, the converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 5 mm Hg or less.
[0126] If the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Form IV) is left in acetonitrile or if during post-isolation from acetonitrile the residual solvent content is too great then there is a risk that Form IV will convert to Form II. Therefore, as the solvent content is decreased the risk of Form IV converting to Form II is reduced. The undesirable conversion of Form IV to Form II was found to be temperature dependent and as a result, by controlling the temperature the conversion of Form IV to Form II could be minimized. Accordingly, the conversion of Form IV to Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea can be conducted at a first temperature and then at a second temperature optionally under reduced pressure.
[0127] In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted during at least two time periods, wherein the conversion is conducted at a first temperature during a first time period and wherein the conversion is conducted at a second temperature during a second time period, and wherein the first temperature is not equivalent to the second temperature.
[0128] In some embodiments, the second temperature is higher than the first temperature.
[0129] In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 0° C. to about 45° C. In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 15° C. to about 40° C. In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 20° C. to about 30° C.
[0130] In some embodiments, the second temperature is about 45° C. to about 90° C. In some embodiments, the second temperature is about 60° C. to about 80° C. In some embodiments, the second temperature is about 65° C. to about 75° C.
[0131] In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 20° C. to about 30° C. and the second temperature is about 65° C. to about 75° C.
[0132] The first temperature can be maintained until the solvent content is sufficiently reduced to minimize the conversion to Form II. Loss on drying (LOD) is one method for determining the solvent content present in the bulk material. This is achieved by obtaining representative samples of the bulk material at various time points and determining the LOD. The LOD for each sample is expressed as the percentage of volatiles lost during the drying of the sample and indicates the percent of the volatiles that remain in the bulk material at the specific time the sample was obtained. Once the suitable LOD level or solvent content is achieved then the second temperature is initiated. A variety of instruments can be used for LOD determinations; one such instrument is a moisture analyzer by Denver Instruments (Model IR-200 or equivalent model).
[0133] In some embodiments, the first temperature is maintained until the LOD is about 35%, about 30%, about 25%, about 20%, about 15%, about 10%, about 5% or less for a representative sample of the bulk material obtained from any of the process as described herein before initiating the second temperature, optionally this process can be conducted under reduced pressure.
[0134] Loss on drying is a method that can be used to determine the amount of volatiles when conducting large scale processes, other suitable methods can also be used, such as, 1H NMR, gas chromatography (such as, head-space GC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the like.
[0135] In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 30% or less. In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 20% or less. In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 15% or less. In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 10% or less.
[0136] In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 0° C. to about 45° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 30% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature of about 45° C. to about 90° C. In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 15° C. to about 40° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 20% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature about 60° C. to about 80° C. In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 15% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature of about 60° C. to about 80° C. In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 10% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature of about 65° C. to about 75° C.
[0137] In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 10% or less; and thereafter raising the first temperature to a second temperature of about 65° C. to about 75° C. while maintaining the reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less.

3. Preparation of an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea

[0138] As described herein, supra, the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea can be used as an intermediate to prepare Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. The present invention also discloses processes for preparing the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0139] Accordingly, one aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea comprising the steps of:
[0140] a) reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of acetonitrile to form a reaction mixture comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; and
[0141] b) crystallizing the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the reaction mixture to form the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, the general process is illustrated in Scheme 1 below.
[0142]  [see pdf for image]
The starting material shown in Scheme 1,3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine, can be prepared by a variety of suitable methods, for examples, such as those described in PCT Applications PCT/US2004/023880 and PCT/US2006/002721, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. In addition to these methods, 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine can also be prepared by the novel processes described herein that utilize, in general, an inorganic base in the presence of a mixture comprising an aromatic solvent and an C1-C6 alkanol.
[0143] In some embodiments, the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
[0144] In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted under a nitrogen atmosphere.
[0145] In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted in the presence of about 10% of H2O or less. In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted in the presence of about 1% of H2O or less. In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted in the presence of about 0.1% of H2O or less.
[0146] In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a temperature of about −30° C. to about 10° C. In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a temperature of about −25° C. to about 0° C. In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a temperature of about −15° C. to about −5° C.
[0147] In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted by adding the 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate to the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine in acetonitrile to form the reaction mixture.
[0148] In some embodiments, the reaction mixture comprises less than about 2% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, the reaction mixture comprises less than about 1% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, the reaction mixture comprises less than about 0.1% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC.
[0149] In some embodiments, adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a rate sufficient to form the reaction mixture, wherein the reaction mixture comprises less than about 2% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a rate sufficient to form the reaction mixture, wherein the reaction mixture comprises less than about 1% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a rate sufficient to form the reaction mixture, wherein the reaction mixture comprises less than about 0.1% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC.
[0150] In some embodiments, after the completion of adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, the reaction mixture is stirred until about 2% or less of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine is present in the reaction mixture with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, after the completion of adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, the reaction mixture is stirred until about 1% or less of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine is present in the reaction mixture with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, after the completion of adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, the reaction mixture is stirred until about 0.1% or less of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine is present in the reaction mixture with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC.
[0151] Any suitable reverse or normal phase HPLC method can be used determine the percentage of 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine compared to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea provided that the methods afford at least baseline resolution between the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine HPLC signal and the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea HPLC signal. One particularly useful method is as follows:
[0152] RP-HPLC: HPLC system, equipped with a detector, column oven, quaternary gradient pump, and auto sampler, such as an HPLC system form Waters Inc., Milford, Mass. or an equivalent. Detection wavelength set to 252 nm. The RP HPLC column is a Waters Symmetry Shield RP18, 3.5 μm, 4.6×150 mm or equivalent with a pre-column filter 0.5 μm (Upchurch Scientific). The run time is 37 minutes with an equilibration time of 5 minutes and an injection volume of 5 μL. The mobile phases include, Mobile Phase A: 0.1% TFA in water and Mobile Phase B: 0.1% TFA in Acetonitrile. The gradient is as follows:
[0153] 
[00002] [TABLE-US-00002]
 
  Time (min)   Flow Rate (mL/min)   % A   % B   Curve
 
 
  0.00   1.00   90   10   6
  10.00   1.00   60   40   6
  25.00   1.00   45   55   6
  30.00   1.00   10   90   6
  32.00   1.00   10   90   1
  37.00   1.00   85   15   1
 

The retention time for 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine using this method is about 5.4 minutes (relative retention time of 0.24) with a relative response factor of 0.23. The retention time for 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea using this method is about 22.9 minutes (relative retention time of 1) with a relative response factor of 1.
[0154] In some embodiments, after the completion of adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, the reaction mixture is stirred for about 2 hours or less. In some embodiments, after the completion of adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, the reaction mixture is stirred for about 1.5 hours or less.
[0155] In some embodiments, crystallizing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −30° C. to about 15° C. In some embodiments, crystallizing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −25° C. to about 5° C. In some embodiments, crystallizing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −15° C. to about 0° C. In some embodiments, crystallizing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −10° C. to about −5° C.
[0156] In some embodiments, the process comprises:
[0157] reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of acetonitrile is conducted by adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate to 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine at a temperature of about −25° C. to about 0° C. and a rate sufficient to form the reaction mixture, wherein the reaction mixture comprises less than about 2% of 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC; and
[0158] crystallizing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −15° C. to about 0° C.
[0159] In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of isolating the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0160] In some embodiments, isolating is conducted by filtration of the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the reaction mixture.

4. Preparation of 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine from N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide

[0161] The compound 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine is an intermediate useful in the preparation of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I), crystalline forms and solvate forms thereof. There is a continuing effort to develop new processes for intermediates such as 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine that have improve efficiency with economic benefit and/or improved product purity. Novel processes for preparing 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine are described herein. The general process is illustrated in Scheme 2 below.
[0162]  [see pdf for image]
The starting material shown in Scheme 2, N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide, can be prepared by a variety of suitable methods, for examples, such as those described in PCT Applications PCT/US2004/023880 and PCT/US2006/002721, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
[0163] Accordingly, one aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine, the process comprising:
[0164] reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base in the presence of a mixture of an aromatic solvent and a C1-C6 alkanol to form 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine.
[0165] In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 75° C. to about reflux temperature. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 100° C. to about reflux temperature. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 105° C. to about reflux temperature. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 110° C. to about reflux temperature. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 112° C.
[0166] Reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide can be performed in the presence of a suitable inorganic base. Suitable inorganic bases include alkali metal hydroxides and alkaline earth hydroxides. Examples of suitable bases include lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and the like.
[0167] In some embodiments, the inorganic base is an alkali metal hydroxide. In some embodiments, the inorganic base is sodium hydroxide.
[0168] Although reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base can be conducted in the presence of water, one embodiment is directed to processes conducted without added water. Residual water present in reagents and solvents is excluded as “added” water in the context of this description. Accordingly, in some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 5% or less of water. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 4% or less of water. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 3% or less of water. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 2% or less of water. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 1% or less of water. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 0.5% or less of water.
[0169] In some embodiments, the aromatic solvent is xylene. In some embodiments, the aromatic solvent is a mixture of xylenes.
[0170] In some embodiments, the C1-C6 alkanol is n-propanol.
[0171] In some embodiments, the aromatic solvent is a mixture of xylenes and the C1-C6 alkanol is n-propanol. In some embodiments, the volume ratio of the mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 7:1 to about 1:1. In some embodiments, the volume ratio of the mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 6:1 to about 4:1. In some embodiments, the volume ratio of the mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 5:1.
[0172] In some embodiments, the process comprises:
[0173] reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 75° C. to about reflux temperature;
[0174] and wherein:
[0175] the inorganic base is sodium hydroxide;
[0176] the aromatic solvent is a mixture of xylenes; and
[0177] the C1-C6 alkanol is n-propanol; wherein the volume ratio of the mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 5:1.
[0178] Particular processes that are useful for preparing N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide are described herein.
[0179] Accordingly, in some embodiments, N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide is prepared by the process comprising:
[0180] reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with a brominating agent in the presence of a brominating solvent to form the N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide, the general process is illustrated in Scheme 3 below.
[0181]  [see pdf for image]
The starting material shown in Scheme 3, N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide, can be prepared by a variety of suitable methods, for examples, such as those described in PCT Applications PCT/US2004/023880 and PCT/US2006/002721, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
[0182] In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 25° C. to about 100° C. In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 25° C. to about 75° C. In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 25° C. to about 65° C. In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 35° C. to about 65° C.
[0183] In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted under a nitrogen atmosphere.
[0184] In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted by adding the brominating agent to the N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide in the brominating solvent.
[0185] Any suitable brominating agent can be used in the aforementioned process to prepare N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide. Suitable brominating agents include, for example, Br2, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin, pyridinium tribromide (pyrHBr3) and the like.
[0186] In some embodiments, the brominating agent is N-bromosuccinimide.
[0187] The molar ratio of brominating agent to N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide can routinely be selected or optimized by the skilled artisan. In general the brominating agent is presence in excess compared to N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide. In some embodiments, the molar ratio of brominating agent to N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide is selected from about 2:1, about 1.9:1, about 1.8:1, about 1.7:1, about 1.6:1, about 1.5:1, about 1.4:1, about 1.3:1, about 1.2:1, about 1.1:1 and about 1:1.
[0188] Any suitable brominating solvent can be used in the aforementioned process to prepare N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide provided that each reagent in the process is sufficiently soluble in the brominating solvent. Suitable brominating solvents include, for example, N,N-dimethylacetamide, N,N-dimethylformamide and the like.
[0189] In some embodiments, the brominating solvent is N,N-dimethylacetamide.
[0190] In some embodiments, the brominating agent is N-bromosuccinimide and the brominating solvent is N,N-dimethylacetamide.
[0191] In some embodiments, the process comprises:
[0192] reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 35° C. to about 65° C.;
[0193] the brominating agent is N-bromosuccinimide; and
[0194] the brominating solvent is N,N-dimethylacetamide.

5. Preparation of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from 3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine

[0195] Also provided in the present invention are novel processes for the preparation of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea that utilize the step of preparing 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine from N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide.
[0196] Accordingly, one aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea comprising the steps of:
[0197] reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base in the presence of a mixture of an aromatic solvent and a C1-C6 alkanol to form 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine; and
[0198] reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of a urea-forming solvent to form 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0199] Another aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea comprising the steps of:
[0200] a) reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with a brominating agent in the presence of a brominating solvent to form the N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide;
[0201] b) reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base in the presence of a mixture of an aromatic solvent and a C1-C6 alkanol to form 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine; and
[0202] c) reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of a urea-forming solvent to form 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.

5a. Formation of N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide from N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide

[0203] In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 25° C. to about 100° C. In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 25° C. to about 75° C. In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 25° C. to about 65° C. In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 35° C. to about 65° C.
[0204] In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted under a nitrogen atmosphere.
[0205] In some embodiments, reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted by adding the brominating agent to the N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]acetamide in the brominating solvent.
[0206] Any suitable brominating agent can be used in the aforementioned processes to prepare N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide. Suitable brominating agents include, for example, Br2, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin, pyridinium tribromide (pyrHBr3) and the like.
[0207] In some embodiments, the brominating agent is N-bromosuccinimide.
[0208] The molar ratio of brominating agent to N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide can routinely be selected or optimized by the skilled artisan. In general the brominating agents is presence in excess compared to N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide. In some embodiments, the molar ratio of brominating agent to N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide is selected from about 2:1, about 1.9:1, about 1.8:1, about 1.7:1, about 1.6:1, about 1.5:1, about 1.4:1, about 1.3:1, about 1.2:1, about 1.1:1 and about 1:1.
[0209] Any suitable brominating solvent can be used in the aforementioned processes to prepare N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide provided that each reagent in the process is sufficiently soluble in the brominating solvent. Suitable brominating solvents include, for example, N,N-dimethylacetamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran and the like.
[0210] In some embodiments, the brominating solvent is N,N-dimethylacetamide.
[0211] In some embodiments, the brominating agent is N-bromosuccinimide and the brominating solvent is N,N-dimethylacetamide.
[0212] In some embodiments, the process comprises:
[0213] reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with the brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 35° C. to about 65° C.;
[0214] the brominating agent is N-bromosuccinimide; and
[0215] the brominating solvent is N,N-dimethylacetamide.

5b. Formation of 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine from N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide

[0216] In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 75° C. to about reflux temperature. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 100° C. to about reflux temperature. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 105° C. to about reflux temperature. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 110° C. to about reflux temperature. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 112° C.
[0217] Reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide can be performed in the presence of any suitable inorganic base. Suitable inorganic bases include alkali metal hydroxides and alkaline earth hydroxides. Examples of suitable inorganic bases include lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and the like.
[0218] In some embodiments, the inorganic base is an alkali metal hydroxide. In some embodiments, the inorganic base is sodium hydroxide.
[0219] Although reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base can be conducted in the presence of water, one embodiment is directed to processes conducted without added water. Residual water present in reagents and solvents is excluded as “added” water in the context of this description. Accordingly, in some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 5% or less of water. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 4% or less of water. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 3% or less of water. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 2% or less of water. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 1% or less of water. In some embodiments, reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base is conducted in the presence of about 0.5% or less of water.
[0220] In some embodiments, the aromatic solvent is xylene. In some embodiments, the aromatic solvent is a mixture of xylenes.
[0221] In some embodiments, the C1-C6 alkanol is n-propanol.
[0222] In some embodiments, the aromatic solvent is a mixture of xylenes and C1-C6 alkanol is n-propanol.
[0223] In some embodiments, the volume ratio of the mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 7:1 to about 1:1. In some embodiments, the volume ratio of the mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 6:1 to about 4:1. In some embodiments, the volume ratio of the mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 5:1.
[0224] In some embodiments, the process comprises:
[0225] reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with the inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 75° C. to about reflux temperature; and
[0226] wherein:
[0227] the inorganic base is sodium hydroxide;
[0228] the aromatic solvent is a mixture of xylenes; and
[0229] the C1-C6 alkanol is n-propanol; wherein the volume ratio of the mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 5:1.

5c. Formation of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine

[0230] In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted under a nitrogen atmosphere.
[0231] In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted in the presence of about 10% of H2O or less. In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted in the presence of about 1% of H2O or less. In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted in the presence of about 0.1% of H2O or less.
[0232] In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a temperature of about −30° C. to about 10° C. In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a temperature of about −25° C. to about 0° C. In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a temperature of about −15° C. to about −5° C.
[0233] In some embodiments, reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted by adding the 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate to the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine in acetonitrile to form a reaction mixture.
[0234] In some embodiments, the reaction mixture comprises less than about 2% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, the reaction mixture comprises less than about 1% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, the reaction mixture comprises less than about 0.1% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC.
[0235] In some embodiments, adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a rate sufficient to form the reaction mixture, wherein the reaction mixture comprises less than about 2% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a rate sufficient to form the reaction mixture, wherein the reaction mixture comprises less than about 1% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a rate sufficient to form the reaction mixture, wherein the reaction mixture comprises less than about 0.1% of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC.
[0236] In some embodiments, after the completion of adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, the reaction mixture is stirred until about 2% or less of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine is present in the reaction mixture with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, after the completion of adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, the reaction mixture is stirred until about 1% or less of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine is present in the reaction mixture with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC. In some embodiments, after the completion of adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, the reaction mixture is stirred until about 0.1% or less of the 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine is present in the reaction mixture with respect to the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC.
[0237] In some embodiments, after the completion of adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, the reaction mixture is stirred for about 2 hours or less. In some embodiments, after the completion of adding 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, the reaction mixture is stirred for about 1.5 hours or less.
[0238] In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of isolating the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the reaction mixture comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea and the urea-forming solvent. In some embodiments, the isolating is conducted by filtration of the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the reaction mixture comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea and the urea-forming solvent.
[0239] Any suitable urea-forming solvent can be used in the aforementioned process to prepare 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. Representative urea-forming solvents include but not limited to aromatic solvents (e.g., benzene, toluene, and the like), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), methylsulfoxide, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, methylene chloride, mixtures thereof and the like. One particularly useful solvent is acetonitrile as this solvent provides advantages over other solvents, such as, providing the acetonitrile solvate that can be converted to Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0240] In some embodiments, the urea-forming solvent is acetonitrile.
[0241] In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of crystallizing the 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the reaction mixture to form a acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0242] In some embodiments, the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
[0243] In some embodiments, the crystallizing is conducted at a temperature of about −30° C. to about 15° C. In some embodiments, the crystallizing is conducted at a temperature of about −25° C. to about 5° C. In some embodiments, the crystallizing is conducted at a temperature of about −15° C. to about 0° C. In some embodiments, the crystallizing is conducted at a temperature of about −10° C. to about −5° C.
[0244] In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of isolating the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. In some embodiments, the isolating is conducted by filtration of the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the reaction mixture.
[0245] In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0246] In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0247] In some embodiments, the converting of the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted under reduced pressure.
[0248] In some embodiments, the converting of the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 100 mm Hg or less. In some embodiments, the converting of the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less. In some embodiments, the converting of the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 10 mm Hg or less. In some embodiments, the converting of the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 5 mm Hg or less.
[0249] In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted during at least two time periods, wherein the conversion is conducted at a first temperature during a first time period and wherein the conversion is conducted at a second temperature during a second time period, and wherein the first temperature is not equivalent to the second temperature.
[0250] In some embodiments, the second temperature is higher than the first temperature. In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 0° C. to about 45° C. In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 15° C. to about 40° C. In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 20° C. to about 30° C.
[0251] In some embodiments, the second temperature is about 45° C. to about 90° C. In some embodiments, the second temperature is about 60° C. to about 80° C. In some embodiments, the second temperature is about 65° C. to about 75° C.
[0252] In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 20° C. to about 30° C. and the second temperature is about 65° C. to about 75° C.
[0253] In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 30% or less. In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 20% or less. In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 15% or less. In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 10% or less.
[0254] In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 0° C. to about 45° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 30% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature of about 45° C. to about 90° C. In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 15° C. to about 40° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 20% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature about 60° C. to about 80° C. In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 15% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature of about 60° C. to about 80° C. In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 10% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature of about 65° C. to about 75° C.
[0255] In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 10% or less; and thereafter raising the first temperature to a second temperature of about 65° C. to about 75° C. while maintaining the reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less.

6. Preparation of Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea

[0256] Also provided in the present invention are processes that are particularly useful for reprocessing/recrystallizing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea that may have undesirable levels of impurities, polymorphs, contaminants, reagents, solvents or the like to give Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. These processes can utilize a variety of physical forms of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as the starting material, for example, Form I, Form II, Form IV, amorphous material or mixtures thereof.
[0257] Accordingly, the present invention relates to processes for preparing Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, the process comprising:
[0258] a) dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran to form a solution;
[0259] b) adding an aliphatic solvent to the solution to form a mixture comprising a first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea;
[0260] c) isolating the first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the mixture to provide an isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; and
[0261] d) converting the isolated first solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. This embodiment provides processes that give Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea with good purity and under certain circumstances these processes are acceptable if trace amounts of aliphatic solvent can be tolerated. However, in the example where the aliphatic solvent is heptane, ICH guidelines suggest that the maximum level of heptane to be about 5000 ppm. As a result, it was found that by washing the first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea with acetonitrile provided a second solvate that could subsequently be converted to Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea with solvent levels below ICH guidelines.
[0262] Accordingly, another aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, the process comprising:
[0263] a) dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran to form a solution;
[0264] b) adding an aliphatic solvent to the solution to form a mixture comprising a first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea;
[0265] c) isolating the first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the mixture to provide an isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea;
[0266] d) washing the isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea with acetonitrile to form a second solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; and
[0267] e) converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0268] In some embodiments, the dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran is conducted at a weight ratio of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to tetrahydrofuran of about 1:6 to about 1:5. In some embodiments, the dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran is conducted at a weight ratio of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to tetrahydrofuran of about 1.3:5.6. In some embodiments, the dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran is conducted at a temperature of about 25° C. to about reflux temperature.
[0269] In some embodiments, the dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran is conducted at a temperature of about 55° C. to about reflux temperature. In some embodiments, the dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran is conducted at a temperature of about 60° C. to about reflux temperature. In some embodiments, the dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran is conducted at or about reflux temperature. In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of cooling the solution of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran in step a) prior to step b).
[0270] In some embodiments, the cooling is to a temperature of about −35° C. to about 10° C. In some embodiments, the cooling is to a temperature of about −25° C. to about −5° C.
[0271] In some embodiments, adding heptane to the solution to form a first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −35° C. to about 10° C. In some embodiments, adding heptane to the solution to form a first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −25° C. to about −5° C.
[0272] In some embodiments, the aliphatic solvent is a C5-C10 alkane, a C5-C8 cycloalkane or a mixture thereof. In some embodiments, the aliphatic solvent is a C5-C10 alkane. In some embodiments, the aliphatic solvent is hexane. In some embodiments, the aliphatic solvent is cyclohexane. In some embodiments, the aliphatic solvent is heptane.
[0273] It is understood that the mixture obtained by the addition of heptane comprises at least a tetrahydrofuran solvate or a heptane solvate or a mixture of these two solvates. In addition, there may be other solvates that are present in the mixture that have not been identified. The tetrahydrofuran solvate and the heptane solvate have been identified. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern for the tetrahydrofuran solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is shown in FIG. 29. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern for the heptane solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is shown in FIG. 30.
[0274] In some embodiments, the first solvate is a tetrahydrofuran solvate.
[0275] In some embodiments, the first solvate is a heptane solvate.
[0276] In some embodiments, adding the aliphatic solvent to the solution to form a mixture comprising a first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −35° C. to about 10° C.
[0277] In some embodiments, adding the aliphatic solvent to the solution to form a mixture comprising a first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −25° C. to about −5° C.
[0278] In some embodiments, isolating the first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from the mixture is conducted by filtration to provide the isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0279] In some embodiments, washing the isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea with acetonitrile is conducted at a temperature of about −20° C. to about 10° C. to form a second solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. In some embodiments, washing the isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea with acetonitrile is conducted at a temperature of about −10° C. to about 10° C. to form a second solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. In some embodiments, washing the isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea with acetonitrile is conducted at a temperature of about −5° C. to about 5° C. to form a second solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
[0280] In some embodiments, the second solvate is an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. Additional information for converting the acetonitrile solvate to Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea has been described supra, also see the Examples infra.
[0281] In some embodiments, the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
[0282] In some embodiments, converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted under reduced pressure. In some embodiments, converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 100 mm Hg or less. In some embodiments, converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less. In some embodiments, converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 10 mm Hg or less. In some embodiments, converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 5 mm Hg or less. In some embodiments, converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted during at least two time periods, wherein the conversion is conducted at a first temperature during a first time period and wherein the conversion is conducted at a second temperature during a second time period, and wherein the first temperature is not equivalent to the second temperature.
[0283] In some embodiments, the second temperature is higher than the first temperature.
[0284] In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 0° C. to about 45° C. In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 15° C. to about 40° C. In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 20° C. to about 30° C.
[0285] In some embodiments, the second temperature is about 45° C. to about 90° C. In some embodiments, the second temperature is about 60° C. to about 80° C. In some embodiments, the second temperature is about 65° C. to about 75° C.
[0286] In some embodiments, the first temperature is at about 20° C. to about 30° C. and the second temperature is about 65° C. to about 75° C.
[0287] In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 30% or less. In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 20% or less. In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 15% or less. In some embodiments the process further comprises the step of maintaining the first temperature until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 10% or less.
[0288] In some embodiments, converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 0° C. to about 45° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 30% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature of about 45° C. to about 90° C. In some embodiments, converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 15° C. to about 40° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 20% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature about 60° C. to about 80° C. In some embodiments, converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 15% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature of about 60° C. to about 80° C. In some embodiments, converting the second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 10% or less and thereafter raising to a second temperature of about 65° C. to about 75° C.
[0289] In some embodiments, converting the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from the process is at a level of about 10% or less; and thereafter raising the first temperature to a second temperature of about 65° C. to about 75° C. while maintaining the reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less.

7. Compositions and processes of preparing compositions comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea

[0290] One aspect of the present invention relates to compositions comprising Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared according to any of the processes described herein, wherein the composition comprises less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea.
[0291]  [see pdf for image]

1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea

[0292] Another aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing a pharmaceutical composition comprising admixing:
[0293] a composition comprising Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared according to any one of the processes described herein, wherein the composition comprises less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea; and
[0294] a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
[0295] In some embodiments, compositions comprising Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea contain less than 0.8 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea. In some embodiments, compositions contain less than 0.7 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea. In some embodiments, compositions contain less than 0.6 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea. In some embodiments, compositions contain less than 0.5 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea. In some embodiments, compositions contain less than 0.4 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea. In some embodiments, compositions contain less than 0.3 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea. In some embodiments, compositions contain less than 0.2 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea. In some embodiments, compositions contain less than 0.1 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea.
[0296] Any suitable method can be used to determine the mol % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea, for example, 1H NMR, HPLC, and the like. The HPLC method described above along with the relative response factor (or by running standard concentration curves) is particularly useful for determining the mol % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea.
[0297] Another aspect of the present invention relates to processes for preparing a pharmaceutical composition comprising admixing:
[0298] a composition comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared according to any of the processes described herein, wherein the composition comprises less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea; and
[0299] a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
[0300] Another aspect of the present invention relates to compositions comprising an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared according to any of the processes described herein.
[0301] In some embodiments, the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
[0302] Another aspect of the present invention relates to compositions comprising an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea. In some embodiments, the acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
[0303] Pharmaceutical compositions may be prepared by any suitable method, typically by uniformly mixing Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea with liquids or finely divided solid carriers, or both, in the required proportions, and then, if necessary, forming the resulting mixture into a desired shape.
[0304] Accordingly, another aspect of the present invention provide processes for preparing pharmaceutical compositions comprising admixing Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared by any of the methods described herein, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
[0305] Conventional excipients, such as binding agents, fillers, acceptable wetting agents, tableting lubricants, and disintegrants may be used in tablets and capsules for oral administration. Liquid preparations for oral administration may be in the form of solutions, emulsions, aqueous or oily suspensions, and syrups. Alternatively, the oral preparations may be in the form of a dry powder that can be reconstituted with water or another suitable liquid vehicle before use. Additional additives such as suspending or emulsifying agents, non-aqueous vehicles (including edible oils), preservatives, and flavorings and colorants may be added to the liquid preparations. Parenteral dosage forms may be prepared by dissolving the compound of the invention in a suitable liquid vehicle and filter sterilizing the solution before filling and sealing an appropriate vial or ampoule. These are just a few examples of the many appropriate methods well known in the art for preparing dosage forms.
[0306] Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Form I hereafter) of the present invention can be formulated into pharmaceutical compositions using techniques well known to those in the art and as described herein. Suitable pharmaceutically-acceptable carriers, outside those mentioned herein, are known in the art; for example, see Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 20th Ed., 2000, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, (Editors: Gennaro, A. R., et al.).
[0307] While it is possible that Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (i.e., active ingredient) as described herein may, in an alternative use, be administered as a raw or pure chemical, it is preferable however to present the active ingredient as a pharmaceutical formulation or composition further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The carrier(s) must be “acceptable” in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not overly deleterious to the recipient thereof.
[0308] Pharmaceutical formulations include those suitable for oral, rectal, nasal, topical (including buccal and sub-lingual), vaginal or parenteral (including intramuscular, sub-cutaneous and intravenous) administration or in a form suitable for administration by inhalation, insufflation or by a transdermal patch. Transdermal patches dispense a drug at a controlled rate by presenting the drug for absorption in an efficient manner with a minimum of degradation of the drug. Typically, transdermal patches comprise an impermeable backing layer, a single pressure sensitive adhesive and a removable protective layer with a release liner. One of ordinary skill in the art will understand and appreciate the techniques appropriate for manufacturing a desired efficacious transdermal patch based upon the needs of the artisan.
[0309] The Form I of the present invention, together with a conventional adjuvant, carrier, or diluent, may be placed into the form of pharmaceutical formulations and unit dosages thereof; and in such form may be employed as solids, such as tablets or filled capsules, or liquids such as solutions, suspensions, emulsions, elixirs, gels or capsules filled with the same, all for oral use, in the form of suppositories for rectal administration; or in the form of sterile injectable solutions for parenteral (including subcutaneous) use. Such pharmaceutical compositions and unit dosage forms thereof may comprise conventional ingredients in conventional proportions, with or without additional active compounds or principles, and such unit dosage forms may contain any suitable effective amount of the active ingredient commensurate with the intended daily dosage range to be employed.
[0310] For oral administration, the pharmaceutical composition may be in the form of, for example, a tablet, capsule, suspension or liquid. The pharmaceutical composition is preferably made in the form of a dosage unit containing a particular amount of the active ingredient. Examples of such dosage units are capsules, tablets, powders, granules or a suspension, with conventional additives such as lactose, mannitol, corn starch or potato starch; with binders such as crystalline cellulose, cellulose derivatives, acacia, corn starch or gelatins; with disintegrators such as corn starch, potato starch or sodium carboxymethylcellulose; and with lubricants such as talc or magnesium stearate. The active ingredient may also be administered by injection as a composition wherein, for example, saline, dextrose or water may be used as a suitable pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
[0311] The dose when using the compounds of the present invention can vary within wide limits, as is customary and is known to the physician, it is to be tailored to the individual conditions in each individual case. It depends, for example, on the nature and severity of the illness to be treated, on the condition of the patient, on the compound employed or on whether an acute or chronic disease state is treated or prophylaxis is conducted or on whether further active compounds are administered in addition to Form I of the present invention. Representative doses of the present invention include, but are not limited to, about 0.001 mg to about 5000 mg, about 0.001 mg to about 2500 mg, about 0.001 mg to about 1000 mg, 0.001 mg to about 500 mg, 0.001 mg to about 250 mg, about 0.001 mg to 100 mg, about 0.001 mg to about 50 mg, and about 0.001 mg to about 25 mg. Multiple doses may be administered during the day, especially when relatively large amounts are deemed to be needed, for example 2, 3 or 4, doses. Depending on the individual and as deemed appropriate from the patient's physician or caregiver it may be necessary to deviate upward or downward from the doses described herein.
[0312] The amount of Form I of the present invention, required for use in treatment will vary with the route of administration, the nature of the condition being treated and the age and condition of the patient and will ultimately be at the discretion of the attendant physician or clinician. In general, one skilled in the art understands how to extrapolate in vivo data obtained in a model system, typically an animal model, to another, such as a human. In some circumstances, these extrapolations may merely be based on the weight of the animal model in comparison to another, such as a mammal, preferably a human, however, more often, these extrapolations are not simply based on weights, but rather incorporate a variety of factors. Representative factors include the type, age, weight, sex, diet and medical condition of the patient, the severity of the disease, the route of administration, pharmacological considerations such as the activity, efficacy, pharmacokinetic and toxicology profiles of the particular compound employed, whether a drug delivery system is utilized, whether the disease state is chronic or acute, whether treatment or prophylaxis is conducted, or on whether further active compounds are administered in addition to Form I of the present invention and as part of a drug combination. The dosage regimen for treating a disease condition with Form I of the present invention and/or compositions of this invention is selected in accordance with a variety of factors as cited above. Thus, the actual dosage regimen employed may vary widely and therefore may deviate from a preferred dosage regimen and one skilled in the art will recognize that dosages and dosage regimens outside these typical ranges can be tested and, where appropriate, may be used in the methods of this invention.
[0313] The desired dose may conveniently be presented in a single dose or as divided doses administered at appropriate intervals, for example, as two, three, four or more sub-doses per day. The sub-dose itself may be further divided, e.g., into a number of discrete loosely spaced administrations. The daily dose can be divided, especially when relatively large amounts are administered as deemed appropriate, into several, for example 2, 3 or 4, part administrations. If appropriate, depending on individual behavior, it may be necessary to deviate upward or downward from the daily dose indicated.
[0314] Form I of the present invention can be administrated in a wide variety of oral and parenteral dosage forms.
[0315] For preparing pharmaceutical compositions of Form I of the present invention, the selection of a suitable pharmaceutically acceptable carrier can be either solid, liquid or a mixture of both. Solid form preparations include powders, tablets, pills, capsules, cachets, suppositories, and dispersible granules. A solid carrier can be one or more substances that may also act as diluents, flavoring agents, solubilizers, lubricants, suspending agents, binders, preservatives, tablet disintegrating agents, or an encapsulating material.
[0316] In powders, the carrier is a finely divided solid that is in a mixture with the finely divided active component.
[0317] In tablets, the active component is mixed with the carrier having the necessary binding capacity in suitable proportions and compacted to the desired shape and size.
[0318] The powders and tablets may contain varying percentage amounts of the active compound. A representative amount in a powder or tablet may contain from 0.5 to about 90 percent of Form I of the present invention; however, an artisan of ordinary skill would know when amounts outside of this range are necessary. Suitable carriers for powders and tablets are magnesium carbonate, magnesium stearate, talc, sugar, lactose, pectin, dextrin, starch, gelatin, tragacanth, methylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, a low melting wax, cocoa butter, and the like. The term “preparation” is intended to include the formulation of the active compound with encapsulating material as carrier providing a capsule in which the active component, with or without carriers, is surrounded by a carrier, which is thus in association with it. Similarly, cachets and lozenges are included. Tablets, powders, capsules, pills, cachets, and lozenges can be used as solid forms suitable for oral administration.
[0319] For preparing suppositories, a low melting wax, such as an admixture of fatty acid glycerides or cocoa butter, is first melted and the active component is dispersed homogeneously therein, as by stirring. The molten homogenous mixture is then poured into convenient sized molds, allowed to cool, and thereby to solidify.
[0320] Formulations suitable for vaginal administration may be presented as pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or sprays containing in addition to the active ingredient such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate.
[0321] Liquid form preparations include solutions, suspensions, and emulsions, for example, water or water-propylene glycol solutions. For example, parenteral injection liquid preparations can be formulated as solutions in aqueous polyethylene glycol solution. Injectable preparations, for example, sterile injectable aqueous or oleaginous suspensions may be formulated according to the known art using suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation may also be a sterile injectable solution or suspension in a nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluent or solvent, for example, as a solution in 1,3-butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that may be employed are water, Ringer's solution, and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as solvents or suspending media. For this purpose, any bland fixed oil may be employed including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. In addition, fatty acids such as oleic acid find use in the preparation of injectables.
[0322] Form I of the present invention, may thus be formulated for parenteral administration (e.g. by injection, for example bolus injection or continuous infusion) and may be presented in unit dose form in ampoules, pre-filled syringes, small volume infusion or in multi-dose containers with an added preservative. The pharmaceutical compositions may take such forms as suspensions, solutions, or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles, and may contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilizing and/or dispersing agents. Alternatively, the active ingredient may be in powder form, obtained by aseptic isolation of sterile solid or by lyophilization from solution, for constitution with a suitable vehicle, e.g. sterile, pyrogen-free water, before use.
[0323] Aqueous formulations suitable for oral use can be prepared by dissolving or suspending the active component in water and adding suitable colorants, flavors, stabilizing and thickening agents, as desired.
[0324] Aqueous suspensions suitable for oral use can be made by dispersing the finely divided active component in water with viscous material, such as natural or synthetic gums, resins, methylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, or other well-known suspending agents.
[0325] Also included are solid form preparations that are intended to be converted, shortly before use, to liquid form preparations for oral administration. Such liquid forms include solutions, suspensions, and emulsions. These preparations may contain, in addition to the active component, colorants, flavors, stabilizers, buffers, artificial and natural sweeteners, dispersants, thickeners, solubilizing agents, and the like.
[0326] For topical administration to the epidermis, Form I of the present invention may be formulated as ointments, creams or lotions, or as a transdermal patch.
[0327] Ointments and creams may, for example, be formulated with an aqueous or oily base with the addition of suitable thickening and/or gelling agents. Lotions may be formulated with an aqueous or oily base and will generally also contain one or more emulsifying agents, stabilizing agents, dispersing agents, suspending agents, thickening agents, or coloring agents.
[0328] Formulations suitable for topical administration in the mouth include lozenges comprising active agent in a flavored base, usually sucrose and acacia or tragacanth; pastilles comprising the active ingredient in an inert base such as gelatin and glycerin or sucrose and acacia; and mouthwashes comprising the active ingredient in a suitable liquid carrier.
[0329] Solutions or suspensions are applied directly to the nasal cavity by conventional means, for example with a dropper, pipette or spray. The formulations may be provided in single or multi-dose form. In the latter case of a dropper or pipette, this may be achieved by the patient administering an appropriate, predetermined volume of the solution or suspension. In the case of a spray, this may be achieved for example by means of a metering atomizing spray pump.
[0330] Administration to the respiratory tract may also be achieved by means of an aerosol formulation in which the active ingredient is provided in a pressurized pack with a suitable propellant. Administration to the respiratory tract include, for example, nasal aerosols or by inhalation, this can be carried out, for example, by using a spray, a nebulizer, a pump nebulizer, an inhalation apparatus, a metered inhaler or a dry powder inhaler. Pharmaceutical forms for administration of the compounds of the present invention as an aerosol can be prepared by processes well known to the person skilled in the art. For their preparation, for example, solutions or dispersions of the active ingredient in water, water/alcohol mixtures or suitable saline solutions can be employed using customary additives, for example benzyl alcohol or other suitable preservatives, absorption enhancers for increasing the bioavailability, solubilizers, dispersants and others, and, if appropriate, customary propellants, for example, carbon dioxide, CFCs, such as, dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, and dichlorotetrafluoroethane, HFAs, such as, 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluororpropane and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, and the like. The aerosol may conveniently also contain a surfactant such as lecithin. The dose of drug may be controlled by provision of a metered valve.
[0331] In formulations intended for administration to the respiratory tract, including intranasal formulations, the compound will generally have a small particle size for example of the order of 10 microns or less. Such a particle size may be obtained by means known in the art, for example by micronization. When desired, formulations adapted to give sustained release of the active ingredient may be employed.
[0332] Alternatively, the active ingredients may be provided in the form of a dry powder, for example, a powder mix of the compound in a suitable powder base such as lactose, starch, starch derivatives such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Conveniently the powder carrier will form a gel in the nasal cavity. The powder composition may be presented in unit dose form for example in capsules or cartridges of, e.g., gelatin, or blister packs from which the powder may be administered by means of an inhaler.
[0333] The pharmaceutical preparations are preferably in unit dosage forms. In such form, the preparation is subdivided into unit doses containing appropriate quantities of the active component. The unit dosage form can be a packaged preparation, the package containing discrete quantities of preparation, such as packeted tablets, capsules, and powders in vials or ampoules. Also, the unit dosage form can be a capsule, tablet, cachet, or lozenge itself, or it can be the appropriate number of any of these in packaged form.
[0334] Tablets or capsules for oral administration and liquids for intravenous administration are preferred compositions.
[0335] Some embodiments of the present invention include a method of producing a pharmaceutical composition for “combination-therapy” comprising admixing at least one compound or crystalline form thereof as disclosed herein, together with at least one known pharmaceutical agent as described herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
[0336] It is noted that when the serotonin 5-HT2A-receptor modulators are utilized as active ingredients in a pharmaceutical composition, these are not intended for use only in humans, but in other non-human mammals as well. Indeed, recent advances in the area of animal health-care suggest that consideration be given for the use of active agents, such as serotonin 5-HT2A-receptor modulators, for the treatment of an serotonin 5-HT2A-receptor associated disease or disorder in companion animals (e.g., cats and dogs) and in livestock animals (e.g., such as cows, chickens, fish, etc). Those of ordinary skill in the art are readily credited with understanding the utility of such compounds in such settings.
[0337] The formulations prepared by the methods described herein are useful for the synthesis of any disease or condition for which the administration of a serotonin 5-HT2A-receptor modulator is indicated.

Pharmacodynamic Effects of the Selective 5-HT2A Inverse Agonist 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (APD125) in Healthy Adults

[0338] APD125, a potent and selective 5-HT2A serotonin receptor inverse agonist is a member of the genus disclosed in the European Patent EP1558582. In Phase 1 trials, APD125 showed vigilance-lowering effects on waking EEG, with maximal effects at 40-80 mg; peak effects were observed at 2-4 h after dosing. In the afternoon nap model of insomnia in normal volunteers, APD125 increased slow wave sleep and associated parameters in a dose-dependent manner, primarily during the early part of sleep. These effects occurred at the expense of REM sleep. Sleep onset latency was not decreased by APD125. In the afternoon nap model, APD125 decreased microarousals, the number of sleep stage shifts and number of awakenings after sleep onset.
[0339] In a Phase 2 trial, when compared to placebo, patients treated with APD125 experienced statistically significant improvements in measurements of sleep maintenance, or the ability to maintain sleep during the night after falling asleep. The improvements in measurements of sleep maintenance were achieved without any limiting next day cognitive effects. The data from the APD125 Phase 2 study are consistent with Phase 1 data and support further development of APD125 for the treatment of insomnia patients who have difficulty maintaining sleep.
[0340] In conclusion, APD125, a 5-HT2A serotonin receptor inverse agonist, improved parameters of sleep consolidation and maintenance in humans.
[0341] The invention will be described in greater detail by way of specific examples. The following examples are offered for illustrative purposes, and are not intended to limit the invention in any manner. Those of skill in the art will readily recognize a variety of noncritical parameters which can be changed or modified to yield essentially the same results.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Pharmacokinetic Experiments

[0342] General experimental descriptions: Male cynomolgus monkeys were administered an oral dose of APD125 in combination with excipients delivered as either a liquid in SGC (composition: 10 mg APD125 in Cremophor®:Labrasol® [1:1]), as wet-granulated tablets (see Example 2) or as dry-granulated tablets (see Example 7). APD125 dose levels were 10 mg, 30 mg, or 40 mg and the monkeys received approximately 10 mL of tap water after dose administration. Animals were fasted prior to dosing. Three to six monkeys were dosed per treatment group. In two cases, a 2×6 crossover study design was employed. Blood samples were collected via venous puncture at pre-dose (t=0) and 0.25 h, 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h post-dose. Blood was treated with an anticoagulant and plasma was separated by centrifugation. Plasma samples were frozen and stored at or below −20° C. prior to analysis.
[0343] Pharmacokinetic Data Analysis: Noncompartmental PK analysis was performed with a commercial software package (WinNonlin® Professional, version 5.2., Pharsight, Mountain View, Calif.; Computer System Validation report CSV-004-SM-R1), with calculation of the following parameters:
[0344] 
[00003] [TABLE-US-00003]
 
    Parameter   Definition
 
  tmax   Time of maximum observed plasma concentration
  CmaxPlasma concentration corresponding to tmax
  AUC0-∞   Area under the plasma concentration versus time curve
      from the time of dosing to extrapolated to infinity
 
[0345] Bioanalytical Method: Anticoagulated male cynomolgus monkey plasma samples were analyzed for APD125 and the internal standard using a selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. Plasma proteins were removed with the addition of acetonitrile at two-fold the tissue volume, followed by centrifugation. The supernatant was injected onto an HPLC system equipped with a SCIEX API 3000 mass spectrometer. Peak areas were measured against the internal standard in the positive ion MRM mode. Quantitation was performed with regression analyses of the external calibration standards.

Example 1.1

Preliminary Wet Granulation-Based Tablet Formulation: Monkey APD125 Plasma Exposure

[0346] Monkey APD125 plasma exposure after oral administration of SGCs or wet granulation tablets are shown in FIG. 1. PK parameters are presented in Table 1. APD125 absorption into the systemic circulation occurred over a 2-h to 4-h period followed by a mono-exponential terminal phase. The time to maximal plasma concentration (tmax) was most rapid for the liquid filled SGCs at 2 h. The tmax increased with tablet administration to 2.7 h and 4 h, for APD125 Form II and APD125 Form I, respectively. The SGC Cmax (0.953 μg/mL±0.180 μg/mL; dose adjusted to 30 mg) was 19-fold and 2-fold greater than the Cmax for APD125 Form II (0.051 μg/mL±0.007 μg/mL) and APD125 Form I (0.504 μg/mL±0.109 μg/mL). The integrated plasma exposures (AUC0-∞) were highest for SGC (4.540 h·μg/mL±1.394 h·μg/mL; dose adjusted to 30 mg) and APD125 Form I tablets (4.998 h·μg/mL±1.739 h·μg/mL). APD125 Form II tablet exposure (0.727 h·μg/mL±0.362 h·μg/mL) was at least 6-fold lower compared to SGC and APD125 Form I tablets.
[0347] 
[00004] [TABLE-US-00004]
    TABLE 1
   
        CmaxAUC0-∞
    Dose     (μg/mL)   (h · μg/mL)
  Formulation   (mg)   N   Mean   SD   Mean   SD
 
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8)   10   6   0.227   0.153   1.507   1.218
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8)   30   3   0.504   0.109   4.998   1.739
  APD125 Form II:PVP   30   3   0.051   0.007   0.727   0.362
  (1:8)
  SGC:   10   6   0.942   0.303   3.192   1.291
  APD125 in [1:1]30a   2   0.953   0.180   4.540   1.394
  Cremophore ®:Labrasol ®   40   2   1.270   0.240   6.054   1.859
 
a40-mg SGC dose adjusted to 30 mg for comparison purposes.

APD125 Form II-based tablets exhibited poor exposure (Cmax and AUC0-∞) relative to SGCs and therefore, were removed from further consideration. In contrast, APD125 Form I-based tablets exhibited similar integrated exposures (AUC0-∞) to SGCs, with approximately half the Cmax of the SGCs, a not uncommon finding when comparing liquid and solid-based formulations. It should be noted, however, that at a lower dose there was disparity between all exposure parameters. At a 10-mg dose, SGC Cmax and AUC0-∞ values were four-fold and two-fold higher, respectively, compared to the wet granulation tablet exposure parameters suggesting tablets and SGC become dissimilar with decreasing dose (FIG. 2, FIG. 3, Table 2).
[0348] 
[00005] [TABLE-US-00005]
  TABLE 2
 
    CmaxAUC0-∞
    (μg/mL)   (h · μg/mL)
    Formulation   Dose (mg)   Mean   SD   Mean   SD
 
    Form I tablet   10   0.227   0.153   1.507   1.218
      30   0.504   0.109   4.998   1.739
    SGC   10   0.942   0.303   3.192   1.291
      40   1.270   0.240   6.054   1.859
 

Example 2

Wet-granulation Tablet

Example 2.1

Tablet Manufacturing

[0349] Using a 1-L bowl of high-shear granulator, PVP, APD125, mannitol, methyl cellulose, half of the xPVP, and half of the SLS were added to the key high shear granulator. The resulting mixture was dry-mixed for 5 minutes with impeller and chopper running. After which, water was added slowly using a transfer pipette through the addition port on the lid of the granulator bowl, while the impeller and chopper were still running. The process was stopped once power consumption started to rise quickly. The lid was then opened, and the granulation visually and texturally inspected to ensure proper moisture content had been achieved. The wet granulation was spread evenly over tray paper and dried in an oven at 55° C., until a loss on drying (LOD) of less than 5% w/w was achieved. Next, the dried granulation was passed through a mill with round-hole screen size of 0.063″. A 1-qt. blender was charged with this screened material, and the other half of the SLS and xPVP was added, followed by blending for 5 minutes. Finally, magnesium stearate was added and the mixture was blended for 1 minute. Tableting was performed as follows: For each tablet (30 mg), 600 mg final blend was dispensed onto weigh paper and filled into dies (0.730″×0.365″). The granulation was then pressed into tablets using a carver press to achieve a hardness of about 11 kp. General tablet composition is provided in Table 3.
[0350] 
[00006] [TABLE-US-00006]
  TABLE 3
 
    Ingredient   % (w/w)
 
 
  APD125 Form I or Form II (micronized)a   5.0
    PVP K-29/32   40.0
    Mannitol powdered   22.0
    xPVP   30.0
    Methyl cellulose   0.5
    SLS   2.0
    Magnesium stearate   0.5
    Total   100.0
 
aFor placebo APD125 was replaced with mannitol

Example 2.2

Stability Testing

[0351] Wet-granulation based placebo, 30-mg Form I, and 30-mg Form II tablets were placed on stability at 25° C./60% RH and 40° C./75% RH, using 60-mL HDPE bottles (non-induction sealed). Appearance, Assay, DFA, Dissolution, Water Content by Karl Fischer (except at Initial), Tablet Hardness, Related Substances, and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) testing were performed at initial (t=0), and at 1-month, 3-month and 6-month time points. Results for the wet-granulation Form I and Form II based tablets are provided in Table 4. Form I and Form II based tablet initial, 1-month, 3-month and 6-month dissolution results are provided in Table 5. Three-month and 6-month DFA results are provided in Table 6. Results of the water content determination by Karl Fischer at 1-month, 3-month and 6-month time points are provided in Table 7. Initial (t=0), 1-month, 3-month and 6-month tablet hardness results are provided in Table 8, while initial (t=0), 1-month, 3-month and 6-month PXRD results are provided in Table 9. PXRD results obtained at the 3-month time point are provided in FIG. 4 and FIG. 5.
[0352] 
[00007] [TABLE-US-00007]
  TABLE 4
 
    % Assay (% RSD) n = 2
  Formulation   Conditions   t = 0   1 month   3 month   6 month
 
  Form I tablet   25° C./   100.3 (0.4)   108.2 (2.4)   101.8 (1.8)   89.8 (0.2)
    60% RH        
    40° C./     106.9 (5.4)    99.1 (0.5)   84.3 (2.6)
    75% RH        
  Form II tablet   25° C./    97.7 (3.4)    96.8 (0.1)   101.3 (2.5)   91.1 (2.3)
    60% RH        
    40° C./      96.9 (0.7)    99.3 (1.2)   84.3 (3.0)
    75% RH
 
[0353] 
[00008] [TABLE-US-00008]
  TABLE 5
 
    Dissolution % Released (% RSD
  Formulation   Storage Conditions   15 min   30 min   45 min   60 min
 
  Form I tablet   Initial   68.3 (3.7)   79.7 (0.8)   81.6 (0.7)   82.9 (0.4)
    1 month at 25° C./60% RH   73.9 (3.8)   85.9 (0.2)   88.4 (0.8)   89.9 (0.6)
    1 month at 40° C./75% RH   70.3 (11.8)   84.9 (3.1)   88.1 (1.7)   89.6 (1.8)
    3 months at 25° C./60% RH   76.8 (3.2)   87.6 (1.1)   90.2 (1.3)   91.3 (1.3)
    3 months at 40° C./75% RH   71.1 (8.2)   85.8 (0.8)   89.1 (0.4)   90.6 (0.7)
    6 months at 25° C./60% RH   77.0 (3.8)   82.2 (0.7)   86.1 (0.3)   85.1 (1.5)
    6 months at 40° C./75% RH   65.7 (3.1)   73.5 (1.2)   74.4 (3.7)   75.0 (2.7)
  Form II   Initial   47.5 (4.9)   55.9 (0.5)   57.8 (0.7)   58.4 (0.5)
  tablet   1 month at 25° C./60% RH   48.1 (12.5)   58.3 (1.5)   60.7 (1.3)   61.8 (0.6)
    1 month at 40° C./75% RH   49.1 (5.9)   57.5 (1.3)   60.0 (1.0)   61.0 (0.4)
    3 months at 25° C./60% RH   54.1 (4.5)   60.4 (0.4)   62.3 (0.3)   63.4 (0.3)
    3 months at 40° C./75% RH   54.5 (2.9)   59.8 (1.1)   61.7 (0.7)   63.8 (4.3)
    6 months at 25° C./60% RH   41.4 (3.3)   48.1 (3.6)   48.1 (1.1)   48.0 (0.8)
    6 months at 40° C./75% RH   46.4 (0.0)   48.7 (2.2)   49.7 (0.8)   50.9 (0.8)
 
[0354] 
[00009] [TABLE-US-00009]
  TABLE 6
 
    DFA (ppm) post 3   DFA (ppm) post   DFA (ppm) 6   DFA (ppm) 6
    months at 25°/   3 months at 40°/   months at 25° C./   months at 40° C./
    60% RH n = 2   75% RH n = 2   60% RH n =   75% RH n = 2
  Formulation   (rep1/rep2)   (rep1/rep2)   2 (rep1/rep2)   (rep1/rep2)
 
  Form I tablet   ND   165/166   <35   833/834
  Form II tablet   ND   253/245   <35   1400/1414
  SGC542 (est)a4387 (est.)a   ND   ND
 
aThe 3-month SGC results estimated using three times mean 28 day data (APD125 5-mg and 40-mgSGC capsule results 189.3 ppm and 172.3 ppm at 25° C./60% RH, respectively, and 1658.2 ppm and 1266.5 ppm at 40° C./75% RH, respectively).
  ND = not determined
[0355] 
[00010] [TABLE-US-00010]
  TABLE 7
 
  % H2O (rep1/rep2)a
    Storage   1 month   3 months   6 months
  Formulation   Conditions   n = 1   n = 2   n = 2
 
  Placebo   25° C./60% RH   7.59   9.55/9.43   9.36/9.18
    40° C./75% RH   8.96   10.50/10.53   10.51/11.15
  Form I tablet   25° C./60% RH   8.68   8.32/8.55   8.92/9.24
    40° C./75% RH   9.56   10.05/9.82    11.93/12.04
  Form II tablet   25° C./60% RH   8.75   8.67/8.77   9.40/9.22
    40° C./75% RH   8.86   10.91/10.69   13.35/13.46
 
aWater Content by Karl Fischer was not performed at t = 0
[0356] 
[00011] [TABLE-US-00011]
  TABLE 8
 
    Target Hardness   Average Hardness and Range (kp)
    (kp)   n = 4
  Condition   Material   t = 0   1 month   3 months   6 months
 
  25° C.   Form I/PVP (1:8)   11.0   7.2   7.8   4.8
  60% RH   Wet granulation     (4.6-10.1)   (3.9-10.1)   (3.8-7.0)
    Form II/PVP (1:8)   11.0   6.4   7.8   9.4
    Wet granulation     (4.5-9.4)    (5.6-12.4)    (8.2-12.1)
    Placebo   10.0   12.9    11.0    11.5 
        (9.0-21.2)   (7.7-14.4)    (7.6-16.2)
  40° C.   Form I/PVP (1:8)   11.0   5.5   5.9   9.3
  75% RH   Wet granulation     (3.5-7.3)    (3.9-9.9)     (7.8-11.1)
    Form II/PVP (1:8)   11.0   7.6   6.8   22.2 
    Wet granulation     (6.0-10.0)   (4.3-8.0)    (23.1-23.6)
    Placebo   10.0   8.7   9.9   14.9 
        (7.4-10.6)   (6.5-14.8)   (12.6-13.5)
 
[0357] 
[00012] [TABLE-US-00012]
  TABLE 9
 
    APD125 Polymorphic Form(s) Detected
  Condition   Material   t = 0   1 month   3 months   6 months
 
  25° C.   Form I/PVP (1:8)   Form I   Form I   Form I   Form I
  60% RH   Wet granulation        
    Form II/PVP   Form II   Form II   Form IIb
    (1:8)        
    Wet granulation        
    Placebo   NA   NA   NA   NA
  40° C.   Form I/PVP (1:8)   Form I   Form I   Form IForm Ia
  75% RH   Wet granulation        
    Form II/PVP   Form II   Form II   Form IIb
    (1:8)        
    Wet granulation        
    Placebo   NA   NA   NA   NA
 
aSome reduction in Form I peak intensity was observed, but no Form II was detected.
bPXRD measurements were not collected for the Form II tablets at 6 months.
  NA = not applicable
[0358] The Form I and Form II based wet-granulation tablets exhibited similar chemical stability (Table 4), although it was not possible to accurately determine if a significant drop in assay was occurring for either tablet formulation, due, in part, to the significant assay variation observed. For example, both formulations showed near 100% assay at t=0, but the Form I tablets showed 106.9% assay and 108.2% assay at 1 month, at 40° C./75% RH and 25° C./60% RH, respectively. In addition, since water content determination was not added to the stability testing protocol until the 1-month time point, none of the assay results were corrected for water content. This is a significant point, since water contents increased from 9.56% w/w to 11.99% w/w at 40° C./75% RH for the Form I based tablets (Table 7). Therefore, assay results were only used to consider the relative stability of Form I and Form II based tablets. Chemical stability of the tablet, relative to SGCs, was evaluated on the basis of DFA formation rates. For both tablet formulations, low DFA formation rates (Table 6) were observed over the course of the R&D stability study, far superior to SGCs. Dissolution (Table 5) results showed no significant changes as a function of time, with Form II tablets exhibiting consistently slower dissolution relative to Form I tablets, in agreement with monkey plasma exposure results, supra. Tablet hardness measurements (Table 8), on the other hand, showed significant variability. However, since the tablets were hand pressed rather than pressed using automated equipment, the wet granulation based tablet R&D stability hardness results might not be indicative of long-term tablet hardness stability. Water content determination by Karl Fischer at 1-month and 3-months (Table 7) suggests a possible water uptake of about 3% w/w to about 5% w/w between 1 month and 6 months at 40° C./75% RH, suggesting some level of moisture control would be advisable for future tablet development. PXRD results (Table 9, FIG. 4 and FIG. 5) showed good solid-state form control, supporting the potential use of metastable Form I for further tablet development. However, the Form I tablet 6-month PXRD results at 40° C./75% RH showed some loss in Form I peak intensity. The water content of the Form I tablets at 6 months and 40° C./75% RH was 11.99% w/w (Table 7), as compared to 9.94% w/w water at 3 months and 40° C./75% RH and 9.08% w/w water at 6 months and 25° C./60% RH, both of which did not show a loss in Form I content, suggesting water contents of 12% w/w or higher might result in Form I content reduction. Therefore, these results suggest future Form I tablet development should focus upon dry rather than wet-based formulations, and efforts to minimize water uptake, such as utilizing a water barrier tablet coating, should be considered. In addition, the 0.5% w/w methyl cellulose loading used in the wet-granulation tablets was based upon Form I API stabilization results (see Example 5).

Example 3

Thermal Activity Monitoring MicroWatt Excipient Compatibility Screening

[0359] Test Blend Preparation: Materials for each of the nine formulations shown in Tables 10 through 18 were dispensed into separately labeled 60 mL glass jars and manually blended (tumbled) for about 5 min.
[0360] 
[00013] [TABLE-US-00013]
  TABLE 10
 
  Blend 1: APD125/PVP (1:8)
    Ingredient   % (w/w)   Amount (g)
 
    APD125   5.0   0.50
    Mannitol (powdered)   21.5   2.15
    PVP   40.0   4.00
    xPVP   30.0   3.00
    Methyl cellulose   0.5   0.05
    SLS   2.0   0.20
    Magnesium stearate   1.0   0.10
    Total   100.0   10.00
 
[0361] 
[00014] [TABLE-US-00014]
  TABLE 11
 
  Blend 2: APD125/PVP (1:5)
    Ingredient   % (w/w)   Amount (g)
 
    APD125   5.0   0.50
    Mannitol (powdered)   55.0   5.50
    PVP   25.0   2.50
    xPVP   12.0   1.20
    SLS   2.0   0.20
    Magnesium stearate   1.0   0.10
    Total   100.0   10.00
 
[0362] 
[00015] [TABLE-US-00015]
  TABLE 12
 
  Blend 3: APD125/PVP (1:8) Dical phosphate/MCC
    Ingredient   % (w/w)   Amount (g)
 
    APD125   5.0   0.50
    Dical phosphate   20.0   2.00
    MCC   20.0   2.00
    PVP   40.0   4.00
    xPVP   11.5   1.15
    Methyl cellulose   0.5   0.05
    SLS   2.0   0.20
    Magnesium stearate   1.0   0.10
    Total   100.0   10.00
 
[0363] 
[00016] [TABLE-US-00016]
  TABLE 13
 
  Blend 4: APD125/PVP (1:8) Mannitol/MCC
    Ingredient   % (w/w)   Amount (g)
 
    APD125   5.0   0.50
    Mannitol (powdered)   20.0   2.00
    MCC   20.0   2.00
    PVP   40.0   4.00
    xPVP   11.5   1.15
    Methyl cellulose   0.5   0.05
    SLS   2.0   0.20
    Magnesium stearate   1.0   0.10
    Total   100.0   10.00
 
[0364] 
[00017] [TABLE-US-00017]
  TABLE 14
 
  Blend 5: APD125/coPVP (1:8)
    Ingredient   % (w/w)   Amount (g)
 
    APD125   5.0   0.50
    Mannitol (powdered)   21.5   2.15
    coPVP   40.0   4.00
    xPVP   30.0   3.00
    Methyl cellulose   0.5   0.05
    SLS   2.0   0.20
    Magnesium stearate   1.0   0.10
    Total   100.0   10.00
 
[0365] 
[00018] [TABLE-US-00018]
  TABLE 15
 
  Blend 6: APD125/coPVP (1:8) xCMC
    Ingredient   % (w/w)   Amount (g)
 
    APD125   5.0   0.50
    Mannitol (powdered)   21.5   2.15
    coPVP   40.0   4.00
    xCMC   30.0   3.00
    Methyl cellulose   0.5   0.05
    SLS   2.0   0.20
    Magnesium stearate   1.0   0.10
    Total   100.0   10.00
 
[0366] 
[00019] [TABLE-US-00019]
  TABLE 16
 
  Blend 7: APD125/PVP (1:8) Dical phosphate/MCC, xCMC
    Ingredient   % (w/w)   Amount (g)
 
    APD125   5.0   0.50
    Dical phosphate   20.0   2.00
    MCC   20.0   2.00
    PVP   40.0   4.00
    xCMC   11.5   1.15
    Methyl cellulose   0.5   0.05
    SLS   2.0   0.20
    Magnesium stearate   1.0   0.10
    Total   100.0   10.00
 
[0367] 
[00020] [TABLE-US-00020]
  TABLE 17
 
  Blend 8: APD125/PVP (1:5) Dical phosphate/MCC
  without methyl cellulose
    Ingredient   % (w/w)   Amount (g)
 
    APD125   5.0   0.50
    Dical phosphate   27.5   2.75
    MCC   27.5   2.75
    PVP   25.0   2.50
    xPVP   12.0   1.20
    SLS   2.0   0.20
    Magnesium stearate   1.0   0.10
    Total   100.0   10.00
 
[0368] 
[00021] [TABLE-US-00021]
  TABLE 18
 
  Blend 9: APD125/PVP (1:8) Poloxamer
    Ingredient   % (w/w)   Amount (g)
 
    APD125   5.0   0.50
    Mannitol (powdered   21.5   2.15
    PVP   40.0   4.00
    xPVP   30.0   3.00
    Methyl cellulose   0.5   0.05
    Poloxamer   2.0   0.20
    Magnesium stearate   1.0   0.10
    Total   100.0   10.00
 
[0369] Experimental Method: The formulation screening studies were performed at Aptuit Inc., Kansas City, Mo. 64137. Measurements were performed at 40° C. using a thermal activity monitoring (TAM) model 2277 consisting of four calorimetric units (2277-201) and standard amplifiers. All data were collected using Digitam® for Windows, version 4.1, software. Prior to initiating the series of experiments, each calorimeter unit was calibrated at 100 μW using a static electrical calibration procedure. Samples of APD125, APD125 formulation blend, or formulation blend placebo were weighed into separate 5-mL stainless steel ampoules. Approximately 100 mg of each material was used. The reference ampoules were loaded with approximately 150 mg of 4-mm borosilicate glass balls. Each ampoule was loaded onto an ampoule lifter and placed into the equilibrium position. After an initial pause, a baseline heat flow was recorded prior to lowering the samples into the measurement position. After sufficient data had been collected, the ampoules were returned to the equilibrium position and a final baseline heat flow was collected. The raw heat flow data were baseline corrected and exported for further data analysis.
[0370] Results: The results for the nine APD125 formulation blends are provided in Table 19. The desired result is zero net heat flow, with results within about 2 μW/g of zero being indistinguishable from baseline noise. With these facts in mind, it can be seen that formulation blends 1, 4, 8 and 9 are the most compatible blends, while blend 7 is the least compatible.
[0371] 
[00022] [TABLE-US-00022]
  TABLE 19
 
    Formulation   Net Heat Flow
    Blend   Output (μW/g)
 
 
  1a   0.87
    2   −13.63
    3   8.88
  4a   −0.23
    5   −13.10
    6   −8.92
    7   −62.36
  8a   −0.78
  9a   −1.19
 
aMost stable formulation blends
[0372] These results suggest that mannitol (diluent/filler), PVP (dispersing agent), xPVP (dispersing agent), methyl cellulose (APD125 Form I stabilizer), poloxamer (wetting agent), magnesium stearate (lubricant), dical phosphate (diluent/filler), MCC (diluent/filler) and SLS (wetting agent), the excipients used in one or more of the four most stable blends (i.e., blends 1, 4, 8 and 9), are suitable for further consideration as excipients. The remaining two excipients used in the study, xCMC and coPVP, were not in any of the most stable formulations, and therefore, should be considered to be potentially problematic.

Example 4

Effect of Milling and Compression Upon APD125 Form I

[0373] Sample Preparation: Micronized APD125 Form I, was ground using a mortar and pestle, with samples withdrawn at 1-min, 5-min and 10-min time points for PXRD analyses to evaluate the impact of grinding upon the solid-state form of APD125 Form I. PXRD patterns were obtained pre- and post-milling. Additionally, micronized APD125 Form I, was compressed at 2 kp, 5 kp and 10 kp for 1 min per sample using a Carver press. The samples were then removed from the Carver press and lightly broken up using a mortar and pestle, prior to PXRD analysis to evaluate the impact of compression upon the solid-state form of APD125 Form I. PXRD patterns were obtained pre- and post-compression.
[0374] Powder X-ray Diffraction: PXRD measurements were obtained using a Philips (PANalytical) X'Pert PRO theta/theta diffractometer (EQ 0233) equipped with an X'Celerator RTMS detector and utilizing copper Kα radiation, operating at 45 kV and 40 mA. The instrument radius was 239.5 mm, the mask filter was 20 mm, the soller slit was 0.04 radians, and a nickel filter and sample spinning were used during data acquisition. The application and instrument control software used were X'Pert Data Collector®, version 2.0c and XPERT-PRO®, version 1.6, respectively. The samples were scanned from 5° to 40°2θ in continuous mode, using a step size of 0.0167°2θ.
[0375] Results: In FIG. 6, an overlay of PXRD patterns for micronized APD125 Form I, before and after grinding with a mortar and pestle for 1 minute, 5 minutes and 10 minutes are compared. No significant changes in the PXRD patterns were observed, suggesting that Form I is stable to grinding/milling forces. In FIG. 7, PXRD patterns of APD125 Form I compressed at 2 kp, 5 kp and 10 kp are compared, with uncompressed Form I. All of the PXRD patterns are consistent with APD125 Form I, although with the possibility of a slight reduction in crystallinity, as suggested by peak broadening and a loss of peak resolution/intensity for the compressed samples, relative to the uncompressed control sample.

Example 5

Methyl Cellulose Optimization

Example 5.1

Test Blend Preparation

Example 5.1.1

Form I API Slurries in Water

[0376] In a small scintillation vial, 152.13 mg of micronized APD125 Form I, was spiked with sufficient deionized water to make a paste; the weight of the water added, 844.60 mg, was recorded, and the resulting mixture was stirred using a spatula to obtain a paste. The resulting sample, post-collection of an initial PXRD pattern, was capped, wrapped in tinfoil and stored at 40° C. until the next day, when a second PXRD pattern was obtained.
[0377] Using another small scintillation vial, 2.1183 g of micronized APD125 Form I, was mixed with 3.3619 g of a 0.5% w/v methyl cellulose to obtain a paste, which was immediately sampled for PXRD analysis to verify starting APD125 solid-state form, post-methyl cellulose addition. The remaining sample in the scintillation vial was split into two portions, placed in capped, parafilm-wrapped scintillation vials, which were then wrapped in tinfoil and stored at 40° C. and room temperature, respectively. PXRD patterns were collected at initial (t=0), 2-day and 16-day time points for each sample.

Example 5.1.2

Tablet Granulation Slurries in Water

[0378] APD125 micronized Form I/PVP (1:8) blend, weighing 3.0081 g and containing 0.5% w/w methyl cellulose, was mixed with 3.71277 g of water to form a paste. After sampling the paste for an initial PXRD pattern, the remaining paste was split into two portions, placed in capped, parafilm-wrapped scintillation vials, which were then wrapped in tinfoil and stored at 40° C. and room temperature, respectively. PXRD patterns were collected at initial (t=0), 1-day, 7-day and 21-day time points.

Example 5.1.3

Tablets (10 mg) Prepared Using 0% w/w, 2% w/w, 5% w/w and 8% w/w Methyl Cellulose

[0379] For each blend, materials were dispensed (minus magnesium stearate) into a glass vial and blended for about 5 minutes. Magnesium stearate was added and the mixture was blended an additional 2 minutes. The final blend was compacted into standard round concave tablets (5/16″ diameter) with a total tablet weight of 200 mg and hardness of 10 kp using a Carver press. For each batch of tablets, several were crushed using a mortar and pestle to obtain a fine powder, from which a small sample was taken for PXRD analysis to confirm the initial APD125 polymorphic form. The remaining powder was weighed into a Qorpak® bottle, and ca. 50% w/w deionized water was added. The resulting mixture was stirred using a micro-spatula to wet the powder and form a paste. A Teflon® lid was screwed on tightly, and the prepared samples were stored in a 40° C. oven. Ground tablet and water weights for each methyl cellulose loading are provided in Table 20. PXRD patterns were collected for the five tablet granulation/water blends, according to the schedule provided in Table 21.
[0380] 
[00023] [TABLE-US-00023]
  TABLE 20
 
  Formulation Used   Weight of Powder (g)   Weight of Water (g)
 
 
  APD125:PVP (1:8)   1.4767   1.4802
  2% methyl cellulose    
  APD125:PVP (1:8)   1.3173   1.5822
  5% methyl cellulose    
  APD125:CoPVP (1:8)   1.5436   1.5172
  5% methyl cellulose    
  APD125:PVP (1:8) 8%   1.5355   1.5049
  methyl cellulose    
  APD125:PVP (1:8)   1.64810   1.63835
 
[0381] 
[00024] [TABLE-US-00024]
  TABLE 21
 
      XRD Results Suggest
  Formulation Used   Time Point   Major Presence of:
 
  2% methyl cellulose   Initial (no water)   Form I
    1 day   Form I
    1 week   Form II
    4 weeks   —
  5% methyl cellulose,   Initial (no water)   Form I
  PVP   1 day   Form I
    1 week   Form I
    4 weeks   Form I
  5% methyl cellulose,   Initial (no water)   Form I
  coPVP   1 day   Form I
    1 week   Form I
    4 weeks   Form II
  8% methyl cellulose   Initial (no water)   Form I
    1 day   Form I
    1 week   Form I
    4 weeks   Form I and Form II
  0% methyl cellulose   Initial (no water)   Form I
    1 day   Form II
    1 week   —
    4 weeks   —
 

Example 5.2

Powder X-ray Diffraction

[0382] PXRD measurements were obtained using a Philips (PANalytical) X'Pert PRO theta/theta diffractometer (EQ 0233) equipped with an X'Celerator RTMS detector and utilizing copper Kα radiation, operating at 45 kV and 40 mA. The instrument radius was 239.5 mm, the mask filter was 20 mm, the soller slit was 0.04 radians, and a nickel filter and sample spinning were used during data acquisition. The application and instrument control software used were X'Pert Data Collector®, version 2.0c and XPERT-PRO®, version 1.6, respectively. The API-based paste samples were scanned from 5° to 40°2θ in continuous mode, using a step size of 0.0167°2θ and a counting time of 40.005 seconds. The tablet granulation samples were scanned from 2° to 15°2θ in continuous mode, using a step size of 0.0167°2θ and a counting time of 1063.625 s.
[0383] An aqueous 0.5% w/w methyl cellulose solution of Form I at 40° C. showed no evidence of conversion to Form II after 16 days (FIG. 8), in sharp contract to a Form I paste in water alone at 40° C., which converted to Form II within 24 hours (FIG. 9). As a result, 0.5% w/w methyl cellulose was added to the first APD125 wet-granulation tablet to hinder the conversion of Form Ito Form II. However, the effectiveness of methyl cellulose in a tablet matrix has not been previously investigated. Therefore, as a first step, the wet-granulation tablet blend, containing 0.5% w/w methyl cellulose, was mixed with 50% w/w water to form a paste and stored at room temperature and 40° C. to determine if conversion to Form II was inhibited. Initial (t=0) and 24 hour PXRD patterns for the wet samples are shown in FIG. 10. After 24 hours, the sample stored at 40° C. showed conversion to Form II; while the room-temperature sample was still Form I. As shown in FIG. 11, the room-temperature sample remains Form I at 7 days, finally converting to Form II at 21 days.
[0384] In contrast to pure APD125 Form I suspended in aqueous 0.5% w/w methyl cellulose, which did not convert to Form II in 21 days at room temperature, the tablet did show conversion to Form II. Therefore, it was decided to evaluate higher methyl cellulose concentrations to determine if conversion to Form II could be more effectively inhibited. PVP-based direct compression tablets were prepared containing 0% w/w, 2% w/w, 5% w/w and 8% w/w methyl cellulose. In addition, coPVP-based direct compression tablets were prepared containing 5% w/w methyl cellulose. In each case, the tablets were ground, mixed with 50% w/w water and stored at 40° C., with PXRD patterns collected at t=0, 24 h, 1 week and 4 weeks (1 month). As shown in FIG. 12, all samples contained Form I initially, but by 24 hours (FIG. 13), the sample without methyl cellulose showed conversion to Form II, as was previously observed for the 0.5% w/w methyl cellulose tablet blend.
[0385] After 1 week at 40° C., the 2% w/w methyl cellulose sample showed conversion to Form II (FIG. 14), while the remaining samples, containing 5% w/w and 8% w/w methyl cellulose, started to show conversion to Form II at 1 month (FIG. 15). Thus, 2% w/w, 5% w/w and 8% w/w methyl cellulose containing tablets showed retarded conversion to Form II relative to the 0% w/w methyl cellulose control and the previously studied 0.5% w/w methyl cellulose containing tablet.
[0386] In addition to maintaining Form I, a primary goal of APD125 tablet formulation development is to minimize DFA formation. As can be seen in Table 25, although methyl cellulose loadings of 5% w/w and 8% w/w exhibited the best inhibition of Form II, they also resulted in increased DFA formation, relative to the 0% w/w methyl cellulose control. In addition, at the 5% w/w methyl cellulose loading, the coPVP-based tablets showed over three times the DFA formation of the PVP-based tablets, suggesting, as in the case of the TAM results, that coPVP might be less desirable as an excipient than PVP. The 2% w/w methyl cellulose loading provided the best overall balance of optimal chemical stability, while retaining a reasonable ability to inhibit the formation of Form II (FIG. 13, Table 25), and therefore, was used as the basis of further tablet development.

Example 5.3

DFA Assay

[0387] In addition to maintaining Form I, a primary goal of APD125 tablet formulation development was to minimize DFA formation. The 4-week 40° C./75% RH samples were pulled from their stability chambers and allowed to dry over the course of a couple of days under nitrogen. The material was then broken up using a micro-spatula until enough material was available for the DFA HPLC analysis. The samples were allowed to sit in solution for 4 hours before being filtered by centrifugation and transferred into an HPLC vial for analysis. Manual integration was used for all chromatograms.
[0388] As can be seen in Table 22, although methyl cellulose loadings of 5% w/w and 8% w/w exhibited the best inhibition of Form II, they also resulted in increased DFA formation, relative to the 0% w/w methyl cellulose control. In addition, at the 5% w/w methyl cellulose loading, the coPVP-based tablets showed over three times the DFA formation of the PVP-based tablets, suggesting, as in the case of the TAM results, that coPVP might be less desirable as an excipient than PVP. The 2% w/w methyl cellulose loading provided the best overall balance of optimal chemical stability, while retaining a reasonable ability to inhibit the formation of Form II (FIG. 13, Table 22), and therefore, was used as the basis of further tablet development.
[0389] 
[00025] [TABLE-US-00025]
  TABLE 22
 
      DFA
    Form Detected   (n = 1)
  Formulation   (1 day)   (1 week)   (4 weeks)   (4 weeks)
 
  APD125 Form I/PVP (1:8)   Form II   Not   Not   37 ppm
  No methyl cellulose     applicable   applicable  
  APD125 Form I/PVP (1:8)   Form I   Form II   Not   34 ppm
  2% w/w methyl cellulose       applicable  
  APD125 Form I/PVP   Form I   Form I   Form I   80 ppm
  (1:8)        
  5% w/w methyl cellulose        
  APD125 Form I/coPVP   Form I   Form I   Form II   292 ppm 
  (1:8)        
  5% w/w methyl cellulose        
  APD125 Form I/PVP (1:8)   Form I   Form I   Form I/   105 ppm 
  8% w/w methyl cellulose       Form II  
        mixture
 

Example 6

PVP/API and coPVP/API Ratio Optimization

Example 6.1

Sample Preparation

[0390] APD125 Form I and either PVP or coPVP were weighed out and mixed to obtain API/PVP or API/coPVP ratios of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 1:8. The resulting mixtures were blended for ca. 5 min, screened through a #40 screen, and blended for an additional ca. 5 minutes.

Example 6.2

Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis

[0391] Each sample was lightly stirred with a micro-spatula and a small portion of the material was tapped onto double-sided adhesive on a disposable scanning electron microscopy (SEM) stage at a height no greater than 0.5 cm. The SEM stage was lightly tapped to remove any loose material that did not adhere to the adhesive, and the prepared sample was placed in the SEM chamber. Images were collected using a FEI Quanta 200 (S/N D7554-R).
[0392] The 1:1 blend showed significant amounts of residual APD125 not coated onto the PVP particles, whereas the 1:3, 1:5 and 1:8 SEM images showed similar and significantly less residual APD125, not coated onto PVP, suggesting an API:PVP ratio of greater than 1:1, but no more than 1:3 is required to disperse most of the APD125 onto the PVP. APD125 does not uniformly coat the PVP particles, but tends to adhere more thickly to some areas than others, possibly due to variations in electrostatics.
[0393] Similar SEM results were obtained for API/coPVP blends. Once again, based upon the SEM images, it would appear that the least residual APD125 was observed at API:coPVP ratios of 1:3 or greater.

Example 6.3

Monkey APD125 Plasma Exposure—APD125 Form I:PVP and APD125 Form I:coPVP Tablet Formulations

[0394] The effects of PVP and coPVP in various ratios with APD125 on APD125 plasma exposure in monkeys after oral administration of direct (dry) compression tablets containing 10 mg of APD125 were examined. APD125 plasma exposure (AUCo . . . ) at APD125:PVP ratios of 1:1, 1:4 and 1:6 were similar at 0.548±0.321 h·μg/mL, 0.575±0.379 h·μg/mL and 0.572±0.556 h·μg/mL, respectively. At an APD125:PVP ratio of 1:8, however, plasma exposure (1.262±0.660 h·μg/mL) increased twofold compared to the 1:1, 1:4 and 1:6 ratios (FIG. 16, Table 23). The replacement of PVP with coPVP in the direct compression tablet at a ratio of 1:8 did not affect APD125 exposure: APD125:PVP, 1.262±0.660 h·μg/mL; APD125:coPVP, 1.889±1.162 h·μg/mL (FIG. 20, Table 23). Therefore, the final prototype tablets were 1:8 APD125:PVP or 1:8 APD125:coPVP ratio based formulations.
[0395] 
[00026] [TABLE-US-00026]
    TABLE 23
   
      CmaxAUC0-∞tmax
    Dose     (μg/mL)   (h · μg/mL)   (h)
  Formulation   (mg)   N   Mean   SD   Mean   SD   Mean   SD
 
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:1) DC   10   6   0.077   0.057   0.548   0.321   4.7   2.1
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:4) DC   10   6   0.085   0.071   0.575   0.379   4.7   4.3
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:6) DC   10   6   0.125   0.174   0.572   0.556   4.3   2.3
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8) DC   10   3   0.335   0.138   1.262   0.660   2.7   0.8
  APD125 Form I:coPVP (1:8) DC   10   5   0.471   0.413   1.889   1.162   2.4   0.9
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8) WET   10   6   0.227   0.153   1.507   1.218   2.2   1.0
  Soft gelatin capsule   10   6   0.942   0.303   3.192   1.291   2.2   1.0
 

Example 7

Direct Compression Tablet

Example 7.1

Micronization of APD125 Form I

[0396] APD125 Form I (12.5 kg, particle size d10 of 1.75 μm, d50 of 6.98 μm, d90 of 38.45 μm) (Sympatec Helos wet dispersion laser diffraction particle size analyzer) was micronized in a 300 mm spiral jet mill at a solid feed rate of 20.0 kg/h with a grinding pressure of 6.5±0.5 bar and a filtered nitrogen gas feed pressure of 10±0.5 bar to produce APD125 Form I (11.55 kg, 92.4% yield) of 99.93% purity by HPLC peak area. The micronized product was found to have a particle size d90 of 6.16 μm with a Sympatec Helos wet dispersion laser diffraction particle size analyzer.

Example 7.2

Tablet Manufacturing for 5% w/w Methyl Cellulose-loaded Tablets

[0397] Materials were dispensed according to the target tablet quantitative composition.
[0398] Micronized APD125, PVP and methyl cellulose were preblended in a bag, and then hand-screened through a #40-mesh sieve. A 2-qt. blender was charged with the preblend, and all other remaining materials were added, minus the magnesium stearate, followed by blending for 300 rotations (12 min at 25 rpm). Finally, the magnesium stearate was added, and the resulting mixture was blended for an additional 100 rotations (4 minutes at 25 rpm). This material was compressed into 200-mg tablets using a Piccola PLC tablet press equipped with two stations of 5/16″ standard round concave tooling to achieve a target 5-kp to 8-kp tablet hardness.

Example 7.3

Tablet Manufacturing for 2% w/w Methyl Cellulose-loaded Tablets

[0399] Materials were dispensed according to the target tablet quantitative composition. A blender was charged with all of the tablet components, minus magnesium stearate, and blended for 300 rotations (12 min at 25 rpm). The resulting blend was delumped using a Comill (equipped with an R045 screen and round-arm impeller), transferred into a blender, and blended for 300 rotations (12 min at 25 rpm). The magnesium stearate was added, followed by blending for an additional 100 rotations (4 min at 25 rpm). The resulting final blend was compressed into 200-mg tablets (containing 10 mg of micronized APD125 Form I API) to a target hardness of 5 kp to 8 kp, using a Piccola PLC tablet press, equipped with 5/16″ standard round concave tooling. For the 40-mg active tablets, the final blend was compressed into 800-mg tablets to a target hardness of 12 kp to 16 kp, using 0.730″×0.365″ plain oval tooling. Finally, all tablet cores were film coated with Opadry® II Blue 85F90996 to a 5% weight gain, using a fully perforated 11.5″ pan. Final tablet composition is provided in Table 24.
[0400] 
[00027] [TABLE-US-00027]
  TABLE 24
 
    Ingredient   % (w/w)   Amount (g)
 
 
  Core tablet
    APD125 (Micronized)   5.00   50.0
    PVP, Plasdone ™ K-29/32 or   40.00   400.0
    coPVP, Kollidon ™ VA 64    
    Lactose monohydrate, 316   21.25   212.5
    Microcrystalline cellulose, PH102   25.00   250.0
    Crospovidone, Kollidon ™ CL   4.00   40.0
    Methyl cellulose   2.00   20.0
    Sodium lauryl sulfate   2.00   20.0
    Magnesium stearate   0.50   5.0
    Silicon dioxide   0.25   2.5
    Total   100.00   1000.0
  Film coat
    Opadry ® II Blue 85F90996   5   NA
 
  NA = not applicable

Example 7.4

Monkey APD125 Plasma Exposure

[0401] Monkey APD125 exposure studies conducted with wet granulation based APD125 Form I 10-mg tablets, containing 0.5% w/w methyl cellulose, were shown to exhibit roughly one-half the AUC0-∞ and one-fourth the Cmax of SGCs (Example 1.1). Additionally, monkey studies using uncoated direct compression APD125 Form I 10-mg tablets, containing 5% w/w methyl cellulose found the direct compression tablets to exhibit essentially the same exposure as previously observed for the wet-granulation tablets (Example 6.3). Based on the PK data and the methyl cellulose formulation stability results (Table 22), a decision was made to prepare two final, separate R&D batches of coated direct-compression tablets with 40 mg APD125 Form I, containing methyl cellulose at 2% w/w, and either PVP or coPVP.
[0402] Six monkeys were dosed in a 2×6 crossover design. APD125 plasma exposure after oral administration of 40 mg APD125 in SGC or dry compression tablets are shown in FIG. 18. Pharmacokinetic parameters are presented in Table 25. APD125 absorption into the systemic circulation occurred over a 3-h period followed by a mono-exponential terminal phase. The time to maximal plasma concentration (tmax) was most rapid for the liquid filled SGC at 2.2 h. The tmax increased with tablet administration to 3.3 h. The SGC Cmax(0.850±0.462 μg/mL) was approximately twofold greater than the Cmax for APD125 Form I tablet (0.464±0.236 μg/mL). The integrated plasma exposures (AUCo-∞) for SGC and APD125 Form I tablet were similar (4.395±3.122 h·μg/mL) and APD125 Form I (4.223±2.660 h·μg/mL). The extended tmax, reduced Cmax and similar overall exposures (AUCo-∞) of the tablet formulation compared to the SGC formulation corroborate the exploratory formulations discussed in Example 1.1 (Table 1).
[0403] 
[00028] [TABLE-US-00028]
    TABLE 25
   
      CmaxAUC0-∞tmax
    Dose     (μg/mL)   (h · μg/mL)   (h)
  Formulation   (mg)   N   Mean   SD   Mean   SD   Mean   SD
 
  Tablet APD125 Form I:PVP   40   6   0.46   0.236   4.223   2.660   3.3   1.0
  (1:8) coated direct-compression, 2%
  w/w methyl cellulose
  Soft gelatin capsule   40   6   0.850   0.462   4.395   3.122   2.2   1.0
 
[0404] As can be seen in Table 25, APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8) coated direct-compression tablets exhibit essentially identical AUC0-∞ results to the SGC at a 40-mg dose, as was expected on the basis of the previous wet-granulation tablet monkey PK results. Additionally, the 40-mg tablets exhibited roughly one-half the Cmax of the SGCs and a slightly longer tmax, which is also consistent with previous wet granulation tablet PK results.

Example 7.5

R&D Stability Testing

[0405] 10-mg and 40-mg, PVP and coPVP-based prototype APD125 tablets were placed on stability at 25° C./60% RH and 40° C./75% RH, contained in HDPE bottles with induction seal and desiccant. Appearance, dissolution, water content by Karl Fischer, PXRD, related substances and tablet hardness tests were performed at initial and 8-week time points only. Compound II, DFA and related substances were assayed at initial, 2-week and 4-week time points. Additional tablets were also stored in open containers at 40° C./75% RH, pulled and analyzed at the 4-week time point for DFA and compound II.
[0406] PVP-based and coPVP-based tablet formulations showed comparable overall chemical stability during the 8-week study, with no significant loss in APD125 observed, as demonstrated by the assay results shown in Table 26. The DFA results for the final two R&D formulations are provided in Table 27.
[0407] 
[00029] [TABLE-US-00029]
    TABLE 26
   
    APD125 % Assay (% RSD)
      Dose   Initial   2 weeks   4 weeks   8 weeks
  Formulation   Conditions   (mg)   n = 3   n = 3   n = 3   n = 3
 
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8)   40° C.   10   90.5 (0.5)   93.0 (0.6)   102.3 (4.9)   93.7 (2.4)
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40   93.1 (0.5)   91.3 (0.7)   102.3 (3.6)   97.7 (2.1)
  direct-compression (coated)   25° C.   10   90.5 (0.5)   NT   NT   95.4 (2.1)
    60% RH   40   93.1 (0.5)   NT   NT   96.9 (2.0)
  APD125 Form I:coPVP (1:8)   40° C.   10   90.4 (0.5)   91.8 (1.8)    92.6 (0.9)   95.1 (1.5)
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40   92.5 (1.5)   97.5 (5.9)    93.1 (0.9)   97.0 (0.9)
  direct-compression (coated)   25° C.   10   90.4 (0.5)   NT   NT   93.3 (1.1)
    60% RH   40   92.5 (1.5)   NT   NT   96.7 (2.7)
 
  NT = not tested
[0408] 
[00030] [TABLE-US-00030]
    TABLE 27
   
    DFA Concentration as ppm (% RSD)
      Dose   Initial   2 weeks   4 weeks   8 weeks
  Formulation   Conditions   (mg)   n = 2   n = 2   n = 2   n = 2
 
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8)   40° C.   10NDa   <35   <35   <35
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40NDa   <35   <35   <35
  direct-compression (coated),   25° C.   10NDa   NA   NANDa
  HDPE bottle with desiccant   60% RH   40NDa   NA   NANDa
  APD125 Form I:coPVP (1:8)   40° C.   10NDa   69 (1.8)   114 (1.7)   142 (2.4)
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40NDa   67 (1.2)   145 (0.6)   161 (1.1)
  direct-compression (coated),   25° C.   10NDa   NA   NANDa
  HDPE bottle with desiccant   60% RH   40NDa   NA   NANDa
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8)   40° C.   10NDa   NA   645 (0.2)   NA
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40NDa   NA   918 (0.5   NA
  direct-compression (coated),
  open container
  APD125 Form I:coPVP (1:8)   40° C.   10NDa   NA   648 (1.7)   NA
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40NDa   NA   788 (1.4)   NA
  direct-compression (coated),
  open container
 
aDFA limit of detection and limit of quantitation are 10 ppm and 35 ppm respectively
  NA = not applicable
  ND = Not detected
[0409] As was previously observed during the methyl cellulose optimization studies (Table 22), the coPVP-based tablets were found to exhibit faster DFA formation rates than the corresponding PVP-based tablets, which is also consistent with TAM results (Example 3), suggesting potential compatibility issues with coPVP. Interestingly, the open-container results (Table 27) show similar DFA formation rates for both PVP-based and coPVP-based tablets, in contrast with HDPE bottle stability and methyl cellulose optimization results, which suggested tablets containing coPVP exhibit faster DFA formation than PVP-based tablets. This apparent discrepancy might be due to water content differences. In the cases of the HDPE bottle stability and methyl cellulose optimization studies, the amount of water present in the samples is very similar, which allows one to better assess the impact of changing from PVP to coPVP. However, in the case of the open-container stability study results, each sample would equilibrate to quite different water contents, as shown in FIG. 20. At a relative humidity of 75%, the PVP-based tablets could be expected to absorb significantly more water than the coPVP-based tablets, and since hydrolysis is a major pathway for DFA formation, it is not unreasonable that the open container PVP-based tablets would begin to show faster DFA formation, becoming nearly identical to the open container coPVP-based tablets. It is therefore possible that the observed increased DFA formation rate in the presence of coPVP, relative to PVP, is not the result of chemical incompatibility with coPVP. Instead, at a fixed water content in a closed system, the more hygroscopic PVP, relative to coPVP, might reduce the amount of free water available for hydrolysis of APD125.
[0410] As shown in Table 28 and Table 29, both PVP-based and coPVP-based tablets exhibited no evidence of significant Compound II assay and dissolution rate changes post-8 weeks at 40° C./75% RH, with the exception of the open container results, consistent with the DFA results, shown in Table 27. The PXRD results show that all samples tested contain Form I, indicating good solid-state form stability for both PVP-based and coPVP-based tablets (Table 30). The water content determination by Karl Fischer showed essentially no change in water content over the 8-week study (Table 31). There was, however, a slightly higher water content observed for the PVP-based tablets, relative to the coPVP-based tablets, which is consistent with the fact that PVP is somewhat more hygroscopic than coPVP (FIG. 19).
[0411] 
[00031] [TABLE-US-00031]
    TABLE 28
   
    Compound II Concentration as % area
    (% RSD)
      Dose   Initial   2 weeks   4 weeks   8 weeks
  Formulation   Conditions   (mg)   n = 2   n = 2   n = 2   n = 2
 
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8)   40° C.   10NDaNDaNDa   <0.05
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40NDaNDaNDa   <0.05
  direct-compression (coated),   25° C.   10NDa   NA   NA   <0.05
  HDPE bottle with desiccant   60% RH   40NDa   NA   NA   <0.05
  APD125 Form I:coPVP (1:8)   40° C.   10NDaNDaNDa   <0.05
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40NDaNDaNDa   <0.05
  direct-compression (coated),   25° C.   10NDa   NA   NA   <0.05
  HDPE bottle with desiccant   60% RH   40NDa   NA   NA   <0.05
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8)   40° C.   10NDa   NA   0.24 (5.89)   NA
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40NDa   NA   0.26 (2.77)   NA
  direct-compression (coated),
  open container
  APD125 Form I:coPVP (1:8)   40° C.   10NDa   NA   0.24 (5.89)   NA
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40NDa   NA    0.33 (15.23)   NA
  direct-compression (coated),
  open container
 
[0412] 
[00032] [TABLE-US-00032]
  TABLE 29
 
    APD125 % Released
    at 60 min (% RSD)
      Dose   Initial   8 weeks
  Formulation   Conditions   (mg)   n = 4   n = 4
 
  APD125 Form   40° C.   10   103.9 (3.4)   97.0 (3.1)
  I:PVP (1:8) 2% w/w   75% RH   40    98.9 (2.5)   95.9 (1.4)
  methyl cellulose,   25° C.   10   103.9 (3.4)   101.0 (1.7) 
  direct-compression   60% RH   40    98.9 (2.5)   100.4 (2.0) 
  (coated)        
  APD125 Form   40° C.   10   100.0 (0.7)   95.6 (0.9)
  I:coPVP (1:8) 2% w/w   75% RH   40    98.3 (1.3)   94.5 (0.8)
  methyl cellulose,   25° C.   10   100.0 (0.7)   99.0 (0.9)
  direct-compression   60% RH   40    98.3 (1.3)   98.9 (0.8)
  (coated)
 
[0413] 
[00033] [TABLE-US-00033]
  TABLE 30
 
    APD125
    Polymorph(s)
    Detected
  Formulation   Conditions   Dose (mg)   Initial   8 weeks
 
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8)   40° C.   10   Form I   Form I
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40   Form I   Form I
  direct-compression (coated)   25° C.   10   Form I   Form I
    60% RH   40   Form I   Form I
  APD125 Form I:coPVP (1:8)   40° C.   10   Form I   Form I
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   75% RH   40   Form I   Form I
  direct-compression (coated)   25° C.   10   Form I   Form I
    60% RH   40   Form I   Form I
 
[0414] 
[00034] [TABLE-US-00034]
  TABLE 31
 
    % water Content
    (% RSD)
      Dose   Initial   8 weeks
  Formulation   Conditions   (mg)   n = 3   n = 3
 
  APD125 Form I:PVP (1:8)   25° C.   10   6.7 (4.5)   4.8 (0.9)
  2% w/w methyl cellulose,   60% RH   40   5.7 (3.7)   4.5 (1.1)
  direct-compression (coated)   40° C.   10   6.7 (4.5)6.5 (0.0)a
    75% RH   40   5.7 (3.7)5.7 (5.9)a
  APD125 Form I:coPVP   25° C.   10   4.7 (5.2)   4.1 (19.2)
  (1:8) 2% w/w methyl   60% RH   40   4.3 (0.8)3.9 (0.7)a
  cellulose, direct-   40° C.   10   4.7 (5.2)4.9 (1.7)a
  compression (coated)   75% RH   40   4.3 (0.8)4.5 (0.8)a
 
an = 2

Example 7.6

Nine Months Stability Testing

[0415] 10-mg and 40-mg, PVP and coPVP-based prototype APD125 tablets were placed on stability testing packaged in HDPE bottles 60 cc with and without desiccant. See Table 32.
[0416] 
[00035] [TABLE-US-00035]
  TABLE 32
 
  Batches Tested and Packaging
  Batch   Formulation   Strength   Packaging
 
  1   APD125/PVP   10 mg   HDPE bottles
  2     40 mg   with desiccant
  3   APD125/coPVP   10 mg  
  4     40 mg  
  5   APD125/PVP   10 mg   HDPE bottles
  6     40 mg   without desiccant
  7   APD125/coPVP   10 mg  
  8     40 mg  
  9   Placebo/PVP   (10 mg)   HDPE bottles
        with desiccant
  10     (10 mg)   HDPE bottles
        without desiccant
  11     (40 mg)   HDPE bottles
        with desiccant
  12     (40 mg)   HDPE bottles
        without desiccant
 
[0417] The stability samples were stored at 25° C./60% relative humidity, 30° C./65% relative humidity and 40° C./75% relative humidity to examine the effect of heat and humidity. The studies are conducted according to ICH Q1A(R) guidelines (stability testing of new drug substances and products).
[0418] After a storage duration of 6 months, the stability tests with tablets in bottles without desiccant were stopped and only the stability tests with tablets in bottles with desiccant were measured after a storage duration of 9 months.
[0419] After a storage duration of 9 months at 25° C./60% relative humidity in bottles with desiccant, the tablets show an increase of the water content compared with the initial values (PVP max.+2.4%, coPVP max.+4%, placebo tablets max.+1.6%). The tablets were tested again after 10.5 months and the water content was found to be lower than it had been at 9 months. The water content at 10.5 months compared with the initial values was: PVP max.+0.5%; coPVP max.+0.5%; placebo tablets max.+0.1%). The difference in water content at 9 months and 10.5 months is probably due to the testing protocols used. At 9 months the tablets were ground on one day but the water content was not measured until the following day. During this delay it is believed the ground tablets picked up moisture from the air. At 10.5 months however, the tablets were ground and tested for water content on the same day.
[0420] After a storage duration of 9 months at 25° C./60% relative humidity in bottles with desiccant, a decrease of the crushing strength of the tablets was observed compared with the initial values. The decrease of the 10 mg tablets was higher than the 40 mg tablets (10 mg max.=−24 N; 40 mg max.=−8 N). No significant differences were observed between the active and the placebo tablets and between the PVP and the coPVP formulation.
[0421] After a storage duration of 9 months at 25° C./60% relative humidity in bottles with desiccant, no significant decrease of the dissolution rate can be observed.
[0422] After a storage duration of 9 months at 25° C./60% relative humidity in bottles with desiccant, the assay results for APD125 were in the same range as the initial conditions. No significant trends of the assay results can be observed and all results are within the specification.
[0423] After a storage duration of 9 months at 25° C./60% relative humidity in bottles with desiccant, small amounts of DFA were detected but all results were below the quantitation limit of 75 ppm. For other impurities, no increase were observed and all results were ≦0.05%.

Example 8

Preparation of Intermediate N-[4-Methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenyl]-acetamide

[0424]  [see pdf for image]
[0425] To a solution of N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenyl]-acetamide (25.0 kg) in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA, 140.5 kg) in a 400 L glass lined jacketed reactor with overhead stirring under nitrogen at 45 to 55° C. internal temperature N-bromosuccinimide (NBS, 19.0 kg) was charged in portions at such a rate as to maintain internal temperature to less than 55° C. The reaction mixture remained a solution at this dilution of DMA and internal temperature of 50.9° C. An “in process check” of the reaction mixture to determine reaction completion after at least 1 hr of stirring at 50° C. showed that the reaction mixture was substantially free of the starting material. Upon cooling of the reaction mixture to an internal temperature of 34° C. water (150 kg) was added in a controlled manner into the reactor to maintain an internal temperature between 40-55° C. A slight exotherm was observed during the reaction quench. The product slurry was then cooled to −5 to 5° C. and filtered through a corrosion resistant filter/dryer. The wetcake was re-slurried, washed with water (2×25 kg), and dried under full house vacuum (˜30 in Hg) with a jacket temperature of 65° C. producing N-[3-(4 bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy phenyl]-acetamide (31.6 kg, 100% purity by HPLC, 96.1% yield).

Example 9

Preparation of Intermediate 3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-methyl-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine

[0426]  [see pdf for image]
N-[3-(4 Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy phenyl]-acetamide (15.6 kg), xylenes (67.1 kg), n-propanol (12.5 kg), and sodium hydroxide pellets (4.1 kg) were charged into a 400 L Hastelloy jacketed reactor with overhead stirring and nitrogen blanket. The reaction mixture was heated and held at reflux for at least four hours with a peak internal temperature of 107° C. at which point the HPLC analysis of the reaction mixture indicated substantially complete deacetylation of the starting material to product. The reactor condenser was then switched from reflux to distillation configuration to remove most of the n-propanol solvent. This was accomplished by monitoring the temperature profile of the reactor contents and monitoring when the temperature stabilized (126-127° C. Tinternal with up to 145° C. Tjacket) indicating near-complete removal of n-propanol. The product mixture was cooled to 80° C. and water (15.6 L) was added to extract the inorganic material from the product dissolved in xylenes. The aqueous extraction was repeated by adding water (11.7 kg) at 70-80° C. and performing a second extraction to remove residual inorganics from the product solution. Upon cooling to 65° C. vacuum was applied to effect distillation of approximately 40% of initial xylenes charge at which point precipitation was observed. The reaction slurry was further cooled to 40° C. Cyclohexane (10.5 L) was charged in portions to control precipitation at an internal temperature 36.6 to 41.1° C. Upon completion of the cyclohexane anti-solvent addition, the reaction mixture was cooled to −11.9° C. (maximize the yield). The solid product was filtered using a filter/dryer, washed with cyclohexane (2×12.2 kg), and dried under full house vacuum (˜30 in Hg) and with increasing internal temperature up to 40° C. isolating 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-methyl-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine (12.29 kg, 100% purity by HPLC, and 92% yield).

Example 10

Preparation of Form I of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, Direct Method, (Compound I)

[0427]  [see pdf for image]
[0428] To a solution of 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-methyl-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine (16.7 kg) in acetonitrile (78.6 kg) in a 200 L glass jacketed reactor with overhead stirring and nitrogen blanket at an internal temperature of <−10° C. 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate (9.68 kg) was controlled charged through a 1 micron line filter at a rate substantially slow enough to prevent co-precipitation of the starting material in the product. After continued stirring at <−10° C. for approximately 1 hour post completion of the 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate addition, the conversion of starting material to product was substantially complete. The product slurry was filtered and washed with cold acetonitrile (26.3 kg) at <−5° C. producing the acetonitrile solvate of the product. Full house vacuum (˜30 in Hg) was applied to the bottom outlet filter/dryer while nitrogen flowed through from the top enhancing the removal of volatile solvents without application of heat. Samples were removed from the bulk material and LOD was determined using an IR-200 Moisture Analyzer Instrument (Denver Instrument Company). The time course is shown below:
[0429] 
[00036] [TABLE-US-00036]
 
  Sample No.   LOD %   Time (h)
 
 
  1   38.48   0
  2   29.63   7
  3   20.96   13.5
  4   7.28   19.5
 
[0430] Drying of the “wetcake” was maintained at ambient temperature under full house vacuum (˜30 in Hg) for about 19.5 h at which time the LOD was 7.28%. At this point, the temperature was raised to 70° C. under full house vacuum (˜30 in Hg) for 11 hrs to afford 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (24.2 kg, 99.94% HPLC purity, form I determined by PXRD, and 92.9% yield).

Example 11

Conversion of Form II of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to Form I of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea

[0431]  [see pdf for image]
[0432] 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (24.2 kg) was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (85.6 kg) in a 200 L Hastelloy jacketed reactor with overhead stirring and nitrogen blanket at or near reflux (62.4° C.). Solids which had precipitated on the wall were washed down with THF (8.6 kg). The THF solution was transferred through a line filter into a 400 L glass lined reactor. At a reduced THF solution internal temperature of <−5° C., heptane (128.5 kg) was added into the reactor at a controlled rate such that internal temperature did not exceed −5° C. After having been stirred at <−5° C. for 17 min, the resulting slurry was filtered through a Hastelloy filter/dryer, and the solid product was washed with precooled acetonitrile (18.9 kg) at −11° C. (without the acetonitrile wash, the heptane level in the dried product would be about 10,000 ppm, which would exceed the ICH guideline of <5000 ppm).Full house vacuum (˜30 in Hg) was applied to the bottom outlet filter/dryer while nitrogen flows through from the top enhancing the removal of volatile solvents without application of heat. The volatile solvent content of the wetcake was 4.85% prior to application of heat. Upon drying at 70° C. under full house vacuum (˜30 in Hg), 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (21.9 kg, Form I determined by PXRD, and 90.5% yield) was isolated.

Example 12

Powder X-Ray Diffraction of Form I of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)

[0433] Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) data were collected on an X'Pert PRO MPD powder diffractometer (PANalytical, Inc.) with a Cu source set at 45 kV and 40 mA, a Ni-filter to remove Cu Kβ radiation, and an X'Celerator detector. The instrument was calibrated by the vendor using a silicon powder standard NIST #640c. The calibration was found to be correct when it was tested with NIST #675 low-angle diffraction standard. The sample was prepared for PXRD scanning by placing several milligrams of compound onto a sample holder and smoothing as flat as possible by pressing weigh paper down on the sample with a flat object. The sample was analyzed using a spinning-sample stage. Scans covered the range of 5 to 40°2θ. A continuous scan mode was used with a step size of 0.0170°2θ. Diffraction data were viewed and analyzed with the X'Pert Data Viewer Software, version 1.0a and X'Pert HighScore Software, version 1.0b.
[0434] The PXRD pattern for Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) is shown in FIG. 21.
[0435] 
[00037] [TABLE-US-00037]
  TABLE 33
 
  Observed Peaks for Form I of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-
  yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)
  Ranging from 5 °2θ to 30 °2θ
    Pos. [°2θ]   Rel. Int. [%]
 
    5.6*   100.0
    7.4*   23.4
    7.7   9.5
    9.2   0.1
    9.7   0.3
    11.2*   25.7
    11.6   7.6
    12.8   4.9
    12.8   4.9
    14.0   2.8
    14.5   1.4
    15.2   4.3
    15.5   3.5
    15.7   5.5
    16.1   2.2
    16.5   1.5
    17.9   1.9
    18.5   5.1
    19.3   3.2
    20.3   3.5
    20.4   4.4
    21.1*   49.3
    22.0   2.0
    22.5   1.9
    23.1   1.7
    23.9   1.3
    24.3   2.3
    24.5   2.9
    25.0*   17.4
    25.6   4.2
    26.0   4.8
    26.3   5.8
    26.8   9.5
    26.9   8.3
    27.4   4.0
    28.0   8.1
    28.1   7.9
    28.8   4.8
    29.1   3.9
 
  *Peaks of about 17% or greater relative intensity.
[0436] The PXRD pattern for a tetrahydrofuran solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) is shown in FIG. 29.
[0437] The PXRD pattern for a heptane solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) is shown in FIG. 30.

Example 13

Differential Scanning Calorimetry for Form I of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)

[0438] Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed on a TA instruments, Inc. DSC Q2000 at 10° C./min. The instrument was calibrated at this scan rate by the vendor for temperature and energy using the melting point and enthalpy of fusion of an indium standard. Samples were prepared by taring a sample-pan lid along with a sample-pan bottom on a Mettler Toldeo MX5 balance. Sample was placed in the bottom of the tared sample pan. The sample-pan lid fitted snuggly in the sample-pan bottom. The sample and pan were reweighed to get the sample weight. Thermal events (for example, onset temperature, enthalpy of fusion) are calculated using the Universal Analysis 2000 software, version 4.1D, Build 4.1.0.16.
[0439] The DSC thermogram for Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) is shown in FIG. 22.

Example 14

FT-Raman Spectroscopy for Form I of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)

[0440] The Raman spectrum for Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) was recorded using the ThermoFisher NXR6700FT-Raman Spectrometer (EQ1874), NXR6700FT-Raman Spectrometer (ThermoFisher Scientific, Serial #AHR0700837), NXR FT-Raman Module (ThermoFisher Scientific AEU0700442) and using the FT-Raman Micro-Stage Accessory (ThermoFisher Scientific AIS0800151). The instrument comprises a NdYAg laser operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm, an interferometer with a calcium fluoride beam-splitter, and an InGaAs detector. No background spectrum was required, and the Raman spectra were recorded by placing approximately 1 mg of each sample directly into the powder cup on the sample stage.
[0441] In order to collect the spectra, 1024 transients of an interferogram containing 8192 points were acquired with 4 cm−1 resolution. The spectrum was recorded from 100 cm−1 to 3700 cm−1. The interferogram was apodized with a Happ-Genzel function and the data was zero-filled once prior to the application of a power spectrum for phase correction.
[0442] Collection and Processing Information
[0443] Number of sample scans: 2048; Collection length: 4240.4 sec; Resolution: 4.000; Levels of zero filling: 1; Number of scan points: 16672; Number of FFT points: 32768; Laser frequency: 15798.3 cm−1; Interferogram peak position: 8192; Apodization: Happ-Genzel; Phase correction: Power spectrum; Number of background scans: 0; and Background gain: 0.0.
[0444] Data Description: Number of points: 3737, X-axis: Raman shift (cm−1), Y-axis: Raman intensity, First X value: 99.2486, Last X value: 3701.6821, Raman laser frequency: 9393.6416, Data spacing: 0.964249.
[0445] Spectrometer Description: Spectrometer: Nicolet 6700, Source: Off, Detector: InGaAs, Smart Accessory ID: Unknown, Beamsplitter: CaF2, Sample spacing: 1.0000, Digitizer bits: 24, Mirror velocity: 0.3165, Aperture: 59.00, Sample gain: 64.0, High pass filter: 200.0000, Low pass filter: 11000.0000.
[0446] Data Processing: Final format: Shifted spectrum, Resolution: 4.000 from 99.2486 to 3701.6821, Laser power at sample: 0.699W.
[0447] The FT-Raman Spectrum for Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) is shown in FIG. 23.

Example 15

Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) for Form I of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)

[0448] Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was performed on the TA Instruments, Inc. TGA Q500. The instrument is calibrated by the vendor at 10° C./min. for temperature using the curie point of a ferromagnetic standard. The balance is calibrated with a standard weight. Sample scans are performed at 10° C./min. Sample was placed into an open sample pan, previously tared on the TGA balance. Thermal events such as weight-loss are calculated using the Universal Analysis 2000 software, version 4.1D, Build 4.1.0.16.
[0449] The TGA thermogram for Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) is shown in FIG. 24.

Example 16

Single-Crystal X-Ray Structure of Hemi-Acetonitrile Solvate of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea

[0450] Crystal structure determination was carried out under non-GMP conditions at Purdue Crystallography Laboratory, West Lafayette, Indiana.
[0451] 1. Data Collection
[0452] A colorless needle of C18H15BrF2N4O2, 0.5(CH3CN) having approximate dimensions of 0.47×0.13×0.11 mm was mounted on a glass fiber in a random orientation. Preliminary examination and data collection were performed Mo Kα radiation (A=0.71073A) on a Nonius KappaCCD equipped with a graphite crystal, incident beam monochromator.
[0453] Cell constants for data collection were obtained from least-squares refinement, using the setting angles of 17249 reflections in the range 3<θ<25°. The refined mosaicity from DENZO/SCALEPACK (Otwinowski et al., Methods Enzymology 1997, 276, 307) was 0.51° indicating moderate crystal quality. The space group was determined by the program XPREP (Bruker, XPREP in SHELXTL version 6.12, Bruker AXS Inc., Madison, Wis., USA, (2002)). There were no systematic absences; the space group was determined to be P-1 (no 2).
[0454] The data were collected at a temperature of 150° K. Data were collected to a maximum 20 of 51.2°.
[0455] 2. Data Reduction
[0456] A total of 17249 reflections were collected, of which 6818 were unique. Frames were integrated with DENZO-SMN (Otwinowski et al., Methods Enzymology 1997, 276, 307).
[0457] Lorentz and polarization corrections were applied to the data. The linear absorption coefficient is 21.3/cm for Mo Kα radiation. An empirical absorption correction using SCALEPACK (Otwinowski et al., Methods Enzymology 1997, 276, 307) was applied.
[0458] Transmission coefficients ranged from 0.688 to 0.791. Intensities of equivalent reflections were averaged. The agreement factor for the averaging was 6.1% based on intensity.
[0459] 3. Structure Solution and Refinement
[0460] The structure was solved by direct methods using SIR2004 (Burla et al., J. Appl. Cryst., 2005, 38, 381). The remaining atoms were located in succeeding difference Fourier syntheses. Hydrogen atoms were included in the refinement but restrained to ride on the atom to which they are bonded. The structure was refined in full-matrix least-squares by minimizing the function:
          Σw(|Fo|2−|Fc|2)2
The weight w is defined as:
          1/[σ2(Fo2)+(0.0600P)2+7.0096P] where P=(Fo2+2Fc2)/3
Scattering factors were taken from the “International Tables for Crystallography” (International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. C, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Utrecht, The Netherlands, (1992), Tables 4.2.6.8 and 6.1.1.4.). Of the 6818 reflections were used in the refinements, only 5185 reflections with Fo2>2σ(Fo2) were used in calculating R I. The final cycle of refinement included 575 variable parameters and converged (largest parameter shift was <0.01 times its estimated standard deviation) with unweighted and weighted agreement factors of:
[0461]  [see pdf for image]
The standard deviation of an observation of unit weight was 1.11. The highest peak in the final difference Fourier had a height of 0.62 e/A3. The minimum negative peak had a height of −1.07 e/A3.
[0462] Refinement was performed on a LINUX PC using SHELX-97 (Sheldrick, SHELXL97, A Program for Crystal Structure Refinement, Univ. of Gottingen, Germany, (1997)).
[0463] The crystallographic drawing in FIG. 25 was done using Mercury v. 1.4.2 (build 2).

Example 17

Powder X-Ray Diffraction of Form II of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)

[0464] Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) data were collected on an X'Pert PRO MPD powder diffractometer (PANalytical, Inc.) with a Cu source set at 45 kV and 40 mA, a Ni-filter to remove Cu Kβ radiation, and an X'Celerator detector. The instrument was calibrated by the vendor using a silicon powder standard NIST #640c. The calibration was found to be correct when it was tested with NIST #675 low-angle diffraction standard. The sample was prepared for PXRD scanning by placing several milligrams of compound onto a sample holder and smoothing as flat as possible by pressing weigh paper down on the sample with a flat object. The sample was analyzed using a spinning-sample stage. Scans covered the range of 5 to 40°2θ. A continuous scan mode was used with a step size of 0.0170° M. Diffraction data were viewed and analyzed with the X'Pert Data Viewer Software, version 1.0a and X'Pert HighScore Software, version 1.0b.
[0465] The PXRD pattern for Form II of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I) is shown in FIG. 31.
[0466] 
[00038] [TABLE-US-00038]
  TABLE 34
 
  Observed Peaks for Form II of 1-[3-(4-Bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-
  yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea (Compound I)
  Ranging from 5 °2θ to 30 °2θ
    Pos. [°2θ]   Rel. Int. [%]
 
    5.3   0.4
    5.9   0.3
    6.8   0.2
    8.2*   37.6
    8.7   1.0
    9.9   10.9
    10.5   4.1
    11.5*   18.6
    12.3*   100.0
    12.7   8.9
    14.1   5.5
    15.6   8.8
    16.5   0.2
    17.3   6.5
    19.0   6.2
    19.1   5.5
    19.6   9.7
    19.9*   20.0
    20.4*   16.2
    21.1   3.3
    22.0   4.7
    22.1   5.0
    23.0   8.9
    24.6*   18.4
    24.7*   14.5
    25.5   2.0
    26.9   4.4
    27.6   0.5
    28.4   5.2
    28.5   7.3
    28.8   5.6
    29.6   4.8
    30.0   2.1
    31.6   0.4
    32.4   0.5
    33.0   0.8
    33.8   3.1
    34.5   3.8
    35.0   0.4
    36.0   1.2
    36.5   2.9
    37.3   0.3
    38.7   1.7
    39.7   0.4
 
  *Peaks of about 14% or greater relative intensity.
[0467] Those skilled in the art will recognize that various modifications, additions, substitutions and variations to the illustrative examples set forth herein can be made without departing from the spirit of the invention and are, therefore, considered within the scope of the invention. All documents referenced above, including, but are not limited to, printed publications and provisional and regular patent applications, are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
(57)

Claims

1. A process for preparing Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea comprising the step of:
converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to provide said Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea by removing acetonitrile, wherein said converting comprises reducing solvent content at a temperature sufficient to minimize conversion of said acetonitrile solvate to Form II of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
2. The process according to claim 1, wherein said acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
3. The process according to claim 1, wherein said converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted under reduced pressure.
4. The process according to claim 1, wherein said converting an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from said process is at a level of about 10% or less; and thereafter raising said first temperature to a second temperature of about 65° C. to about 75° C. while maintaining said reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less.
5. The process according to claim 1, wherein said acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is prepared by the steps comprising:
a) reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of acetonitrile to form a reaction mixture comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; and
b) crystallizing said 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from said reaction mixture to form said acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
6. The process according to claim 5, wherein:
said reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of acetonitrile is conducted by adding said 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate to said 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine at a temperature of about −25° C. to about 0° C. and a rate sufficient to form said reaction mixture, wherein said reaction mixture comprises less than about 2% of said 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to said 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC; and
said crystallizing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −15° C. to about 0° C.
7. The process of claim 1, wherein said acetonitrile solvate is prepared by a process of comprising the steps of:
a) reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of acetonitrile to form a reaction mixture comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl) -4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; and
b) crystallizing said 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from said reaction mixture to form said acetonitrile solvate of 1[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
8. The process according to claim 7, wherein said acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
9. The process according to claim 7, wherein said reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a temperature of about −25° C. to about 0° C.
10. The process according to claim 9, wherein said adding 2,4-difluorophenylisocyanate is conducted at a rate sufficient to form said reaction mixture, wherein said reaction mixture comprises less than about 2% of said 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to said 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC.
11. The process according to claim 7, wherein said crystallizing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −15° C. to about 0° C.
12. The process according to claim 7, further comprising the step of isolating said acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; wherein said isolating is conducted by filtration of said acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from said reaction mixture.
13. The process according to claim 7, wherein:
said reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of acetonitrile is conducted by adding said 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate to said 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine at a temperature of about −25° C. to about 0° C. and a rate sufficient to form said reaction mixture, wherein said reaction mixture comprises less than about 2% of said 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with respect to said 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC; and
said crystallizing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a temperature of about −15° C. to about 0° C.
14. The process according to claim 7, wherein said 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine is prepared by the step comprising:
reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base in the presence of a mixture of an aromatic solvent and a C1-C6 alkanol to form 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine.
15. The process according to claim 14, wherein said reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with said inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 75° C. to about reflux temperature; and wherein:
said inorganic base is sodium hydroxide;
said aromatic solvent is a mixture of xylenes; and
said C1-C6 alkanol is n-propanol; wherein the volume ratio of said mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 5:1.
16. The process according to claim 14, wherein said N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide is prepared by the step comprising:
reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with a brominating agent in the presence of a brominating solvent to form said N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide.
17. The process according to claim 16, wherein:
said reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with said brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 35° C. to about 65° C.;
said brominating agent is N-bromosuccinimide; and
said brominating solvent is N,N-dimethylacetamide.
18. A process for preparing 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine, said process comprising:
reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base in the presence of a mixture of an aromatic solvent and a C1-C6 alkanol to form 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine,
wherein said aromatic solvent is a mixture of xylenes: said C1-C6 alkanol is n-propanol: and the volume ratio of said mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 5:1.
19. The process according to claim 18, wherein said reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with said inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 75° C. to about reflux temperature.
20. The process according to claim 18, wherein said inorganic base is an alkali metal hydroxide.
21. The process according to claim 18, wherein said reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with said inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 75° C. to about reflux temperature; and wherein:
said inorganic base is sodium hydroxide.
22. The process according to claim 18, wherein said N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide is prepared by the process comprising:
reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with a brominating agent in the presence of a brominating solvent to form said N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide.
23. The process according to claim 22, wherein:
said reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with said brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 35° C. to about 65° C.;
said brominating agent is N-bromosuccinimide; and
said brominating solvent is N,N-dimethylacetamide.
24. A process for preparing 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea comprising the steps of:
a) reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with a brominating agent in the presence of a brominating solvent to form said N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide;
b) reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with an inorganic base in the presence of a mixture of an aromatic solvent and a C1-C6 alkanol to form 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine,
wherein said aromatic solvent is a mixture of xylenes: said C1-C6 alkanol is n-propanol: and the volume ratio of said of mixture of xylenes to n-propanol is about 5:1; and
c) reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate in the presence of a urea-forming solvent to form 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
25. The process according to claim 24, wherein:
said reacting N-[4-methoxy-3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenyl]-acetamide with said brominating agent is conducted at a temperature of about 35° C. to about 65° C.;
said brominating agent is N-bromosuccinimide; and
said brominating solvent is N,N-dimethylacetamide.
26. The process according to claim 24, wherein said reacting N-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-acetamide with said inorganic base is conducted at a temperature of about 75° C. to about reflux temperature; and wherein:
said inorganic base is sodium hydroxide.
27. The process according to claim 24, wherein said reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted at a temperature of about −25° C. to about 0° C.
28. The process according to claim 24, wherein said reacting 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine with 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate is conducted by adding said 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate to said 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine in acetonitrile to form a reaction mixture.
29. The process according to claim 28, wherein after completion of said adding of 2,4-difluorophenyl-isocyanate, said reaction mixture is stirred until about 2% or less of said 3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenylamine is present in said reaction mixture with respect to said 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea as determined by HPLC.
30. The process according to claim 24, wherein said urea-forming solvent is acetonitrile.
31. The process according to claim 30, further comprising the step of crystallizing said 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to form an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; wherein said acetonitrile solvate has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
32. The process according to claim 31, further comprising the step of converting said acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
33. The process according to claim 32, wherein said converting said acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from said process is at a level of about 10% or less; and thereafter raising said first temperature to a second temperature of about 65° C. to about 75° C. while maintaining said reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less.
34. A process for preparing Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea, said process comprising:
a) dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran to form a solution;
b) adding an aliphatic solvent to said solution to form a mixture comprising a first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea;
c) isolating said first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea from said mixture to provide an isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea;
d) washing said isolated first solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea with acetonitrile to form a second solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; and
e) converting said second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea by removing acetonitile, wherein said converting comprises reducing solvent content at a temperature sufficient to minimize conversion of said second solvate to Form II of 1-[3-(4-bromo- 2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea.
35. The process according to claim 34, wherein said dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran is conducted at a weight ratio of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea to tetrahydrofuran of about 1:6 to about 1:5.
36. The process according to claim 34, wherein said dissolving 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran is conducted at a temperature of about 25° C. to about reflux temperature.
37. The process according to claim 34, further comprising the step of cooling said solution of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea in tetrahydrofuran in step a) prior to step b).
38. The process according to claim 37, wherein said cooling is to a temperature of about −35° C. to about 10° C.
39. The process according to claim 34, wherein said first solvate is a tetrahydrofuran solvate.
40. The process according to claim 34, wherein said aliphatic solvent is heptane.
41. The process according to claim 40, wherein said first solvate is a heptane solvate.
42. The process according to claim 34, wherein said converting second solvate to provide Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted under reduced pressure.
43. The process according to claim 34, wherein said converting second solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea is conducted at a reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) for a representative sample from said process is at a level of about 10% or less; and thereafter raising said first temperature to a second temperature of about 65° C. to about 75° C. while maintaining said reduced pressure of about 35 mm Hg or less.
44. The process according to claim 34, wherein said second solvate is an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; wherein said acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
45. A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition comprising admixing:
a composition comprising Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared according to the process of claim 1, wherein said composition comprises less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea; and
a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
46. An acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea; wherein said acetonitrile solvate has a molecular ratio of acetonitrile to 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea of about 1:2.
47. A composition comprising an acetonitrile solvate of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea according to claim 46.
48. A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition comprising admixing:
a composition comprising 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared according to the process of claim 24, wherein said composition comprises less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea; and
a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
49. A process for preparing a pharmaceutical composition comprising admixing:
a composition comprising Form I of 1-[3-(4-bromo-2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-methoxy-phenyl]-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-urea prepared according to the process of claim 34, wherein said composition comprises less than 0.9 mole % of 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenyl)urea; and
a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
50. The process according to claim 1, wherein said Form I has a powder X-ray diffraction pattern comprising peaks expressed in terms of 2θ at about 5.6°, about 7.4°, about 11.2°, about 21.1°, and about 25.0°.
51. The process according to claim 1, wherein said Form I has a powder X-ray diffraction pattern substantially as shown in FIG. 21.
52. The process according to claim 1, wherein said Form I has a differential scanning calorimetry thermogram substantially as shown in FIG. 22.
53. The process according to claim 1, wherein said converting comprises reducing solvent content of said acetonitrile solvate at a first temperature of about 0° C. to about 45° C.
54. The process according to claim 1, wherein said converting comprises reducing solvent content of said acetonitrile solvate at a first temperature of about 15° C. to about 40° C.
55. The process according to claim 1, wherein said converting comprises reducing solvent content of said acetonitrile solvate at a first temperature of about 20° C. to about 30° C.
56. The process according to claim 1, wherein said converting comprises reducing solvent content of said acetonitrile solvate at a first temperature of less than or equal to ambient temperature.
57. The process according to claim 55, wherein said first temperature is maintained until loss on drying (LOD) is about 35%.
58. The process according to claim 55, wherein said first temperature is maintained until loss on drying (LOD) is about 30%.
59. The process according to claim 55, wherein said first temperature is maintained until loss on drying (LOD) is about 25%.
60. The process according to claim 55, wherein said first temperature is maintained until loss on drying (LOD) is about 20%.
61. The process according to claim 55, wherein said first temperature is maintained until loss on drying (LOD) is about 15%.
62. The process according to claim 55, wherein said first temperature is maintained until loss on drying (LOD) is about 10%.
63. The process according to claim 55, wherein said first temperature is maintained until loss on drying (LOD) is about 5%.
64. The process according to claim 57, further comprising, after said converting at said first temperature, conducting said converting at a second temperature of about 45° C. to about 90° C.
65. The process according to claim 57, further comprising, after said converting at said first temperature, conducting said converting at a second temperature of about 60° C. to about 80° C.
66. The process according to claim 57, further comprising, after said converting at said first temperature, conducting said converting at a second temperature of about 65° C. to about 75° C.
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