Process For Evaluating Staining Conditions Of Cells For Sorting

  *US07799569B2*
  US007799569B2                                 
(12)United States Patent(10)Patent No.: US 7,799,569 B2
 Durak et al. (45) Date of Patent:Sep.  21, 2010

(54)Process for evaluating staining conditions of cells for sorting 
    
(75)Inventors: Gary Durak,  Urbana, IL (US); 
  Jeffrey D. Wallace,  Rantoul, IL (US); 
  Gary P. Vandre,  Mahomet, IL (US); 
  Lon A. Westfall,  Mahomet, IL (US); 
  Jeremy T. Hatcher,  Urbana, IL (US); 
  Niraj V. Nayak,  Redondo Beach, CA (US) 
(73)Assignee:Inguran, LLC,  Navasota, TX (US), Type: US Company 
(*)Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. 
(21)Appl. No.: 12/404,931 
(22)Filed: Mar.  16, 2009 
(65)Prior Publication Data 
 US 2009/0176271 A1 Jul.  9, 2009 
 Related U.S. Patent Documents 
(63) .
Continuation of application No. 10/812,351, filed on Mar.  29, 2004, now Pat. No. 7,758,811 .
 
(60)Provisional application No. 60/458,607, filed on Mar.  28, 2003.
 
 Provisional application No. 60/458,731, filed on Mar.  28, 2003.
 
(51)Int. Cl. G01N 033/48 (20060101)
(52)U.S. Cl. 436/63; 436/164; 436/172; 436/174; 435/4; 435/29
(58)Field of Search  436/63, 164, 172, 174; 435/2, 4, 29, 34; 422/73, 82.05, 82.08

 
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 5,844,685  A  12/1998    Gontin     
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 5,866,344  A  2/1999    Georgiou     
 5,868,767  A  2/1999    Farley et al.     
 5,872,627  A  2/1999    Miers     
 5,873,254  A  2/1999    Arav     
 5,874,266  A  2/1999    Paisson     
 5,876,942  A  3/1999    Cheng et al.     
 5,880,457  A  3/1999    Tomiyama et al.     
 5,880,474  A  3/1999    Norton et al.     
 5,883,378  A  3/1999    Irish et al.     
 5,888,730  A  3/1999    Gray et al.     
 5,891,734  A  4/1999    Gill et al.     
 5,893,843  A  4/1999    Rodrigues Claro     
 5,895,764  A  4/1999    Sklar et al.     
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 5,909,278  A  6/1999    Deka et al.     
 5,912,257  A  6/1999    Prasad et al.     
 5,916,144  A  6/1999    Li et al.     
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 5,919,360  A  7/1999    Contaxis, III et al.     
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 5,934,885  A  8/1999    Farrell et al.     
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 5,972,710  A  10/1999    Weigl et al.     
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 5,990,479  A  11/1999    Weiss et al.     
 5,991,028  A  11/1999    Cabib et al.     
 5,998,140  A  12/1999    Dervan et al.     
 5,998,212  A  12/1999    Corio et al.     
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 6,003,678  A  12/1999    Van den Engh     
 6,042,025  A  3/2000    Crampton et al.     
 6,042,249  A  3/2000    Spangenberg     
 6,050,935  A  4/2000    Ranoux et al.     
 6,071,689  A  6/2000    Seidel et al.     
 6,079,836  A  6/2000    Burr et al.     
 6,086,574  A  7/2000    Carroll et al.     
 6,087,352  A  7/2000    Trout     
 6,090,947  A  7/2000    Dervan et al.     
 6,097,485  A  8/2000    Lievan     
 6,111,398  A  8/2000    Graham     
 6,117,068  A  9/2000    Gourley et al.     
 6,119,465  A  9/2000    Mullens et al.     
 6,120,735  A  9/2000    Zborowski et al.     
 6,128,133  A  10/2000    Bergmann     
 6,130,034  A  10/2000    Aitken     
 6,132,961  A  10/2000    Gray et al.     
 6,133,044  A  10/2000    Van den Engh     
 6,133,995  A  10/2000    Kubota     
 6,139,800  A  10/2000    Chandler     
 6,140,121  A  10/2000    Ellington et al.     
 6,143,535  A  11/2000    Paisson     
 6,143,901  A  11/2000    Dervan     
 6,146,837  A  11/2000    van de Winkel     
 6,149,867  A  11/2000    Seidel et al.     
 6,153,373  A  11/2000    Benjamin et al.     
 6,154,276  A  11/2000    Mariella, Jr.     
 6,175,409  B1  1/2001    Nielsen et al.     
 6,177,277  B1  1/2001    Soini     
 6,193,647  B1  2/2001    Beebe et al.     
 6,201,628  B1  3/2001    Basiji et al.     
 6,207,392  B1  3/2001    Weiss et al.     
 6,208,411  B1  3/2001    Vaez-Iravani     
 6,211,477  B1  4/2001    Cardott et al.     
 6,214,560  B1  4/2001    Yguerabide et al.     
 6,221,654  B1  4/2001    Quake et al.     
 6,221,671  B1  4/2001    Groner et al.     
 6,238,920  B1  5/2001    Nagai et al.     
 6,247,323  B1  6/2001    Maeda     
 6,248,590  B1  6/2001    Malachowski     
 6,256,096  B1  7/2001    Johnson     
 6,263,745  B1  7/2001    Buchanan et al.     
 6,283,920  B1  9/2001    Eberle et al.     
 6,296,810  B1  10/2001    Ulmer     
 6,309,815  B1  10/2001    Tash et al.     
 6,316,234  B1  11/2001    Bova     
 6,317,511  B1  11/2001    Horiuchi     
 6,322,901  B1  11/2001    Bawendi et al.     
 6,323,632  B1  11/2001    Husher et al.     
 6,326,144  B1  12/2001    Bawendi et al.     
 6,328,071  B1  12/2001    Austin     
 6,329,158  B1  12/2001    Hoffman et al.     
 6,332,540  B1  12/2001    Paul et al.     
 6,357,307  B2  3/2002    Buchanan et al.     
 6,368,786  B1  4/2002    Saint-Ramon et al.     
 6,372,422  B1  4/2002    Seidel et al.     
 6,372,506  B1  4/2002    Norton     
 6,384,951  B1  5/2002    Basiji et al.     
 6,395,305  B1  5/2002    Buhr et al.     
 6,400,453  B1  6/2002    Hansen     
 6,411,835  B1  6/2002    Modell et al.     
 6,411,904  B1  6/2002    Chandler     
 6,416,190  B1  7/2002    Grier et al.     
 6,423,505  B1  7/2002    Davis     
 6,423,551  B1  7/2002    Weiss et al.     
 6,432,630  B1  8/2002    Blankenstein     
 6,432,638  B2  8/2002    Dervan et al.     
 6,452,372  B1  9/2002    Husher et al.     
 6,454,945  B1  9/2002    Weigl et al.     
 6,456,055  B2  9/2002    Shinabe et al.     
 6,463,314  B1  10/2002    Haruna     
 6,465,169  B2  10/2002    Walderich et al.     
 6,473,176  B2  10/2002    Basiji et al.     
 6,482,652  B2  11/2002    Furlong et al.     
 6,489,092  B1  12/2002    Benjamin et al.     
 6,495,333  B1  12/2002    Willmann et al.     
 6,495,366  B1  12/2002    Briggs     
 6,503,698  B1  1/2003    Dobrinsky et al.     
 6,511,853  B1  1/2003    Kopf-Sill et al.     
 6,514,722  B2  2/2003    Paisson et al.     
 6,524,860  B1  2/2003    Seidel et al.     
 6,528,802  B1  3/2003    Koenig et al.     
 6,534,308  B1  3/2003    Palsson et al.     
 6,537,829  B1  3/2003    Zarling et al.     
 6,540,895  B1  4/2003    Spence et al.     
 6,563,583  B2  5/2003    Ortyn et al.     
 6,576,291  B2  6/2003    Bawendi et al.     
 6,577,387  B2  6/2003    Ross, III et al.     
 6,580,504  B1  6/2003    Ortyn et al.     
 6,587,203  B2  7/2003    Colon     
 6,589,792  B1  7/2003    Malachowski     
 6,590,911  B1  7/2003    Spinelli et al.     
 6,596,143  B1  7/2003    Wang et al.     
 6,596,499  B2  7/2003    Jalink     
 6,604,435  B2  8/2003    Buchanan et al.     
 6,613,525  B2  9/2003    Nelson et al.     
 6,617,107  B1  9/2003    Dean     
 6,618,143  B2  9/2003    Roche et al.     
 6,618,679  B2  9/2003    Loehrlein et al.     
 6,641,708  B1  11/2003    Becker et al.     
 6,642,018  B1  11/2003    Koller et al.     
 6,658,357  B2  12/2003    Chandler     
 6,664,550  B2  12/2003    Rader et al.     
 6,667,830  B1  12/2003    Iketaki et al.     
 6,671,044  B2  12/2003    Ortyn et al.     
 6,673,095  B2  1/2004    Nordquist     
 6,674,525  B2  1/2004    Bardell et al.     
 6,698,627  B2  3/2004    Garcia et al.     
 6,700,130  B2  3/2004    Fritz     
 6,703,621  B2  3/2004    Wolleschensky     
 6,704,313  B1  3/2004    Duret et al.     
 6,706,163  B2  3/2004    Seul et al.     
 6,707,555  B1  3/2004    Kusuzawa et al.     
 6,713,019  B2  3/2004    Ozasa et al.     
 6,729,369  B2  5/2004    Neas et al.     
 6,746,873  B1  6/2004    Buchanan et al.     
 6,752,298  B2  6/2004    Garcia et al.     
 6,753,161  B2  6/2004    Koller et al.     
 6,761,286  B2  7/2004    Py et al.     
 6,761,288  B2  7/2004    Garcia     
 6,767,706  B2  7/2004    Quake     
 6,780,377  B2  8/2004    Hall et al.     
 6,782,768  B2  8/2004    Buchanan et al.     
 6,789,706  B2  9/2004    Abergel et al.     
 6,789,750  B1  9/2004    Heldt     
 6,793,387  B1  9/2004    Neas et al.     
 6,813,017  B1  11/2004    Hoffman et al.     
 6,819,411  B1  11/2004    Sharpe et al.     
 6,849,394  B2  2/2005    Rozenboom et al.     
 6,849,423  B2  2/2005    Mutz et al.     
 6,861,265  B1  3/2005    Van den Engh     
 6,941,005  B2  9/2005    Lary et al.     
 7,015,310  B2  3/2006    Remington et al.     
 7,094,527  B2  8/2006    Seidel et al.     
 7,105,355  B2  9/2006    Kurabayashi et al.     
 7,195,920  B2  3/2007    Seidel et al.     
 7,208,265  B1  4/2007    Schenk     
 7,221,453  B2  5/2007    Sharpe et al.     
 2001//0006416  A1  7/2001    Johnson     
 2002//0047697  A1  4/2002    Husher et al.     
 2002//0058332  A1  5/2002    Quake et al.     
 2002//0064809  A1  5/2002    Mutz et al.     
 2002//0096123  A1  7/2002    Whittier et al.     
 2002//0115055  A1  8/2002    Matta     
 2002//0119558  A1  8/2002    Seidel et al.     
 2002//0131957  A1  9/2002    Gavin     
 2002//0171827  A1  11/2002    Van den Engh     
 2002//0182590  A1  12/2002    Strange et al.     
 2002//0186375  A1  12/2002    Asbury et al.     
 2002//0186874  A1  12/2002    Price et al.     
 2002//0198928  A1  12/2002    Bukshpan et al.     
 2003//0048433  A1  3/2003    Desjonqueres     
 2003//0059764  A1  3/2003    Ravkin et al.     
 2003//0059945  A1  3/2003    Dzekunov et al.     
 2003//0078703  A1  4/2003    Potts     
 2003//0096405  A1  5/2003    Takayama et al.     
 2003//0098421  A1  5/2003    Ho     
 2003//0113765  A1  6/2003    Dempcy et al.     
 2003//0119050  A1  6/2003    Shai     
 2003//0119206  A1  6/2003    Shai     
 2003//0129091  A1  7/2003    Seidel et al.     
 2003//0157475  A1  8/2003    Schenk     
 2003//0165812  A1  9/2003    Takayama et al.     
 2003//0175917  A1  9/2003    Cumming     
 2003//0175980  A1  9/2003    Hayenga et al.     
 2003//0190681  A1  10/2003    Shai     
 2003//0207461  A1  11/2003    Bell et al.     
 2003//0209059  A1  11/2003    Kawano     
 2004//0005582  A1  1/2004    Shipwast     
 2004//0031071  A1  2/2004    Morris et al.     
 2004//0034879  A1  2/2004    Rothstein et al.     
 2004//0049801  A1  3/2004    Seidel     
 2004//0053243  A1  3/2004    Evans     
 2004//0055030  A1  3/2004    Maxwell et al.     
 2004//0061070  A1  4/2004    Hansen     
 2004//0061853  A1  4/2004    Blasenheim     
 2004//0062685  A1  4/2004    Norton et al.     
 2004//0072278  A1  4/2004    Chou et al.     
 2004//0107150  A1  6/2004    Neas et al.     
 2004//0132001  A1  7/2004    Seidel et al.     
 2005//0003472  A1  1/2005    Anzar et al.     
 2005//0011582  A1  1/2005    Haug     
 2005//0064383  A1  3/2005    Bashkin et al.     
 2005//0112541  A1  5/2005    Durack     
 2005//0214733  A1  9/2005    Graham     
 2005//0244805  A1  11/2005    Ludwig et al.     
 2005//0282245  A1  12/2005    Ludwig et al.     
 2006//0118167  A1  6/2006    Neas et al.     
 2006//0147894  A1  7/2006    Sowter     
 2006//0203226  A1  9/2006    Roche et al.     
 2006//0263829  A1  11/2006    Evans et al.     
 2006//0281176  A1  12/2006    Seidel et al.     
 2007//0026378  A1  2/2007    Schenk     
 2007//0026379  A1  2/2007    Seidel et al.     
 2007//0042342  A1  2/2007    Seidel et al.     
 2007//0092860  A1  4/2007    Schenk     
 2007//0099171  A1  5/2007    Schenk     
 2007//0099260  A1  5/2007    Seidel et al.     
 2007//0117086  A1  5/2007    Evans et al.     
 2007//0123461  A1  5/2007    Josephson     
 2007//0248976  A1  10/2007    Harding     

 
 FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 
 
       BR       9704313                         6/1999      
       CA       1029833                         4/1978      
       CA       1 250 808                         3/1989      
       CA       2113957       A1                1/1994      
       CN       ZL 03109426.0                         12/2005      
       EP       0025296       A2                3/1981      
       EP       0 046 345       A2                2/1982      
       EP       0 068 404       B1                1/1983      
       EP       0 026 770       B1                3/1983      
       EP       0 029 662       B1                2/1984      
       EP       0 025 296       B1                5/1985      
       EP       0140616                         5/1985      
       EP       0 158 147       A2                10/1985      
       EP       0 160 201       A2                11/1985      
       EP       0 229 814       B1                7/1987      
       EP       0 246 604       A2                11/1987      
       EP       0288029       B1                4/1988      
       EP       0276166       A2                7/1988      
       EP       0 289 677       A2                11/1988      
       EP       0 316 173       A1                5/1989      
       EP       0 317 809       A2                5/1989      
       EP       A-0 366794                         5/1990      
       EP       0 409 293       A2                1/1991      
       EP       0 461 618                         12/1991      
       EP       0 463 562       A1                1/1992      
       EP       0468100       A1                1/1992      
       EP       0474 187       A2                3/1992      
       EP       0 316 172       B1                7/1992      
       EP       0 316 171       B1                9/1992      
       EP       0570102       A1                3/1993      
       EP       0538786       A                4/1993      
       EP       0 279 000       B1                7/1993      
       EP       0 553 951       A1                8/1993      
       EP       0 288 029       B1                1/1994      
       EP       0 381 694       B1                6/1994      
       EP       0 361 504       B1                7/1994      
       EP       606847       A2                7/1994      
       EP       0 289 200       B2                8/1994      
       EP       0 555 212       B1                10/1994      
       EP       0 361 503       B1                11/1994      
       EP       0 696 731       A2                2/1996      
       EP       0 705 978       A2                4/1996      
       EP       0 711 991       A1                5/1996      
       EP       0 471 758       B1                9/1996      
       EP       0 736 765       A1                10/1996      
       EP       0 545 284       B1                2/1997      
       EP       0 360 487       B1                7/1997      
       EP       0 412 431       B1                10/1997      
       EP       0 526 131       B1                1/1998      
       EP       A-0 478155                         1/1998      
       EP       0 822 404       A3                2/1998      
       EP       0 822 401       A2                4/1998      
       EP       0 556 748       B1                10/1998      
       EP       0 430 402       B1                1/1999      
       EP       0 529 666       B1                4/2000      
       EP       0 994 342       A3                4/2000      
       EP       0 752 133       B1                6/2000      
       EP       1 018 644       A2                7/2000      
       EP       1 118 268       A1                7/2001      
       EP       1 147 774       A1                10/2001      
       EP       0 534 033       B1                11/2001      
       EP       0 925 494       B1                12/2001      
       EP       0 748 316       B1                5/2002      
       EP       0 662 124       B1                6/2002      
       EP       1 245 944       A3                10/2002      
       EP       1 249 502       A2                10/2002      
       EP       1250897       A1                10/2002      
       EP       1 380 304       A2                1/2004      
       EP       1 403 633       A3                4/2004      
       EP       1 100 400       B1                5/2004      
       EP       1 257 168       B1                2/2005      
       GB       1471019                         4/1977      
       GB       2 121 976       A                1/1984      
       GB       2 122 369       A                1/1984      
       GB       2 125 181       A                2/1984      
       GB       2 136 561       A                9/1984      
       GB       2 137 352       A                10/1984      
       GB       2145112                         2/1985      
       GB       2 144 542       A                3/1985      
       GB       2 153 521       A                8/1985      
       GB       2 243 681       A                11/1991      
       GB       2 360 360       A                9/2001      
       JP       61139747       A                6/1986      
       JP       61159135       A                7/1986      
       JP       2024535                         1/1990      
       JP       4126064       A                4/1992      
       JP       4126065       A                4/1992      
       JP       4126066       A                4/1992      
       JP       4126079       A                4/1992      
       JP       4126080       A                4/1992      
       JP       4126081       A                4/1992      
       WO       WO 84/01265       A1                4/1984      
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 OTHER PUBLICATIONS
  
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  Schenk, J. L., et al., Pregnancy rates in heifers and cows with cryopreserved sexed sperm: Effects of sperm numbers per inseminate, sorting pressure, and sperm storage before sorting, Theriogenology (2008), doi:10.1016/j. theriogenolology. 2008:08:016.
  Suh, T.K., et al., High pressure flow cytometric sorting damages sperm, Theriogenology 64 (2005) 1035-1048.
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  Lamb, G. C., Synchronization of estrus and artificial insemination in replacement beef heifers using gonadotropin-releasing hormone, prostaglandin F2a and progesterone, Journal of Animal Science Nov. 1, 2006, vol. 84, pp. 3000-3009.
  Saladarriaga, J. P., Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding in Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2a, Journal of Animal Science Jan. 2007, vol. 85, pp. 151-162.
  O'Brien, J. K. et al., Semen collection, characterization an preservation in a beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), 1st International workshop on Beluga whale research, husbandry and management in wild and capative environments Mar. 2007.
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     Primary Examiner —Maureen M Wallenhorst
     Art Unit — 1797
     Exemplary claim number — 1
 
(74)Attorney, Agent, or Firm — Cindee Ewell; Ryan Christensen

(57)

Abstract

A multi-channel apparatus for classifying particles according to one or more particle characteristics may have a plurality of flow cytometry units, each of which is operable to classify particles in a mixture of particles by interrogating a stream of fluid containing the particles with a beam of electromagnetic radiation. The flow cytometry units may share an integrated platform with: (1) a common supply of particles; (2) a common housing; (3) a common processor for controlling operation of the units; (4) a common processor for receiving and processing information from the units; and (5) a common fluid delivery system. The integrated platform can include a common source of electromagnetic radiation. A method uses a plurality of flow cytometry units sharing the integrated platform to perform a flow cytometric operation, such as analyzing or sorting particles.
30 Claims, 134 Drawing Sheets, and 153 Figures


CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/812,351 filed Mar. 29, 2004 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,758,811 which claims priority from U.S. Patent Application Ser. Nos. 60/458,607 and 60/458,731, both filed Mar. 28, 2003. Each of the said applications is incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] This invention relates generally to apparatus and methods for animal semen collection, and more particularly to apparatus and methods using various techniques, including flow cytometry, to yield sperm populations that are enriched with sperm cells having one or more desired characteristics, such as viable populations of sperm cells sorted according to DNA characteristics for use by the animal production industry to preselect the sex of animal offspring.
[0003] The fertilization of animals by artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transplant following in vitro fertilization is an established practice. In the livestock production industry, the ability to influence the reproductive outcome toward offspring having one or more desired characteristics has obvious advantages. By way of example, there would be an economic benefit in the dairy industry to preselect offspring in favor of the female sex to ensure the production of dairy cows. Efforts have been made toward achieving this goal by using flow cytometry to sort X and Y sperm cells, as evidenced by the disclosures in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,357,307 (Buchanan, et al.), 5,985,216 (Rens, et al.), and 5,135,759 (Johnson). However, none of these efforts has resulted in the introduction of a commercially successful high-throughput system capable of producing production volumes of relatively pure sexed sperm cells having a motility sufficient for effective fertilization.
[0004] Accordingly, there is a current need in the animal production industry for a viable high-speed system for efficiently isolating sperm cells based on a specified DNA characteristic (or other characteristics) to produce quantities of such cells, which can be used on a commercial scale. Also needed is a sperm handling system that preserves the viability of such isolated sperm as it is processed by the isolating system and that allows for preservation of such isolated sperm until such time that it is ready for use. The present invention addresses these needs.
[0005] This invention also has application to improvements in the field of flow cytometry on a more general basis. Flow cytometry may broadly be defined as measuring characteristics of individual particles as they pass generally single file in a fluid stream through a measuring device which, typically, provides information for classifying the particles according to selected characteristics. Optionally, the particles may then be separated into populations using any number of techniques, including droplet sorting, droplet interference sorting, and fluid switching. Another option is to selectively destroy unwanted particles, for example by photo ablation.
[0006] In an optically-based flow cytometry system, optics are used to direct and focus a beam of light (e.g., visible light or UV light) on the stream containing the particles, and to collect emissions from the particles, including scattered light and/or fluorescence emissions from the particles. In one common optic system, for example, a beam of light (e.g., a laser beam) is focused on the stream and emissions are collected by a pair of collection units, one positioned forward of the laser for collecting scattered light emissions and another positioned orthogonally to both stream and the laser for collecting fluorescence emissions. Each collection unit includes a separate photodetector, which increases the cost of the system. Further, in traditional optic systems the photodetectors translate the collected emissions into electrical signals, which are analyzed using analog systems to classify the particles according to selected characteristics of the particles. Analog systems are relatively inexpensive, but only limited information can be derived from the signals.
[0007] Others have tried to develop technology that can be used to process sperm cells to obtain populations of sperm cells that are enriched with sperm that have a desired sex chromosome. However, the existing technology falls short of the inventive technologies described herein.
[0008] For example, Johnson et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 5,135,759) describe the separation of intact X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm populations according to DNA content using a flow cytometer/cell sorter into X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm enriched populations. As described, the sperm is combined with a DNA selective dye at a temperature of 30 to 39° C. for a period of 1 hour (39° C.) to 1.5 hours (30° C.). A flow cytometer is then used to measure the amount of fluorescent light emitted as the sperm passes through a laser beam that excites the dye. Because the X chromosome-bearing sperm contains more DNA than the Y chromosome-bearing sperm, with most species of mammal having about 3 to 5% difference, the X chromosome-bearing sperm emits more fluorescent light than the Y chromosome-bearing sperm. In order to account for the fact that the fluorescence measurement may vary depending on the rotational orientation of the sperm cells, two photo detectors are used. The first determines whether the sperm cells are properly oriented, while the second takes a measurement that is used to classify the sperm as having an X or Y chromosome. An oscillator is used to cause the stream containing the sperm to break into droplets downstream of the place where the sperm pass through the laser beam. Droplets containing single sperm of a predetermined fluorescent intensity are given a charge and electrostatically deflected into collection vessels. The collected, gender enriched sperm population, is then used for microinjection, in vitro fertilization, or artificial insemination.
[0009] Seidel et al. (WO 02/43574) also describe separation of sperm into gender enriched populations of X and Y chromosome-bearing cells using flow cytometry. Seidel et al. describe staining the cells at a temperature between 30° C. and 40° C.
[0010] United States Patent Application Pub. No. 2003/0157475 A1 (Schenk, Aug. 21, 2003) describes a method of cryopreserving sperm cells that have been sorted according to X or Y chromosome content. As noted therein, it is desirable to add a cryoprotectant to sperm cells before they are cryopreserved to protect the sperm cells during the cryopreservation process. For example, glycerol is one cryoprotectant that is commonly added to bovine sperm cells prior to cryopreservation. However, in order to obtain better protection from the cryoprotectant, it is desirable to wait for the cryoprotectant to equilibrate with the sperm cells before subjecting the sperm cells to temperatures below 0° C. During the equilibration period, the cryoprotectant penetrates the cell membrane to provide intra-cellular protection in addition to any extra-cellular protection provided by the cryoprotectant. Thus, the cryopreservation methods described in United States Patent Application Pub. No. 2003/0157475 A1 specify that an extender containing glycerol is added to the sperm cells after they have been cooled to about 5° C. Then the sperm cells and glycerol are allowed to equilibrate at 5° C. for anywhere between 1 and 18 hours before the sperm cells are subjected to lower temperatures. The disclosure recommends an equilibration period of between three and six hours in order to obtain the best results.
[0011] Unfortunately, the time and expense involved in a 3 to 6 hour equilibration period will have a negative impact on profitability of a commercial sperm sorting process. Furthermore, in the context of a commercial sperm sorting process, it is believed that the health of the sperm is generally improved by reducing the time between collection of the sperm and cryopreservation (other factors being equal). From this standpoint as well, it would be desirable to have access to cryopreservation technology that does not require a long equilibration period to obtain the optimal benefits of a cryoprotectant. Moreover, the known cryopreservation technology is reported to have a detrimental impact on sperm motility, which is indicative of decreased sperm fertility. Thus, there is a need for cryopreservation techniques that preserves sperm health compared to conventional techniques.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0012] This invention is directed to an improved system (methods and apparatus) for analyzing, classifying and sorting particles based on one or more desired characteristics; the provision of such a system which, in one embodiment, uses flow cytometry to accurately isolate and sort cells by DNA content; the provision of such a system which, in certain embodiments, incorporates sorting protocols which enable the output of the system to be controlled as a function of one or more factors, including the purity of the desired sorted population of particles, the rate at which the desired particle population is collected, the loss of desired particles not sorted into the desired population, and other factors; the provision of such a system which, in one embodiment, operates at high-speed to provide sex sorted sperm for commercial use by the animal production industry; the provision of such a system which can be used to sort cells without significant detrimental effect on the cells, including the motility of sperm cells; the provision of a system that can be used to preserve sorted sperm cells until they are needed with minimal detrimental effect on the cells, including, the motility of the cells, the provision of such a system which, as it relates to the production of sexed sperm, incorporates techniques which increase the speed and accuracy of the classification and sorting of the sperm cells; the provision of a flow cytometry system which uses epi-illumination optics to detect various characteristics of particles to be analyzed and, optionally, sorted; the provision of such an epi-illumination flow cytometry system which is economical to manufacture; the provision of a system which, in one embodiment, incorporates multiple flow cytometry units which share an integrated platform for classifying and (optionally) sorting particles, such as cells in general and sperm cells in particular, at high rates of production; the provision of such a multi-channel system which share common components and systems to reduce variations between the channels for more efficient operation; and the provision of such a sorting system which, in one embodiment, incorporates protocols which enable a sample to be quickly tested to determine the quality of the sample so that the profitability of further sorting can be evaluated.
[0013] In addition, this invention is directed to an improved system (methods and apparatus) for digitally processing signals representing fluorescence; the provision for such a digital system, in one embodiment, for detecting analog to digital converted-pulses as a function of background characteristics; the provision for such a digital system, in one embodiment, for initializing discrimination parameters; the provision for such a digital system, in one embodiment, for detecting digital information corresponding to waveform pulses; the provision for such a digital system, in one embodiment, for digital information analysis including feature extraction; the provision for such a digital system, in one embodiment, for classifying pulses and defining decisions boundaries; the provision for such a digital system, in one embodiment, employing a droplet break-off sensor to control transducer amplitude; and the provision for using such a digital system, in one embodiment, to distribute and collect cells for commercial distribution.
[0014] Further, this invention is directed an improved comprehensive system (apparatus and methods) for commercial processing of animal semen from the time a semen sample is collected from a male animal through cryopreservation of a sperm sample containing a greater percentage of a sperm having a desired chromosome characteristic than exists in the collected semen; the provision of such a system, in one embodiment, that allows efficient processing of commercial quantities of viable gender enriched sperm; the provision of such a system that allows, in one embodiment, adjustment of the system to counter day-to-day and animal-to-animal variations in the semen characteristics; the provision of such a system that, in one embodiment, allows production of about 18,000,000 gender enriched sperm per hour by a single flow cytometry unit at 85% purity; and the provision of such a system that allows, in one embodiment, complete processing of a batch of semen (e.g., the amount of semen collected from a male animal) to yield viable sperm samples having a desired gender characteristic at 85% purity with less than 10% loss of collected sperm having the desired gender characteristic in about 1 hour of processing time.
[0015] In general, this invention is directed to the apparatus and methods set forth in the claims of this application.
[0016] Other objects and features of this invention will be in part apparent and in part pointed out hereinafter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0017] FIG. 1 is a work flow diagram for an exemplary sperm sorting process of the present invention;
[0018] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a one embodiment of a flow cytometry droplet sorting system of the present invention;
[0019] FIG. 3 is a side view of a portion of one embodiment of a flow cytometry apparatus of the present invention for droplet sorting showing an epi-illumination optic assembly focusing an excitation beam on an upward moving fluid stream generated by a nozzle system;
[0020] FIG. 4 is an end view of one embodiment of a nozzle and nozzle holder of the present invention;
[0021] FIG. 5 is a sectional view of the nozzle and nozzle holder of FIG. 4 taken through cutting plane 5-5 on FIG. 4;
[0022] FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of a sperm cell entrained in a fluid stream being interrogated by an elliptically shaped beam spot according to one embodiment of the present invention;
[0023] FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram showing the angular envelope for the desired orientation of a sperm cell in which the light beam from the optics system will strike a wide face of the cell generally broadside;
[0024] FIG. 8 is a cross sectional view of one embodiment of a nozzle body of the present invention;
[0025] FIG. 9 is a side view of the nozzle body shown in FIG. 8 showing a series of cutting planes (A-A through H-H and J-J through K-K) through the nozzle body;
[0026] FIGS. 9A-9H and 9J-9K are sectional views of the nozzle body shown in FIGS. 8 and 9 along the corresponding planes (A-A through H-H and J-J through K-K) of FIG. 9;
[0027] FIG. 10 is a perspective view of a cross section of one embodiment of a nozzle system having an orienting baffle in the nozzle;
[0028] FIG. 11 is a cross sectional view of the nozzle system shown in FIG. 10;
[0029] FIG. 12 is an enlarged partial cross sectional view of a portion of the nozzle system shown in FIGS. 10 and 11;
[0030] FIG. 13 is an enlarged partial cross sectional view similar to the view shown in FIG. 12, but taken from a direction that is perpendicular to the viewing direction in FIG. 12;
[0031] FIG. 14 is a side view of one embodiment of baffle holder holding a baffle plate;
[0032] FIG. 15 is a top view of the baffle holder and baffle plate shown in FIG. 14;
[0033] FIG. 16 is a top view of one embodiment of a baffle holder rotationally oriented in a nozzle so that the legs of the baffle plate intersect in a line that is parallel to the major axis of ellipse D in the nozzle;
[0034] FIG. 17 is a top view of one embodiment of a baffle holder rotationally oriented in a nozzle so that the legs of the baffle plate intersect in a line that is perpendicular to the major axis of the ellipse D in the nozzle;
[0035] FIG. 18 is a side cross sectional view of one embodiment of a nozzle system including a baffle showing a series of cutting planes (A-A through E-E) through the nozzle and baffle;
[0036] FIGS. 18A-18E show the cross sectional flow areas at various points in the nozzle system shown in FIG. 18;
[0037] FIG. 19 is a cross sectional view similar to FIG. 12 taken through a nozzle having a baffle plate that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the nozzle;
[0038] FIG. 20 is a cross sectional view of the nozzle shown in FIG. 19 taken through the cutting plane 20-20 shown on FIG. 19;
[0039] FIG. 21 is a cross sectional view similar to the cross sectional view of FIG. 18 showing a nozzle system having a sample introduction conduit at an offset location;
[0040] FIG. 22 is a perspective view of one embodiment of a nozzle system mounted on a nozzle mount of the present invention;
[0041] FIG. 23 is schematic diagram of a plurality of aligned sperm cells being rotationally oriented as they pass through an orifice member of the present invention toward the interrogation location;
[0042] FIG. 24 is a schematic diagram showing the droplet break-off location downstream from the nozzle according to one embodiment of the present invention;
[0043] FIG. 25 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of a break-off sensor system of the present invention;
[0044] FIG. 26 is a front elevation of one flow cytometry system of the present invention;
[0045] FIG. 27 is an enlarged perspective view of a portion of the system shown in FIG. 26 with parts of the system removed for clarity;
[0046] FIG. 28 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of an epi-illumination optics system of the present invention;
[0047] FIG. 29 is a perspective view of one embodiment of an epi-illumination optics system of the present invention;
[0048] FIG. 30 is a side view of the epi-illumination optics system shown in FIG. 29;
[0049] FIG. 31 is a top view of the epi-illumination optics system shown in FIGS. 29 and 30;
[0050] FIG. 32 is a sectional view of the epi-illumination optics system along the plane 32-32 of FIG. 30;
[0051] FIG. 33 is a sectional view of a portion of the epi-illumination optics system along the plane 23-33 of FIG. 31;
[0052] FIG. 34 is a perspective view showing only elements of the optical filtering system that are rearward of the dichroic filter of the epi-illumination optics system shown in FIG. 29;
[0053] FIG. 35 is a perspective view of another epi-illumination optics system of the present invention including translational adjustment of the cylindrical lens;
[0054] FIG. 36 is a schematic diagram of an interrogation location of one embodiment of the present invention showing a laser beam focused on a fluid stream downstream of the nozzle at a skewed angle of incidence;
[0055] FIG. 37 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of a sort calibration system of the present invention;
[0056] FIG. 38 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of an epi-illumination sensor for use with the sort calibration shown in FIG. 37;
[0057] FIG. 39 is a block diagram of one embodiment of a digital cell analyzer (DCA) and processor controller according to the invention.
[0058] FIG. 40 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of a multi-channel sorter of the present invention showing two channels;
[0059] FIG. 41 is a work flow diagram of one embodiment of a multi-channel sorter of the present invention showing four channels;
[0060] FIG. 42 is block diagram of one embodiment of an analog cell analyzer (ACA) according to the invention;
[0061] FIG. 43 is a graph illustrating a stream of waveform pulses from a photodetector output detecting fluorescent pulses from cells streaming at an average rate of 10,000 cells/second;
[0062] FIG. 44 is an exploded view of FIG. 43 illustrating the stream from a photodetector output detecting three fluorescent pulses from three cells streaming at an average rate of 10,000 cells/second; a square wave of a 100 MHz droplet clock has been superimposed on the illustration to show the synchronization between the three pulses and the square wave pulses of the droplet clock;
[0063] FIG. 45 illustrates movement of a sperm cell relative to a laser beam spot having a narrow width;
[0064] FIG. 46. additional illustration of the movement of a sperm cell relative to a laser beam spot having a narrow width;
[0065] FIG. 47. further illustration of the movement of a sperm cell relative to a laser beam spot having a narrow width;
[0066] FIG. 48. another illustration of the movement of a sperm cell relative to a laser beam spot having a narrow width;
[0067] FIG. 49 is an exemplary illustration of the digital information corresponding to a time-varying analog output from a photodetector detecting a single fluorescence pulse based on 122 samples at a 105 MHz continuous sampling rate;
[0068] FIG. 50 is a schematic diagram illustrating the timing relationship between laser pulses, fluorescence emissions from a cell resulting from the laser pulses and the digital samples of the photodetector output in one embodiment of the invention;
[0069] FIG. 51 is a schematic diagram illustrating how the digital samples shown in FIG. 50 form a pulse waveform;
[0070] FIG. 52 is a schematic diagram of a pulse waveform from and X sperm cell synchronized with the pulse waveform of a Y sperm cell showing higher peak intensity in the pulse waveform for the X sperm cell;
[0071] FIG. 53 is a schematic diagram of a pulse waveform showing a threshold and integration window that can be used for pulse analysis;
[0072] FIG. 54 is a histogram of a sample containing X and Y sperm cells showing the high resolution attainable with slit scanning techniques;
[0073] FIG. 55 is histogram of a sample containing X and Y sperm cells showing the relatively poor resolution attained with standard illumination;
[0074] FIGS. 56-59 show fluorescence histograms and scatter plots of peak vs. area for sperm nuclei and live sperm cells;
[0075] FIGS. 60-61 illustrate a four-component model of a fluorescence intensity histogram for sperm cells—FIG. 60 shows raw data and FIG. 61 shows model curves generated by one embodiment of an iterative algorithm of the present invention based on the data shown in FIG. 60;
[0076] FIGS. 62-63 illustrate a three-component model of a fluorescence intensity histogram for sperm cells—FIG. 62 shows raw data and FIG. 63 shows model curves generated by one embodiment of an iterative algorithm of the present invention based on the data shown in FIG. 62;
[0077] FIG. 64 illustrates the non-linear nature of the CSD feature; the top panel shows average M plots for X-bearing and Y-bearing sperm cells; the middle panel shows a graph of the first derivatives of these average M plots (i.e. M′) for signal amplitude values less than the peak height of the average Y-bearing fluorescence emission pulse; and the bottom panel shows the difference between the first derivatives (M′X−M′Y) as a function of signal amplitude;
[0078] FIG. 65 illustrates one embodiment in which the CSD feature is the computed slope of a line that passes through two points on the fluorescence emission pulse;
[0079] FIGS. 66-69 illustrate improved discrimination achieved by use of CSD feature extraction;
[0080] FIG. 70 illustrates a bi-variate sort region set on a scatter plot of CSD vs. pulse area scatter;
[0081] FIG. 71 illustrates one embodiment of flow cytometry re-analyses for a test in which the left panel corresponds to the high recovery/coincident accept sort strategy (no coincidence abort strategy) and the right panel corresponds to the high purity/coincident reject sort strategy (coincident abort strategy);
[0082] FIG. 72 is a work flow diagram of one embodiment of digital signal processing of the present invention;
[0083] FIG. 73 is an example of a k-Means clustering strategy that may be employed according to one embodiment of the present invention;
[0084] FIG. 74 is a conceptual illustration and graphical representation of application of a Bayes Minimum Error decision rule to pulse feature data as may be employed according to one embodiment of the present invention;
[0085] FIG. 75 is graphical representation of results obtained using a Bayes Minimum Error decision rule and Mahalonobis distance thresh holding as may be employed according to one embodiment of the present invention;
[0086] FIG. 76 is a conceptual illustration of moving window statistics to provide “forgetting” as may be employed according to one embodiment of the present invention;
[0087] FIG. 77 is a graphical representation drift compensation as may be employed according to one embodiment of the present invention;
[0088] FIG. 78 illustrates a fluid stream containing an exemplary distribution of particles;
[0089] FIG. 79 is a graph showing purity as a function of fluid delivery rate with a coincident accept sort strategy;
[0090] FIG. 80 is a graph showing the percentage of desired particles successfully sorted into the usable population as a function of fluid delivery rate with a coincident reject sort strategy;
[0091] FIG. 81 is a graph showing the inverse relationship between the percentage of coincident droplets accepted for sorting into a population of desired particles compared to the percentage of coincident droplets rejected for sorting into that population;
[0092] FIG. 82 is a decision flow diagram showing the overall operation of one embodiment of a sorting apparatus of the present invention;
[0093] FIG. 83 is a side elevation of a cytometer oriented to produce a stream of droplets having a horizontal velocity component and a collection system to collect the droplets;
[0094] FIG. 84 is an enlarged perspective view of the collection system shown in FIG. 83 shown relative to the nozzle system and deflector plates;
[0095] FIG. 85 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of a collection system of the present invention;
[0096] FIG. 86 is a front elevation of an intercepting device of the collection system shown in FIG. 83;
[0097] FIG. 87 is a side elevation of an intercepting device of the collection system shown in FIG. 83;
[0098] FIGS. 88-95 show graphical results of several sperm centrifugation experiments;
[0099] FIG. 96-98 are schematic diagrams illustrating the steps in one embodiment of a filtration method of the present invention;
[0100] FIG. 99 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of a filtration system used to filter sperm cells;
[0101] FIG. 100 is a schematic diagram of another filtration system used to filter sperm cells;
[0102] FIGS. 101 and 102 show graphical results of sperm cell filtration experiments;
[0103] FIG. 103 is a work flow diagram for one embodiment of a cryopreservation method of the present invention;
[0104] FIG. 104 shows graphical results for a sperm cell cryopreservation experiment;
[0105] FIG. 105 is a work flow diagram for one embodiment of a method of processing sperm cells according to the present invention;
[0106] FIG. 106 is a perspective view of one embodiment of a multi-channel particle sorter of the present invention with parts broken away to show internal features of the sorter;
[0107] FIG. 107 is a perspective view of a manifold system that may be used for fluid delivery in the multi-channel particle sorter of FIG. 106;
[0108] FIG. 108 is a perspective view of the manifold system of FIG. 107 showing internal fluid connections of the manifold system;
[0109] FIG. 109 is a perspective view of the particle sorter shown in FIG. 106 with additional elements removed or partially removed to better show internal features of the sorter;
[0110] FIG. 110 is a front elevation of the particle sorter shown in FIG. 106;
[0111] FIG. 111 is a side elevation of the particle sorter shown in FIG. 106 with the side wall of the housing removed to show internal features of the sorter;
[0112] FIG. 112 is a side elevation of the particle sorter shown in FIG. 106 (taken from the side opposite the side from which FIG. 107 was taken) with the side wall removed to show internal features of the sorter;
[0113] FIG. 113 is a perspective view of the particle sorter shown in FIG. 106 taken from an angle behind the sorter and with the back cover removed to show internal features of the sorter;
[0114] FIG. 114 is a perspective view of a portion of the particle sorter shown in FIG. 106 showing the mounting of multiple nozzle systems to a cross bar;
[0115] FIG. 115 is a perspective view of a portion of the particle sorter shown in FIG. 106 showing the relative positions of the collection system and other parts of the particle sorter;
[0116] FIG. 116 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of a fluid delivery system for a multi-channel sorter of the present invention;
[0117] FIGS. 117 and 118 are schematic diagrams of two different laser beamsplitting systems;
[0118] FIGS. 119 and 120 are perspective views of another multi-channel system of the present invention;
[0119] FIGS. 121-134 show graphical results of various experiments;
[0120] FIG. 135 is a schematic diagram of one alternative embodiment for a nozzle system of the present invention wherein the nozzle directs the fluid stream through a capillary tube;
[0121] FIG. 136 is a schematic diagram of one embodiment of a photo damage sorting system of the present invention;
[0122] FIG. 137 is a schematic diagram of an alternative sorting system based on fluidic switching that may be used in an apparatus employing the technology of the present invention; and
[0123] FIG. 138 is a schematic diagram of an alternative sorting system based on a high-speed droplet interference stream that diverts selected discrete segments of the fluid stream carrying the analyzed particles.
[0124] Corresponding parts are designated by corresponding reference numbers throughout the drawings. A parts list with associated reference numerals for each part follows. The parts list is provided with section headings generally corresponding to section headings in the specification to facilitate use of the parts list. Generally, each section of the parts list provides a reference numeral for the parts that are introduced for the first time in the corresponding section of the Detailed Description.

PARTS LIST WITH ASSOCIATED REFERENCE NUMERALS FOR EACH PART

General Overview

[0125] 39 Semen Collection
[0126] 41 Label Semen
[0127] 41A Add Buffer
[0128] 43 Quality Control
[0129] 47 Washing
[0130] 48 Staining Fluid
[0131] 49 Staining
[0132] 51 Incubation
[0133] 53 Load into Sample Introduction Device of Flow Cytometer
[0134] 54 Add Sheath Fluid Through Flow Cytometry
[0135] 55 Sorting
[0136] 57 Collecting Sorted Sperm
[0137] 58A Add Collection Fluid
[0138] 58B Concentrate Sperm Cells
[0139] 58C Add Cryoextender
[0140] 59 Load Sorted Sperm into Straws
[0141] 61 Cryopreservation
[0142] 63 Packing in Liquid Nitrogen
[0143] 65 Distribution
[0144] 67 Sales
[0145] 69 Storage
[0146] 71 Artificial Insemination
[0147] Flow Cytometry
[0148] 1 System (Overall)
[0149] 3 Supply of Carrier Fluid
[0150] 7 Supply of Sheath Fluid
[0151] 9 Flow Cytometry Apparatus Having Sorting Capabilities
[0152] 15 Fluid Delivery System
[0153] 17 Carrier Fluid
[0154] 19 Sheath Fluid
[0155] 21 Stream of Fluid
[0156] 23 Stream of Particles
[0157] 25 Beam of Electromagnetic Radiation
[0158] 31 Electromagnetic Radiation Emission from Particles
[0159] 33 Droplets
[0160] 35 Particles Contained in Droplets
[0161] Flow Cytometry Apparatus (Single Channel)
[0162] 101 Nozzle System
[0163] 103 Nozzle Orifice
[0164] 105 Transducer
[0165] 107 Droplet Break-off
[0166] 109 Optics System
[0167] 115 Interrogation Location
[0168] 117 Photodetector
[0169] 119 Sorting System
[0170] 123 First Different Group or Population of Droplets
[0171] 125 Second Different Group or Population of Droplets
[0172] 2201 Collection System
[0173] 131 Processor
[0174] Nozzle System
[0175] 133 Cylindrical Flow Body
[0176] 135 Central Longitudinal Bore
[0177] 137 Nozzle
[0178] 139 Funnel-shaped Nozzle Body
[0179] 141 Passage Through Nozzle Body
[0180] 145 Internally Threaded Counterbore
[0181] 149 Threaded Projection or Stud
[0182] 155 O-ring Seal
[0183] 157 Conduit (Tubular Needle)
[0184] 167 Annular Space (Gap)
[0185] 173 Radial Bore in Flow Body (Sheath Fluid)
[0186] 183 Second Radial Bore (Additional Sheath Fluid)
[0187] 189 Central Core of Carrier Fluid
[0188] 191 Outer Co-axial Sheath of Fluid
[0189] Cell Orientation
[0190] 201 Bovine Sperm Cell
[0191] 205 Paddle-shaped Head
[0192] 207 Flat Wide Opposite Faces
[0193] 209 Narrow Edges
[0194] 211 Sperm Equator
[0195] 213 Nucleus
[0196] 215 Tail
[0197] 217 Nucleus Length
[0198] 219 Head Length
[0199] 221 Head Width
[0200] 223 Overall Length
[0201] 225 Localized Region Within Nucleus
[0202] 227 Direction of Stream Flow
[0203] 229 Angular Envelope in Which Light Beam Strikes Wide Face
[0204] R1 Angular Range
[0205] P Plane
[0206] Nozzle Design
[0207] 231 Interior of Nozzle Body
[0208] 233 Interior Surface of Nozzle Body
[0209] 235 First Axially Tapered Region
[0210] 237 Second Axially Tapered Region
[0211] 239 Third Axially Tapered Region
[0212] 247 Longitudinal Axis of Nozzle
[0213] 249 Fourth Region Interior of Nozzle
[0214] 251 Axial Length of Fourth Region
[0215] 255 Orifice Member
[0216] 257 Counterbore at Front End of Nozzle
[0217] 259 First Torsional Zone
[0218] 261 Second Torsional Zone
[0219] 263 Surface of First Torsional Zone
[0220] 267 Surface of Second Torsional Zone
[0221] 271 Torsional Forces
[0222] 273 Axial Length of First Torsional Zone
[0223] 275 Axial Length of First Tapered Region
[0224] 277 Axial Length of Second Tapered Region
[0225] 279 Axial Length of Second Torsional Zone
[0226] 309 Conical Upstream Surface of Orifice Member
[0227] 315 Cylindrical Downstream Surface of Orifice Member
[0228] 317 Axial Length of Conical Upstream Surface
[0229] 327 Axial Length of Downstream Surface
[0230] Orienting Baffle
[0231] 2001 Orienting Baffle
[0232] 2003 Baffle Plate
[0233] 2005 Baffle Holder
[0234] 2007 Upstream Leg
[0235] 2009 Downstream Leg
[0236] 2015 Line of Intersection
[0237] 2017 Central Axis of Nozzle Body
[0238] 2019 Curved Edge of Upstream Leg
[0239] 2025 Distance Lower Leg Extends Downstream
[0240] 2027 Overall Length of Baffle Holder
[0241] 2029 Exterior Diameter of Baffle Holder
[0242] 2031 Interior Diameter of Baffle Holder
[0243] 2033 Distance Between Line of Intersection and Center of Nozzle
[0244] 2035 Upstream End of Baffle
[0245] 2037 Inclined Surface of Baffle Holder
[0246] 2039 Side Edges of Downstream Leg
[0247] 2041 Downstream Edge of Downstream Leg
[0248] 2049 Gap Between Baffle Plate and Baffle Holder
[0249] 2051 Inside surface of Baffle Holder
[0250] 2053 Volume Behind Baffle Plate
[0251] 2055 Interior Volume of Nozzle
[0252] 2057 Longitudinal Axis of Cylindrical Baffle Holder
[0253] 2059 Line Through Major Axis of Ellipse D
[0254] 2061 Distance Between Injection Needle and Baffle
[0255] 2067 Downstream End of Baffle Holder
[0256] 2069 Contact Points Between Baffle Holder and Nozzle
[0257] 2071 O-Rings
[0258] 2077 Downstream End of Nozzle Holder (Boss)
[0259] 2079 Interior Diameter of Boss
[0260] 2081 Portion of Sheath Fluid Between Core Stream and Nozzle Surface
[0261] 2087 Cross Section Upstream (A)
[0262] 2089 Cross Section at Baffle (B)
[0263] 2091 Cross Section at Baffle (C)
[0264] 2093 Cross Section at Baffle (D)
[0265] 2094 Cross Section Downstream of Baffle (E)
[0266] 2097 Perpendicular Baffle System
[0267] 2095 Air Bubble
[0268] 2099 Perpendicular Baffle Plate
[0269] 2101 Curved Edge of Perpendicular Baffle Plate
[0270] 2103 Straight Edge of Perpendicular Baffle Plate
[0271] 2105 O-ring
[0272] 2107 Annular Shoulder (Shelf) in Nozzle
[0273] 2109 Outer Diameter of Sample Injection Needle (Conduit)
[0274] 2151 Nozzle System Having an Offset Sample Introduction Conduit
[0275] Nozzle Mounting and Adjustment
[0276] 331 Nozzle Mount
[0277] 333 First Linear Stage
[0278] 337 Second Linear Stage
[0279] 339 X Axis
[0280] 341 Y Axis
[0281] 343 Third Rotational Stage
[0282] 345 Z Axis
[0283] 347 Fixed First Stage Member (Not Shown)
[0284] 349 Frame for First Fixed Stage Member
[0285] 355 Movable First Stage Member
[0286] 357 Actuator (Micrometer) for First Stage
[0287] 359 Fixed Second Stage Member
[0288] 361 Movable Second Stage Member
[0289] 363 Actuator (Micrometer) for Second Stage
[0290] 365 Fixed Third Stage Member
[0291] 371 Movable Third Stage Member
[0292] 373 Actuator (Micrometer) for Third Stage
[0293] 375 Generally Upward Direction of Stream Containing Cells
[0294] 377 Angle of Upward Direction
[0295] Transducer and Droplet Formation
[0296] 379 Collar
[0297] 381 Piezoelectric Element (Not Shown)
[0298] 383 Terminals
[0299] D Diameter of Stream
[0300] Break-Off Sensor
[0301] 389 Break-off Sensor
[0302] 391 Microprocessor
[0303] 393 Light Source
[0304] 395 Linear Photoarray (Photodiodes)
[0305] 401 Lens for Droplet Break-off Sensor
[0306] 405 Current to Voltage Op-amp Circuits
[0307] 407 Track/hold Amplifiers
[0308] 409 Sinewave Generator (Track/hold Signal)
[0309] 411 A/D Converter
[0310] 412 Camera System
[0311] 413 Strobe
[0312] 414A Mask
[0313] 414B Slit-Shaped Opening in Mask
[0314] Epi-Illumination Optics System
[0315] 415 Epi-illumination System
[0316] 417 Epi-illumination Instrument
[0317] 419 Longitudinal Optical Axis
[0318] 425 Beam Spot
[0319] 427 Axis of Focused Illumination Beam
[0320] 429 Rectangular Base
[0321] 431 Reflecting Filter
[0322] 435 Laser or Arc-lamp
[0323] 437 Conditioning Lens Assembly
[0324] 439 Opening in
[0325] 441 Side Wall of a Dichroic Chamber
[0326] 443 Dichroic Chamber
[0327] 445 Retaining Ring
[0328] 447 Neutral Density Filter
[0329] 449 Cylindrical Lens
[0330] 455 Lens Holder
[0331] 457 Jam Nut
[0332] 459 Elliptical Cross Section of Beam Spot
[0333] 461 Clips for Reflecting Filter
[0334] 463 Filter Holder
[0335] 465 Angular Face of Filter Holder
[0336] 467 Openings in Filter Holder
[0337] 469 Linear Stage for Filter Holder
[0338] 471 X Axis
[0339] 473 Outrigger
[0340] 475 Actuator for Linear Stage
[0341] 477 Dichroic Filter
[0342] 479 Clips for Dichroic Filter
[0343] 485 Frame for Dichroic Filter
[0344] 487 Forward Direction
[0345] 489 Longitudinal Optical Axis of the Optical Instrument
[0346] 491 Focusing Lens Assembly
[0347] 497 Fluorescent Pulse Waveform or Signal Emitted by Cell
[0348] 498 Excitation Spatial Function
[0349] 501 Microscope Adapter
[0350] 503 Opening in Front Wall of Dichroic Chamber
[0351] 505 Front Wall of Dichroic Chamber
[0352] 507 Focusing Barrel
[0353] 509 Lens Mount Barrels
[0354] 511 Focusing Lens
[0355] 513 Rearward Direction
[0356] 515 Telescoping Focus Adjustment
[0357] 517 Collimated Emitted Light
[0358] 519 Filtering System
[0359] 521 Emission Filter
[0360] 523 Emission Filter Holder
[0361] 525 Opening in Back Wall of Dichroic Chamber
[0362] 527 Back Wall of Dichroic Chamber
[0363] 529 Alignment Pellicle Assembly
[0364] 531 Slider of Alignment Pellicle
[0365] 533 Rail for Filter Assembly Components
[0366] 535 Filter Holder for Alignment Pellicle
[0367] 539 Pellicle Filter Element
[0368] 541 Clips for Securing Filter Element to Filter Holder
[0369] 543 Angle for Alignment Pellicle Relative to Optical Axis
[0370] 545 Fasteners for Securing Slider to Base
[0371] 547 Parallel Slots in Base
[0372] 549 Aspheric Lens
[0373] 551 Holder for Aspheric Lens
[0374] 553 Frame for Aspheric Lens
[0375] 557 Fasteners for Aspheric Lens
[0376] 559 Spatial Filter
[0377] 561 Aperture Plates
[0378] 563 Frame for Spatial Filter Plates
[0379] 567 Vertical Slit
[0380] 571 Horizontal Slit
[0381] 573 Aperture
[0382] 575 Vertical Dimension
[0383] 577 Horizontal Dimension
[0384] 579 Collection Volume
[0385] 583 Plate Holder
[0386] 587 Fasteners for Plate Holder
[0387] 589 Backing Member for Aperture Plates
[0388] 449A Adjustable Mounting Assembly
[0389] 449B Slots
[0390] 449C Slots
[0391] 450 Epi-illumination that Reflects Fluorescence Emissions
[0392] 451 Dichroic Filter
[0393] Photodetector
[0394] 591 Mounting Plate for Photodetector
[0395] 595 Fasteners for Photodetector
[0396] Angle of Beam Incidence
[0397] 605 Distance Between Interrogation Location and Nozzle Orifice
[0398] 609 Beam Axis
[0399] A Angle of Incidence
[0400] Focused Beam Spot
[0401] L1 Length along Major Axis
[0402] W1 Width along Minor Axis
[0403] Sorting System
[0404] 627 Charging Device
[0405] 629 Charged Deflector Plates
[0406] 631 Charging Element
[0407] 633 Opening in Charging Element
[0408] 635 Power Supply for Deflector Plates
[0409] 5001 Adjustable Mounting Assembly
[0410] 5003 Mounting Assembly Adjustment Board
[0411] 5005 Mounting Assembly Backing
[0412] 5007 Fasteners
[0413] 5009 Slots
[0414] 5011 Translation Axis
[0415] 5013 Translation Axis
[0416] 5015 Mounting Assembly Adjustment Board
[0417] 5017 Fasteners
[0418] 5019 Slots
[0419] 5021 Fixed Support
[0420] 5023 Fasteners
[0421] 5025 Spring
[0422] Automat Sort Calibration
[0423] 4201 Calibration System
[0424] 4203 Epi-Illumination Sensor
[0425] 4205 Fiber Optic Cable
[0426] 4207 Dichroic Filter
[0427] 4209 Lens System
[0428] 4211 Fluorescent Emission from Particle in Droplet
[0429] 4213 Photodetector
[0430] 4215 Beam Stop
[0431] Sort System Fault Correction
[0432] 5047 Debris Removal System for Charging Element
[0433] 5049 Debris Removal System for Deflector Plates
[0434] 5051 Support for Charging Element
[0435] 5053 Vacuum Passage
[0436] 5055 Vacuum Line
[0437] 5057 Opening Adjacent Charging Element
[0438] 5058 Fitting
[0439] 5059 Compressed Gas Line
[0440] 5061 Manifold
[0441] 5063 Air Passages
[0442] 5064 Openings
[0443] 5065 Fitting
[0444] 5066 Side of Deflector Plate
[0445] Protection of Sorted Sample
[0446] 4033 Collection Vessel
[0447] 4041 Contamination Prevention Mechanism
[0448] 4043 Pneumatic Actuator
[0449] 4045 Swing Arm
[0450] 4047 End of Swing Arm
[0451] Fluid Delivery System
[0452] 645 Syringe Pump
[0453] 647 Flow Line from Pump to Carrier Supply
[0454] 649 Vessel for Containing Supply of Carrier Fluid
[0455] 651 Line from Pump to Injection Needle
[0456] 657 Supply Line from Syringe Pump to Needle
[0457] 659 Variable Speed Motor
[0458] 661 Second Vessel—for Supply of Sheath Fluid
[0459] 667 Supply Line for Connecting Sheath Fluid to Radial Bore in Nozzle
[0460] 669 Control Valve in Supply Line
[0461] 671 Gas Pressure System for Sheath Fluid
[0462] 675 Source of Pressurized Gas
[0463] 679 Air Line for Pressurized Gas
[0464] 681 Regulator for Controlling Pressure Supplied to Sheath Fluid Tank
[0465] 683 Two-way Valve in Air Line
[0466] Control
[0467] 689 A/D Converter
[0468] 693 Relative Beam Intensity Experienced by Point Moving Through Beam Spot
[0469] 695 Relative Emitted Pulse Intensity From Sperm Traversing Beam Spot
[0470] d Distance Between Nozzle and Droplet Break-off Location
[0471] Signal Processing
[0472] 701 Output Signal From Photodetector
[0473] 703 Droplet Generation Clock Signals
[0474] 705 Digital Signal Processing (Digital Cell Analyzer)
[0475] 707 Digital Signal from A/D
[0476] 735 PC/Computer Terminal
[0477] 737 Master Clock (128× Clock Signal)
[0478] 739 Data Acquisition (HH1′)
[0479] 741 Initializing Detection Parameters (HH1)
[0480] 745 Initializing Discrimination Parameters (HH2)
[0481] 747 Digital Pulse Detection (HH3)
[0482] 749 Digital Pulse Analysis—Feature Extraction (HH4)
[0483] 753 Pulse Area (HH5)
[0484] 755 Pulse Peak (HH6)
[0485] 757 Pulse Discrimination (HH7)
[0486] 759 Sorting (HH8)
[0487] 761 Drift Analysis (HH9)
[0488] 763 Decision Boundary for Bayes Rules
[0489] 769 Initialize
[0490] 771 System Check
[0491] 773 User Interaction
[0492] 775 Retry (Up to Three Times)
[0493] 777 Flush
[0494] 779 Bead Quality Control
[0495] 781 Aspirate Sample
[0496] 783 Sample Quality Control
[0497] 785 Start Sample
[0498] 787 Sort On
[0499] 789 Sample Complete
[0500] 791 Continue Sample
[0501] 793 Sort Off
[0502] 795 X/Y Discrimination Optimum
[0503] 797 Set X/Y Discrimination
[0504] 799 Discrimination OK
[0505] 801 Rate Optimum
[0506] 803 Set Syringe Rate
[0507] 805 Rate OK
[0508] 807 System Check
[0509] 809 System Reset
[0510] 811 System OK
[0511] 813 Exemplary Overall Operational Flow
[0512] 825 Integrator
[0513] 827 Width/Area Comparator
[0514] 829 Dynamic Threshold Calculator
[0515] 831 Pulse Discrimination
[0516] 833 JTAG Port I/O
[0517] 837 Window Comparator (Area)
[0518] 839 Pulse Width and Trigger Logic
[0519] 841 Sort Decision
[0520] 843 I/O Controllers
[0521] 845 Slave Controllers
[0522] 847 Sort Controller Board
[0523] 849 USB
[0524] 851 DSP Board SDRAM
[0525] 853 Sort Signal
[0526] 854 Low-Pass Filter
[0527] 855 I/O Board SDRAM
[0528] 857 Processor I/O
[0529] 859 Peripheral I/O Bus
[0530] 861 Sort Pulse Generator
[0531] 863 Data Management Processor
[0532] 865 Pulse Detection Processor
[0533] 867 Feature Extraction Processor
[0534] 873 Sort Processor
[0535] 875 DSP Board RAM
[0536] OL Inverse Relationship Between Coincident Droplets in Usable Population Compared to Coincident Droplets in Unusable Population
[0537] P1 Point on Line OL Corresponding to 85% Purity
[0538] LL Point on Line OL Corresponding to 60% Collection of Desired Particles
[0539] OR Operating Range (Segment of OL Between P1 and LL)
[0540] 6000 Raw Data
[0541] 6001 1st Population of Non-aligned Cells
[0542] 6003 2nd Population of Non-aligned Cells
[0543] 6005 Aligned Y Population
[0544] 6007 Aligned X Population
[0545] 6010 Raw Data
[0546] 6011 Population of Non-aligned Cells
[0547] 6015 Aligned Y Population
[0548] 6017 Aligned X Population
[0549] Multi-Channel System
[0550] 1001 Multi-channel System
[0551] 1003 Flow Cytometry Units
[0552] 1005 Common Particle Supply
[0553] 1007 Common Source of Electromagnetic Radiation
[0554] 1009 Common Housing
[0555] 1011 Common Input for Control
[0556] 1019 Common Output
[0557] 1021 Common Fluid Delivery System
[0558] 1023 Common Temperature Control System
[0559] 1025 Common Power Source
[0560] 1027 Common Waste Recovery System
[0561] 1029 Common Deflector Plate System
[0562] 1031 Common Cleaning System
[0563] Common Housing
[0564] 1069 Base
[0565] 1071 Two Side Walls
[0566] 1073 Lower Pair of Shoulders
[0567] 1075 Lower Cover Panel
[0568] 1077 Front of Housing
[0569] 1081 Upper Pair of Shoulders
[0570] 1083 Upper Cover Panel
[0571] 1085 Rear of Housing
[0572] 1087 Framework for Mounting Multiple Cytometry Units
[0573] 1089 Cross Bar Affixed to Side Walls of Housing (For Attaching Nozzle Mounts)
[0574] 1093 Angled Mounting Plate Extending Between Side Walls
[0575] Common Fluid Supply
[0576] 1105 Pump for Carrier Fluid
[0577] 1107 Common Supply of Carrier Fluid
[0578] 1115 Gas Pressure System for Sheath Fluid
[0579] 1117 Common Supply of Sheath Fluid
[0580] 1121 Manifold System
[0581] 1123 Vessel Containing Common Supply of Carrier Fluid
[0582] 1125 Holder for Vessel
[0583] 1133 Holding Block
[0584] 1135 Cavity for Receiving Vessel
[0585] 1137 Second Cavity for Buffer Material
[0586] 1139 Vessel for Buffer Material
[0587] 1141 Syringe Pump
[0588] 1147 Supply Line from Syringe Pump to Manifold
[0589] 1149 Three-way Valve Controlling Carrier and Buffer Fluid
[0590] 1155 Vessel for Common Supply of Sheath Fluid
[0591] 1157 Supply Line from Sheath Fluid Vessel to Manifold
[0592] 1161 Source of Pressurized Gas
[0593] 1163 Gas Line
[0594] 1165 Regulator in Gas Line
[0595] 1167 Two-way Valve for Gas Line Between Gas Source and Sheath Fluid Tank
[0596] 1169 Gas Line for Pressurizing a Supply of Cleaning Solution
[0597] 1173 Tank for Cleaning Solution
[0598] 1175 Two-way Valve for Gas Line for Cleaning Solution
[0599] 1177 Manifold
[0600] 1179 Laminated Block
[0601] 1181 Passages
[0602] 1185 Fluid Flow Circuit
[0603] 1189 Inlets Connected to Syringe Pump
[0604] 1191 Inlets Connected to Supply of Sheath Fluid
[0605] 1193 Outlets for Carrier Fluid and Sheath Fluid
[0606] V1-V6 Valves for Controlling Flow Through Manifold Passages
[0607] 1203 Frame Member (For Attaching Manifold Block)
[0608] 1205 Fittings Threaded into Block
[0609] 1207 Sample Reservoir
[0610] V1A-V1D Two-way Valves (For Controlling Flow of Sample Fluid to Nozzles)
[0611] 1217 Needle of Sample Reservoir
[0612] 1221 Waste System
[0613] 1223 Waste Tank (Receptacle)
[0614] 1225 Mechanism Such as Vacuum Pump (For Generating Vacuum)
[0615] 1227 Waste Lines (Connecting Valves V1A-V1D to Waste Tank)
[0616] 1233 Hydrophobic Filter (In Line Connecting Waste Tank and Vacuum Pump)
[0617] 1235 Fluid Circuit for Sheath Fluid
[0618] V2A-V2D Two-Way Valves (For Controlling Flow of Sheath Fluid to Nozzles)
[0619] 1241 Sheath Supply Line
[0620] 1247 Waste Lines Connecting Sheath Fluid Flow Circuitry to Waste Tank
[0621] Common Power Supply and Controls
[0622] 1249 Common Power Supply
[0623] 1251 Common Power Delivery Systems
[0624] 1253 Common Input (GUI)
[0625] 1255 Common Output (To Microprocessor)
[0626] Common Temperature Control
[0627] 1257 Temperature Control System
[0628] 1259 Fluid Flow Circuit (For Temperature Control)
[0629] 1263 Fluid Passages (For Temperature Control in Holding Block)
[0630] 1265 Control Unit
[0631] 1269 Fluid Passages (For Temperature Control in Manifold)
[0632] V6 Shut off Valve
[0633] Common Light Beam and Beam Splitting System
[0634] 1270 Beamsplitter
[0635] 1270A First Beam from Beamsplitter
[0636] 1270B Second Beam from Beamsplitter
[0637] 1271 Second Beamsplitter
[0638] 1271A First Beam from Second Beamsplitter
[0639] 1271B Second Beam from Second Beamsplitter
[0640] 1272 Third Beamsplitter
[0641] 1272A First Beam from Third BeamSplitter
[0642] 1272B Second Beam from Third Beamsplitter
[0643] 1273 Beam Guidance System
[0644] 1279 Lower Filter Assembly
[0645] 1281 Upper Mirror Assembly
[0646] 1285 Base (For Lower Filter Assembly)
[0647] 1289 Stage (For Lower Filter Assembly)
[0648] 1291 Mechanism for Moving Stage (Micrometer)
[0649] 1293 Tiltable Platform on the Stage
[0650] 1295 Mirror (On Platform)
[0651] 1297 Base (For Upper Mirror Assembly)
[0652] 1299 Stage (For Upper Mirror Assembly)
[0653] 1301 Tiltable Platform (For Upper Mirror Assembly)
[0654] 1303 Mirror (For Upper Mirror Assembly)
[0655] 1305 Mechanism for Moving Upper Stage
[0656] 1309 Target Plates (Affixed to Side Wall of Housing)
[0657] 1311 Vertically Aligned Holes (In the Target Plates)
[0658] 1315 1st Reflecting Filter
[0659] 1317 2nd Reflecting Filter
[0660] 1319 3rd Reflecting Filter
[0661] 1321 4th Reflecting Filter
[0662] Common Deflector Plates
[0663] 1331 Two Common Deflector Plates
[0664] 1333 Frame (For Mounting Common Deflector Plates on Housing)
[0665] Modular Multi-Channel System
[0666] 4001 Multi-Channel System
[0667] 4009 Modular Cytometry Unit
[0668] 4011 Housing for Modular Unit
[0669] 4013 Common Housing
[0670] 4015 Laser
[0671] 4017 Beam Splitting and Guidance System
[0672] 4021 Hole for Laser to Enter Modular Housing
[0673] 4023 Plate to Cover Exit Hole
[0674] 4025 Collection System for System
[0675] Capillary Tube Nozzle System
[0676] 1335 Capillary Tube Nozzle System
[0677] 1337 Capillary Tube
[0678] 1341 Chamber Filled with Light-transmitting Medium
[0679] Alternative Sorting Systems
[0680] 1351 Photodamage Sorting System
[0681] 1353 Second Laser
[0682] 1355 Collection Receptacle
[0683] 1357 Fluid Switching System
[0684] 1359 Fluid Switching Device
[0685] 1361 Capillary Branch to First Collection Vessel
[0686] 1365 Capillary Branch to Second Collection Vessel
[0687] 1367 Transducer (For Creating Pressure Waves for Selectively Controlling Direction of Fluid Flow)
[0688] 1369 Capillary Tube on End of Nozzle
[0689] 1371 Droplet Interference Stream Sorting System
[0690] 1373 High-Speed Droplet Interference Stream
[0691] 1375 Droplet Generation System for High-Speed Droplet Stream
[0692] 1377 High-Speed Nozzle System
[0693] 1379 High-Speed Fluid Stream
[0694] 1381 Transducer for Droplet Interference Stream Generation
[0695] 1383 High-Speed Droplets
[0696] 1387 Electric Deflection Plate for High-Speed Droplet Deflection
[0697] 1389 Uncharged Droplets
[0698] 1391 Charged Droplets
[0699] 1397 Diverted Segment of Fluid Stream
[0700] 1399 Intersection of High-Speed Droplet Stream with Coaxial Fluid Stream
[0701] 1403 Collection Capillaries
[0702] Collection System
[0703] 2201 Collection System
[0704] 2203 Intercepting Device
[0705] 2205 Impact Surface
[0706] 2207 Collection Vessel
[0707] 2211 Droplet Entryway
[0708] 2213 Bulb of Pipette
[0709] 2215 Pipette
[0710] 2217 Inside Wall of Pipette
[0711] 2225 Guide Tube
[0712] 2227 Collection System Frame
[0713] 2229 Circular Holder
[0714] 2231 Set Screw for Intercepting Device Height
[0715] 2233 Mounting Plate
[0716] 2235 Set Screws for Lateral Adjustment
[0717] 2241 Lateral Slot
[0718] 2243 Tray for Holding Collection Vessels
[0719] 2245 Exit Window
[0720] 2247 First Intercepting Device
[0721] 2249 Second Intercepting Device
[0722] 2265 Stray Droplets
[0723] Collection Fluid
[0724] 2301 Collection Fluid
[0725] Filtration
[0726] 2401 Filter
[0727] 2403 Collection Vessel for Filtration
[0728] 2405 Concentrated Slurry Containing Sperm Cells
[0729] 2409 Syringe Mechanism
[0730] 2411 Cannula Filter
[0731] 2413 Resuspension fluid
[0732] 2419 Second Container
[0733] 2421 Syringe for Filtration Experiment
[0734] 2423 Sample for Filtration Experiment
[0735] 2425 Filter for Filtration Experiment
[0736] 2427 Vacuum Pump for Filtration Experiment
[0737] 2431 Syringe for Filtration Experiment II
[0738] 2433 Sample for Filtration Experiment II
[0739] 2435 Filter for Filtration Experiment II
[0740] 2437 Filter Holder for Filtration Experiment II
[0741] Cryopreservation
[0742] 2501 Adjust Concentration
[0743] 2503 Add Cryoprotectant
[0744] 2505 Add Protein Source
[0745] 2507 Load in Straws
[0746] 2509 Cool to Holding Temperature
[0747] 2511 Maintain at Holding Temperature
[0748] 2513 Cool to Temperature Approaching Critical Zone
[0749] 2515 Cool Through Range of Ice Crystal Formation
[0750] 2517 Immerse in Liquid Nitrogen
[0751] Common Collection System
[0752] 2801 Common Collection System
[0753] 2803 Common Frame for Intercepting Devices
[0754] 2805 Waste Trough
[0755] 2807 Tray for Collection Vessels
[0756] Pulsed Laser System
[0757] 3001 Pulsed Laser
[0758] 3003 Laser Pulse Sensor
[0759] 3005 Laser Pulse
[0760] 3007 Fluorescence Pulse Lifetime Decay
[0761] 3009 Digital Sample

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

[0762] The embodiments described below relate to collection and processing of animal semen, particularly to processing semen from a domestic animal to sort the sperm cells according to a specified DNA characteristic (e.g., X/Y chromosome content to preselect the gender of offspring). A number of inventive technologies are combined to achieve the results described below. However, it will be understood that the inventive technologies described herein may be applied to other applications without deviating from the scope of this invention.

General Overview

[0763] FIG. 1 is a work flow diagram providing an overview of the steps in one exemplary process of the present invention. The process starts with collection of neat semen samples from one or more male animals (e.g., bulls) at step 39. The semen samples are labeled for identification at step 41, contacted with a buffer, at step 41A and transported to a processing facility. In addition to the buffer, additives may also be added at step 41A, including, for example, an energy source, a protein source, an antibiotic, and/or a composition which regulates oxidation/reduction reactions intracellularly and/or extracellularly. An optional quality control test may be performed at step 43 to insure that the quality of each sample (e.g., sperm motility) is sufficient to indicate that the final product is likely to meet minimal quality criteria. An optional washing step may be performed at step 47. At step 47A the staining protocol that will be used for processing is selected by using various staining protocols to stain aliquots of the sample and then analyzing the sortability of each aliquot to identify a desired staining protocol for that particular sample. Staining according to the selected staining protocol is performed at step 49 by adding a staining fluid 48 containing a chemical dye (e.g., a DNA selective fluorescent dye) to each sample. In addition to the staining fluid, additives may also be added at step 48, including, for example, an energy source, a protein source, an antibiotic, and/or a composition which regulates oxidation/reduction reactions intracellularly and/or extracellularly. The samples are incubated at step 51 to allow for uptake of the dye by the sperm. Then a sample is loaded into the sample introduction device of a flow cytometer at step 53. The sample fluid is introduced into the flow cytometer along with a sheath fluid at step 54. In addition to the sheath fluid, additives may also be added at step 54, including, for example, an energy source, a protein source, an antibiotic, and/or a composition which regulates oxidation/reduction reactions intracellularly and/or extracellularly. At step 55 the flow cytometer sorts the sperm cells according to a specified DNA characteristic, as will be described below. As the sorted sperm cells are collected by the collection system of the flow cytometer at step 57, they are added to a collection vessel that contains a collection fluid or cryoextender at step 58A. In addition to the collection fluid, additives may also be added at step 58A, including, for example, an energy source, a protein source, an antibiotic, and/or a composition which regulates oxidation/reduction reactions intracellularly and/or extracellularly. By this time the sperm cells are in a solution that has been diluted by the various fluids added throughout the process. Accordingly, the population of sperm cells having the desired DNA characteristic are concentrated at step 58B for use in commercial artificial insemination. A cryoextender is added to the concentrated sorted sperm cells at step 58C. In addition to the cryoextender, additives may also be added at step 58C, including, for example, an energy source, a protein source, an antibiotic, and/or a composition which regulates oxidation/reduction reactions intracellularly and/or extracellularly. The sperm cells are then packed in tubular containers (referred to in the breeding industry as “straws”) at step 59 and cryopreserved at step 61. The cryopreserved sperm are packed for storage in liquid nitrogen at step 63. The cryopreserved sperm are then distributed through a commercial distribution system at step 65 and sold to animal breeders at step 67. The animal breeders may store the cryopreserved sperm at step 69 until they are ready to use the sperm to artificially inseminate a female animal (e.g., cow) at step 71. As will be discussed below, one embodiment of the present invention involves temperature control through substantially the entire process. Likewise, completion of the various steps within defined time limits is one aspect of another embodiment of the present invention. This overall process is only one example of how the present invention can be used, and it will be understood that some of the aforementioned steps can be deleted and/or others added. The sorted sperm cells can also be used for microinjection or other in vitro fertilization, followed by embryo transplant into a recipient female animal.
[0764] The steps of the overall process incorporating advances of the present invention are described in detail below. While a particular process described is in the context of sorting animal sperm (e.g., bovine sperm), it will be understood that the various aspects of this invention are more generally applicable to any type of sperm (equine, porcine, and others), even more generally to any type of cells, and even more generally to any type of particles, organic and inorganic, including latex particles, magnetic particles, chromosomes, sub-cellular elements, protoplasts, and starch particles. These particles generally fall within a size range of 0.5 to 200 microns, but the technology of this invention is not limited to this range.

Sample Collection and Dilution

Sample Collection

[0765] The sperm sample to be sorted may be a freshly collected sample from a source animal, such as bovine, equine, porcine, or other mammalian source, or a thawed, previously cryopreserved sample. Moreover, the sample may be a single ejaculate, multiple pooled ejaculates from the same mammal, or multiple pooled ejaculates from two or more animals.
[0766] Various collection methods are known and include the gloved-hand method, use of an artificial vagina, and electro-ejaculation. The sperm are preferably collected or quickly transferred into an insulated container to avoid a rapid temperature change from physiological temperatures (typically about 35° C. to about 39° C.). The ejaculate typically contains about 0.5 to 15 billion sperm per milliliter, depending upon the species and particular animal.
[0767] Regardless of the method of collection, an aliquot may be drawn from the sperm sample and evaluated for various characteristics, such as for example, sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm progressive motility, sample pH, sperm membrane integrity, and sperm morphology. This data may be obtained by examination of the sperm using, for example, the Hamilton-Thorn Motility Analyzer (IVOS), according to standard and well known procedures (see, for example, Farrell et al. Theriogenology (1998) 49 (4): 871-9; and U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,896,966 and 4,896,967).

Dilution

[0768] The sperm sample may be combined with a buffer (in the form of a solid or solution) to form a sperm suspension. Among other things, the buffer may enhance sperm viability by buffering the suspension against significant changes in pH or osmotic pressure. Generally, a buffer is non-toxic to the cells and is compatible with the dye used to stain the cells. Exemplary buffers include phosphates, diphosphates, citrates, acetates, lactates, and combinations thereof. Presently preferred buffers include TCA, TEST, sodium citrate, HEPES, TL, TES, citric acid monohydrate, HEPEST (Gradipore, St. Louis, Mo.), PBS (Johnson et al., Gamete Research, 17:203-212 (1987)), and Dulbecco's PBS (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, Calif.).
[0769] One or more buffers may be combined together or with additives as discussed below to form a buffered solution, and the buffered solution combined with the sperm sample to form a sperm suspension. A buffered solution may also contain one or more additives, as described in greater detail below. Exemplary buffered solutions are described in Table I. Preferred buffered solutions include a solution comprising 3% TRIS base, 2% citric acid monohydrate, and 1% fructose (w/v) in water at a pH of about 7.0, a solution designated as TCA #1 in Table I, and a solution designated as TCA #2 in Table I.
[0770] 
[00001] [TABLE-US-00001]
  TABLE I
 
  Buffered Solutions
  COMPONENTS   TCA#1   TCA#2   TEST   Na Citrate   HEPES   TL
 
  Sodium chloride (NaCl)                   7.6   g   5.84   g
  Potassium chloride (KCl)                   0.3   g   0.23   g
  Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)                       2.1   g
  Sodium phosphate monobasic (NaH2PO4—H2O)                       0.04   g
  (+)-2-hydroxyproprionic acid (Na Lactate)                       3.68   ml
  Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)                   0.1   g   0.08   g
  N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N′-(2-                   2.38   g   2.38   g
  ethansulfonic acid) (HEPES)
  tris(hydroxymethyl) amimonethane (TRIS base)   30.3   g   32.02   g   10.28   g
  Citric Acid Monohydrate   15.75   g   18.68   g
  Na Citrate Dihydrate               29   g
  2-[(2-hydroxy-1,1-           43.25   g
  bis[hydroxymethyl] ethyl)aminoethanesulfonic
  acid (TES)
  Fructose   12.5   g   2.67   g       10   g   2.52   g
  D-Glucose           2   g
  Steptamycin           0.25   g
  Penicillin-G           0.15   g
  Water   1   liter   1   liter   1   liter   1   liter   1   liter   1   liter
  Target pH   7.35   7.35   7.35   7.35   7.35   7.35
  Target osmolality (milliosmols/kg H2O)   ~314   ~300   ~302   ~316   ~298   ~296
 
[0771] Alternatively, the sperm may be combined with a metabolic inhibitor to form an inhibited sperm suspension. Metabolic inhibitors cause the sperm cells to emulate sperm cells of the epididymis of a mammal, such as for example a bull, by simulating the fluid environment of the epididymis or epididymal tract of the mammal. Such an inhibitor would reduce or inhibit the motility and metabolic activity of the sperm. Exemplary inhibitors of this class include carbonate based inhibitors, such as for example those disclosed in Salisbury & Graves, J. Reprod. Fertil., 6:351-359 (1963). A preferred inhibitor of this type comprises NaHCO3, KHCO3, and C6H8O7.H2O. A more preferred inhibitor of this type comprises 0.204 g NaHCO3, 0.433 g KHCO3, and 0.473 g C6H8O7.H2O per 25 mL of purified water (0.097 moles/L of NaHCO3 0.173 moles/L of KHCO3, 0.090 moles/L C6H8O7.H2O in water).
[0772] In addition to a buffer, the sperm suspension may also contain a range of additives to enhance sperm viability or motility. Exemplary additives include energy sources, protein sources, antibiotics, and compositions which regulate oxidation/reduction reactions intracellularly and/or extracellularly. One or more of these additives may be introduced into the buffer or buffered solution before the formation of the sperm suspension or, alternatively, may be separately introduced into the sperm suspension.
[0773] One or more energy sources may be added to minimize or inhibit the sperm cells from oxidizing intracellular phospholipids and other cellular components. Exemplary energy sources include monosaccharides, such as fructose, glucose, galactose and mannose, and disaccharides, such as sucrose, lactose, maltose, and trehalose, as well as other polysaccharides. For example, the resulting sperm suspension may include about 1% (w/v) to about 4% (w/v) of the energy source(s). If included, the energy source is preferably fructose and the sperm suspension contains about 2.5% (w/v).
[0774] To minimize dilution shock, provide support to the cells, or disperse the cells throughout the suspension, a protein source may also be included in the buffer, buffered solution, or sperm suspension. Exemplary protein sources include egg yolk, egg yolk extract, milk (including heat homogenized and skim), milk extract, soy protein, soy protein extract, serum albumin, bovine serum albumin, human serum substitute supplement, and combinations thereof. Albumin, and more particularly bovine serum albumin (BSA), is a preferred protein source. For example, if included, BSA may be present in the sperm suspension in an amount of less than about 5.0% (w/v), preferably less than about 2% (w/v), more preferably less than about 1% (w/v), and most preferably in an amount of about 0.1% (w/v).
[0775] The use of a protein source, such BSA, alone may initiate the process of capacitation in a percentage of the sperm cells in the suspension. It is preferred that this process take place in the female reproductive tract. Therefore, in order to inhibit the initiation of capacitation during dilution, as well as during the subsequent staining and sorting, an alternative protein source or a protein substitute may be included in the sperm suspension. The alternative protein source or protein substitute possess the advantageous effects of a typical protein source, such as BSA, in addition to the ability to inhibit the initiation of capacitation in a larger percentage of the cells in the sperm suspension. Examples of alternative protein sources include human serum substitute supplement (SSS) (Irvine Scientific, Santa Ana, Calif.) and cholesterol enhancer BSA, while an example of a protein substitute includes a polyvinyl alcohol, such as for example, a low to medium viscosity polyvinyl alcohol generally of a molecular weight of about 30,000 to about 60,000. Generally, if included, these compositions will be present in the same amounts as disclosed above with respect to BSA, with the total albumin content of the buffer or buffered solution generally not exceeding about 5.0% (w/v).
[0776] An antibiotic may be added to the sperm suspension in order to inhibit bacterial growth. Exemplary antibiotics include, for example, tylosin, gentamicin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, Linco-Spectin® (lincomycin hydrochloride-spectinomycin), penicillin, streptomycin, ticarcillin, or any combination thereof. The antibiotics may be present in a concentration of about 50□g to about 800□g per ml of semen, regardless of whether the semen is neat, buffered, or contains additional substances, such as for example, any of the additives mentioned herein. The Certified Semen Services (CSS) and National Association of Animal Breeders (NAAB) have promulgated guidelines regarding the use of antibiotics with respect to sperm collection and use.
[0777] A composition which regulates oxidation/reduction reactions intracellularly and/or extracellularly may also be included in the sperm suspension. Such a composition may provide a protective effect to the sperm cells, such as for example by maintaining sperm viability or progressive motility. Examples of such a composition include, for example, pyruvate, vitamin K, lipoic acid, glutathione, flavins, quinones, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and SOD mimics. If included in the sperm suspension, such a composition may be present in a concentration sufficient to effect the protective effect without detrimentally affecting sperm health. Exemplary concentration ranges include from about 10□M to about 50 mM depending upon such factors as the particular composition being used or the concentration of sperm in the suspension. For example, pyruvate may be present in the sperm suspension in a concentration from about 1 mM to about 50 mM, preferably from about 2.5 mM to about 40 mM, more preferably from about 5 mM to 25 mM, even more preferably from about 10 mM to 15 mM, still more preferably about 15 mM, and most preferably about 10 mM. Vitamin K may be present in the sperm suspension in a concentration from about 1□M to about 100□M, preferably from about 10□M to about 100□M, and more preferably about 100□M. Lipoic acid may be present in the sperm suspension in a concentration from about 0.1 mM to about 1 mM, preferably from about 0.5 mM to about 1 mM, and more preferably about 1 mM.

Staining of the Cells to be Sorted

[0778] Generally, sperm cells may be stained by forming a staining mixture comprising sperm cells, a buffer, and a dye. The sperm cells may be derived from a freshly obtained semen sample, as discussed above with respect to sample collection and dilution, or from a thawed cryopreserved semen sample.
[0779] If the semen sample is a thawed, previously cryopreserved sample, the sperm are preferably thawed immediately prior to staining. Generally, a straw or other cryopreservation vessel containing the frozen sperm may be placed in a water bath, the temperature of which is preferably in excess of the glass transition temperature of the sperm cell membrane (i.e., about 17° C.), but not so great as to adversely impact sperm health. For example, frozen sperm may be thawed by immersing the cryopreservation vessel in a water bath maintained at a temperature of about 17° C. to about 40° C. for a period of about 30 seconds to about 90 seconds.
[0780] Once obtained, the sperm cells may be introduced into the staining mixture in the form of neat semen or in the form of a suspension derived therefrom, e.g., a sperm suspension as discussed above with respect to sample collection and dilution.
[0781] The dye may be in the form of a neat solid or a liquid composition. The dye may also be dissolved or dispersed in an unbuffered liquid to form a dye solution. Alternatively, the dye may be in the form of a dye suspension comprising a dye and a buffer or buffered solution that is biologically compatible with sperm cells. A range exemplary buffers and buffered solutions are discussed above with respect to sample collection and dilution. For example, among the buffers which may be used is a TCA buffer solution comprising 3% TRIS base, 2% citric acid monohydrate, and 1% fructose in water at a pH of about 7.0, or a carbonate-based inhibitor solution comprising 0.204 g NaHCO3, 0.433 g KHCO3, and 0.473 g C6H8O7.H2O per 25 mL of purified water (0.097 moles/L of NaHCO3, 0.173 moles/L of KHCO3, 0.090 moles/L C6H8O7.H2O in water). Thus, for example, a staining mixture may be formed by combining neat semen with a dye. Alternatively, the staining mixture may be formed by combining neat semen with a buffer or buffered solution and a dye. Additionally, the staining mixture may be formed by combining a sperm suspension with a dye.
[0782] The staining mixture may be formed by using one or more UV or visible light excitable, DNA selective dyes as previously described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,135,759 and WO 02/41906. Exemplary UV light excitable, selective dyes include Hoechst 33342 and Hoechst 33258, each of which is commercially available from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, Mo.). Exemplary visible light excitable dyes include SYBR-14, commercially available from Molecular Probes, Inc. (Eugene, Oreg.) and bisbenzimide-BODIPY® conjugate 6-{[3-((2Z)-2-{[1-(difluoroboryl)-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]methylene}-2H-pyrrol-5-yl)propanoyl]amino}-N-[3-(methyl{3-[({4-[6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-1H,3′H-2,5′-bibenzimidazol-2′-yl]phenoxy}acetyl)amino]propyl}amino)propyl]hexanamide (“BBC”) described in WO 02/41906. Each of these dyes may be used alone or in combination; alternatively, other cell permeant UV and visible light excitable dyes may be used, alone or in combination with the aforementioned dyes, provided the dye does not detrimentally affect the viability of the sperm cells to an unacceptable degree when used in concentrations which enable sorting as described elsewhere.
[0783] The preferred concentration of the DNA selective dye in the staining mixture is a function of a range of variables which include the permeability of the cells to the selected dye, the temperature of the staining mixture, the amount of time allowed for staining to occur, and the degree of enrichment desired in the subsequent sorting step. In general, the dye concentration is preferably sufficient to achieve the desired degree of staining in a reasonably short period of time without substantially detrimentally affecting sperm viability. For example, the concentration of Hoechst 33342, Hoechst 33258, SYBR-14, or BBC in the staining mixture will generally be between about 0.1 μM and about 1.0M, preferably from about 0.1 μM to about 700 μM, and more preferably from about 100 μM to about 200 μM. Accordingly, under one set of staining conditions, the concentration of Hoechst 33342 is preferably about 100 μM. Under another set of staining conditions, the concentration of Hoechst 33342 is about 150 μM. Under still another set of staining conditions the concentration is preferably about 200 μM.
[0784] In addition to buffer, other additives may be included in the staining mixture to enhance the viability or motility of the sperm; these additives may be provided as part of the sperm source, the dye source, or separately to the staining mixture. Such additives include energy sources, antibiotics, compositions which regulate oxidation/reduction reactions intracellularly and/or extracellularly, and seminal plasma, the first three of which are discussed above with respect to sample collection and dilution, and the last of which is discussed below with respect to collection fluids. Such additives may be added during the staining techniques in accordance therewith.
[0785] In particular, it has been observed that the inclusion of a composition which regulates oxidation/reduction reactions intracellularly and/or extracellularly in the staining mixture may help to maintain sperm viability at elevated staining temperatures, at elevated dye concentrations, at increased staining periods, or any combination thereof. Examples of these compositions and the use of the same are discussed above with respect to buffers and diluents. Such compositions may be added during the staining techniques in accordance therewith.
[0786] The staining mixture may be maintained at any of a range of temperatures; typically, this will be within a range of about 4° C. to about 50° C. For example, the staining mixture may be maintained at a “relatively low” temperature, i.e., a temperature of about 4° C. to about 30° C.; in this embodiment, the temperature is preferably from about 20° C. to about 30° C., more preferably from about 25° C. to about 30° C., and most preferable at about 28° C. Alternatively, the staining mixture may be maintained within an “intermediate” temperature range, i.e., a temperature of about 30° C. to about 39° C.; in this embodiment, the temperature is preferably at about 34° C. to about 39° C., and more preferably about 37° C. In addition, the staining mixture may be maintained within a “relatively high” temperature range, i.e., a temperature of about 40° C. to about 50° C.; in this embodiment, the temperature is preferably from about 40° C. to about 45° C., more preferably from about 40° C. to about 43° C., and most preferably at about 41° C. Selection of a preferred temperature generally depends upon a range of variables, including for example, the permeability of the cells to the dye(s) being used, the concentration of the dye(s) in the staining mixture, the amount of time the cells will be maintained in the staining mixture, and the degree of enrichment desired in the sorting step.
[0787] Uptake of dye by the sperm cells in the staining mixture is allowed to continue for a period of time sufficient to obtain the desired degree of DNA staining. That period is typically a period sufficient for the dye to bind to the DNA of the sperm cells such that X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm cells may be sorted based upon the differing and measurable fluorescence intensity between the two. Generally, this will be no more than about 160 minutes, preferably no more than about 90 minutes, still more preferably no more than about 60 minutes, and most preferably from about 5 minutes to about 40 minutes.
[0788] Accordingly, in one embodiment, a staining mixture is formed comprising sperm cells and a dye in a concentration from about 100 μM to about 200 μM, and the staining mixture is held for a period of time at a temperature of about 41° C. In another embodiment, the staining mixture further comprises pyruvate in a concentration of about 10 mM, vitamin K in a concentration of about 100 μM, or lipoic acid in a concentration of about 1 mM.
[0789] In still another embodiment, a staining mixture is formed comprising sperm cells and a dye in a concentration from about 100 μM to about 200 μM, and the staining mixture is held for a period of time at a temperature of about 28° C. In another embodiment, the staining mixture comprises pyruvate in a concentration of about 10 mM, vitamin K in a concentration of about 100 μM, or lipoic acid in a concentration of about 1 mM.
[0790] In yet another example, a staining mixture is formed comprising sperm cells, a metabolic inhibitor comprising 0.204 g NaHCO3, 0.433 g KHCO3, and 0.473 g C6H8O7.H2O per 25 mL of purified water (0.097 moles/L of NaHCO3, 0.173 moles/L of KHCO3, 0.090 moles/L C6H8O7.H2O in water), and a dye in a concentration from about 100 μM to about 200 μM, and the staining mixture is held for a period of time at a temperature of about 28° C. In another embodiment, the staining mixture is held for a period of time at a temperature of about 41° C.

Sheath Fluid

[0791] To sort the sperms cells, the stained cells are introduced as a sample fluid into the nozzle of a flow cytometer as described below. As part of the process, the sample fluid is typically surrounded by a sheath fluid. The sheath fluid permits the sperm cells in the sample fluid to be drawn out into a single file line as discussed below. The sheath fluid is collected along with the sperm cells by the collection system of the flow cytometer and therefore forms part of the post-sort environment for the sperm cells. Thus, it is desirable that the sheath fluid provides a protective effect to the cells upon contact of cells by the sheath fluid.
[0792] The sheath fluid generally comprises a buffer or buffered solution. Examples of buffers and buffered solutions and illustrative concentrations of the same that may be used in the sheath fluid are disclosed above with respect to sample collection and dilution. In a particular embodiment, the sheath fluid comprises 0.96% Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (w/v), 0.1% BSA (w/v), in water at a pH of about 7.0.
[0793] Optionally, the sheath fluid may also contain a range of additives that are beneficial to sperm viability or motility. Such additives include, for example, an energy source, a protein source, an antibiotic, a composition which regulates oxidation/reduction reactions intracellularly and/or extracellularly, an alternative protein source, and polyvinyl alcohol. Each of these additives, and examples of the same, is discussed above with respect to sample collection and dilution. Such additives may be added to the sheath fluid in accordance therewith.
[0794] The sheath fluid may optionally be filtered prior to the sorting step. Contaminants that may be present in the sheath fluid, such as non-soluble particulates, may interfere with sorting. Therefore, the sheath fluid may be filtered prior to its introduction into a flow cytometer. Such filters and methods of using the same are well known in the art. Generally, the filter is a membrane of about 0.1 microns to about 0.5 microns, preferably about 0.2 microns to about 0.3 microns, and more preferably about 0.2 microns.
[0795] The stained cells may be introduced into the sheath fluid at any time subsequent to staining. Typically, a stream of the stained cells in the sample fluid is injected into a stream of sheath fluid within the nozzle of the flow cytometer. Initially, there is substantially no contacting of the sample fluid and the sheath fluid due to laminar flow of the fluids as discussed in more detail below. It is desirable that the sample fluid and the sheath fluid remain as substantially discrete flowing streams until after the particles (e.g., the stained sperm cells) in the sample fluid have been analyzed. At some point, however, the sheath fluid and the cells of the sample fluid come in contact with one another. For instance in a droplet sorting flow cytometer (discussed below) the sheath fluid and sample fluid begin contacting one another as droplets are being formed downstream of the interrogation location.
[0796] At the time of the introduction of the stained cells and the sheath fluid, both the stained cells and the sheath fluid may be at a temperature from about 4° C. to about 50° C. The sheath fluid and the stained cells may be at the same or at different temperatures, with either being at a higher temperature than the other. Accordingly, in one embodiment, at the time of the introduction of the stained cells and the sheath fluid, both the cells and the sheath fluid are at the same temperature; for example, at a “relatively low” temperature, such as for example at about 5° C. to about 8° C.; at an “intermediate” temperature, such as for example at about 25° C. to about 30° C.; or at a “relatively high” temperature, such as for example at about 40° C. to about 43° C. In another embodiment, the stained cells are at a higher temperature than the sheath fluid, such as for example, the cells being at about 40° C. to about 43° C. and the sheath fluid being at about room temperature or at about 5° C. In yet another embodiment, the stained cells are at a lower temperature than the sheath fluid.

Flow Cytometry

[0797] One embodiment of the present invention employs inventive technologies in flow cytometry to analyze and sort the sperm cells. Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 3, one embodiment of a flow cytometry system of the present invention is designated in its entirety by the reference numeral 1. As will appear, the flow cytometry system 1 is useful for classifying and sorting particles, such as sperm cells, according to selected characteristics. In general, the system 1 comprises a supply 3 of carrier fluid 17 containing particles to be sorted, a supply 7 of sheath fluid 19, flow cytometry apparatus having sorting capabilities, generally designated 9, and a fluid delivery system 15 for delivering the carrier 17 and sheath fluids 19 from respective supplies 3, 7 under pressure to the flow cytometry apparatus 9. The flow cytometry apparatus 9 is adapted for receiving the carrier 17 and sheath 19 fluids, for combining the fluids 17, 19 to create a stream of pressurized fluid 21, for directing the stream 21 carrying the particles through a focused beam of electromagnetic radiation 25 (e.g., UV laser light), and for analyzing the electromagnetic radiation 31 (e.g., fluorescent light) emitted by particles passing through the focused beam 25. The apparatus 9 also functions to break the stream 21 up into droplets 33 containing particles to be evaluated, and to sort the droplets 33 based on the aforesaid measurements according to one or more characteristics of the particles contained in the droplets 33. While this invention may be used to analyze and preferably sort any type of particle, it has particular application to sorting cells according to one or more desired characteristics of the cells (e.g., size, DNA content, shape, density, gene sequence, etc.). This invention is especially suited for sorting animal sperm cells for commercial use by the animal production industry for in vivo or in vitro artificial insemination, as discussed in more detail below.

Single-Channel Sorting Apparatus and Method

Flow Cytometry Apparatus

[0798] The flow cytometry apparatus 9 shown in FIG. 3 comprises a nozzle system, generally designated 101, for delivering a fluid stream 21 containing particles (e.g., stained sperm cells) through a nozzle orifice 103 under pressure with the cells substantially in single file and, in the case of sperm cells, with asymmetric heads of the sperm cells substantially in a desired orientation which will be described. As in conventional flow cytometry droplet sorting systems, a transducer 105 is provided opposite the nozzle orifice 103 for introducing acoustical energy into the fluid stream 21 which causes the stream 21 to break into droplets 33 containing individual cells at a “droplet break-off” location 107 spaced from the nozzle orifice 103. The system 1 also includes an optics system, generally designated 109, for focusing a beam of electromagnetic radiation 25 (e.g., 350-700 nm UV or visible laser light) on the fluid stream 21 at an “interrogation” location 115 which, in the described embodiment, is between the nozzle orifice 103 and the droplet break-off location 107. Thus, the described embodiment is a jet-in-air system. In other embodiments, the interrogation location 107 could be inside the nozzle orifice 103 or upstream from the orifice 103. In any event, the cells are adapted to pass through the beam of light 25 at the interrogation location 107, resulting in excitation of a chemical stain (or other reporting medium) in the cells to cause fluorescence emissions 31 having a wavelength different from that of the beam 25 (e.g., if the illumination light 25 has a wavelength of about 350 to 370 nm, the fluorescent emissions 31 may have a wavelength of about 460 nm). A photodetector 117 is operable to detect these emissions 31 and to convert them into electrical signals which are processed and used to classify the cells according to selected characteristics, such as the X/Y chromosome content of sperm cells. The flow cytometry apparatus 9 further comprises a sorting system, generally designated 119, for sorting the droplets 33 into different groups or populations (e.g., two populations 123, 125) according to the classification of the cells contained in the droplets 33 and a collection system, generally designated 2201 (FIG. 2), for collecting the droplets 33 and maintaining the segregation of the different populations 123, 125.
[0799] Operation of the system 1 is controlled by a processor 131, such as microprocessor or other digital or analog control and/or processor, or combinations thereof, which controls the various functions of the components of the system 1 in a manner to be described. Significantly, the processor 131 is also responsive to particle analysis information to control the output of the system 1 based on selected control and sorting strategies involving different parameters, including the desired purity of one of the sorted populations of particles, the acceptable quantity (or percentage) of desired particles one of the populations as compared to the quantity (or percentage) of desired particles in one or more of the other populations, and other parameters, as will be discussed later.
[0800] The various components of the system 1 are described in detail below.

Nozzle System

[0801] Referring to FIGS. 4 and 5, the nozzle system 101 comprises, in one exemplary embodiment, a generally cylindrical flow body 133 having a central longitudinal bore 135 through it, and a nozzle 137 on the flow body 133 having a funnel-shaped nozzle body 139. A passage 141 extends through the nozzle body 139 co-axial with the bore 135 in the flow body 133 and terminates in the aforementioned nozzle orifice 103 at the forward end of the nozzle 137. The nozzle body 139 has an internally threaded counterbore 145 at its rearward end for threadably receiving a threaded projection or stud 149 at the forward end of the flow body 133 to removably connect the nozzle 137 to the flow body 133, the connection being sealed by an O-ring seal 155. It will be understood that the nozzle can be removably connected to the flow body in other ways or, alternatively, the parts could be integrally formed as one piece.
[0802] Particles are delivered to the nozzle 137 by means of a conduit 157 positioned co-axially in the bore 135 of the flow body 133. The outside diameter of the conduit 157 is less than the inside diameter of the bore 135 so that an annular space 167 is formed around the conduit 157. In one particular embodiment, the conduit 157 is a tubular needle (e.g., a 16-ga. needle having an inside diameter of 0.01 in.) having a front end which extends into the counterbore 145 at the back of the nozzle 137. The back end of the conduit 157 is connected to the fluid delivery system 15 for delivery of carrier fluid 15 (e.g., a staining mixture containing sperm cells) to the conduit 157. The annular space 167 surrounding the conduit 157 is connected by means of a radial bore 173 in the flow body 133 to the fluid delivery system 15 for delivery of sheath fluid 19 into the annular space 167. As shown in FIGS. 3 and 5, an optional second radial bore 183 may be provided in the flow body 133 connecting the annular space 167 to another line (not shown) for supply of additional sheath fluid 19 to the nozzle 137.
[0803] As in conventional flow cytometry systems, sheath fluid 19 is introduced into the annular space 167 surrounding the conduit 157. The velocity of the sheath fluid 19 as it flows past the tip of the conduit 157 is much higher that the velocity of the carrier fluid 17 exiting the conduit 157, so that the carrier fluid 17 and cells (e.g., sperm cells) contained therein are accelerated by the sheath fluid 19 toward the orifice 103 of the nozzle 137. This acceleration functions to space the cells out generally in a single file arrangement for separate analysis by the optics system 109. The sheath fluid 19 surrounds the carrier fluid 17, resulting in the fluid stream 21 having a central core 189 of carrier fluid 17 and an outer co-axial sheath 191 of sheath fluid 19 surrounding the central core 189 (see FIG. 6). As will be understood by those skilled in flow cytometry, the laminar flow and hydrodynamic focusing of the central core 189 tends to confine the particles to the core 189, with little mixing of the sheath 19 and carrier fluids 17 in the nozzle 137. Further, the central core 189 remains essentially intact within the sheath 191 as the stream 21 moves through the nozzle system 101, until such time as droplets 33 are formed at the break-off location 107. This type of co-axial flow is particularly suited for flow cytometry, because the particles to be analyzed are confined within the relatively narrow core 189 of the stream. As a result, a beam of light 25 focused on the center or core 189 of the stream 21 will illuminate the particles so that they may be analyzed substantially one at a time. By confining the core 189 within a sufficiently narrow diameter, one can obtain more uniform illumination of the particles in the core fluid 189. For good analytical results, the diameter of the core containing the particles should desirably be within a range of 7 to 20 microns, and more desirably within a range of 7 to 14 microns. The diameter of the core stream 189 can be increased or decreased by adjusting the rate of delivery of the carrier fluid 17 relative to the rate of delivery of the sheath fluid 19.

Cell Orientation

[0804] For optimizing analytical results, it is desirable that particles having asymmetric shapes be in a desired orientation when they pass through the light beam from the optics system. As is known to those skilled in the art, fluorescence emissions from asymmetric particles tend to anisotropic (i.e., the intensity of the emissions are not uniform in all directions). As used herein, the term “desired orientation” means an orientation which allows the processing system to discriminate between cells having different characteristics with an accuracy in a range of 70% to 100%, more desirably in a range of 80% to 100%, still more desirably in a range of 90% to 100%, and most desirably 95% or greater.
[0805] To illustrate the point, a bovine sperm cell 201 is illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7. Typically, the cell has a paddle-shaped head 205 with relatively flat wide opposite faces 207 and narrow edges 209, a nucleus 213 in the head 205 containing the chromatic DNA mass of the cell, and a tail 215 extending from the head 205 providing the motility necessary for effective fertilization. The average bovine sperm cell 201 has a head length 219 of about 8 μm, a head width 221 of about 4 μm, and an overall length 223 from the front of the head to the end of the tail of about 100 μm. In the average bovine sperm cell 201, the nucleus 213 occupies most of the head volume and is only slightly smaller than the sperm head 205. Thus, the nucleus length 217 is almost equal to the head length 219, again being about 8 μm in length. It has been observed that in the bovine the X/Y chromosomes of the sperm cells 201 are localized in a region of the nucleus 225 (FIG. 6) below and immediately adjacent the longitudinal midline or equator 211 or center of the head 205. More specifically, this sub-equatorial region 225 extends no more than about 20% of the nucleus length 217 on the lower half (toward the tail 215) of the nucleus 213, even more specifically no more than about 10-15% of the nucleus length 217 on the lower half of the nucleus 213, and still more specifically no more than about 1.0-1.5 μm below the equator 211 of the nucleus 213.
[0806] When sperm cells pass through the excitation beam 25, it is desirable that the cells be substantially in single file and that the head 205 of the each cell 201 be substantially similarly oriented to reduce orientation variability from cell to cell and thus provide for a more uniform measurement of the cells. It is also desired that the cells have an orientation which will enable accurate discrimination between X and Y cells. Desirably, this orientation is one where the length of the sperm cell 201 is generally aligned with the direction of stream flow 227 (either head leading (shown FIG. 6) or head trailing) and where the head 205 of the sperm cell 201 is rotated on its longitudinal axis so that the head 205 falls within an angular envelope 229 in which the light beam 25 from the optics system 109 will strike a wide face 207 of the cell 201 generally broadside, as shown schematically in FIG. 7, rather than a narrow edge 209 of the cell. Preferably, the envelope 229 defining the desired orientation is generated by rotation of a sperm cell 201 through an angular range of R1 relative to a plane P which is generally perpendicular to the incoming light beam 25, as viewed in a cross section taken transversely through the stream 21. The range R1 is preferably 0 to 90 degrees, more preferably 0 to 60 degrees, and even more preferably 0 to 30 degrees. The nozzle of the present invention is configured to achieve this desired orientation with an accuracy of up to 90% or more.
[0807] The tolerance for sperm orientation (i.e., the size of the envelope 229 defined by angular range R1) is related to the numerical aperture of the lens used to collect fluorescence emissions 31 from the sperm cells. In the embodiment shown FIG. 7, for example, the optics system 109 has a fluorescence emission 31 detection volume 579 defined by a solid angle of 55 degrees. When the rotational orientation of a sperm head 205 is outside the envelope 229 defined by R1 as the sperm moves through the beam 25, a relatively stronger fluorescence emission 31 from an edge 209 of the sperm head 205 will be collected by the optic system 109, preventing the processor 131 from correlating the intensity of the fluorescence emission 31 with the X/Y chromosome content of the sperm cell 201. However, the optics system 109 does not collect the relatively stronger fluorescence emissions 31 from the narrow edge 209 of the sperm heads 205 as long as the rotational orientation of a sperm head 205 is within the envelope 229 as it passes through the interrogation location 115. Thus, in the embodiment shown FIG. 7, the orientation of the sperm cell does not result in collection of the relatively stronger edge-wise fluorescence emissions as long as the narrow edges 209 of the sperm head 205 are confined within angle R1. The solid angle of the collection volume 579 can be decreased by using a lens with a smaller numerical aperture, thereby increasing angle R1 and the tolerance for poorly oriented sperm. However, this also decreases the number of photons that can be collected by the optics system 109, which can impact the measurement of fluorescence emissions 31 by reducing the intensity of the emissions 31 detected by the photodetector. Likewise, if the optics system 109 collects fluorescence emissions 31 with a high numerical aperture lens to obtain a stronger intensity of the fluorescence emissions detected by the photodetector, then the tolerance for sperm orientation decreases. Thus, in designing a system of the present invention, one needs to strike a balance between the tolerance for sperm orientation and the numerical lens aperture. The optimal balance will depend on the orienting capabilities and optical sensitivity of the system. In one desirable embodiment, for example, a lens having a numerical aperture 0.65 is used.

Nozzle Design

[0808] In one embodiment, as shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, the interior 231 of the nozzle body 139 downstream from the counterbore 145 has an interior surface 233 comprising first, second and third axially tapered regions 235, 237, 239 for progressively accelerating the speed of the fluid stream 21 in a downstream direction toward the nozzle orifice 103. As noted previously, this acceleration functions to space the particles (e.g., cells) in the stream 21 so they assume a generally single file formation so they can be analyzed substantially one particle at a time. At least two of these regions, and preferably all three 235, 237, 239, have generally elliptical (oval) shapes in cross sections taken at right angles to the longitudinal axis 247 of the nozzle 137, as is shown in FIGS. 9A-9H and FIGS. 9J-9K. The interior surface 233 of the nozzle body 139 also has a fourth region 249, not tapered, downstream from the first three regions 235, 237, 239 and immediately upstream of the nozzle orifice 103 which, in one embodiment, is formed in a separate orifice member 255 secured in a counterbore 257 at the front of the nozzle body 139. In one embodiment, the generally elliptical cross sectional shapes of the first 235 and second 237 regions are oriented in substantially the same direction to define a first torsional zone 259, and the generally elliptical cross sectional shape of the third region 239, constituting a second torsional zone 261, is oriented at an angle (e.g., about 90 degrees) relative to the generally elliptical cross sectional shapes of the first 235 and second 237 regions. The orientation is such that the interior surface 233 of the nozzle body 139 applies torsional forces to the fluid stream 21 and thereby tends to orient the sperm cells 201 in the aforestated desired orientation as they pass through the nozzle orifice 103. Preferably, the first torsional zone 259 has an axial length 273 of 3.0-4.5 mm, preferably about 3.6 mm, and the first 235 and second 237 tapered regions making up the zone 259 have approximately equal axial lengths 275, 277 (e.g., about 1.8 mm). The second torsional zone 261 has an axial length 279 of 3.5-5.0 mm, preferably about 4.45 mm. The fourth region 249 is preferably generally cylindrical in shape. Each generally cross-sectional elliptical shape A-D (FIG. 8) at the boundaries of the first 235, second 237 and third 239 regions has a major axis diameter and a minor axis diameter, exemplary dimensions of which are shown in FIG. 8 and Table 1 below.
[0809] 
[00002] [TABLE-US-00002]
    TABLE 1
   
      Major Axis   Minor Axis  
      Diameter   Diameter
    Ellipse   (mm)   (mm)   Ratio
   
 
    A   7.0   6.0   1.2
    B   6.1   5.3   1.15
    C   2.1   2.1   1
    D   0.9   0.2   1.45
   
[0810] It will be understood that the above dimensions are exemplary, and that other dimensions and shapes may also be suitable. Functionally, the changes in the ratios between the major and minor diameters, and the different orientations of the elliptical shapes of the regions, create side forces which act on each cell 201 and apply a torsional force 271 tending to rotate the cell 201 on its longitudinal axis so that its wide faces 207 align with the minor axis in the first torsional zone 259 and as the cell is gently twisted (e.g., 90 degrees) to align with the minor axis of the second torsional zone 261. Each of the tapered surfaces 235, 237, 239 also serves to accelerate the stream 21 (and cells) flowing through the nozzle 101. In one embodiment, the acceleration increases more gradually in the first 235 and third 239 regions and more rapidly in the second region 237. Again by way of example, the taper of the first region 235 may range from about 11-14 degrees; the taper in the second region 237 may range from about 42-48 degrees; and the taper in the third region 239 may vary from about 8-12 degrees. The nozzle body 139 is formed from a suitable material such as molded plastic (ABS) or metal.
[0811] The orifice member 255 (FIG. 8) is preferably formed from a hard, wear resistant material, such as sapphire, which is capable of being machined or otherwise formed with precise dimensions. The orifice member 255 itself has, in one embodiment, a conical upstream surface 309 of generally circular cross section which decreases in diameter from about 0.92 mm to about 0.060 mm and has an axial length 317 of about 0.54 mm and a taper angle of about 39 degrees. The orifice member 255 also has a generally cylindrical downstream surface 315 with a diameter of about 0.060 mm and an axial length 327 of about 0.36 mm. These dimensions are exemplary only, and it will be understood that the orifice member 255 may have other sizes and shapes. For example, the shape of the upstream surface 309 may be generally elliptical (oval) in cross section, and the diameter of the orifice 103 at the downstream end of the nozzle 137 may range from 40 to 100 microns or more. It is desirable that the size of the orifice 103 be such that the cells exiting the nozzle 101 are substantially in single file formation within the core 189 of the stream 21 and substantially in the desired orientation, as described previously. For example, in the case of sperm cells an orifice 103 having a diameter of about 60-62 microns at the downstream end has been found to be suitable. Preferably, the nozzle orifice 103 serves to further accelerate the stream 21 and to shape and size the stream 21 for optimum cell spacing, cell orientation and droplet 33 formation, as will be described.
[0812] The velocity of the cells as they exit the nozzle 137 will depend on various factors, including the pressure at which sheath fluid 19 is introduced into the nozzle system 101. At a pressure of 20 psi, the cells will exit the nozzle orifice 103 of the above embodiment at a velocity of about 16.6 m/s as a generally cylindrical stream 21 containing cells which are substantially similarly oriented at the core 189 of the stream 21. At a sheath pressure of 30 psi, the cell velocity will be about 20.3 m/s. At different sheath fluid 19 pressures, the velocity of the stream 21 will vary.

Introduction of Core Stream to Torsional Zone

[0813] Improved orientation of particles may be obtained by altering the flow of the fluid stream 21 through an orienting nozzle so that the core stream 189 containing the particles to be oriented (e.g., sperm cells) is directed along a flow path, at least a portion of which is offset from the center of the nozzle so that the particles are subjected to the hydrodynamic orienting forces generated by a nozzle while they are at a location that is offset from the center of the nozzle. Directing the core stream 189 along an offset flow path may also improve orientation of particles in a traditional nozzle (i.e., one that does not have any torsional zones). In many nozzles, one can determine that a given position is offset from the center of the nozzle because it is displaced from a longitudinal axis of the nozzle. One can also recognize that a particular position is offset from the center of a nozzle because it is displaced from the geometric center of a cross sectional area of the nozzle through which the fluid stream flows.
[0814] A number of techniques may be used to direct the core stream 189 along a flow path that is offset from the center of the nozzle. For example, an orienting baffle may be positioned in the nozzle to deflect the core stream to one side of the nozzle. Similarly, the conduit 157 for introducing the core stream 189 containing the sample particles may be relocated from the traditional center of the nozzle to an offset location. Furthermore, it is contemplated that an offset sample introduction conduit 157 may be used in combination with an orienting baffle. Exemplary embodiments of use of an orienting baffle and use of an offset sample introduction conduit are discussed below.
[0815] The improved orientation of particles (e.g., sperm cells) achieved by use of an orienting baffle and/or offset sample introduction conduit 157 may be due to a number of factors. One factor is that the deflection of the core stream 189 and/or a change in the size and shape of the cross sectional flow area results in application of hydrodynamic forces that tend to orient asymmetric particles. (Kachel, et al., Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, 25 (7): 774-80 (1977)). Another factor is that it has been found that asymmetric particles (in particular sperm cells) tend to orient as they flow in a fluid stream in close proximity to a solid surface. Thus, by directing the core stream 189 so that it is in close proximity to the interior surface of a nozzle or a baffle surface one can obtain improved orientation of the particles. Furthermore, a baffle and/or offset sample introduction conduit can be used in conjunction with an orienting nozzle which applies additional orienting forces (e.g., torsional forces) to the asymmetric particles. In that case, the baffle can operate to direct the fluid stream so that the core stream containing the particles to be oriented flows along a path that is offset from the center of the nozzle while the particles are subjected to the torsional forces generated by one or more of the torsional zones.

Orienting Baffle

[0816] FIGS. 10-13 show one exemplary orienting baffle, generally designated 2001, positioned in the orienting nozzle 137 described above. However, the baffle 2001 could be used in conjunction with a different nozzle, including a non-orienting nozzle, without departing from the scope of this invention. The baffle 2001 is positioned in the nozzle upstream from the orifice 103 and downstream from the sample injection needle 157. Referring to FIGS. 14 and 15, the baffle comprises a baffle plate 2003 that is held in place by a baffle holder 2005. In the embodiment shown, the baffle plate 2003 is generally L-shaped and constructed of a substantially rigid, durable and corrosion-resistant material (e.g., stainless steel). The L-shaped plate 2003 has an upstream leg 2007 and a downstream leg 2009, which are desirably substantially perpendicular to each other (e.g., within about 5 degrees of being perpendicular). In the exemplary embodiment shown in the drawings, the two legs 2007, 2009 of the L-shaped plate 2003 intersect at a line 2015 that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137 (FIG. 11). As shown in FIG. 14, the line of intersection 2015 is also spaced a short distance 2033 (e.g., about 0.3 mm) away from the longitudinal axis 2057 of the baffle holder 2005. The upstream leg 2007 of the L-shaped plate 2003 extends from the line of intersection 2015 away from the longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137 all the way to the edge of the baffle holder 2005, as shown in FIG. 15. Thus, the upstream leg 2007 is formed with a curved edge 2019 that closely matches the shape of the baffle holder 2005. As shown in FIG. 14, the upstream leg 2007 is inclined at an angle AA of about 15-25 degrees from perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 2057 of the baffle holder 2005. The downstream leg 2009 of the L-shaped plate 2007 extends downstream from the line of intersection 2015 of the two legs 2007, 2009 a distance 2025 of about 2.0-2.5 mm at an angle BB that is in the range of about 60-80 degrees from perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 2057 of the baffle holder 2005.
[0817] The baffle holder 2005 is sized and shaped to fit inside the nozzle 137, as shown in FIGS. 10-13. The baffle holder 2005 is preferably made of a moldable material (e.g., polypropylene) although the baffle holder 2005 may be constructed from other materials without departing from the scope of the present invention. The baffle holder 2005 used in the exemplary embodiment, shown in FIGS. 14 and 15, is generally shaped as a hollow cylindrical shell about 4.0-4.5 mm in overall length 2027. The baffle holder 2005 has an exterior diameter 2029 of about 5-6 mm and an interior diameter 2031 of about 2.5-3.5 mm. If the baffle holder 2005 is to be molded, a minor draft (not shown) can be provided on the surfaces of the holder 2005 (e.g., to allow the baffle holder to be easily removed from an injection molding machine). The upstream end 2035 of the exemplary baffle holder 2005 has an inclined surface 2037 which is inclined at the same angle AA as the upstream leg 2007 of the L-shaped plate 2003. The upstream leg 2007 of the L-shaped plate 2003 abuts against and is supported by the inclined surface 2037 of the baffle holder 2005. The side edges 2039 (FIG. 15) of the downstream leg 2009 of the L-shaped plate 2003 are partially embedded (e.g., received in slots) in the baffle holder 2005 to hold the baffle plate 2003 in a position in which the downstream leg 2009 spans generally from one side of the baffle holder 2005 to the other. The downstream edge 2041 of the downstream leg 2009 in the exemplary embodiment forms a straight line which is generally perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 2057 of the baffle holder 2057. There is a gap 2049 (FIG. 14) between the downstream edge 2041 of the downstream leg 2009 and the interior cylindrical surface 2051 of the baffle holder 2005. The gap 2049 provides fluid communication between a volume 2053 defined by the legs 2007, 2009 of the L-shaped plate 2003 and the interior cylindrical surface 2051 of the baffle holder 2003 and the rest of the interior volume 2055 of the nozzle 137.
[0818] The baffle holder 2005 is desirably positioned inside the nozzle with the longitudinal axis 2057 of the baffle holder 2005 generally aligned with the longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137 so that it holds the L-shaped plate 2003 in the position described above. Desirably, the exemplary baffle plate 2003 is rotationally oriented so that the line of intersection 2015 of the two legs 2007, 2009 of the plate 2003 is parallel to a line 2059 running through the major axis of ellipse D, as shown in FIG. 16. However, the exemplary baffle 2001 also performs well when the intersection 2015 of the two legs 2007, 2009 of the L-shaped plate 2003 is perpendicular to the line 2059 running through the major axis of ellipse D, as shown in FIG. 17. Furthermore, the baffle may have any rotational orientation without departing from the scope of this invention. As shown in FIG. 12, the sample injection needle 157 in the exemplary embodiment is desirably a distance 2061 of about 0.25-1.0 mm upstream from the most upstream portion 2035 of the baffle 2001. More desirably, the sample injection needle 157 is about 0.55-0.65 mm upstream from the most upstream portion 2035 of the baffle 2001.
[0819] The baffle holder 2005 may be held in a desired position relative to the nozzle in any number of ways. Referring to FIG. 14, the downstream end 2067 of the baffle holder 2005 is stepped so that it fits farther downstream in the nozzle 137. The stepped downstream end 2067 of the holder 2005 is circular in shape and abuts against the elliptically shaped interior surface 233 of the nozzle 137. Thus, the contact between the interior surface 233 of the nozzle 137 and the baffle holder 2005 is generally limited to two points 2069, as shown in FIG. 13. A pair of O-rings 2071 are positioned around the baffle holder 2005 between the nozzle 137 and the threaded projection 149 of the flow body 133 (FIGS. 11-13) and seal the nozzle system 101 against leakage. The O-rings 2071 may be made of Viton®, or any other similar materials. The two O-rings 2071 are compressed as the nozzle 137 is screwed onto the threaded projection 149 to provide a fluid-tight seal. Two O-rings 2071 are used in the exemplary embodiment because a single O-ring cannot be compressed within the space between the nozzle 137 and the flow body 133 due to the length 2027 of the baffle holder 2005. Any number of O-rings or a different type of seal could be used without departing from the scope of the present invention, provided that the number of O-rings or other type of seal is selected so that there will be a fluid-tight seal when the nozzle 137 is screwed onto the flow body 133. This will depend on a number of factors, including the size and shape of the nozzle 137, flow body 133, baffle holder 2005, and O-rings 2071 as well as the type of seal. The O-rings 2071 also help hold the baffle holder 2005 in the desired position. The O-rings 2071 occupy the space around the baffle holder 2005, thereby restricting side-to-side movement of the baffle holder 2005 inside the nozzle 137. Frictional forces between the O-rings 2071 and the baffle holder 2005 also resist rotational movement of the baffle holder 2005.
[0820] When the nozzle 137 is tightened on the flow body 133 as shown in FIG. 12, the downstream end 2077 of the threaded projection 149 from the flow body 133, in the form of a boss in this embodiment, is approximately even with the most upstream portion 2035 of the baffle 2001. As a result, the baffle holder 2005 is held axially captive between the flow body 133 (at the upstream end 2035 of the baffle holder 2005) and the interior surface 233 of the nozzle 137 (at the downstream end 2067 of the baffle holder 2005). Other retaining mechanisms may be used. In the embodiment shown in the drawings, the interior diameter of the boss 2079 (FIG. 12) at the downstream end of the threaded projection 149 is roughly equal to the internal diameter 2031 of the baffle holder 2005.
[0821] Those skilled in the art will recognize that the flow through the nozzle system 101 remains laminar notwithstanding the baffle 2001 because the small cross sectional area through which the fluids must flow results in a low Reynolds number for the flow. As is shown in FIG. 11, the baffle deflects the core stream 189 and sheath stream 191 away from the central longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137 and toward an interior surface 233 of the nozzle 137. In one embodiment, the core stream 189 also flows very close to the interior surface 233 of the nozzle 137 as the core stream 189 passes between the transition between the first 259 and second 261 torsional zones. However, a portion 2081 of the sheath fluid stream 191 remains between the core stream 189 and the interior surface 233 of the nozzle 137 so the particles in the core stream 189 do not actually impact or contact the interior surface 233 of the nozzle 137. Farther downstream in the nozzle 137, the hydrodynamic forces push the core stream 189 back toward the center of the nozzle 137 (e.g., in alignment with the longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137).
[0822] Referring to FIGS. 18A-18E, the baffle 2001 changes the shape and reduces the size of the cross sectional flow area in the nozzle 137. (For the sake of clarity, FIGS. 18A-18E do not show any nozzle structure downstream from the baffle. The flow area in each of the FIGS. 18A-18E is outlined in bold for clarity). Upstream from the baffle 2001 (FIG. 18A), the cross sectional flow area 2087 is generally circular or elliptical. At the upstream end 2035 of the baffle 2001, the flow area begins to change from a circular shape to a generally semi-circular shape 2089 at the intersection 2015 of the legs 2007, 2009 of the baffle plate 2003 (FIG. 18B), although other shapes may be suitable. There the cross sectional flow area 2089 is smaller than the flow area 2087 upstream from the baffle. FIG. 18C illustrates the flow area 2091 as fluid flows through a part of the baffle holder 2005, and FIG. 18D illustrates the flow area 2093 farther downstream at the downstream end 2041 of the downstream leg 2009 of the baffle plate 2003. It will be observed that flow area 2093 is somewhat larger than flow area 2091 due to the angular orientation of the downstream leg 2009 of the baffle plate 2003. Downstream from the baffle plate 2003 (FIG. 18E) the flow area 2094 through the baffle corresponds the shape of the interior surface 2051 of the baffle holder 2005, which is circular in the illustrated embodiment. (Other shapes may be suitable). Downstream from the baffle holder 2005 the torsional zones 259, 261 of the nozzle 137 desirably provide torsional forces as discussed above.
[0823] As shown in FIG. 11, it has been observed that one or more air bubbles 2095 may become trapped in the volume 2053 between the downstream leg 2009 of the L-shaped plate 2003 and the baffle holder 2005. Furthermore, a portion of a bubble 2095 may extend through the gap 2049 between the edge 2041 of the downstream leg 2009 and the baffle holder 2005. Thus, the air bubble(s) 2095 can occupy a portion of the cross sectional flow area downstream of the downstream leg 2009 of the L-shaped plate 2003, perhaps affecting the flow of fluid through the nozzle 137. The exemplary baffle 2001 has been found to work well both with and without the air bubble(s) 2095. Thus, a baffle can be used to orient sperm cells without involvement of any bubbles without departing from the scope of the present invention.
[0824] Another exemplary orienting baffle, generally designated 2097, is shown in FIGS. 19 and 20. The baffle 2097 comprises a flat generally semi-circular baffle plate 2099 in the orienting nozzle 137 discussed above. The baffle plate 2099 is positioned in the nozzle 137 downstream of the sample introduction conduit 157 and generally perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137. The baffle plate 2099 has a curved edge 2101 that generally matches the curvature of the interior surface 233 of the nozzle 137 so that there are no large gaps between the curved edge 2101 of the baffle plate 2099 and the interior surface 233 of the nozzle 137. The baffle plate 2099 also has a straight edge 2103 that extends a short distance past longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137 so that it is approximately aligned with the outer diameter 2109 of the sample introduction conduit 157. The baffle plate 2099 is held in position by friction resulting from compression of the baffle plate 2099 between an o-ring seal 2105, which is similar to the o-ring seals 2071 described in connection with the L-shaped baffle 2001 above, and an annular shoulder or shelf 2107 formed on the interior of the nozzle 137. As shown in FIG. 19 the orienting baffle 2099 operates by deflecting the fluid stream so that the core stream 189 containing the particles to be analyzed is offset from the central longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137 along a portion of its flow path. For example, the core stream 189 may be directed along a flow path that is offset from the longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137 as it flows through the first torsional zone 259, as well as at least a portion of the second torsional zone 261. Consequently, the particles (e.g., sperm cells) are subjected to the torsional forces generated by the torsional zones 259, 261 while they are in a position that is offset from the central longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137.
[0825] Those skilled in the art will recognize that substantial changes may be made to the exemplary baffles 2001, 2097 described above without departing from the scope of the present invention. All that is required is that the baffle be configured to deflect the core stream 189 and sheath stream 191 toward an interior surface of the nozzle or to cause the core 189 and sheath stream 191 to flow through a cross sectional area that changes in size and/or shape. Further, it is understood that the orienting baffle structure may be integrally formed with the nozzle or integrally formed with the nozzle and flow body without departing from the scope of the present invention.

Offset Sample Introduction Conduit

[0826] The core stream 189 may be directed along a flow path that is offset from the central longitudinal axis 2017 of the nozzle 137 by repositioning the sample introduction conduit 157 from its traditional position at the center of the nozzle 137 to an offset position. For example, FIG. 21 shows an exemplary offset sample introducing nozzle system 2151 having an offset sample introduction conduit 157. Except as noted, the nozzle system 2151 is substantially the same as the nozzle system 101 shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. The significant difference is that the sample introduction conduit 157 has been moved away from the center of the nozzle 137 so that it is no longer aligned with the nozzle's longitudinal axis 2017. Thus, the core stream 189 is directed into the torsional zones 259, 261 of the orienting nozzle 137 along a flow path that is offset from the longitudinal axis 2017. Although the exemplary nozzle system 2151 shown in FIG. 21 uses the exemplary orienting nozzle 137 describe above, it is contemplated that offset sample introduction conduit 157 could be used with a different orienting nozzle or a non-orienting nozzle to orient particles in the core stream 189.

Nozzle Mounting and Adjustment

[0827] The flow body 133 and nozzle 137 are mounted in a selected orientation and position by means of a nozzle mount, generally designated 331. In one embodiment (FIG. 22), the mount 331 comprises a plurality of stages, including first and second linear stages 333, 337 providing linear adjustment of the flow body 133 and nozzle 137 along X and Y axes 339, 341, respectively, and a third rotational stage 343 providing rotational adjustment about a Z axis 345 corresponding to the longitudinal axis 2017 of the flow body 133 and nozzle 137. These stages 333, 337, 343 may be conventional in design, suitable stages being commercially available, for example, from Newport Corporation of Irvine Calif. In particular, the first linear motion stage 333 comprises a fixed first stage member (not shown) mounted on a frame 349, a movable first stage member 355 slidable on the fixed first stage member along the X axis 339, and an actuator 357, e.g., a micrometer, for precisely moving the movable first stage 355 member to a selected X-axis position. The second linear motion stage 337 comprises a fixed second stage member 359 mounted on the movable first stage member 355, a movable second stage member 361 slidable on the fixed second stage member 359 along the Y axis 341, and an actuator 363, e.g., a micrometer, for precisely moving the movable second stage member 361 to a selected Y-axis position. The rotational (third) stage 343 comprises a fixed third stage member 365 mounted on the movable second stage member 316, a movable third stage member 371 rotatably mounted on the fixed third stage member 365 for rotation about the Z-axis 345, and an actuator 373, e.g., a micrometer, for precisely rotating the movable third stage member 371 to a selected angular position relative to the Z-axis 345. The three-axis adjustment provided by these stages 333, 337 343 allows the nozzle 137 and the fluid stream 21 exiting the nozzle orifice 103 to be precisely positioned relative to the optics system 109. Rotation of the nozzle 137 about the Z-axis 345 is particularly helpful because it enables the stream 21 exiting the nozzle 137 to be rotated to bring the cells (e.g., sperm cells) oriented by the nozzle 137 into a position in which the light beam 25 from the optics system 109 will fall on the desired surfaces of the cells (e.g., the flat faces 207 of sperm heads 205), as illustrated schematically in FIG. 23. Other nozzle mounts may be suitable. For example, a 4-axis nozzle mounting system can also be used, providing linear adjustment along X, Y and Z axes and rotational adjustment along the Z axis. Further, it may be desirable to use one or more stages having an automated alignment feature, such as a servo or stepper motor controlled microtranslation stage (e.g., part number M-110.2DG from Polytech PI, Inc. of Auburn, Mich.).
[0828] In one embodiment shown schematically in FIG. 36, for example, the nozzle 137 is oriented to direct a stream 21 containing cells to be analyzed in a generally upward direction. The angle 377 between the direction of the fluid stream 21 and horizontal is preferably in the range of 5 to 85 degrees, more preferably in the range of 15 to 75 degrees, even more preferably about 30 to 65 degrees, still more preferably about 45 to 60 degrees, and most preferably about 50 to 55 degrees. This orientation is advantageous in that any air trapped in the nozzle system 101 is readily removed. Also, the velocity of the fluid stream 21 decreases gradually under the force of gravity prior to collection of the droplets 33. A more gradual deceleration of the droplets 33 is believed to be less stressful to the cells being analyzed which, in the case of sperm cells, can result in higher motility of the sorted sperm after collection. Of course, in other embodiments of the present invention, the nozzle 101 is positioned so that the fluid stream 21 has a substantially downward velocity when it exits the orifice 103 as is conventional for jet-in-air cytometers.
[0829] Optionally, components of the nozzle system 101 such as the flow body 133 and nozzle 137 are coated with a non-reflective, non-emissive material (e.g., a dull dark paint or epoxy which does not emit light when subjected to UV laser light) to reduce any reflected and/or emitted light off these elements 133, 137 which might otherwise cause signal noise or have other adverse effects on the optics system 109.

Transducer and Droplet Formation

[0830] The transducer 105 for introducing energy into the fluid stream 21 comprises, in one embodiment, a collar 379 containing a piezoelectric element (not shown) secured around the flow body 133 of the nozzle system 101 (FIGS. 3-5). The transducer is of conventional design, such as is available from Beckman Coulter, Inc. as part No. 6858368. The transducer has terminals 383 for connection to a suitable source of acoustical energy so that energy can be delivered to the fluid stream 21 at a frequency which will cause it to break into droplets 33 at the droplet break-off location 107 downstream from the nozzle 137 a distance d (FIG. 24). As will understood by those skilled in flow cytometry, the characteristics of the droplet formation are governed by the following Equation 1:
          (V=fλ)  Equation 1
where V is the velocity of the stream 21; f is the frequency applied to the fluid stream 21 through the nozzle 137; and λ is the “wave length” or distance between the droplets 33. It is a known principle of flow cytometry that droplets 33 will form in a regular pattern with the distance between droplets 33 being 4.54 times the diameter of the stream 21. Since the diameter D of the stream 21 close to the nozzle 137 generally corresponds to the diameter of the nozzle orifice 103 at its downstream end, the frequency at which the stream 21 (and nozzle 137) must be vibrated to form the droplets 33 can be easily calculated using the following Equation 2:
          (f=V/4.54D)  Equation 2
The transducer 105 may be operated to generate in the range of 30,000-100,000 droplets 33 per second. For example, the transducer 105 may generate 50,000-55,000 droplets per second. Assuming the frequency is 55,000 cycles per second (55 kHz), and further assuming that the concentration of cells in the stream 21 is such that cells exit the nozzle 137 at a substantially matching rate of 55,000 cells per second, then there will be, on average, one cell per droplet 33. (In reality, some droplets 33 will contain no cells, some will contain one cell, and some will contain more than one cell). Of course, any of various factors can be changed to vary this average, including a change in frequency (f), stream 21 (orifice 103) size (D) and stream 21 velocity (V). Ideally, these factors should be such as to reduce the amount of stress imparted to the cells during the course of the process, especially in the case of sperm cells where the preservation of motility is important.
Break-Off Sensor
[0831] Referring to FIG. 2, a break-off sensor 389 may be employed to determine the location (e.g., break-off location 107) at which the stream 21 begins to form free droplets 33. The break-off location 107 will vary depending on several factors including stream 21 viscosity, surface tension of the fluid and the amplitude of vibration of the transducer 105. By monitoring the break-off location 107, the amplitude of the transducer 105 may be varied to maintain the break-off location 107 within a given range so that the time at which each droplet 33 breaks off can be more accurately predicted by the microprocessor 131. This allows the microprocessor 131 to accurately control the electrical charge of the droplet 33 which is accomplished by selectively controlling the charge of the stream 21. Since the charge of the droplet 33 will be the same as the charge of the stream 21 immediately before droplet 33 formation, the microprocessor 131 controls the sorting of the droplets 33 by selectively charging the stream 21, as noted below.
[0832] In general, a break-off sensor is for use with any continuous stream of fluid which is breaking into droplets at a break-off location. (In the embodiment of FIG. 2, the break-off sensor 389 is located downstream from the nozzle 137 and interrogation location 115). One exemplary break-off sensor 389 is shown schematically in FIG. 25. A light source 393 is positioned on one side of the stream 21 to illuminate the stream 21 within the given range at which the break-off location 107 will be maintained. A linear photoarray 395 positioned on the other side of the stream 21 is adapted to be oriented along an axis substantially parallel to the stream 21. As a result, the photoarray 395 detects light from the light source 393 which passes through the droplets 33 and provides output signals corresponding to the detected light.
[0833] The output signals are processed to determine the position of the break-off location 107. For example, the output signals may be digitized and provided to the processor 131 for processing. Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 25, the light source 393 may be an LED or other source which generates a near-infrared portion of the visible spectrum. The light passing between the droplets 33 is magnified by a lens 401 and directed toward an 8 by 1 linear array of photodiodes 395. Each photodiode generates a current that is proportional to the light intensity impinging thereon. This current is fed into 8 current to voltage op-amp circuits 405. The output voltage from the op-amps is AC coupled into 8 track/hold amplifiers 407. The track/hold signal 409 used by the amplifiers is taken from the transducer 105. The output from the track/hold amplifier is fed into the A/D converter 411 of a microprocessor unit (MPU) 391. The digital values computed by the MPU 391 will be provided to the system control microprocessor 131. A lookup table and/or algorithm may be used by the system control microprocessor 131 to convert between break-off location 107 drift and voltage adjustment to the transducer 105. Alternatively, the output from the MPU 391 may be an analog signal such as a DC voltage having an amplitude corresponding to a change in the amplitude of vibration of the transducer 105. The dc voltage can be applied to the high voltage amplifier input driving the droplet transducer 105 to vary the amplitude of vibration. Thus, such a processor 391 would constitute a control for receiving the output signal from the photoarray 395 and providing a location signal corresponding to a location of the break-off location 107. Such a processor 391 would also constitute a control for receiving the output signal indicative of the position of the break-off location 107 of the droplets 33 and varying operation of the transducer 105 as a function of the position of the location 107.
[0834] Alternatively, as is well known to those skilled in the art, a video camera and strobe light may be used to monitor and control the droplet break-off location. Thus, as shown in FIGS. 26-27, a video camera system 412 and strobe 413 may be provided to monitor the break-off location 107. It is desirable to place the strobe 413 behind a mask 414A (e.g., a cover with a small slit-shaped opening 414B) to limit the amount of light produced by the strobe 413 that enters the optics system 109 (FIG. 27).

Epi-Illumination Optics System

[0835] The optics system 109 is adapted for focusing a beam of electromagnetic radiation 25 (e.g., a laser beam) on the fluid stream 21 as a beam spot, so that the cells to be analyzed pass through the spot. The beam 25 may be laser light in the visible or ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, for example, having a wavelength of about 350-700 nm, although other wavelengths may be used. The wavelength of the laser light may be selected so that it is capable of exciting a particular fluorochrome used to analyze particles. If the optics system 109 is used to analyze sperm cells stained with Hoechst 33342, for instance, the wavelength may be selected to be in the range of about 350-370 nm. The power output of the laser may vary between 50 and 300 mW. Sperm cells may be analyzed using a 200 mW laser, for example. Referring to FIGS. 28-34, the system 109 is an epi-illumination system 415 comprising an instrument, generally designated 417, having a longitudinal optical axis 419. As used herein, the term “epi-illumination” means an optics system where at least some of the fluorescence emissions from cells passing through the beam spot are directed back through the optical instrument along the same axis as the focused beam 25, but in the opposite direction. This type of system is advantageous in that only one set of optics is required, including only one photodetector 117, unlike conventional systems which detect forward and side fluorescence and which use two or more photodetectors. However, it will be understood that while an epi-illumination system is preferred, many of the aspects of this invention can be applied regardless of the type of optics system used.
[0836] In one embodiment, the epi-illumination instrument 417 comprises a rectangular base 429 supporting a plurality of optical elements. These optical elements are described below, with specific examples of relevant dimensions, focal lengths, and part numbers. As will be understood by those skilled in the art, this information is exemplary only, and alternative optical elements can be used without departing from the scope of this invention.
[0837] Referring to FIGS. 28-34, the optical elements include a reflecting filter 431 which reflects a collimated beam 25 of light from a laser or arc lamp 435, for example, through a conditioning lens assembly 437 mounted in an opening 439 in a side wall 441 of a dichroic chamber 443 extending up from the base 429. In this particular embodiment, the conditioning lens assembly 437 comprises a retaining ring 445, neutral density filter 447, cylindrical lens 449, lens holder 455 and jam nut 457. The cylindrical lens 449 introduces a one-dimensional divergence into the beam 225 and directs it toward optical elements (described below) which shape the beam to have a desired cross sectional shape 459, preferably generally elliptical. By way of example, the cylindrical lens 449 may be a piano-convex lens having a focal length of 16 mm. A beam expander (not shown) can optionally be installed in the instrument 417 to allow adjustments to be made to the shape of the elliptical beam spot 459.
[0838] The reflecting filter 431 is mounted by clips 461 on the angular face 465 of a filter holder 463 which has openings 467 in it to permit the beam 25 to reflect off the filter 431 toward the optics of the instrument 417. The holder 463 is fastened to a linear stage 469 movable along an X-axis 471 relative to an outrigger 473 secured to the base 429 and dichroic chamber 443, the stage 469 being movable by suitable means 475 (e.g., a micrometer) to precisely locate the holder 463 and reflecting filter 431 to reflect the beam 25 into the instrument 417 at the proper location. A dichroic filter 477 is held by clips 479 on a frame 485 mounted in the dichroic chamber 443 and functions to reflect the shaped beam 25 in a forward direction 487 along an axis 489 which, in this particular embodiment, corresponds to the longitudinal optical axis 419 of the instrument. The beam 25 passes through a focusing lens assembly 491 which focuses the beam 25 on the fluid stream 21 as a beam spot having the aforementioned generally elliptical shape 459 (FIG. 6) with the major axis of the ellipse extending generally perpendicular to the direction of flow 227 of the stream 21. As each cell passes through the beam spot 459, the fluorescing dye (or other reporting agent) in the cell is activated to emit fluorescent light 31 (FIG. 23). In the case of sperm cells stained with a DNA selective fluorescing dye, X cells have more DNA than Y cells, include more fluorescing dye, and emit a stronger signal than Y cells (e.g., 3.8%), which provides a basis for discriminating and sorting cells, as will be described. The focusing lens assembly 491 includes, in one embodiment, a microscope adapter 501 mounted in an opening 503 in a front wall 505 of the dichroic chamber 443, a focusing barrel 507, a pair of lens mount barrels 509, and the lens 511 itself, which may be a 12.5 mm diameter, plano-convex lens with a focal length of 16 mm, available from Oriel Corporation as part number 41209, and is anti-reflective coated for light having a wavelength in the range of 340-550 nm. The lens 511 may be made of fused silica. Other focusing lenses may also be suitable, such as an infinity-corrected fluorescence microscope objective. The focusing lens assembly 491 has a conventional telescoping focus adjustment 515 to focus the elliptically-shaped beam spot 459 on the core 189 of the stream 21.
[0839] The outgoing fluorescent light 31 emitted by the cells as they pass through the beam spot 459 is of a different (longer, due to the Stoke's shift principle) wavelength than the incoming laser light 25. Some of the fluorescence emissions 31 are transmitted in a rearward direction 513 along the incoming beam axis back through the focusing lens 511 which collects and collimates the fluorescence emission 31. The collimated fluorescence emissions 517 pass in a rearward direction from the lens 511 to the dichroic filter 477, which transmits the fluorescence emission 517. By way of example, the dichroic filter 477 may be a filter available from Omega Optical as part number XF2001, 400DCLP.
[0840] The optics system 415 includes a filtering system 519 positioned rearward of the dichroic filter 477 along the optical axis 419 of the instrument 417. In one embodiment, the filtering system 519 includes an emission filter 521 in a holder 523 mounted in an opening 525 in a back wall 527 of the dichroic chamber 443. The emission filter 521 attenuates any laser light scatter or other undesired electromagnetic radiation that is transmitted through the dichroic filter 477. By way of example and not limitation, the emission filter 521 can be a thin film, long-pass filter adapted to transmit more than 90% of light having a wavelength greater than 408 nm, as is available from Omega Optical as part number XF3097. An alignment pellicle assembly 529 is spaced rearwardly along the optical axis 419 from the emission filter. This assembly includes a slider 531 movable on a rail 533 extending longitudinally of the base 429 parallel to the longitudinal optical axis 419 of the instrument 417, a filter holder 535 secured to the slider 531, a pellicle filter element 539, and clips 541 for securing the pellicle filter element 539 to the filter holder 535 at an angle 543 relative to the optical axis 419 of the instrument 417. The pellicle filter element 539 has the same thickness as the dichroic filter 477 and functions to translate the collimated fluorescence emission 517 back onto the optical axis 419 of the instrument 417. Fasteners 545 extending up through parallel slots 547 in the base 429 on opposite sides of the rail 533 secure the slider 531 to the base 429 in the desired position along the optical axis 419. Spaced to the rear of the alignment pellicle assembly 529 is an aspheric lens 549 held by a holder 551 mounted in a frame 553 which is also slidable on the rail 533 and secured in selected position by suitable fasteners 557. The aspheric lens 549 focuses the collimated fluorescence emission 517 onto a spatial filter, generally designated 559, which filters out reflection or emission from sources other than the cells to be analyzed. The aspheric lens 549 may be, for example, an 12.5 mm diameter aspheric lens having a focal length of 15 mm, as is available from Oriel Corporation. The lens 549 is preferably anti-reflective coated for visible emission wavelengths but made of a material (e.g., flint glass) which further attenuates transmission of laser light scatter.
[0841] As shown in FIG. 34, the spatial filter 559 comprises, in one embodiment, a pair of aperture plates 561 releasably held by a frame 563 mounted on the base 429 of the instrument 417. Each of the plates 561 has a slit 567, 571 therein, one slit 567 preferably being generally vertical and the other 571 preferably generally horizontal, the arrangement being such that the slits 567, 571 intersect to form an aperture 573. In one embodiment, the aperture 573 is generally rectangular in shape and has a vertical dimension 575 of 100 microns and a horizontal dimension 577 of 500 microns. The size and shape of the aperture 573 may vary (or even be adjusted by changing aperture plates), so long as it functions to remove reflections and light from any source other than the collection volume 579. The frame 563 holding the aperture plates 561 preferably has two parts, namely, a plate holder 583 slidable on the rail 533 of the base 429 and secured in selected position by fasteners 587, and a backing member 589 for securing the aperture plates 461 in position on the plate holder 583.
[0842] In one embodiment, the smaller (vertical) dimension 575 of the aperture 573 in the spatial filter 559 is sized (or adjusted) to enable use of a “slit scanning” technique to evaluate the cell. This technique is described in more detail in the “Focused Beam Spot” section of this specification.
[0843] Another embodiment of an epi-illumination optics system, generally designated 450, is shown in FIG. 35. This embodiment is substantially the same as the embodiment shown in FIGS. 28-34, except as noted. One significant difference is that the dichroic filter 477 has been replaced with a different dichroic filter 451 that transmits (rather than reflects) the illumination beam 25 and reflects (rather than transmits) the fluorescent emissions 31. Also, because the fluorescence emissions 31 are reflected by the dichroic filter 451 rather than transmitted, there is no need for an alignment pellicle 539 in this embodiment of an epi-illumination optics system 450. Thus, the epi-illumination system 450 is just one example of how the optics system can be reconfigured if desired without departing from the scope of this invention.
[0844] Further, the cylindrical lens 449 is mounted on an adjustable mounting assembly 449A. The mounting assembly 449A allows two-axis translational movement of the cylindrical lens 449 in a plane perpendicular to the illumination beam 25. Releasable fasteners (e.g., screws (not shown)) extend through slot-shaped holes 449B (only one of which is visible on FIG. 35). Release of the fasteners allows translational movement of the lens 449 in a first direction perpendicular to the beam 25. Similar fasteners (not shown) extend through slot-shaped holes 449C, allowing translational movement of the lens 449 in a second direction perpendicular to the first direction. This allows minor adjustment of the relative positions of the cylindrical lens 449 and beam 25 so that the intersection of the beam 25 and lens 449 can be moved across the surface of the lens 449, thereby causing slight changes to the focusing provided by the cylindrical lens 449. Once the lens 449 is in the desired position, the fasteners can be tightened to hold it there.

Photodetector

[0845] The emitted fluorescence passing though the spatial filter 559 falls upon a photodetector 117 fastened to a mounting plate 591 slidable on the rail 533 of the base 429 at the rear of the epi-illumination instrument 417 and securable in fixed position by fasteners 595 (FIG. 32). The photodetector 117 detects the fluorescent emissions 31 and converts them into electrical signals which can be processed to analyze the desired characteristics of the cells, as will be described in more detail later. The photodetector 117 may be a conventional device, such as a photodetector available from Hammamtsu. The photodetector 117 preferably includes a preamplifier and PMT gain which is optimized for emission intensity produced by the epi-illumination system for the particular stained cells being analyzed.
[0846] In general, the PMT gain is optimized when between about 200 and 2000 volts are applied to the vacuum tube. In the case of detecting fluorescent emissions from Hoechst 33342, for instance, the PMT gain is optimized when between about 400-800 volts are applied to the vacuum tube. One particularly desirable photodetector includes a PMT having a spectral range of 185-830 nm (530 nm peak), a 0.01 mA maximum average anode current, a cathode radiant sensitivity of 70 mA/W typical, a cathode luminous sensitivity of 140 μA/lm, anode luminous sensitivity of 300 A/lm, max anode dark current of 1 nA (0.1 nA typical), and a 1.4 nanosecond risetime. The PMT is DC coupled amplifier demonstrating a flat gain to >37 MHz, having a 1 V peak output into a 50Ω load and a recovery time of less than 400 nanoseconds. It is also desirable for the amplifier to allow high voltage adjustment for compensation of PMT efficiency variations without decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio to less than 800 dB.

Angle of Beam Incidence

[0847] FIG. 36 schematically illustrates one desirable orientation of the intersection of the light beam and the fluid stream. Several points are of note. As shown, the light beam 25 is focused on the stream 21 at a location 115 that is only a short distance 605 from the exit orifice 103 of the nozzle 137, preferably less than 1.0 mm, or even inside the nozzle 137, so that the cells pass through the spot 459 while they are still substantially in desired orientation, as previously described. This is particularly important for cells which are mobile in the fluid stream 21, including sperm cells.
[0848] Another point of note is that the beam 25 of this embodiment may be directed toward the fluid stream 21 along a beam axis 609 which intersects the fluid stream 21 at an angle of incidence A which is skewed (off 90 degrees) relative to a longitudinal axis of the fluid stream 21, as viewed from a side of the stream 21 (see FIG. 36). When sorting certain particles, it has been found that better discrimination of the different types of particles may be obtained by illuminating the stream 21 at an angle of incidence other than 0°. Sperm nuclei, for instance, are desirably illuminated at an angle of incidence A that is in the range of 5 to 45 degrees, more preferably in the range of 15 to 30 degrees, and even more preferably in the range of 18 to 24 degrees. Other particles (e.g., live sperm cells) are easier to interrogate when the light beam 25 is generally perpendicular to the fluid stream 21 (i.e., when angle A is about 0°). Thus, it is contemplated that angle A may be any angle without departing from the scope of this invention.
[0849] The proper selection of angle A results in improved signal to noise discrimination in certain particles and thus more accurate discrimination based on different characteristics of those particles (e.g., sperm nuclei with X and Y chromosomes sperm cells). This improvement may be due to a number of factors, including reduced laser light scatter entering the focusing lens 511. Because the focused beam spot 459 is preferably wider than the stream 21, a diffraction pattern is created at the intersection 115 of the beam 25 and the stream 21. When angle A is greater than about 12 degrees, the reflected diffraction pattern does not fall on the lens 511. Another factor may be that the skewed angle A allows the beam 25 to be focused very close to the nozzle orifice 103, so that the nozzle body 139 does not interfere with the lens 511. Relatedly, the cells are more uniformly aligned closer to the nozzle 137, so that focusing the beam spot 459 closer to the nozzle 137 results in an improved signal. Further, the more “head on” profile of the cell presented to the lens 511 (beam 25) at the skewed angle A reduces the variation of total fluorescence intensity caused by any misalignment of the cells. In this regard, in the case of sperm cells it is preferable that the beam 25 fall on one of the wide faces 207 of each sperm cell 201, as discussed above, and that the nozzle 101 and optics system 109 be positioned to achieve this result.
[0850] While a skewed angle of incidence A is believed to be beneficial in sorting some particles, it is contemplated that the angle of intersection between the beam axis and the stream may be 90 degrees or any skewed angle without departing from the scope of this invention. It is also expected that the optimal angle of incidence may vary widely depending on the properties of the particular particles being analyzed.

Focused Beam Spot

[0851] Referring to FIG. 6, the focused beam spot of one embodiment is shown as having a generally elliptical (oval) shape 459 with a length L1 along a major axis extending generally at right angles to the direction of fluid stream flow 227 and a width W1 along a minor axis extending generally parallel to the direction of fluid stream flow 227. In one embodiment, the width W1 is less than the length of the head of the sperm cell 219, and even more preferably less than the length of the region 225 containing the chromatic DNA mass of the cell, which in the case of a bovine sperm cell 201 has a length of less than about 1 μm. For a stream 21 having sheath stream 191 that is about 60 μm in diameter and a core stream 189 containing bovine sperm cells 201, an exemplary length L1 is about 80 μm and an exemplary width W1 is about 1.5 μm. By focusing the beam spot 459 to a width W1 which is less than the length of the head 205 of the sperm cell 201, or any other cell or particle being analyzed, and even more preferably less than the diameter of the DNA region 225 of the head 205 of the sperm cell 201, greater signal resolution is achieved, as will be understood by those familiar with “slit scanning” techniques. This is a technique by which a beam 25 is narrowed to have a width less than the length of a cell (i.e., the dimension of the cell in the direction of stream flow) so that as the cell moves through the narrow beam, photon emissions 31 from the cell are measured over the length of the cell, as will be discussed later. In this way, information can be obtained about variations in structure, including DNA material, along the length of the cell. The slit-scanning technique is also helpful in identifying “coincident” cells, that is, cells which are overlapping or very close together.
[0852] As mentioned previously, slit scanning can also be carried out by sizing the aperture 573 of the spatial filter 559 to have a vertical dimension 575 such that only a portion of the light emitted from a cell, corresponding to a fraction of the cell length in the direction of stream flow, passes through the aperture to the photodetector 117. Further, signal resolution can be optimized by adjusting the width of the beam and/or the size of the aperture of the spatial filter to work together to provide a beam spot that is suitably shaped for slit scanning.
[0853] One way to adjust the shape of the beam spot 459 is by changing to a different cylindrical lens and/or by making an adjustment to a beam expander in the optics system 109. Further any method of shaping the beam 25 to form an elliptically shaped beam spot 459 is contemplated as being within the scope of the present invention. Beam spots of other shapes and sizes may also be used and are contemplated as falling within the scope of this invention.

Sorting System

[0854] FIG. 2 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of the sorting system 119. The sorting system 119 comprises an electrostatic charging device 627 for charging and/or not charging the droplets 33 depending on the classification of the particles contained in the droplets 33 (e.g., the X/Y chromosome content of sperm cells), and a pair of electrostatic charged deflector plates 629 for sorting the droplets 33 into different groups 123, 125, according to their charge. It is desirable to coat the deflector plates 629 with a dull, low-emissive coating (e.g., epoxy or paint) to limit light reflected or emitted by the deflector plates 629. The deflector plates 629 may be charged by any suitable power supply 635. It is generally desirable for the electrical potential between the two fully charged deflector plates 629 to be in the range of 2000-4000 volts. However, the electrical potential between the deflector plates 629 may be anywhere between about 1000 and 6000 volts.
[0855] The charging device 627 comprises a charging element 631 having an opening 633 therein through which the stream 21 passes at a location near the droplet break-off location 107 (e.g., within five droplet lengths or closer). It is desirable to mount the charging element 631 with a mechanism that facilitates adjustment of the position of the charging element 631 with respect to the droplet break-off location 107. As shown in FIGS. 26 and 27, for example, the charging element 631 and deflector plates 629 may be attached to an adjustable mounting assembly 5001 that allows three-axis translation and tilt adjustment of the charging element 631 and deflector plates 629 with respect to the nozzle system 101. For translation along an axis 5011 parallel to the stream 21, the mounting assembly 5001 includes a board 5003 fastened to a backing 5005 by releasable fasteners 5007 passing through slots 5009 in the board 5003, the slots 5009 being oriented generally parallel to axis 5011. For translation in an axis 5013 perpendicular to the stream 21, a second adjustment board 5015 is fastened to the first board 5003 by releasable fasteners 5017 passing through slots 5019 in the second adjustment board 5015, the slots 5019 being oriented generally parallel to axis 5013. The charging element 631 and deflector plates 629 are secured to the second adjustment board 5015. Thus, by releasing the fasteners 5007 and/or 5017, one can adjust the position of the charging element 631 and deflector plates relative to the nozzle system 101 in a plane parallel to the fluid stream 21 and then tighten the fasteners 5007 and/or 5017 to secure the mounting assembly 5001.
[0856] For translation along a third axis perpendicular to the first two axes 5011, 5013, the backing 5005 is fastened to a fixed support 5021 by adjustable fasteners 5023 (e.g., threaded bolts screwed into tapped holes in the fixed support 5021). In one embodiment, each adjustable fastener 5023 passes through a spring 5025 positioned between the backing 5005 and the fixed support 5021. The amount of compression of any spring 5025 can be adjusted by tightening or loosening the respective fastener 5023. Adjusting the compression of all springs 5025 in the same amount results in translation along the third axis. The mounting assembly 5001 can be tilted in virtually any direction by changing the relative compression of one or more of the springs 5025 with respect to one or more other springs 5025.
[0857] In this exemplary embodiment, the relative positions of the charging element 631 and deflector plates 629 remain fixed with respect to one another because they are all fastened to the same adjustment board 5015. This prevents adjustment of the mounting assembly 5001 from affecting alignment of the changing element 631 with respect to the deflector plates 629.
[0858] The charging element 631 is connected to a suitable electrical circuit (e.g., a 90 volt selectively charging circuit) under the control of the processor 131 and coupled to a power supply for applying an electrical charge to the charging element 631. The circuit is used to charge or not charge the stream 21 immediately prior to the formation of a droplet 33 at the break-off location 107 depending on whether the droplet 33 contains a particle having the desired characteristics (e.g., at least one live X-chromosome sperm cell). The charging element 631 is positioned electrostatically near the stream 21 or near the droplets 33 formed from the stream 21 for providing an electrical reference with respect to the electrostatic polarity of the stream 21. The droplets 33 carry the same charge as the stream 21 at the instant the droplet 33 breaks from the stream 21. The charged or uncharged droplets 33 then pass between the deflector plates 629 and are sorted by charge into collection vessels 2207 of the collection system 2201. While sorting produces two groups or populations of droplets 123, 125 in FIG. 2, the particles may be separated into any number of populations from 1 to N sorted by placing different charges on the droplets 33 in respective groups, any by supplying the appropriate number of collection vessels, each being positioned to collect a different population of droplets.

Automated Drop Delay Calibration

[0859] In the sorting system 119 described above, the processor 131 must estimate the time it takes for a particle to move from the interrogation location 115 to the droplet break-off location 107 so that the charge (or lack of charge) to be applied to the droplet 33 containing that particle is applied when the particle is in the last attached droplet 33 at the break-off location 107. If the delay setting used by the processor 131 is wrong, the droplets 33 will not be sorted according to their contents. Similarly, if the application of electrical charges to the droplets 33 is even slightly out of phase with droplet 33 formation this can degrade sorting because none of the droplets 33 will be fully charged and droplets 33 that are supposed to have neutral charge will carry a small positive or negative electrical charge. This will alter the paths of the droplets 33 through the electric field between the deflection plates 629.
[0860] The best way to verify that the processor 131 is using the appropriate delay setting or to adjust the drop delay setting (i.e., calibrate the system's 9 drop delay setting), is to sort a number of droplets 33 and examine the results. By incrementally varying the delay setting and monitoring the results, one can select the optimal delay setting. Traditionally, this sort calibration is performed manually. Recently, automated calibration systems have been designed to sample or examine the contents of the droplets in the sorted droplet streams and automatically adjust the delay setting without human intervention. For example U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,372,506 (Norton) and 5,643,796 (van den Engh), which are hereby incorporated by reference, both disclose automated sort calibration systems. The purported advantages of these systems are that they are less labor intensive and are capable of verifying the delay setting throughout the sorting process rather than just during initial set up. The drawbacks are that they are cumbersome and take up valuable space unnecessarily.
[0861] (i) Epi-Illumination Sensors
[0862] Referring to FIG. 37, an automated continuous calibration system 4201 of the present invention for a fluorescence activated droplet sorting cytometry system comprises one or more epi-illumination sensors 4203 positioned to sense the contents of droplets 33 to verify the delay setting for droplet charging. Referring to FIG. 38, each epi-illumination sensor includes a light source (not shown), a fiber optic cable 4205, a dichroic filter 4207, a lens system 4209, a photodetector 4213, and a control system. In one exemplary embodiment, the processor 131 serves as the control system, but other processors or controls could be used instead.
[0863] The light source may be a low-power solid state laser dedicated solely to the automated calibration system 4201. Alternatively, a beamsplitter (not shown) may be used to divert a portion (e.g., about 5%) of the energy in the beam 25 used for interrogation of particles in the fluid stream 21 to one or more epi-illumination sensors 4203. Similarly, the fiber optic cable 4209 can be positioned in a beam stop 4215 (FIG. 26) to gather light from beam 25 after it passes through the interrogation location 115. The light from the light source must include light having a wavelength capable of exciting fluorescent molecules in the particles being sorted, thereby causing fluorescence emissions 4211 from the particles. If the particles are stained with Hoechst 33342, for instance, the light source can provide light having a wavelength of about 350 nm, about 407 nm or any other wavelength capable of exciting the Hoechst 33342 molecules.
[0864] The fiber optic cable 4205 extends from the light source to a location downstream of the interrogation location 115. For example, in the exemplary embodiment the fiber optic cable 4205 leads to a location adjacent the trajectory of one of the droplet streams as it moves through the electric field between the deflector plates 629. The dichroic filter 4207 is positioned in front of the end of the fiber optic cable 4205. The dichroic filter 4207 transmits light having the spectral characteristics of the light conducted by fiber optic cable 4205, but reflects light having the spectral characteristics of the fluorescence emissions 4211. Thus, the dichroic filter 4207 may have the same specifications as the dichroic filter 477 describe above in connection with the epi-illumination optics instrument 417. The focal length of the lens system 4209 is selected based on the expected distance of the sensor 4203 from the droplets 33 so that the illumination/detection volume of each sensor 4203 is about equal to the volume of the droplets 33.
[0865] Referring to the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 37, an epi-illumination sensor 4203 is positioned adjacent the trajectory of each of the three sorted droplet streams 4225, 4227, 4229 to sense the contents of droplets 33 in a respective stream. The cytometer system 9 includes an electrically insulated support 4221 for mounting the two deflection plates 629. The support has three holes 4223, one adjacent the trajectory of each sorted droplet stream 4225, 4227, 4229. An epi-illumination sensor 4203 is positioned at each hole 4223 to observe droplets 33 in one of the droplet streams 4225, 4227, 4229 through the respective hole 4223. This compact configuration takes up relatively little space and keeps components of the calibration system 4201 out of the way, providing better access to other parts of the cytometer 9.
[0866] If a droplet containing a fluorescent particle passes through the illumination/detection volume of the sensor 4203, this will result in a flash of fluorescence emissions 4211, some of which will be collected by the lens system 4209 and reflected off from the dichroic filter 4207 to the photodetector 4213. Signals from the photodetector 4213 are provided to the processor 131. Based on the signals received from the photodetectors 4213, the processor 131 can determine the contents of the droplets 33 in each of the sorted droplet streams 4225, 4227, 4229.
[0867] If a sensor 4203 fails to detect a flash of fluorescence emission 4211 when the processor 131 expects a droplet 33 containing a fluorescent particle to pass by that sensor 4203, the processor 131 can use that information to adjust the delay setting or adjust the location of the droplet break-off location 107. Likewise, the processor 131 can make an adjustment if a sensor 4203 detects a fluorescent emission 4211 when the processor 131 does not expect a droplet 33 containing a particle to be passing by the sensor 4203. Furthermore, the processor can compare the relative frequency of fluorescent emissions 4211 from the sorted streams 4225, 4227, 4229 to see if the frequency of detected fluorescent emissions 4211 matches the expected frequency. The processor 131 can also adjust the amplitude of the charge applied to the charging element 631 to increase or decrease the amount by which a sorted stream 4225, 4229 is deflected to maximize the intensity of the detected fluorescence emissions 4211. This will maintain the alignment of the trajectory of the deflected droplet streams 4225, 4229 so the droplets pass directly through the collection volume of the epi-illumination sensor. Because the sensors 4203 are positioned to observe the streams 4225, 4227, 4225 as they move through the electrical field between the deflector plates 629, the calibration system has a shorter response time than it would if it observed the streams 4225, 4227, 4229 in the freefall area downstream of the deflection plates.
[0868] (ii) Empty Droplet Test Stream
[0869] One sensitive indication of the quality of the calibration can be arranged by creating and monitoring a calibration test stream that contains substantially only empty droplets 33. Referring to the sort calibration system 4201 shown FIG. 37, droplets 33 containing desired particles are sorted into stream 4225 and droplets 33 containing any other particles and most of the empty droplets 33 are sorted into stream 4229 (i.e., the waste stream). The test stream 4227 is created by applying a neutral charge to at least a fraction (e.g., 1 out of every 10) of the empty droplets 33. Many droplets 33 that are considered “empty” for traditional sorting purposes are actually droplets 33 for which there is a low probability that the droplet 33 contains a particle, based on the arrival time of particles at the interrogation location 115 and estimated droplet formation boundaries in the fluid stream 21. These “empty” droplets should not be sorted into the test stream 4227 because this would inevitably result in detection of some particles in the test stream 4227.
[0870] Instead, for the test stream 4227 the processor 131 should select only droplets 33 that the processor 131 believes have substantially zero probability of containing a particle in order to create a substantially particle-free test stream 4227. The probability that any randomly selected droplet 33 contains a cell is known and is approximately the average cell analysis rate divided by the droplet generation rate. This means that by monitoring the rate of mis-sorts in the test stream 4227 it is possible to estimate fractional adjustment of the phase relationship of droplet charging needed to match the phase of droplet 33 formation. For example the processor 131 may select droplets that it estimates have about 15% or lower probability of containing a particle, about 10% or lower probability of containing a particle, about 5% or lower probability of containing a particle, about 1% or lower probability of containing a particle, about 0.1% or lower probability of containing a particle, about 0.01% or lower probability of containing a particle, about 0.001% or lower probability of containing a particle, or about 0.0001% or lower probability of containing a particle. The probabilistic cutoff for substantially zero probability may be selected based on sort-speed, tolerance for impurity, or other sort parameters, with the cutoff including higher probabilities that a droplet will include a particle for high-speed sorting or when there is more tolerance for impurity.
[0871] Failure of the processor 131 to create a substantially particle-free test stream 4227 (i.e., a test stream 4227 in which the ratio of droplets 33 containing particles to the total number of droplets 33 agrees with the probabilistic cutoff used to select droplets 33 for the test stream 4227), as indicated by detection of more than a threshold number of droplets 33 containing particles in the test stream 4227, is a definitive indication of sub-optimal sorting and prompts the processor 131 to adjust the drop delay setting. The threshold level is determined in relation to the probabilistic cutoff used to select droplets 33 for the test stream 4227 and the total number of droplets 33 selected for the test stream 4227. Ideally, some droplets 33 can be selected for the test stream 4227 even though one or more particles in the fluid stream 21 are relatively close to an estimated drop formation boundary for the respective droplet 33 to make the system 4201 more sensitive to slightly sub-optimal drop delay settings.
[0872] Of course, the sort calibration system could apply a non-neutral charge to and deflect droplets selected for the test stream, without departing from the scope of this invention. The relative order of the streams 4225, 4227, 4229 could also be rearranged without departing from the scope of this invention, although interposing the test stream 4227 between the waste stream 4225 and the stream of desired particles 4229 (as shown in the exemplary embodiment) reduces the risk of crossover contamination of the sorted sample by the waste stream. Further, if the particles do not emit fluorescent light, different sensors can be used to detect any scattered light caused by particles in the test stream without departing from the scope of this invention.
[0873] (iii) Impact of Sort Calibration System
[0874] In one embodiment of the invention, the automated calibration system 4201 is operable to automatically determine and set the phase relationship between droplet formation and droplet charging to within about 5% of the optimal phase (i.e., within +/− about 18 degrees. In another embodiment the system 4201 is operable to automatically determine and set the phase relationship to within about 1% of the optimal phase (i.e., within +/− about 3.6 degrees)). In another embodiment, the calibration system 4201 is operable to continuously monitor a high-speed droplet sorting system and automatically maintain the phase relationship within about 10% of the optimal phase (i.e., within +/− about 36 degrees). In still another embodiment, the system 4201 is operable to continuously monitor a high-speed droplet sorting system and automatically maintain the phase relationship without about 3% of the optimal phase (i.e., within +/−10.8 degrees).

Sort System Fault Correction

[0875] From time to time, a droplet 33 will stray from its normal trajectory and hit the charging element 631 or the deflector plates 629. If one or more droplets 33 hit the charging element 631, the charging element 631 may not be able to charge droplets 33 properly. Further, the normal droplet 33 trajectory through the charging element 631 can become obstructed causing even more droplets 33 to accumulate on the charging element 631. Also, if stray droplets 33 strike a deflector plate 629, they can distort or otherwise disrupt electrical field lines between the deflector plates 629, thereby changing the trajectory of the sorted droplet steams 123, 125.
[0876] Thus, it is desirable to have a debris removal system to remove debris from the charging element 631 and/or the deflector plates 629. In one exemplary embodiment, shown FIGS. 26 and 27, the system 9 includes a debris removal system 5047 for the charging element 631 and a debris removal system 5049 for the deflector plates 629.
[0877] Referring to FIG. 27, the charging element 631 is held in position by a support 5051 secured to board 5015 of the adjustable mounting assembly 5001. A vacuum passage 5053 (shown in phantom) extends through the support 5051 to an opening 5057 adjacent the charging element 631. The vacuum passage 5053 is connected to a suitable vacuum source (not shown) by a vacuum line 5055 attached to a fitting 5058 on the support 5051. Suitable controls are provided for selectively applying a vacuum in the passage 5053 to vacuum any undesired material (e.g., stray droplets 33) off the charging element 631 and restore proper function of the charging element 631.
[0878] Relatedly, as shown in FIG. 27, a manifold 5061 fastened to the mounting assembly 5001 has a network of air passages 5063 therein (shown in phantom) connected via an air line 5059 and fitting 5065 to a source of compressed air or other gas (not shown). The passages 5063 have openings 5064 positioned along a side 5066 of each deflector plate 629 and the portions 5067 of the passages 5063 leading to the openings 5065 are oriented so compressed air blown through the manifold 5061 will clear any stray droplets 33 or other debris off the deflector plates 629. Any material blown off the deflector plates 629 will hit a cover panel (not shown) and drain into a suitable waste collection device (not shown).
[0879] In one embodiment, if the processor or other sensor determines that stray droplets 33 have hit the charging element 631 or deflector plates 629, as indicated by the sort calibration system described above for example, the processor can automatically initiate a fault correction procedure or mode, which can include applying a vacuum to passage 5053 to vacuum material from the charging element 631 and/or sending compressed gas through passages 5067 to blow material off the deflector plates 629.

Protection of Sorted Sample During Fault Mode

[0880] One embodiment of the system 9 also includes a contamination prevention mechanism 4041 (FIG. 26), which can be activated by the processor 131 to limit or prevent contamination of the sorted sample any time the sorting system is in the fault correction mode. The contamination prevention mechanism includes a pneumatic actuator 4043 operable to selectively move a swing arm 4045 between a shielding position (shown FIG. 26) and a non-shielding position (not shown). In the shielding position, the end 4047 of the swing arm 4045 covers the opening of the collection vessel 4033, thereby preventing collection of droplets 33 by the collection vessel 4033. In the non-shielding position, the collection vessel 4033 is uncovered. Normally, the swing arm 4045 is in the non-shielding position, but the processor 131 causes the actuator 4043 to move the swing arm 4045 into the shielding position any time the processor 131 determines that there is a risk of contamination (e.g., the nozzle system 101 becomes clogged, the droplet break-off location 107 becomes unstable, or stray droplets 33 have hit the charging element 631 or deflector plates 629). The end 4047 of the swing arm 4045 is trough-shaped to drain any fluid collected by the swing arm 4045 into the waste container 4035.

Fluid Delivery System

[0881] The system 1 described above is capable of effectively producing quantities of particles (e.g., X-sperm cells) sorted by selected characteristics. The rate of production can be increased or decreased by varying the rates at which the fluid delivery system 15 (FIG. 2) delivers carrier fluid 17 and sheath fluid 19 to the nozzle 137. In one embodiment, the fluid delivery system includes a syringe pump 645, one example of such a pump being MICROLAB® Model PSD/3 available from: Hamilton Company. The pump 645 is operable to deliver carrier fluid 17 to the nozzle 137 at a rate of about 20 μl/min. In general, the pump 645 should be operable to deliver sample fluid 17 to the nozzle 137 at a rate in the range of 10-50 μl/min. The pump 645 is connected by a flow line 647 to the supply 3 of carrier fluid 17, which may be a suitable vessel 649 containing a volume of material to be analyzed and sorted. Where the temperature of the particles being analyzed is a factor, as in the case of sperm cells, for example, the temperature of the vessel 649 may be controlled by a suitable temperature control system, such as heating/cooling bath (not shown). The syringe pump 645 is movable through an intake stroke to aspirate carrier fluid from the supply vessel and through a discharge stroke to dispense carrier fluid 17 through a supply line 651 to the injection needle 157 of the nozzle system 101. The pump 645 is preferably driven by a variable speed motor (not shown) under the control of the processor 131. By way of example, the pump 645 may be driven by a stepper motor which operates at selectively variable rates to pump carrier fluid 17 to the needle 159 at rates necessary to obtain the desired throughput. Other types of fluid delivery devices can be used instead of a syringe pump. To provide just one example, the vessel 649 can be pressurized by a pressurized gas source without departing from the scope of the invention. Furthermore, it is desirable to keep the lines 647, 651 as short as is practically possible because the line environment is not conducive to the health of sensitive cells (e.g., sperm cells) that may be in the carrier fluid 17.
[0882] The supply 7 of sheath fluid 19 comprises a second vessel 661, e.g., a tank in FIG. 2, holding an appropriate volume of sheath fluid 19 connected to the radial bore 173 in the flow body 133 of the nozzle system 101 by a supply line 667 having a control valve 669 therein. In the embodiment of FIG. 1, the sheath fluid vessel 661 is pressurized by a gas pressure system 671 comprising a source 675 of pressurized gas (e.g., air or other gas, such as nitrogen) communicating with the tank 661 via an air line 679 having a regulator 681 in it for controlling the pressure supplied to the tank 661. A two-way valve 683 in the air line 679 is movable between a first position establishing communication between the tank 661 and the gas source 675 and a second position venting the tank 661. The gas pressure regulator 681 is a conventional regulator preferably under the control of the processor 131. By controlling the tank 661 pressure, the pressure at which sheath fluid 19 is delivered to the flow body 133 may also be controlled. This pressure may range from 16 to 100 psi, more preferably from 10 to 50 psi, even more preferably 15 to 40 psi, and even more preferably from about 20 to 30 psi. The pressure at which the sheath fluid 19 is supplied to the flow body 133 can be controlled in other ways without departing from the scope of the invention.
[0883] In one embodiment, shown FIG. 26 the fluid delivery system 15, includes a sheath fluid tank (not shown) and a sample station 4051. The sample station includes a two-part pressure container 4053 adapted to hold a sample tube 4055. The bottom section 4057 of the pressure container is moveable up and down relative to the upper section 4059 of the pressure container 4053 between an open position (shown FIG. 26), in which the sample tube 4055 may be loaded or unloaded, and a closed position (not shown) in which the two parts 4057, 4059 of the pressure container 4053 come together to form a seal to contain pressurized gas used to pump carrier fluid 17 from the sample tube 4055 to the nozzle system 101.
[0884] When the pressure container is open a spring-biased swing arm 4071 moves to a position beneath the line 651 that delivers carrier fluid 17 to the nozzle system 101 (See also FIG. 119 #4071′). The swing arm 4071 is trough-shaped and adapted to collect fluid backflushed through the line 651 and to drain the backflushed fluid to the waste container through port 4073. As the pressure container 4053 moves from its open position to its closed position, a cam plate 4075 attached to the bottom section 4057 of the pressure container 4053 moves the swing arm 4071 against its spring bias to clear the area between the two sections 4057, 4059 and allow the pressure container 4053 to close.

Control

[0885] Referring again to FIG. 2, the microprocessor 131 (or other digital or analog control and/or processor, or combinations thereof) controls the operation of the system 1. As noted below with regard to FIG. 39, the microprocessor may be implemented as a system control processor and four processors for handling signal processing. Alternatively, some or all functions may be integrated into one or more processors. For example, the system control microprocessor (see FIG. 36) may be implemented by using one of the four signal processing processors. In addition, as noted below, the signal processing may be implemented by an analog circuit (e.g., an analog cell analyzer as shown in FIG. 39) or a combination of analog and digital circuitry.
[0886] The microprocessor 131 provides output signals to control the fluid delivery system 15 (noted below) in response to input signals received from the epi-illumination system 415, provides output signals to control the transducers 105 in response to input signals received from the break-off sensors 389, and provides output signals to control the sorting system 119 (noted below) in response to input signals received from the epi-illumination system 415. The microprocessor 131 may provide output signals to other parts of the cytometry system 9 as noted elsewhere herein. Further, the microprocessor 131 may be adapted to process information and provide output signals in real time. Broadly speaking, the term “real time” refers to operations in which the operation of the processor 131 matches the human perception of time or those in which the rate of the operation of the processor 131 matches the rate of relevant physical or external processes. In one context, the term “real time” can indicate that the system reacts to events before the events become obsolete.
[0887] In general, electrical signals from the epi-illumination system 415 are converted to digital information by an A/D converter 689 which supplies the corresponding digital information to the microprocessor 131. In response to the information, the microprocessor 131 controls a sorting system 119 and a fluid delivery system 15, both described above.
[0888] The electrical signals output from the photodetector 117 of the epi-illumination system 415 are time-varying analog voltage signals indicative of the amplitude of the emitted fluorescence 31 at any instant in time generated by each cell as it is illuminated by the laser beam 25. Thus, the analog signals (also referred to as analog output) are in the shape of time-varying waveform pulses 497 as illustrated schematically in FIGS. 52 and 53. In general a waveform pulse 497 is defined as a waveform or a portion of a waveform containing one or more pulses or some portion of a pulse. Thus, the amplitude of each waveform pulse 497 at any instant in time represents the relative rate of photon emission 31 of each cell at that instant in time as the cell passes through the laser beam 25. X chromosome bovine sperm cells have a higher DNA content than Y chromosome bovine sperm cells (e.g., about 3.8%). As a result, live X cells labeled with a fluorescent stain as noted above will produce a different waveform pulse 497 than pulses from any other labeled cells. By analyzing the pulses 497 as noted below (see Signal Processing, Slit Scanning, and Critical Slope Difference), each cell can be identified as an X cell or not identified as an X cell (˜X). In general, as used herein, X cells refers to live X cells, Y cells refers to live Y cells and ˜X cells refers to the combination of live Y cells and cells which otherwise produce a detectable fluorescence emission 31 but which cannot be identified with a reasonable probability as being live X cells.
[0889] The timing of each waveform pulse 497 indicates the position of each cell in the stream 21. Since the rate at which the sheath fluid 19 is being delivered through the nozzle 137 remains constant, and since the distance d (in FIG. 25) between the nozzle 137 and the droplet break-off location 107 is known, the position of each droplet 33 is known and the cells, if any, within each droplet 33 are known. Thus, the microprocessor 131 can calculate the instant at which each forming droplet passes through the charging collar 631 and can control the polarity of the collar 631 and thus control whether a droplet 33 is charged for deflection by the charging elements 631 of the sorting system 119. Since the microprocessor 131 knows the droplet formation rate and identifies the cells within a droplet as X or ˜X, the microprocessor 131 knows the cell content of each droplet 33 and keeps track of (or enumerates) the number of cells in each population 123, 125. Depending on the sort strategy, see below, the microprocessor 131 determines which droplets 33 are charged for deflection and which droplets 33 are not charged so that they are not deflected.

Signal Processing

[0890] A. Digital Sampling Introduction
[0891] As previously described, the interaction between the laser beam 25 and the particle produce a “pulsed” photon emission 31 (e.g., a fluorescence emission) that is captured by the collection lens 511 of the optics system 109 and delivered to a photodetector 117. The photodetector 117 converts the photon energy at any instant in time to an analog voltage output of time-varying amplitude. This output is a series of waveform pulses 497 (FIGS. 43 and 44) which contain many features that can be used to discriminate among populations of particles. Among these features are the total photon emission, the rate of photon emission as a function of the particle's spatial transit through the laser beam, the maximum rate of photon emission during the transit, the average rate of photon emission during the transit, and the time required for transit. The combination of laser beam geometry 459, particle size, distribution of the emission source through the particle volume and particle velocity determine the frequency spectrum of waveform pulse 497. For the system 1 used with bovine semen described previously it has been determined that each cell 201 produces a waveform pulse 497 of between 800 ns and 1200 ns in duration. It has also been determined that as a function of frequency, more than 97% of the power in the waveform pulse 497 is delivered at frequencies below 30 MHz. This frequency spectrum will be discussed later as it related to the Nyquist sampling theorem. Taken together these waveform pulses 497 form an output signal 701 from the photodetector 117 that is a continuous, time varying, signal that represents the transit of the particle stream through the apparatus. In addition to features of individual pulses that are used to discriminate among populations, the time varying signal provides a precise record as to the relative spacing (time and position) among the individual particles that pass through the apparatus and relative velocity of the particles moving through the apparatus. This precise time, position and velocity record can be synchronized with the droplet generation clock signals 703 as shown in FIG. 44 to determine which particles are members of a particular droplet 33 formed by the droplet generation apparatus 105. This information can be used as the basis for determining “coincidence” or the occurrence of a desired and undesired particle in a single droplet 33. The ability to accurately determine the number and classification of each particle in a droplet 33 allows for accurate, efficient sorting.
[0892] Digital signal processing 705 as illustrated in FIG. 72 may be employed to analyze detection of fluorescence pulses 31 as indicated by synchronously sampled output signals 701 from the photodetector 117. This processing would be implemented in pulse analysis software employing instructions and/or algorithms, as noted herein. The time-varying analog output signal 701 of the photodetector 117 is provided to an A/D (analog/digital) converter 689 which synchronously samples it. Synchronously sampling means sampling to produce digital information corresponding to the analog output. Synchronously sampling is also referred to as continuously sampling or streaming acquisition. As noted below, the sampling rate depends on the frequency spectrum of the analog output.
[0893] Converter 689 provides an output including digital information 707 which is provided to the microprocessor 131 or other digital analysis device which executes the pulse analysis software to analyze the digital information 707. In general, the pulse analysis software would include digital pulse detection HH3, pulse feature extraction HH4 and pulse discrimination HH7.
[0894] B. Sampling Frequency & Signal Frequency Spectrum
[0895] The signal output 701 from the PMT 117 is captured by a high speed analog to digital converter 689 (ADC) that samples the output 701 continuously at a frequency of 105 MHz. It is well understood that when sampling a time varying signal it is necessary for the sampling frequency to be at least twice the maximum frequency contained in the signal being sampled. This is known as the Nyquist sampling theorem. For this reason the output signal 701 from the PMT 117 is first sent through a 40 MHz low-pass filter 854 (see FIG. 39) to ensure that the maximum frequency contained in the signal 701 is under the 52.5 MHz limit imposed by the sampling rate. It is important to note that the optical 109, fluidic 15 and detection systems of the apparatus 1 have been tuned to produce a pulse waveform 497 having optimum frequency characteristics for sampling at the 105 MHz rate. The sampling rate may be varied between about 25 and 200 MHz without departing from the scope of the present invention.
[0896] C. Pulse Processing
[0897] Pulse processing takes place in four (4) TigerSharc DSP processors that share memory and are connected to one another by high-speed parallel ports. As illustrated in FIG. 39, the four processors are: 1) a data management processor 863 which receives data from a high-speed ADC 689 which digitizes the output signals 701 from the photodetector 117; 2) a pulse detection processor 865 which detects the waveform pulses 497 represented by the digital information; 3) a feature extraction and discrimination processor 867 which extracts features from the detected pulses 497 and discriminates the pulses 497 based on the extracted features; and 4) a sort processor 873 which determines a sort classification for each pulse 497 based on the extracted features and the discrimination, which determines sort decisions for the corresponding cells and droplets 33 and which is synchronized with droplet formation 105. In general a processor 863, 865, 867, 873 completes a task and sets a “flag” so that companion processors know there is data available to process.
[0898] Each processor 863, 865, 867, 873 runs independently of the others, maximizing the overall throughput because they do not interrupt each other. Thus, any processor 863, 865, 867, 873 may be capable of performing any function and one or more processors or functions may be combined into a single processor or spread out over a plurality of processors. The processor 863, 865, 867, 873 labels as used above and this application are used for convenience only and are not intended to be limiting in any way.
[0899] All four processors 863, 865, 867, 873 are linked to a DSP board SDRAM 851 for exchanging information and are linked to a processor input/output (I/O) 857 for synchronization and communication with a peripheral I/O bus 859 connected to the PC 735 and the sort pulse generator 861. The processor I/O 857 may be implemented by two or more SharcFIN I/O processors connected by a communication link. Sort signals 853 are provided to the PC 735 via the peripheral I/O bus 857 and are used to control the sort pulse generator 861 controlling the charging of droplets 33.
[0900] The processor I/O 857 receives the output 707 from the analog/digital converter (ADC) 689, e.g., Bitware Corp. 105 MHz/2-channel, 14 bit capable of 105 MHz/1-channel sustained. The ADC 689 is connected to the photodetector 117 output for converting its time varying analog output signals 701 into digital information 707 and is also connected to an I/O board SDRAM 855 for storing the blocks of digital information from the ADC 689.
[0901] In general, the analog output signals 701 from the photodetector 117 are indicative of characteristic A or characteristic B (e.g., X or ˜X). The A/D converter 689 converts the analog output signals 701 from the photodetector 117 of the flow cytometry system 1 into corresponding digital information 707. The processors 863, 865, 867, 873 analyze and classify the digital information 707 and provide a sorting signal to the sorting system 119 as a function of the detected and classified digital information.
[0902] D. Data Acquisition
[0903] As previously stated, the signal output 701 from the photodetector 117 is captured by a high speed analog to digital converter (ADC) 689 that samples the output continuously at a frequency of 105 MHz. Data (digital information 707) are transferred immediately into high-speed memory blocks (I/O Board SDRAM) 855 which serve to buffer the incoming data. These memory blocks 855 are organized in a manner to maintain the integrity and sequence of the data stream 707. These memory blocks 855 are also accessible by the digital signal processing (DSP) processors 863, 865, 867, 873 by direct memory access (DMA). In this manner the processors 863, 865, 867, 873 can access the incoming data 707 without interrupting the ADC 689. This facilitates efficient transfer of data 707 to these processors 863, 865, 867, 873 for feature extraction, analysis and sort classification. Throughout this process, the data management processor 863 keeps the pulse samples 707 in order and time indexed (relative to the master clock 737, which is 128 times the droplet 33 frequency) to preserve their reference to “real time” or the actual time that the cell passed through the laser beam 25. The ADC 689 ping-pongs back and forth between two inputs, continuously sampling the time varying analog output signals 701 including the waveform pulses 497 and converting them into digital information 707 which is provided in blocks 855 to the I/O Board SDRAM under the control of the data management processor 863. Processor 863 assembles the information 707 into a continuous stream.
[0904] E. Initializing Detection Parameters
[0905] In order effectively distinguish over background noise, the digital pulse detection software 747 should be provided with information indicating signal background second order statistics, i.e. knowledge of the behavior of the output voltage signal 701 from the photodetector 117 when there is no fluorescence pulse 497. These statistics can be learned by software for initializing detection parameters 741 in an unsupervised manner during the initialization period immediately following startup of the system 1. In general, a pulse may be defined as 2 or 3 standard deviations from the background level.
[0906] Due to the possibility that introduction of the carrier fluid 17 into the sheath fluid stream 191 may cause a change in background fluorescence emission, the carrier fluid 17 should be present for the initialization of the detection parameters. Simple computation of the second order statistics of a time sequence of output voltage signal values may overestimate the standard deviation of the background (due to the possible presence of fluorescence pulses 497 in the sequence). An iterative procedure is therefore preferred to gradually eliminate this effect. The pulse detection software 747 accomplishes this by computing the statistics of the total signal 701 (background+pulses), using these values to apply pulse detection logic, re-computing the signal statistics without samples detected to be within pulses, and repeating this procedure until the background statistic estimates converge (or a fixed maximum number of iterations occurs). By evaluating the background with cells present, a more accurate indication of the expected correct pulse 497 amplitude can be determined. Table II summarizes the detection initialization procedure for determining detection parameters for use by the pulse detection software.
[0907] 
[00003] [TABLE-US-00003]
  TABLE II
 
  Initialization of pulse detection algorithm parameters.
 
 
    Algorithm:   Initializing detection parameters
    Input:   vector of floats PMTvolts; float statWindowSize,
      integer maxIterations
    Output:   float bckgrndMean; float bckgrndSTD
    Procedure:
    1.   Initialize background vector bckgrnd to last
      statWindowSize samples of PMTvolts vector
      and numIterations, lastSampleMean, and
      lastSampleSTD to zero:
    bckgrnd = PMTvolts[1 to statWindowSize]
    lastSampleMean = 0
    lastSampleSTD = 0
    numIterations = 0
    2.   Compute sample mean and sample standard
      deviation of bckgrnd and increment iteration
      counter:
   
  [see pdf for image]
   
    3.   Check for convergence or exceeding maximum
      number of iterations:
    exitFlag = ((sampleMean − lastSampleMean) <
  eps [see pdf for image]
  (sampleStd − lastSampleStd < eps)) [see pdf for image]
    (numIterations > maxIterations)
    If exitFlag is true, go to step 6 (else continue with
    step 4).
    4.   Apply pulse detection algorithm, obtaining
      vectors of pulse samples and new estimate of
      background samples:
    [pulse,bckgrnd] = pulse_detect(bckgrnd,
    sampleMean, sampleSTD)
    5.   Record statistics estimates from this iteration
      and repeat
    lastSampleMean = sampleMean
    lastSampleSTD = sampleSTD
    Go to step 2.
    6.   Set background statistics estimates to sample
      statistics and exit:
    bckgrndMean = sampleMean
    bckgrndSTD = sampleSTD
   
[0908] In general, the A/D converter 689 converts the analog output signals 701 from the photodetector 117 into corresponding digital information 707 indicative of characteristic A or characteristic B (e.g., X or ˜X). The digital signal processor 865 determines background characteristics of the time-varying output signals 701 from the digital information 707 corresponding thereto, detects waveform pulses 497 from the digital information 707 as a function of the determined background characteristics, and provides a sorting signal 853 to the sorting system 119 as a function of the detected pulses 497.
[0909] F. Initial Discrimination Parameters
[0910] Similar to the detection parameters (and subsequent to their initialization as shown in Table II), parameters for use in a discrimination algorithm may be initialized in an unsupervised fashion. Unlike the detection algorithm parameters, however, an iterative procedure is not necessary. In this case, software for initializing the discrimination parameters 745 detects a preset number (e.g., 100,000) of fluorescence pulses 497, computes the features to be used for discrimination for each detected pulse 497, and uses a clustering procedure (see Table II for a summary of candidate clustering procedures) to assign these pulses 497 to populations of interest (e.g. X, ˜X).
[0911] 
[00004] [TABLE-US-00004]
  TABLE 2
 
  Summary of clustering approaches being considered for use in
  discrimination algorithm parameter initialization.
  Algorithm  
  Name   Algorithm Approach
 
  k-Means   Iterative (local) minimization of sum of squared distance
    (Euclidean or Mahalanobis) between points within each
    population [1]
  Fuzzy   Expectation-Maximization of (Gaussian) mixture model [2]
  k-Means
  Agglom-   Merging of “nearest” clusters (starting with each data point as
  erative   its own cluster) until desired number of clusters is reached.
  Hierar-   Various measures for determination of “nearest” clusters
  chical   include distance between closest points, distance between
    furthest points, distance between cluster means, and average
    distance between points. [1]
 
[0912] FIG. 73 contains an example of the results of application of a k-means clustering procedure to define population 1 and population 2 based on statistics of distribution. The second order statistics of these populations are then used to set the parameters necessary for discrimination (the coefficients of a 1st or 2nd order polynomial decision function). Table IV summarizes the discrimination initialization procedure.
[0913] 
[00005] [TABLE-US-00005]
  TABLE IV
 
  Initialization of discrimination algorithm parameters.
 
 
  Algorithm:   Initializing discrimination parameters
  Input:   Matrix of floats detectedPulseData, vector of floats
    popPriorProbabilities
  Output:For each class populations i: matrix of floats Wi, vector of
  floats wi, float wio
  Procedure:
  1.   Compute feature values from detected pulses (n values per
    pulse, where n is dimensionality of feature space):
    featureValues = feature_extract(detectedPulseData)
  2.   Cluster feature values in feature space to obtain population
    memberships
    populations = cluster(featureValues)
  3.Compute 2nd order statistics of populations:
    (for i = 1 to m, where m is number of
    populations/classes)
    (for i = 1 to n, where n is dimensionality of
    feature space)
   
  [see pdf for image]
   
    (for k {dot over (=)} 1 to n, where n is dimensionality of feature space)
  tmpVal[j,k] = (featureValues[populationsi,j] −
  populationMeani[j]) ·
  (featureValues[populationsi,k] −
  populationsMeani[k])
   
  [see pdf for image]
   
  4.   Compute polynomial discriminant function coefficients:
    (for i = 1 to m, where m is number of populations/
    classes)
  Wi = −1/2 · popCovariancei−1
  wi = popCovariancei−1 · popMeani
  wio = −1/2 · ln(|popCovariancei|) −
  1/2 · popMeaniT · popCovariancei−1 · popMeani +
  ln(popPriorProbabilitiesi)
   
[0914] In general, the A/D converter 689 converts the analog output signals 701 from the photodetector 117 into corresponding digital information 707 indicative of characteristic A or characteristic B (e.g., X or ˜X). The digital signal processor 867 generates initial discrimination parameters corresponding to the digital information 707, discriminates the digital information as a function of the initial discrimination parameters, and provides a sorting signal 853 to the sorting system 119 as a function of the discriminated digital information.
[0915] G. Digital Pulse Detection
[0916] The first processing step is pulse detection performed by pulse detection processor 865 to determine whether a particular waveform is a waveform pulse 497 corresponding to a fluorescence emission 31 of a cell. The processor 865 executes a pulse detection algorithm which identifies sample sets that are likely to represent either particles targeted for sorting into a population or particles targeted to be avoided because they are potential contaminants to a population. In the case of bovine sperm sorting, a dye is added to quench the emission 31 of non-viable cells, causing their associated pulse intensities to be ˜⅓ the intensity of a live cell. Nonviable cells are not considered as sorting targets or potential contamination. They are not considered detected pulses 497. Pulses 497 from live cells are detected by monitoring the intensity of samples for a successive number of samples that rise above the background levels. Once this level crosses a statistically determined threshold the processor 865 jumps to a later time that is approximately 75% of the expected pulse 497 width for a live cell. If the level is still above the threshold, the series of samples are considered to be a pulse 497. Samples from detected pulses 497 are moved to a block of memory used by the feature extraction processor 867.
[0917] A statistical anomaly detection approach is one embodiment which may be employed by digital pulse detection software 747 although it is contemplated that other approaches for identifying and/or isolating digitized pulses 497 may be used. Essentially, digital samples 707 of the output voltage signals 701 from the photodetector 117 detecting fluorescence which are statistically anomalous from the background are considered to part of a pulse 497. For additional robustness (to minimize noise detections), additional temporal criteria may be included.
[0918] Pulse detection proceeds as follows. When the voltage output signal 701 from the photodetector 117 is not a pulse, the Mahalanobis distance from the background of incoming samples 707 of the signal 701 is computed and compared with a preset threshold. If the distance of a given sample exceeds the threshold, it is considered to be the potential start of a pulse 497, and the pulse detection software begins to buffer the incoming samples. If the next predetermined number of samples (e.g., 25) also exceed the threshold, a pulse 497 is considered to have started and buffering continues until the pulse end criteria are met; otherwise, the buffer is reset and checking for the start of a pulse resumes. While in a pulse 497, if a sample is below the threshold, then it is considered to be the potential end of a pulse and the buffer location is recorded (but sample buffering continues). If the next predetermined number of samples (e.g., 25) are also below threshold, the pulse 497 is considered to have ended and the pulse 497 consists of the buffered samples up to the recorded location. Table V summarizes the pulse detection algorithm, and FIG. 49 provides an illustration of the results of pulse detection on a digitally acquired fluorescence pulse 497.
[0919] 
[00006] [TABLE-US-00006]
  TABLE V
 
  Summary of digital fluorescence pulse detection.
 
 
    Algorithm:   Digital fluorescence pulse detection
    Input:   vector of floats digSamples, float bkgrndMean,
      float bkgrndSigma, float pulseStartThresh,
      float pulseEndThresh, integer numStartSamples,
      integer numEndSamples
    Output:   vector of floats pulseBuffer
    Procedure:
    1.   Initialize inPulseFlag = 0, pulseStartCount = 0,
      pulseEndCount = 0
    2.   For each sample in digSamples, compute Mahalano-
      bis distance from background:
   
  [see pdf for image]
   
    3.   If inPulseFlag is set, go to step 4, else go to
      step 6.
    4.   If mhDist > pulseStartThresh, place sample in
      pulseBuffer, increment pulseStartCount, and go
      to step 5; else set pulseStartCount=0, go to
      step 2.
    5.   If pulseStartCount > numStartSamples, set
      inPulseFlag and go to step 2.
    6.   If mhDist < pulseEndThresh, place sample
      in pulseBuffer, set lastPulseSample to current
      buffer position, increment pulseEndCount, and
      go to step 7; else set pulseEndCount to zero
      and go to step 2.
    7.   If pulseEndCount is greater than
      numEndSamples, return pulseBuffer[1 to
      lastPulseSample] and exit.
   
[0920] In general, the A/D converter 689 converts the analog output signals 701 from the photodetector 117 into corresponding digital information 707 indicative of characteristic A or characteristic B (e.g., X or ˜X). The digital signal processor 865 analyzes the digital information and processor 873 provides a sorting signal 853 to the sorting system 119 as a function of the detected digital information.
[0921] H. Feature Extraction and Discrimination
[0922] The next processing step is feature extraction performed by the feature extraction and discrimination processor 867. This processor responds to flags set by the pulse detection processor 865. Samples from detected pulses are placed in memory shared with the feature extraction processor 867. Features such as area, pulse width, pulse height, Gaussian correlation coefficient and/or other features are determined for each pulse 497. In some cases pulses 497 are determined to be “doublets” or invalid and features are not extracted. For the case of bovine sperm 201 features are only extracted for pulses 497 that have the general amplitude and width of a live X or Y cell. Typically, the pulse amplitude for a live sperm cell is in the range of about 700-900 mV, although this range may be as wide as 500-1000 mV. Once the features are extracted they are compared to the feature spaces defined for the population(s) selected for sorting. If the features match the feature spaces identified for sorting, then processor 867 sets a flag indicating a positive sort command to the sort processor 873. In general, the classification of a particular cell is made by the discrimination processor 867 and the sort decision is made by the sort processor 873.
[0923] Digital information 707 representing fluorescence emissions 31 (and thus the characteristics of corresponding cells which created them) are discriminated by software 757 based on specific features or characteristics which exhibit distinguishably different statistical behavior in feature space (the n-dimensional orthogonal space formed by n features as the axes) for the different populations of interest. Therefore, the first step in analyzing digital information 707 for the purposes of discrimination is computation of these features, a process called feature extraction performed by pulse analysis software 749 executed by the processor 867. Table VI lists the several candidate features which software 749 may use for this application. One or more of these features will be selected to form the feature space for classification. It should be noted that there are additional features providing enhanced separation so that this list is exemplary, not comprehensive. For example, the software 749 may employ a subroutine 753 to determine pulse 497 area and/or may employ a subroutine 755 to determine pulse 497 peak.
[0924] 
[00007] [TABLE-US-00007]
  TABLE VI
 
  Summary of candidate features currently being considered for
  use in digital pulse analysis relating to feature extraction.
  Feature Name   Feature Description
 
  Pulse Area   Approximated by sum (or average) of pulse samples
  Pulse Peak   Maximum value of pulse samples
  Pulse “Inner” Area   Sum (or average) of inner TBD samples of pulse
    (centered on pulse mean)
  Pulse Width   Number of samples in pulse.
  Pulse “Gaussianity”   MSE or correlation coefficient of pulse with a
  Gaussian shape with the same 2nd order
    statistics.
  Pulse   Pulse value at TBD samples past peak (or mean)
  “Lagging Peak”
  Critical Slope   Slope of pulse at a point along the pulse at which
  Difference (CSD)   the difference between the first derivative of a
    pulse produced by particles having characteristic
    A and the first derivative of a pulse produced by
    particles having characteristic B is at or near a
    maximum
 
[0925] I. Slit Scanning
[0926] In general, the elliptical spot 459 provided by the illumination system 109 measures the relative DNA content differences in cells. Resolution can be improved further by analyzing the fraction of the pulse 497 of the fluorescence emission 31 detected by the photodetector 117 more likely to contain characteristics which are being evaluated. A biological phenomenon of certain cells (e.g., bovine sperm cells) is the localization of the X/Y chromosomes in a sub-equatorial region 225 which is immediately adjacent the longitudinal midline or equator or center of the nucleus 213 of the cell 201 and which has a length of about 1 μm. (See FIG. 6). In fact, the X/Y chromosomes are not necessarily centered in the nucleus 213. Thus, resolution can be improved by converting the time-varying analog output 701 of the photodetector 117 into digital information 707 and analyzing a portion of the digital information corresponding to the fraction of the pulse 497 of the fluorescence emission 31, e.g., corresponding to the light emitted from the circumequatorial region 225 such as such as 20-60% and particularly 20-30% of the waveform pulse centered around the pulse 497 peak.
[0927] As noted above, slit scanning can be employed to obtain the fluorescence measurement from a portion of each cell's chromatin rather than from the chromatin as a whole. The elliptical spot 459 provided by the epi-illumination system 415 noted above measures the relative DNA content differences in cells from specific sections of the chromatin, so that the resolution of X cells and ˜X cells relative to one another is improved. As noted above, the slit scanning measurement technique is a fluorescence measurement approach that focuses the excitation beam 25 so that a dimension of the focused spot size 459 is much less than a cell diameter as shown in FIG. 6. In this way, the cell 201 is scanned by the laser beam 25 as the cell passes through the elliptically-shaped beam spot 459. The resulting waveform pulse 497 produced by the photodetector 117 output 701 detecting the fluorescence emission 31 resulting from slit scan illumination contains information about the localization of fluorescence along the length of the cell 201. As shown in FIGS. 45-48, as the cell 201 traverses the elliptically-shaped beam spot 459, the time-varying waveform pulses 497 (red/orange line) are the convolution of the relative beam intensity (blue line) and the relative emitted pulse intensity (which corresponds to the fluorescence emissions from stain excited by the elliptical spot as the cell traverses the beam and which varies because the fluorescence distribution along the axis of the cell varies).
[0928] By illuminating only a fraction of the cell's chromatin at one time, the resulting time-varying analog output 701 from the photodetector 117 contains information specific to the localization of fluorescence within the chromatin along the longitudinal axis of the cell 201. Although the detected fluorescence emission 31 from slit scanning is less than the detected emission 31 from scanning by a beam 25 having a spot width comparable to the cell diameter, resulting in waveform pulses 497 from slit scanning having a lower pulse amplitude, the majority of difference between the X-chromosome bearing cells and the Y-chromosome bearing cells appears in the center 20-30% to 20-60% of the waveform pulse 497. If only the rectangular area 725 in FIG. 53 is considered for discriminating X-Y sperm cells, then a larger relative difference can be measured between the localized variation in DNA content within the section of chromatin that corresponds to the rectangular region 725 due to the presence of the X and Y chromosomes within that region as compared to the total DNA content of the cells. For example, bovine X-Y sperm cells have a difference in total DNA content of about 3.8%. The fluorescence emission 31 from the X and Y chromosomes will be contained in the rectangular region 725. If this rectangular region 725 accounts for 20% of the total waveform pulse 497 corresponding to a fluorescence emission 31, then a 14% difference in relative DNA content within the region will exist. By measuring the relative DNA content differences from specific sections of the chromatin, the resolution of X-Y sperm cell differentiation is improved (e.g., from 3.8% to 14%). FIG. 54 illustrates the resolution attainable using slit scanning illumination and processing the areas from only the center 20% of the pulse 497 (i.e., the rectangular region 725 of FIG. 53). The histogram of FIG. 54 allows a very high percentage (e.g., 98%) of the X chromosome bearing sperm and Y chromosome bearing sperm to be identified with a high degree of confidence (e.g., 95%). In comparison, the histogram of FIG. 55, which illustrates the resolution obtainable when using standard illumination techniques, shows that slit scanning offers a significant improvement over the results obtained using standard illumination techniques.
[0929] Two approaches which can be employed to obtain the area 725 of the center portion of the waveform pulse 497 as illustrated in FIG. 53 are digital signal processing (DSP) of digitized photodetector 117 time-varying analog output 701, as discussed in this section, or analog integration using an analog threshold trigger, as noted below. As noted herein, DSP processing involves continuously sampling the time-varying analog output 701 from the photodetector 117 to obtain digital information 707 corresponding to the output 701 and applying DSP algorithms to the digital information 707 to extract features, such as area size, from the digital information corresponding to the center portion 725 of the waveform pulse 497 which corresponds to the difference in DNA content due to the presence of an X or Y chromosome in different cells 201. As a simple example, the center 20% of the total area of each waveform pulse 497 would be determined by analyzing the digital information 707 corresponding thereto. The analysis would be used to generate a histogram such as illustrated in FIG. 53.
[0930] J. Pulsed Laser Scanning
[0931] In one embodiment, it is contemplated that the system 1 include a pulsed laser to illuminate the cells. In this embodiment, slit scanning (as described above) may or may not be employed. For example, a mode-locked solid-state laser can be used to emit a train of electromagnetic pulses having a pulse width (duration) of 1-100 picoseconds at a pulse frequency of about 50-150 MHz and at an average power output of about 100-500 milliwatts. One suitable laser is a Vanguard 350 mode-locked solid-state laser (available from Spectra-Physics, Mountain View, Calif. 94039), which is operable to emit a series of pulses about 12 picoseconds in width (duration) at a frequency of about 85 million pulses per second and at an average power of about 350 milliwatts. Because the 350 mW of power is delivered over extremely short bursts of only 12 picoseconds, the peak power output of such a laser is several hundred times (e.g., about 800 times) greater than the average power.
[0932] The output of such a laser can be described as quasi continuous wave (quasi-cw) because, for many applications, the pulse repetition rate is fast enough to approximate a continuous wave (cw) output. Indeed it is possible to operate the system as described above with a quasi-cw laser in much the same manner as one would operate with a cw laser. This provides certain advantages because solid-state lasers typically operate more efficiently, require less extensive cooling systems, and require less maintenance than most other lasers.
[0933] A quasi-cw pulsed solid-state laser can also result in significantly improved signal-to-noise ratios using digital signal processing techniques. A timing circuit may be included and is operable to produce a timing signal indicative of the arrival of laser pulses at the interrogation location 115 (i.e., the area where the laser beam 25 illuminates the stream 21). For example, the timing circuit may be a laser pulse sensor 3003 as shown in FIG. 40 for detecting light corresponding to the laser pulse including scattered light generated by the interaction of each laser pulse with the fluid stream 21 and/or including light from the laser pulses. Alternatively, for lasers which may be triggered, a triggering signal may be provided to the microprocessor 131 and/or the A/D converter 689 to synchronize either or both to the laser pulses, as noted below with regard to FIG. 50. In either embodiment, the laser pulse timing would provide a clock signal for the system.
[0934] Referring to FIG. 50, a timing diagram illustrates the timing relationship between the laser pulses LP, the fluorescence emissions FE from a cell as a result of repeated excitation by the laser pulses LP as the cell passes through the beam spot 459 and the digital samples DS of the photodetector output 701. As shown in FIGS. 45-49, as a cell passes through the laser beam spot 459 the fluorescence emission 31 varies depending upon the amount of illumination of the portion of the cell which generates the fluorescence emission 31. FIG. 50 illustrates twenty (20) laser pulses LP1-LP20 which impinge upon a cell as the cell passes through the interrogation zone 115 of a flow cytometer 1. Each laser pulse LP1-LP20 corresponds to a fluorescence emission FE1-FE20, respectively, which exponentially decays after substantially instantaneous excitation by the laser pulse.
[0935] In one embodiment, the microprocessor 131 controls the A/D converter 689 (see FIG. 40) so that the converter 689 samples the output signal 701 of the photodetector 117 at or near peak of each fluorescence emission FE1-FE20, as indicated by digital samples DS1-DS20, respectively. In other words, the timing circuit synchronizes the sampling rate of the A/D converter 689 with the fluorescence emissions FE1-FE20. The resulting digital signal produced by transit of a particle through the interrogation zone 115 is the functional equivalent of the digital signal that would have been produced by the digitization of a pulse waveform 497 from a continuous wave laser. As shown in FIG. 51, for example, by considering only the fluorescence intensity during the digital samples DS1-DS20 and disregarding fluorescence intensity drop-off between laser pulses LP1-LP20, the fluorescence intensity as a function of time is a pulse waveform 497. This permits feature extraction by the microprocessor 131 from the digital signal 707 generated by the pulsed laser in order to analyze the cell providing the fluorescence emissions FE1-FE20. In one embodiment, a more sensitive photodetector having relatively fast response time of about 2 nanoseconds or less may be used to more accurately detect the fluorescence emissions.
[0936] Thus, the pulsed laser provides advantages in a flow cytometry system 1 in that it is possible to use a lower power pulsed laser to obtain substantially the same analysis that would be obtained with a cw laser operating at an average power much higher than the average power of the pulsed laser. Further, the high peak power from a pulsed laser tends to saturate the fluorophores so that the fluorescence emissions are maximized thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of the output signals of the photodetector. In other words, by using a laser pulse that contains much more energy than is required to saturate the fluorophore, variations in the output of the laser do not result in variations in the fluorescent emissions 31.
[0937] Those skilled in the art will recognize that there are many ways to cause a laser to emit a series of pulses. It is understood that other pulsed lasers, including other mode-locked lasers, Q-switched lasers, and cavity dumping lasers, could be used in place of the mode-locked laser discussed above without departing from the scope of this invention. Similarly, many other ways to time the digital sampling and process the resulting information will be apparent from the foregoing disclosure. For example, the digital sampling could be timed so there is a different delay (or no delay) between a laser pulse and a digital sample without departing from the scope of the invention. Likewise, the number of digital samples per pulse or the number of pulses that elapse between digital sampling can also be varied without departing from the scope of this invention.
[0938] K. Estimation of Population Characteristics
[0939] As noted above, flow cytometry can be used to discriminate X-bearing bovine sperm cells from Y-bearing bovine sperm cells based on their relative 3.8% differe