Virus-like Particles As Vaccines For Paramyxovirus

  *US09399059B2*
  US009399059B2                                 
(12)United States Patent(10)Patent No.: US 9,399,059 B2
 Morrison et al. (45) Date of Patent:Jul.  26, 2016

(54)Virus-like particles as vaccines for paramyxovirus 
    
(75)Inventor: Trudy Morrison,  Northborough, MA (US) 
(73)Assignee:University of Massachusetts,  Boston, MA (US), Type: US Company 
(*)Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 738 days. 
(21)Appl. No.: 12/012,175 
(22)Filed: Jan.  31, 2008 
(65)Prior Publication Data 
 US 2009/0068221 A1 Mar.  12, 2009 
 Related U.S. Patent Documents 
(63) .
Continuation-in-part of application No. 11/497,888, filed on Aug.  2, 2006, now Pat. No. 7,951,384 .
 
(60)Provisional application No. 60/706,126, filed on Aug.  5, 2005.
 
Jan.  1, 2013 A 61 K 39 17 F I Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 A 61 K 39 12 L I Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 12 N 7 00 L I Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 A 61 K 2039 5256 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 A 61 K 2039 5258 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 A 61 K 2039 6081 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 07 K 2319 00 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 07 K 2319 03 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 12 N 2710 14143 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 12 N 2760 18123 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 12 N 2760 18134 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 12 N 2760 18423 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 12 N 2760 18523 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 12 N 2760 18623 L A Jul.  26, 2016 US B H C
(51)Int. Cl. C12N 007/04 (20060101); A61K 039/12 (20060101); A61K 039/17 (20060101); C12N 007/00 (20060101); A61K 039/00 (20060101)
(58)Field of Search  None

 
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     * cited by examiner
 
     Primary Examiner —Shanon A Foley
     Assistant Examiner —Myron Hill
     Art Unit — 1648
     Exemplary claim number — 1
 
(74)Attorney, Agent, or Firm — Medlen & Carroll, LLP

(57)

Abstract

The invention provides expression vectors and virus-like particles (VLPs) containing Newcastle Disease Virus Sequences in combination with sequences encoding proteins of interest. The vectors are useful in, for example, generating virus-like particles (VLPs) that contain proteins of interest. In one embodiment, the expressed VLPs elicit an immune response by an animal host against the protein. The invention's VLPs are useful as, for example, vaccines.
23 Claims, 259 Drawing Sheets, and 329 Figures


[0001] This application is a continuation-in-part of, and claims priority to, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/497,888, filed Aug. 2, 2006, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,951,384, which claims priority to provisional U.S. Application No. 60/706,126, filed Aug. 5, 2005, now abandoned, the contents of each of which are incorporated herein in their entirety.

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

[0002] This invention was made with government support under grant number AI030572 awarded by the National Institutes of Health.

SEQUENCE LISTING

[0003] A Sequence Listing has been submitted on a compact disc, the entire content of which is herein incorporated by reference. The compact disc and its duplicate are labeled Copy 1 and Copy 2, respectively. Each disk contains a file name “13588seq.txt” created on May 23, 2008 that is 860,160 bytes, and each disk is identical to the other.

FIELD OF INVENTION

[0004] The present invention relates to the field of viral vaccines. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a paramyxoviral vaccine effective against diseases such as, but not limited to, Newcastle disease, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, and respiratory syncytial virus. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a vaccine comprising Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-like particles (VLP). In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising transfecting avian cells with cDNAs encoding major NDV structural proteins. In another embodiment, a method wherein particles resembling infectious virions are released with nearly 100% efficiency. In one embodiment, the particles are non-infectious and provide a safe and effective NDV vaccine.
[0005] The invention further provides expression vectors that contain Newcastle disease virus nucleotide sequences that are useful for expression of proteins of interest, such as membrane proteins, soluble proteins, epitopes, and the like. The invention also provides methods for using these vectors to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) that contain the proteins of interest. Also provided are methods for using the virus-like particles (VLPs) for immunizing animals against a protein of interest.

BACKGROUND

[0006] Over the last decade, a number of concerns have arisen related to safety issues regarding paramyxovirus vaccines that have had an adverse effect on the public's trust. These concerns affect not only parents whose children are the primary recipient of childhood disease vaccines, but also ranchers devoted to raising animals susceptible to various types of paramyxoviruses.
[0007] Historically, Newcastle disease has been a devastating disease of poultry, and in many countries the disease remains one of the major problems affecting existing or developing poultry industries. Even in countries where Newcastle disease may be considered to be controlled, an economic burden is still associated with vaccination and/or maintaining strict biosecurity measures. The variable nature of Newcastle disease virus strains in terms of virulence for poultry and the different susceptibilities of the different species of birds mean that for control and trade purposes, Newcastle disease requires careful definition. Confirmatory diagnosis of Newcastle Disease requires the isolation and characterization of the virus involved. Currently Newcastle disease control is limited to prevention of introduction and spread, good biosecurity practices and/or live attenuated virus vaccination. Newcastle disease viruses may infect humans, usually causing transient conjunctivitis, but human-to-human spread has never been reported. Alexander D. J., “Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses” Rev Sci Tech. 19(2):443-62 (2000).
[0008] Historically, the live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine and the combination multivalent measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine have had a positive impact on the health of children worldwide by preventing infectious disease. The induction of an effective antiviral immune response using these live attenuated virus vaccines, however, are known to result in a significant rate of adverse events (i.e., for example, autism). Kennedy et al., “Measles virus infection and vaccination: potential role in chronic illness and associated adverse events” Crit. Rev Immunol. 24(2):129-56 (2004).
[0009] Healthy, and at risk, children are susceptible to the morbidity and mortality associated with viral-induced respiratory diseases, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza. Currently, the World Health Organization is attempting to develop and distribute effective vaccines to prevent/reduce key viral respiratory diseases. The progress, however, is slow and the risk/benefit ratio is high. A vaccination program for viral respiratory infections should include the prevention of lower respiratory tract infections and prevention of infection-associated morbidities, hospitalization and mortality. Presently, there are two influenza vaccines; i) a trivalent inactivated vaccine, and ii) a live, cold-adapted, attenuated vaccine. Compliancy, however, is relatively low (i.e., 10-30%). Because it is believed that the low compliancy is related to the known high risk of contaminated vaccines, those in the art recommend that research should continue into safe and effective vaccines for all childhood viral illnesses. Greenberg et al., “Immunization against viral respiratory disease: A review” Pediatr Infect Dis J. 23(11 Suppl):S254-61 (2004).
[0010] What is needed in the art is a low risk, highly effective paramyxovirus vaccine that is compatible with population-wide distribution marketing goals of low cost and high production rates.

SUMMARY

[0011] The present invention relates to the field of viral vaccines. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a paramyxoviral vaccine effective against diseases such as, but not limited to, Newcastle disease, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, and respiratory syncytial virus. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a vaccine comprising Newcastle disease virus-like particles (VLP). In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising transfecting avian cells with cDNAs encoding major NDV structural proteins. In another embodiment, a method wherein particles resembling infectious virions are released with nearly 100% efficiency. In one embodiment, the particles are non-infectious and provide a safe and effective NDV vaccine.
[0012] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method, comprising; a) providing, i) an expression vector comprising DNA sequences encoding a Newcastle disease matrix protein; ii) a cell capable of being transfected by said vector; b) transfecting said cell with said vector under conditions such that Newcastle disease virus-like particles are generated. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step c) harvesting said virus-like particles so as to create a cell-free preparation of particles. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step d) administering a vaccine comprising said preparation of particles to a chicken. In one embodiment, the cell is part of a cell culture and said harvesting comprises obtaining said particles from the supernatant of said culture. In one embodiment, the cell culture comprises sub-confluent avian cells. In one embodiment, the vector further comprises DNA sequences encoding additional Newcastle disease viral proteins selected from the group consisting of a nucleocapsid protein, a fusion protein, and a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. In one embodiment, the particles are free of Newcastle disease viral DNA.
[0013] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a transfected cell comprising an expression vector comprising DNA sequences encoding a Newcastle disease matrix protein capable of generating Newcastle disease virus-like particles.
[0014] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a cell-free preparation of virus like particles harvested from a transfected cell comprising an expression vector comprising DNA sequences encoding a Newcastle disease matrix protein capable of generating Newcastle disease virus-like particles.
[0015] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method, comprising; a) providing, i) a vaccine comprising Newcastle disease virus-like particles, said particles comprising a Newcastle disease viral matrix protein; ii) a host susceptible to Newcastle disease; b) immunizing said host with said vaccine under conditions such that antibodies directed to said virus-like particle are produced. In one embodiment, the host is selected from the group consisting of avian, murine, and human. In one embodiment, the particles further comprise one or more additional Newcastle disease viral proteins selected from the group consisting of a fusion protein, a nucleocapsid protein and a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein.
[0016] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a vaccine comprising Newcastle disease virus-like particles, said particles comprising a Newcastle disease viral matrix protein. In one embodiment, the particles are free of Newcastle disease viral DNA. In one embodiment, the particles further comprise one or more additional viral proteins selected from the group consisting of a fusion protein, nucleocapsid protein and a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein.
[0017] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a vaccine comprising a Newcastle disease virus-like particle and a Newcastle disease matrix protein. In one embodiment, the vaccine further comprises at least two viral glycoproteins. In one embodiment, the glycoproteins are selected from the group consisting of a fusion protein and a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. In one embodiment, the vaccine further comprises a nucleocapsid protein. In one embodiment, the matrix protein comprises a Late Domain. In one embodiment, the Late Domain comprises an FPIV sequence (SEQ ID NO:1). In one embodiment, the Late Domain comprises a PXXP sequence (SEQ ID NO:2). In one embodiment, the Late Domain comprises an YXXL sequence (SEQ ID NO:3). In one embodiment, the vaccine is non-infectious.
[0018] One embodiment of the present invention contemplates an avian vaccine comprising a Newcastle disease virus-like particle and a Newcastle disease matrix protein. In one embodiment, the vaccine further comprises at least two viral glycoproteins. In one embodiment, said glycoproteins are selected from the group comprising a fusion protein and a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. In one embodiment, the vaccine further comprises a nucleocapsid protein. In one embodiment, said virus-like particle comprises a Paramyxovirus virus-like particle. In one embodiment, said Paramyxovirus virus-like particle comprises a Newcastle disease virus-like particle. In one embodiment, said matrix protein comprises a Late Domain. In one embodiment, said Late Domain comprises an FPIV sequence (SEQ ID NO:1). In one embodiment, said Late Domain comprises a PXXP sequence (SEQ ID NO:2). In one embodiment, said Late Domain comprises an YXXL sequence (SEQ ID NO:3). In one embodiment, said virus-like particle is non-infectious.
[0019] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method, comprising; a) providing, i) an expression vector comprising cDNA sequences encoding a Newcastle disease virus matrix protein and at least two viral glycoproteins; ii) a cell capable of being transfected by said vector; b) transfecting said cell by said vector under conditions that generate a Newcastle disease virus-like particle, wherein said particle comprises said matrix protein. In one embodiment, the cell comprises sub-confluent avian cells. In one embodiment, the expression vector comprises pCAGGS. In one embodiment, the glycoproteins are selected from the group consisting of a fusion protein and a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. In one embodiment, the expression vector further comprises a cDNA sequence encoding a nucleocapsid protein. In one embodiment, the method further comprises releasing said virus-like particle at an efficiency of at least 85%. In one embodiment, the virus-like particle further comprises said at least two viral glycoproteins.
[0020] One embodiment of the present invention contemplates a method, comprising; a) providing, i) an expression vector comprising cDNA sequences encoding a Newcastle disease virus matrix protein and at least two viral glycoproteins; ii) a cell capable of being transfected by said vector; and b) transfecting said cell by said vector under conditions that generate an avian vaccine comprising a virus-like particle. In one embodiment, said cell comprises sub-confluent avian cells. In one embodiment, said cell comprises human cells. In one embodiment, said expression vector comprises pCAGGS. In one embodiment, said glycoproteins are selected from the group comprising a fusion protein and a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. In one embodiment, the vector further comprises a cDNA sequence encoding a nucleocapsid protein. In one embodiment, the method further comprises releasing said virus-like particle at an efficiency of at least 85%. In one embodiment, said virus-like particle comprises said matrix protein and said at least two viral glycoproteins.
[0021] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method, comprising; a) providing, i) a vaccine comprising a Newcastle disease virus-like particle and a Newcastle disease virus matrix protein and at least two viral glycoproteins; ii) a host capable of immunization by said virus-like particle; b) immunizing said host by said virus-like particle under conditions such that antibodies directed to said virus-like particle are produced. In one embodiment, the host is selected from the group consisting of avian, murine, and human. In one embodiment, the glycoproteins are selected from the group consisting of a fusion protein, and a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. In one embodiment, the vaccine further comprises a nucleocapsid protein.
[0022] One embodiment of the present invention contemplates a method, comprising; a) providing, i) an avian vaccine comprising a Newcastle disease virus virus-like particle, a Newcastle disease virus matrix protein and at least two viral glycoproteins; ii) a host capable of immunization by said virus-like particle; b) immunizing said host by said vaccine under conditions such that antibodies directed to said virus-like particle are produced. In one embodiment, said host is selected from the group comprising avian, murine, and human. In one embodiment, said virus-like particle comprises a Newcastle disease virus-like particle. In one embodiment, said glycoproteins are selected from the group comprising a fusion protein, and a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. In one embodiment, the vaccine further comprises a nucleocapsid protein.
[0023] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates an VLP vaccine expression system comprising a first cDNA encoding a first viral protein from a first Newcastle disease virus strain; a second cDNA encoding a second viral protein from a second Newcastle disease virus strain; and a third cDNA encoding a third viral protein from a third strain. In one embodiment, the first viral protein is selected from the group comprising HN protein, F protein, NP protein or M protein. In one embodiment, the first strain is selected from the group comprising strain Hertz, strain AV, or strain B1. In one embodiment, the second viral protein gene is selected from the group comprising HN protein, F protein, NP protein or M protein. In one embodiment, the second strain is selected from the group comprising strain Hertz, strain AV, or strain B1. In one embodiment, the third viral protein is selected from the group comprising HN protein, F protein, NP protein or M protein. In one embodiment, the third strain is selected from the group comprising strain Hertz, strain AV, or strain B1. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method for detecting a viral protein and/or gene incorporated into a VLP vaccine comprising contacting the viral protein gene with strain specific antibodies or incorporated sequence tags.
[0024] The invention provides a expression vector comprising, in operable combination: a) a first nucleic acid sequence encoding a Newcastle Disease Virus matrix (M) protein, b) a second nucleic acid sequence encoding a transmembrane domain (TM) protein, c) a third nucleic acid sequence encoding Newcastle Disease Virus cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, and d) a fourth nucleic acid sequence encoding a protein of interest or portion thereof, wherein the second nucleic acid sequence is flanked by the third and fourth nucleic acid sequences. Without intending to limit the number of nucleotides between the second and fourth sequence, and between the second and third sequences, in one embodiment, the vector further comprises from 0 to 30 nucleotides between the second and fourth nucleic acid sequences. In another embodiment, the vector further comprises from 0 to 3 nucleotides between the second and fourth nucleic acid sequences. In yet a further embodiment, the vector further comprises from 0 to 10 nucleotides between the second and third nucleic acid sequences.
[0025] While not intending to limit the source of the second nucleotide sequence encoding the transmembrane domain (TM) protein, in one embodiment, the second nucleic acid sequence encodes one or more Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. In another embodiment, the second nucleic acid sequence encodes one or more Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. In yet another alternative embodiment, the second nucleic acid sequence encodes one or more transmembrane domain (TM) protein selected from the group exemplified by the transmembrane domain of influenza virus HA protein, influenza virus NA protein, G protein-coupled receptor, leucine zipper EF hand receptor, Escherichia coli LipoF protein, Escherichia coli OmpF protein, Escherichia coli OmpA protein, human T cell receptor a chain, HLA class I protein, human MHC HLA-G protein, squalene synthetase, CD4 protein, and CD8 protein.
[0026] Without limiting the source of the third nucleotide sequence encoding the cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, in one embodiment, the third nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. In another embodiment, the third nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein.
[0027] To illustrate, but not limit, the source of the protein of interest, in one embodiment, the protein of interest comprises a membrane protein. In another embodiment, the membrane protein is selected from the group exemplified in Tables 6-11. In an alternative embodiment, the protein of interest comprises an ectodomain of a membrane protein. In yet another embodiment, the ectodomain is selected from the group exemplified in Tables 7, 9 and 11, and in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,262,270; 7,253,254; 7,250,171; 7,223,390; 7,189,403; 7,122,347; 7,119,165; 7,101,556; 7,067,110; 7,060,276; 7,029,685; 7,022,324; 6,946,543; 6,939,952; 6,713,066; 6,699,476; 6,689,367; 6,566,074; 6,531,295; 6,417,341; 6,248,327; 6,140,059; 5,851,993; 5,847,096; 5,837,816; 5,674,753; and 5,344,760.
[0028] In one embodiment, the membrane protein comprises a type 1 protein. In another embodiment, the type 1 protein is selected from the group exemplified in Table 6. In a further embodiment, the protein of interest comprises an ectodomain of a type 1 protein. In yet another embodiment, the ectodomain of a type 1 protein is selected from the group exemplified in Table 7. In a further embodiment, the ectodomain comprises SEQ ID NO:251.
[0029] In an alternative embodiment, the membrane protein comprises a type 2 protein. In another embodiment, the type 2 protein is selected from the group exemplified in Table 8. In a further embodiment, the protein of interest comprises an ectodomain of a type 2 protein. In yet another embodiment, the ectodomain of a type 2 protein is selected from the group exemplified in Table 9. In a particular embodiment, the ectodomain comprises SEQ ID NO: 270.
[0030] In another alternative embodiment, the membrane protein comprises a type 3 protein. In one embodiment, the type 3 protein is selected from the group exemplified in Table 10. In an alternative embodiment, the protein of interest comprises an ectodomain of a type 3 protein. In a further embodiment, the ectodomain of a type 3 protein is selected from the group exemplified in Table 11.
[0031] In another example, and without limiting, the source of the protein of interest, in one embodiment, the protein of interest comprises a soluble protein. In one embodiment, the soluble protein is selected from the group exemplified in Table 12.
[0032] Also without limiting the source of the protein of interest, in one embodiment, the protein of interest comprises an epitope. In one embodiment, the epitope is selected from the group exemplified by YPYDVPDYA (SEQ ID NO: 227), EphrinA2 epitopes, hepatitis C virus epitopes, vaccinia virus epitopes, dog dander epitopes, human papilloma virus (HPV) epitopes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitopes, bacterial meningitis epitopes, malaria epitopes, and type 1 diabetes mellitus epitopes.
[0033] In one embodiment for expressing, for example, type 1 proteins, type 3 proteins, soluble proteins, and epitopes, the third nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, and wherein the fourth nucleic acid sequence encodes a type 1 protein, type 3 protein, soluble protein, and/or epitopes. In another embodiment, the second nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. In yet a further embodiment, the vector further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus nucleocapsid (NP) protein. In an alternative embodiment, the vector further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein. In another alternative, the vector further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
[0034] In another embodiment for expressing, for example, type 2 proteins, type 3 proteins, soluble proteins, and epitopes, the third nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, and wherein the fourth nucleic acid sequence encodes a type 2 protein, type 3 protein, soluble protein, and/or epitope. In one embodiment, the second nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. In a further embodiment, the vector further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus nucleocapsid (NP) protein. In yet another embodiment, the vector further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein. In an alternative embodiment, the vector further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein and Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
[0035] In a further embodiment for expressing, for example and without limitation, soluble proteins, type 3 proteins, and epitopes, in one embodiment, the second nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein, and wherein the third nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. In an alternative embodiment, the second nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein, and wherein the third nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein.
[0036] Without limiting the sequence of the Newcastle Disease Virus matrix (M) protein used in the invention's vectors, in one embodiment, the Newcastle Disease Virus matrix (M) protein is selected from the group of sequences exemplified in Table 13.
[0037] The invention also provides a cell comprising any of the vectors disclosed herein. In one embodiment, the cell is selected from avian cell, insect cell, and mammalian cell. In another embodiment, the avian cell is an ELL-0 cell (East Lansing Strain of Chicken embryo fibroblast) or an egg cell. In a further embodiment, the insect cell is selected from the group exemplified by Trichoplusia ni (Tn5) cell and SF9 cell. In a further embodiment, the mammalian cell is selected from the group exemplified by Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, bovine mammary epithelial cells, monkey COS-7 cells, human embryonic kidney 293 cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, mouse sertoli TM4 cells, monkey kidney CV1 cells, African green monkey kidney VERO-76 cells, human cervical carcinoma HELA cells, canine kidney MDCK cells, buffalo rat liver BRL 3A cells, human lung W138 cells, human liver Hep G2 cells, mouse mammary tumor (MMT) cells, TR1 cells, MRC 5 cells, FS4 cells, rat fibroblasts 208F cells, an bovine kidney MDBK cells. The cell may be in vitro or in vivo.
[0038] The invention additionally provides recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) produced by expression of any of the vectors disclosed herein. In one embodiment, the recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) comprises: a) a Newcastle disease virus matrix (M) protein, b) a transmembrane domain (TM) protein, c) a Newcastle Disease Virus cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, and d) a protein of interest, wherein the transmembrane (TM) protein is flanked by the cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein and the protein of interest. In one embodiment, the virus-like particle (VLP) is purified. In another embodiment, the protein of interest is expressed on the outside surface of the virus-like particle (VLP). In a further embodiment, the virus-like particle (VLP) is immunogenic.
[0039] While not intending to limit the source or type of transmembrane (TM) protein, in one embodiment, the transmembrane (TM) protein comprises a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. In an alternative embodiment, the transmembrane (TM) protein comprises a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. In a further embodiment, the transmembrane (TM) protein comprises a sequence exemplified by those discussed supra, and herein.
[0040] Also without intending to limit the source or type of cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, in one embodiment, the cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein comprises a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. In an alternative embodiment, the cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein comprises Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. In a further embodiment, the cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein comprises a sequence exemplified by those discussed supra, and herein.
[0041] To illustrate, but not limit, the source and type of Newcastle disease virus matrix (M) protein and protein of interest, these proteins are exemplified by those discussed supra, and herein.
[0042] In one embodiment, such as where the invention's virus-like particles (VLPs) contain a type 1 protein, type 3 protein, soluble protein, and/or epitope, the VLP contains a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. In another embodiment, the VLP further comprises a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. In a further embodiment, the VLP further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus nucleocapsid (NP) protein. In an alternative embodiment, the VLP further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein. In yet another embodiment, the VLP further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
[0043] In one embodiment, such as where the invention's virus-like particles (VLPs) contain a type 2 protein, type 3 protein, soluble protein, and/or epitope, the VLP contains a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. In a further embodiment, the VLP further contains a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. In yet another embodiment, the VLP further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus nucleocapsid (NP) protein. In a further embodiment, the VLP further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein. In yet another embodiment, the VLP further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein and Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein
[0044] In a further embodiment, such as where the invention's virus-like particles (VLPs) contain a type 3 protein, soluble protein, and/or epitope, the VLP comprises a transmembrane domain (TM) protein (such as from Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein), and a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. In an alternative embodiment, the VLP comprises a transmembrane domain (TM) protein (such as from Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein), and a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein.
[0045] The invention also provides a vaccine comprising any of the virus-like particles (VLPs) disclosed herein.
[0046] Also provided by the invention is a method for producing a protein, comprising: a) providing a first expression vector comprising, in operable combination: 1) a first nucleic acid sequence encoding a transmembrane domain (TM) protein, 2) a second nucleic acid sequence encoding Newcastle Disease Virus cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, and 3) a third nucleic acid sequence encoding a protein of interest, wherein the first nucleic acid sequence is flanked by the second and third nucleic acid sequences, b) providing a second expression vector comprising a fourth nucleic acid sequence encoding Newcastle Disease Virus matrix (M) protein, wherein the first and second expression vectors are the same or different, c) providing a host cell capable of being transfected by the vector, and d) transfecting the host cell with the first and second vectors to produce virus-like particles (VLPs) comprising the protein of interest. In one embodiment, the method further comprises step e) purifying the virus-like particles (VLPs). In another embodiment, the protein of interest is expressed on the outside surface of the virus-like particle (VLP). In one embodiment, the virus-like particle (VLP) is immunogenic.
[0047] While not intending to limit the invention's methods to any particular range of efficiency, in one embodiment, the efficiency of producing the invention's virus-like particles (VLPs) is at least 10 fold greater, at least 20 fold greater, and/or at least 30 fold greater than the efficiency of producing influenza virus-like particles (VLPs).
[0048] The invention also provides a method for immunizing an animal host, comprising: a) providing: 1) a vaccine comprising any of the virus-like particles (VLPs) disclosed herein, and 2) an animal host, and b) administering the vaccine to the animal host to produce an immune response. In one embodiment, the animal host is selected from the group of mammal, avian, amphibian, reptile, and insect. In one embodiment, the immune response comprises an antibody that specifically binds to the protein of interest. In another embodiment, the immune response comprises T lymphocytes that specifically bind to the protein of interest.
[0049] The invention also provides antibodies produced by the invention's methods.

DEFINITIONS

[0050] The terms used within the present invention are generally used according to those definitions accepted by one having ordinary skill in the art, with the following exceptions:
[0051] The term “virus-like particle” as used herein, refers to a non-infective viral subunit either with, or without, viral proteins. For example, a virus-like particle may completely lack the DNA or RNA genome. Further, a virus-like particle comprising viral capsid proteins may undergo spontaneous self-assembly. Preparations of virus-like particles are contemplated in one embodiment, where the preparation is purified free of infectious virions (or at least substantially free, such that the preparation has insufficient numbers to be infectious). Thus, the term “virus-like particle” and “VLP” includes a non-replicating viral shell that resembles live virus in external conformation. Methods for producing and characterizing recombinantly produced VLPs have been described for VLPs from several viruses, including human papilloma virus type 1 (Hagnesee et al. (1991) J. Virol. 67:315), human papilloma virus type 16 (Kirnbauer et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1992)89:12180), HIV-1 (Haffer et al., (1990) J. Virol. 64:2653), and hepatitis A (Winokur (1991) 65:5029). Additional methods for expressing VLPs that contain Newcastle Disease virus proteins are provided by Pantua et al. (2006) J. Virol. 80:11062-11073, and disclosed herein.
[0052] The term “matrix protein”, “membrane protein”, or “M protein” as used herein, means any protein localized between the envelope and the nucleocapsid core and facilitates the organization and maintenance of the virion structure and budding processes.
[0053] The term “fusion protein” or “F protein” as used herein, means any protein that projects from the envelope surface and mediates host cell entry by inducing fusion between the viral envelope and the cell membrane. However, it is not intended that the present invention be limited to functional F proteins. For example, an F protein may be encoded by a mutant F gene such as, but not limited to, F-K115Q. F-K115Q is believed to eliminate the normal cleavage and subsequent activation of the fusion protein. F-K115Q mimics naturally occurring F-protein mutations in avirulent NDV strains, and in cell culture, eliminates any potential side effects of cell-cell fusion on the release of VLPs. Exemplary NDV F protein sequences include those comprising SEQ ID NO:10 (FIG. 10A) that is encoded by SEQ ID NO:11 (FIG. 10B), comprising SEQ ID NO:19 (FIG. 22A) (ATCC M21881), encoded by SEQ ID NO:20 (FIG. 22B), and SEQ ID NO:21 (FIG. 23) (ATCC AAG36978), and the following ATCC Accession numbers: AAA46642 (strain Texas GB), CAA00288 (strain Chambers), AB065262 (strain JL01), AAS00690 (strain F48E9), AAA46642 (strain Texas GB), CAF32456 (strain La Sota), AAC62244 (strain DB5), AAC62243 (strain DB3), AAC28467 (strain F48E9), ABY41269 (strain D58), ABV60351 (strain SNV-5074), AAL18935 (strain ZJ1), and AAY43057 (strain FM1/03).
[0054] The term “nucleocapsid protein” or “NP protein” as used herein, means any protein that associates with genomic RNA (i.e., for example, one molecule per hexamer) and protects the RNA from nuclease digestion. Exemplary NP protein sequences from NDV include those comprising SEQ ID NO:6 (FIG. 8A) encoded by SEQ ID NO:7 (FIG. 8B) (ATCC No. AB124608), SEQ ID NO:22 (FIG. 24A) encoded by SEQ ID NO:23 (FIG. 24B) (ATCC No. AF060483), and the following ATCC Accession Nos. P09459 (strain Beaudette C), Q99FY3 (strain AF2240), NP_071466 (strain B1), ABG35929 (strain chicken/China/Guangxil/2000), AA276405 (strain PNY-LMV42), CAB51322 (strain clone 30), AB032476 (strain F), AAW30676 (strain LaSota), AA04779 (strainV4), BAD16677 (strainAPMV1/Quail/Japan/Chiba/2001), and BAD16672 (strain APMV1/chicken/Japan/Niiga/89).
[0055] The term “haemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein”, “HN protein”, or G protein as used herein, means any protein that spans the viral envelope and projects from the surface as spikes to facilitate cell attachment and entry (i.e., for example, by binding to sialic acid on a cell surface). These proteins possess both haemagglutination and neuraminidase activity. Exemplary NDV HN protein sequences include those comprising SEQ ID NO:8 (FIG. 9A) encoded by SEQ ID NO:9 (FIG. 9B), and those encoded by the mRNA SEQ ID NO:15 (FIG. 20A) and by SEQ ID NO:16 (FIG. 20B), as well as SEQ ID NO:17 (FIG. 21A), and the following ATCC Accession Numbers: CAB69409 (strain Texas GB), CAA00289 (strain Chambers), ABW34443 (strain JS-1/06/wd), ABW89770 (strain B1), CAA77272 (strain LaSota type), CAF32450 (strain LaSota), ABI16058 (strain PB9601), ABG35963 (strain Chicken/China/Guangxi5/2000), U371189 (strain clone 30), U371190 (strain vineland), U371191 (strain VGGA), and U371193 (strain B1(SEDRL)).
[0056] The term “glycoprotein” as used herein, refers to any protein conjugated to a nonprotein group that comprises a carbohydrate.
[0057] The term “paramyxovirus” as used herein, refers to any virus of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order; that are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for a number of human and animal diseases (i.e., for example, Newcastle disease). Paramyxoviruses include, but are not limited to, for example, Sendai virus, Newcastle disease virus, Mumps virus, Measles virus, Respiratory syncytial (RS) virus, rinderpest virus, distemper virus, simian parainfluenza virus (SV5), type I, II, and III human parainfluenza viruses, etc. Sendai viruses may be wild-type strains, mutant strains, laboratory-passaged strains, artificially constructed strains, or so on. Incomplete viruses such as the DI particle (J. Virol., 1994, 68, 8413-8417), synthesized oligonucleotides, and so on, may also be utilized as material for producing the vaccine of the present invention.
[0058] The term “Late Domain” as used herein, refers to any region in a viral protein that is involved in the budding of virus particles from a cell's plasma membrane. Late Domains comprise highly conserved motifs known to mediate protein-protein interactions between cellular proteins. For example, at least three classes of motifs comprise PTAP (SEQ ID NO:4), PPXY (SEQ ID NO:5), or YXXL (SEQ ID NO:3)(i.e., for example, a YANL sequence).
[0059] The term “vector” as used herein, refers to any nucleotide sequence comprising exogenous operative genes capable of expression within a cell. For example, a vector may comprise a nucleic acid encoding a viral matrix protein and at least two glycoproteins that are expressed within a human, avian, or insect cell culture system. For example, a baculovirus vector may be used to transfect various Lepidoptera species.
[0060] The term “transfect” or “transfecting” as used herein, refers to any mechanism by which a vector may be incorporated into a host cell. A successful transfection results in the capability of the host cell to express any operative genes carried by the vector. Transfections may be stable or transient. One example of a transient transfection comprises vector expression within a cell, wherein the vector is not integrated within the host cell genome. Alternatively, a stable transfection comprises vector expression within a cell, wherein the vector is integrated within the host cell genome.
[0061] The term “host” as used herein, refers to any organism capable of becoming infected by a virus and immunized by a virus-like particle. A host may be an avian host (i.e., for example, a chicken) or a mammalian host (i.e., for example, human, mouse, dog, rat, cow, sheep, etc.).
[0062] The term “sequence tag” as used herein, refers to any atom or molecule that can be used to provide a detectable (preferably quantifiable) signal, and that can be attached to a nucleic acid or protein. “Sequence tags” may provide signals detectable by fluorescence, radioactivity, colorimetry, gravimetry, X-ray diffraction or absorption, magnetism, enzymatic activity, and the like. A “sequence tag” may be a charged moiety (positive or negative charge) or alternatively, may be charge neutral. “Sequence tags” can include or consist of a nucleic acid or protein sequence, so long as the sequence comprising the “sequence tag” is detectable.
[0063] The term “adjuvant” as used herein, refers to any compound which enhances or stimulates the immune response when administered with an antigen(s). Exemplary adjuvants include binders such as carboxymethylcellulose, ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, or gelatin; excipients such as starch, lactose or dextrins, disintegrating agents such as alginic acid, sodium alginate, Primogel, corn starch and the like; lubricants such as magnesium stearate or Sterotex; glidants such as colloidal silicon dioxide; sweetening agents such as sucrose or saccharin, a flavoring agent such as peppermint, methyl salicylate or orange flavoring, and a coloring agent.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0064] The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.
[0065] The following figures are presented only as an illustration of specific embodiments of the present invention and are not intended to be limiting.
[0066] FIG. 1 presents exemplary data showing co-expression of NP, F, HN, and M proteins resulted in VLP formation and release. Radioactively labeled proteins in both the transfected (Panel A) and infected (Panel B) extracts were immunoprecipitated with a cocktail of antibodies specific for all viral proteins and precipitated labeled proteins are shown on the left side of each panel. VLP particles in cell supernatants were purified as described in Example 4. After flotation into sucrose gradients, each gradient fraction was immunoprecipitated with antibody cocktail (right side of each panel). The density of each fraction (g/cc) is shown at the bottom. Panel A: avian cells, co-transfected with pCAGGS(-NP), (-M), (F-K115Q), and (-HN), were radioactively labeled with 35S-methionine and 35S-cysteine for 4 hours (P) and then chased in non-radioactive medium for 8 hours (C). Panel B: avian cells, infected with NDV, strain AV, with a Multiplicity Of Infection (MOI) of 5 pfu for 5 hours, were pulse-labeled for 30 minutes and chased in non-radioactive medium for 8 hours. Panel C shows the quantitation of efficiency of virion and VLP release as determined by the amount of M protein in the pulse and chase cell extracts. The results of 3 separate experiments were averaged and the standard deviation is shown.
[0067] FIG. 2 presents exemplary data showing that M protein is sufficient for VLP release. Avian cells were transfected with pCAGGS-NP, -M, -F-K115Q, and -HN individually. Panel A shows radioactively labeled proteins in the extracts at time of pulse (left) and chase (right). Particles in the supernatants of avian cells expressing NP, M, F, and HN individually, were concentrated and floated into sucrose gradients as described above in FIG. 1. Panel B shows the distribution in the gradients of radioactively labeled proteins derived from each supernatant. Panel C shows the quantification of the amounts of each protein in VLPs. The results of three separate experiments were averaged and the standard deviation is shown.
[0068] FIG. 3 presents exemplary data showing effects of NP, F, or HN protein co-expression with M protein on VLP release. Avian cells, transfected with all possible combinations of two NDV structural protein genes (i.e., pair wise combinations including, but not limited to, F+NP, F+M, F+HN, HN+NP, HN+M and NP+M, wherein F is F-K115Q). Labeling in a pulse-chase protocol is as described in FIG. 1. Particles present in the supernatants were concentrated and then floated into sucrose gradients as described in Example 4. Panel A shows labeled proteins in cell extracts at time of pulse (top) and chase (bottom). Panel B shows the proteins present in each gradient fraction after immunoprecipitation of each fraction with an antibody cocktail. Densities (g/cc) of the fractions are shown at the bottom. Gradients from transfections that did not contain M protein are not shown since there were no radioactively labeled proteins in those gradients. Panel C shows the quantification of each protein in VLPs released from transfected avian cells. Results are the average of three experiments and the standard deviation is shown.
[0069] FIG. 4 presents exemplary data showing effects of expressing all combinations of three viral proteins on VLP release. Avian cells, transfected with all possible combinations of three NDV structural protein genes, were labeled in a pulse-chase protocol and particles in the supernatant were concentrated and floated into a sucrose gradient as in FIG. 1. The proteins in the cell extracts were immunoprecipitated with the antibody cocktail. Panel A show labeled proteins in cell extracts at time of pulse (top) and chase (bottom). Panel B shows the proteins present in each gradient fraction after immunoprecipitation of each fraction with an antibody cocktail for some of the viral protein combinations. Densities (g/cc) of the fractions are shown at the bottom. Panel C shows quantification of the amounts of each protein in VLPs. Panel D shows the efficiency of VLP release based on the percent of pulse labeled M protein remaining in the chase extracts. Panel E show the relative amounts of M protein in the pulse extracts.
[0070] FIG. 5 presents exemplary data showing that dominant-negative mutants of CHMP3 and Vps4-E228Q, blocked release of M protein-containing particles. Panel A, left, shows pulse labeled extracts of human 293T cells that were simultaneously transfected with pCAGGS-M (1.0 μg) and either pDsRed2-N1 vector (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μg) or pDsRed2-N1-CHMP3-RFP (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μg). Panel A, right, shows the VLPs released from these cells after an 8 hour chase. Panel B, left, shows extracts of pulse labeled cells that were simultaneously transfected with pCAGGS-M and either pBJ5 vector or pBJ5-Vps4A-E228Q-Flag. Panel B, right, shows the VLPs released from these cells after an 8 hour chase. Transfected 293T cells in both A and B were labeled in a pulse-chase protocol as described in FIG. 1. Particles from supernatants were concentrated by centrifugation onto a sucrose pad as described in Example 4. Panels C and D show percent VLPs released from cells transfected with pCAGGS-M and pDsRed2-N1-CHMP3 or pBJ5-Vps4A-E228Q relative to those released from cells transfected with pCAGGS-M and vector only. Panels E and F show the quantitation of protein expression (pulse label) in the cell extracts. Identical results were obtained in two separate experiments.
[0071] FIG. 6 presents a schematic of one embodiment of the viral protein structure of a representative Paramyxovirus.
[0072] FIG. 7 presents a schematic of one embodiment of an infectious cycle caused by a representative Paramyxovirus.
[0073] FIG. 8 presents an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:6) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:7) (Panel B) encoding a first Newcastle disease virus nucleocapsid protein (AB124608).
[0074] FIG. 9 presents an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:8) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:9) (Panel B) encoding a first Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (AY288990).
[0075] FIG. 10 presents a partial amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:10) (Panel A) and a partial nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:11) (Panel B) encoding a first Newcastle disease virus fusion protein (Y18728).
[0076] FIG. 11 presents an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:12) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:13) (Panel B) encoding a first Newcastle disease virus matrix protein (AY728363).
[0077] FIGS. 12A/B present of a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:14) for a baculovirus expression vector (DQ003705).
[0078] FIG. 13 presents two exemplary plasmids comprising a pCAGGS expression vector. Panel A: pCAGGS/MCS; Panel B: pJW4303 (U.S. Pat. No. 5,916,879, herein incorporated by reference). It should be noted that the pCAGGS expression vector comprises a hybrid cytomegalovirus (CMV) beta actin promoter sequence.
[0079] FIG. 14 presents exemplary autoradiograph data showing viral protein accumulation resulting from a pulse-chase experiment that compares virus release from avian and COS-7 cells. Panel A: F protein. Panel B: NP protein.
[0080] FIG. 15 presents exemplary data showing the quantification pulse-chase autoradiography shown in FIG. 14. Panel A: F protein. Panel B: NP protein. Diamonds: Avian cells. Squares: COS-7 cells.
[0081] FIG. 16 presents exemplary autoradiograph data from purification of VLPs in sucrose gradients released from avian cells (Panel A) and from COS-7 cells (Panel B). Lanes 1-9 provide banding patterns in sucrose densities of 1.12-1.26, respectively. HN=heamagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. F0=fusion protein; NP=nucleocapsid protein; M=matrix protein.
[0082] FIG. 17 presents an exemplary autoradiograph showing residual viral proteins in cell extract lysates following a pulse-chase experiment. Panel A: Avian cells. Panel B; COS-7 cells.
[0083] FIG. 18 presents exemplary data demonstrating the improved efficiency of M protein VLP release from avian (Panel A) versus COS-7 primate cells (Panel B) when transfected only by an M protein cDNA. Radioactively labeled M protein (M arrow) is shown in each sucrose gradient density fraction (i.e., Lanes 1-9; 1.12-1.26) is shown.
[0084] FIG. 19 presents exemplary densitometry data comparing a quantification of VLP particle release from avian (Panel A) and COS-7 primate cells (Panel B) after transfection by either NP, M, F-K115Q, and HN protein cDNAs individually, or transfected using a combination of NP, M, F-K115Q, and HN protein cDNAs, in combination (ALL).
[0085] FIG. 20 presents an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:15) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:16) (Panel B) encoding a second Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase mRNA (M22110).
[0086] FIG. 21 presents an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:17) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:18) (Panel B) encoding a third Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (U37193).
[0087] FIG. 22 presents an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:19) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:20) (Panel B) encoding a second Newcastle disease virus fusion protein (M21881).
[0088] FIG. 23 presents an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:21) for a third Newcastle disease virus B1 fusion protein (AAG36978).
[0089] FIG. 24 presents an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:22) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:23) (Panel B) encoding a second Newcastle disease virus nucleocapsid protein. (AF060483).
[0090] FIG. 25 presents an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:24) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:25) (Panel B) encoding a second Newcastle disease virus matrix protein (M16622).
[0091] FIG. 26 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:26) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:27) (Panel B) encoding a third Newcastle disease virus matrix protein (U25828).
[0092] FIGS. 27A-27E present a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:28) of a Newcastle disease virus B1 complete genome (AF309418).
[0093] FIG. 28 illustrates one method of constructing baculovirus recombinant DNA.
[0094] FIG. 29 (SEQ ID NOS:96-106) illustrates one ligation-independent cloning technique to produce a baculovirus recombinant DNA containing His-tag and S-tag sequence tags.
[0095] FIG. 30 depicts a circular map of a wild-type AcNPV C6 genome containing 154 putative open reading frames. Genes marked with solid arrows are known and reported in protein sequence databases. hr=AcNPV repetitive homologous region positions.
[0096] FIG. 31 illustrates seven (7) embodiments of a baculovirus transfer plasmid (pBAC).
[0097] FIG. 32 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:29) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:30) (Panel B) encoding a first measles virus hemagglutinin protein (AY249267).
[0098] FIG. 33 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:31) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:32) (Panel B) encoding a second measles virus hemagglutinin protein (AY249269).
[0099] FIG. 34 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:33) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:34) (Panel B) encoding a third measles virus hemagglutinin protein (DQ011611).
[0100] FIG. 35 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:35) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:36) (Panel B) encoding a first measles virus fusion protein (AJ133108).
[0101] FIG. 36 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:37) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:38) (Panel B) encoding a second measles virus fusion protein (X05597).
[0102] FIG. 37 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:39) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:40) (Panel B) encoding a third measles virus fusion protein (Y17840).
[0103] FIG. 38 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:41) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:42) (Panel B) encoding a first measles virus nucleocapsid protein (M89921).
[0104] FIG. 39 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:43) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:44) (Panel B) encoding a second measles virus nucleocapsid protein (AF171232).
[0105] FIG. 40 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:45) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:46) (Panel B) encoding a third measles virus nucleocapsid protein (X01999).
[0106] FIG. 41 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:47) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:48) (Panel B) encoding a first measles virus matrix protein (D12682).
[0107] FIG. 42 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:49) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:50) (Panel B) encoding a second measles virus matrix protein (D12683).
[0108] FIG. 43 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:51) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:52) (Panel B) encoding a third measles virus matrix protein (AY124779).
[0109] FIG. 44 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:53) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:54) (Panel B) encoding a first respiratory syncytial virus G protein (i.e., for example, a glycoprotein G protein)(U92104).
[0110] FIG. 45 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:55) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:56) (Panel B) encoding a second respiratory syncytial virus G protein (AY333361).
[0111] FIG. 46 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:57) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:58) (Panel B) encoding a third respiratory syncytial virus G protein (AB117522).
[0112] FIG. 47 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:59) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:60) (Panel B) encoding a first respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (AY198177).
[0113] FIG. 48 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:61) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:62) (Panel B) encoding a second respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (Z26524).
[0114] FIG. 49 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:63) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:64) (Panel B) encoding a third respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (D00850).
[0115] FIG. 50 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:65) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:66) (Panel B) encoding a first respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein (U02470).
[0116] FIG. 51 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:67) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:68) (Panel B) encoding a second respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein (U02510).
[0117] FIG. 52 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:69) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:70) (Panel B) encoding a first respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein (U07233).
[0118] FIG. 53 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:71) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:72) (Panel B) encoding a second respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein (X00001).
[0119] FIG. 54 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:73) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:74) (Panel B) encoding a third respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein (S40504).
[0120] FIG. 55 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:75) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:76) (Panel B) encoding a first parainfluenza virus 3 nucleocapsid protein (D10025).
[0121] FIG. 56 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:77) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:78) (Panel B) encoding a first parainfluenza virus 3 fusion protein (D00016).
[0122] FIG. 57 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:79) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:80) (Panel B) encoding a second parainfluenza virus 3 fusion protein (AF394241).
[0123] FIG. 58 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:81) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:82) (Panel B) encoding a first parainfluenza virus 3 matrix protein (D00130).
[0124] FIG. 59 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:83) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:84) (Panel B) encoding a first parainfluenza virus 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (AB 189960).
[0125] FIG. 60 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:85) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:86) (Panel B) encoding a second parainfluenza virus 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (AB189961).
[0126] FIG. 61 presents one embodiment of an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:87) (Panel A) and a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:88) (Panel B) encoding a third parainfluenza virus 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (L25350).
[0127] FIG. 62 presents exemplary data showing that M proteins may be encased in membranous particles. Avian cells were transfected with pCAGGS-M and radioactively labeled VLPs were isolated and purified. Extract (upper panel) and VLPs (middle panel) were treated with different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 μg/ml; lanes 2 to 7 respectively) of Proteinase K for 30 minutes on ice. In parallel, VLPs were incubated in 1% Triton X-100 prior to Proteinase K treatment (bottom panel). After incubation with protease, reactions were stopped by adding 0.1 mM PMSF. M proteins were then immunoprecipitated.
[0128] FIG. 63 presents exemplary data showing that M protein is required for VLP release. Avian cells were transfected with all possible combinations of cDNAs in pCAGGS vector encoding NP, F, and HN proteins in the absence of M cDNA (F-K115Q+HN, F-K115Q+NP, HN+NP, NP+F-K115Q+HN). Particles in cell supernatants were then purified. Panels show proteins present in each gradient fraction. Radioactively labeled infected cell extract was used as marker. Densities of fractions are shown at the bottom (g/cc).
[0129] FIG. 64 presents exemplary data showing co-localization of M protein with F and HN proteins. The cell surface localization of NDV F and HN proteins and the cellular localization of M proteins were analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Avian cells were either transfected individually (A) or with F-K115Q+M or HN+M (B), with NP+M+F-K115Q, NP+M+HN or M+F-K115Q+HN(C) and all 4 cDNAs (D). Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue) 40 h post-transfection. Intact transfected cells were stained with rabbit anti-F protein antibodies or anti-HN protein antibodies as indicated in the panels. Cells were permeabilized with 0.05% Triton X-100 prior to incubation with anti-M protein antibody. Secondary antibodies were anti-rabbit Alexa 488 conjugate (green) and anti-mouse Alexa 568 conjugate (red). Images were merged using Adobe Photoshop.
[0130] FIG. 65 presents exemplary data showing co-immunoprecipitation of viral proteins in VLPs. Radioactively labeled VLPs generated from cells expressing NP+M+F-K115Q+HN (A), M+F-K115Q+HN (B), NP+M+F-K115Q (C) and NP+M+HN (D) were lysed in TNE buffer with 1% Triton X-100. Lysed VLPs were then incubated with excess amounts of cocktail of anti-F protein antibodies (anti-HR1, anti-HR2, anti-Ftail, anti-F2-96 and monoclonal anti-F (G5)), anti-HN protein antibodies (mix of monoclonal antibodies), anti-M protein monoclonal antibody or cocktail of NDV-specific antibodies for overnight at 4° C. No antibody as well as pre-immune sera were used as negative controls. Immune complexes were precipitated with prewashed Pansorbin A for at least 2 h at 4° C. with constant mixing. Samples were washed three times in cold TNE with 0.5% Triton X-100. All steps of co-immunoprecipitation were accomplished at 4° C. Proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Results show one of three independent experiments, all with identical results.
[0131] FIG. 66 presents exemplary data showing protein-protein interactions in VLPs. Inset: Various embodiments of viral protein-protein interactions detected by co-immunoprecipitation of proteins in VLPs. Also shown are illustrative potential interactions that may result in assembly of VLPs formed by co-expression of all combinations of NP, F, and HN proteins with M protein.
[0132] FIG. 67 presents exemplary data showing VLPs released from 293T cells. 293T cells transfected with pCAGGS M (Panel A) or with mixture of pCAGGS-NP, -M, -F-K155Q, and -HN (Panel B), were radioactively labeled with [35S] methionine and [35S] cysteine for 4 hours (P) and then chased in non-radioactive medium for 8 hours (C). Proteins present in cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with a cocktail of antibodies specific for all viral proteins and the precipitated labeled proteins are shown on the left side of each panel. Particles in cell supernatants were then purified. After flotation into sucrose gradients (right side of each panel), each gradient fraction was immunoprecipitated with the antibody cocktail. The density of each fraction (g/cc) is shown at the bottom.
[0133] FIG. 68 presents exemplary data showing the effect of wild type and dominant-negative mutant protein of the VPS pathway M protein VLP release. Panel A shows cell extracts of 293T cells (top) and corresponding released particles (bottom) from cells co-transfected with pCAGGS-M and either pDsRed2-N1 vector (lane 1), pBJ5-WT-CHMP3 (lane 2) or pDsRed2-N1-CHMP3-RFP (lane 3). Panel C shows cell extracts of 293T cells (top) and corresponding released particles (bottom) from cells co-transfected with pCAGGS-M and either pBJ5 vector (lane 1), pBJ5-WT-Vps4A (lane 2) or pBJ5-Vps4A-E228Q (lane 3). Panel E shows extracts of 293T cells (top) and corresponding VLPs (bottom) from cells co-transfected with pCAGGS-M and either pDsRed2-N1 vector (lane 1), pBJ5-AIP1-HA (lane 2) or pDsRed2-N-1-AIP1-HA-CHMP3-RFP (lane 3). Extracts are from pulse labeled cells. VLPs are released from pulse labeled cells during an 8-hour nonradioactive chase. Particles were then purified. Proteins were immunoprecipitated using NDV protein-specific antibodies and resolved by SDS-PAGE. Panels B, D and F show quantification of particles released relative to those released from wild type VPS protein controls. Identical results were obtained in two separate experiments.
[0134] FIG. 69 presents exemplary data showing the effect of dominant negative mutants of CHMP3, Vps4A and AIP1 on the release of complete VLPs. Panel A shows extracts of 293T cells (lanes 1-3) and corresponding released VLPs (lanes 4-6) from cells co-transfected with NDV cDNAs, encoding NP, M, HN, and F proteins, and either pDsRed2-N1 vector (lanes 1 and 4), pBJ5-WT-CHMP3 (lanes 2 and 5) or pDsRed2-N-1-CHMP3-RFP (lanes 3 and 6). Panel C shows extracts of 293T cells (lanes 1-3) and corresponding released VLPS (lanes 4-6) from cells co-transfected with the mixture of four NDV cDNAs and either pBJ5 vector (lanes 1 and 4), pBJ5-WT-Vps4A (lanes 2 and 5) or pBJ5-Vps4A-E228Q (lanes 3 and 6). Panel E shows extracts of 293T cells (lanes 1-3) and corresponding VLPs (lanes 4-6) from cells co-transfected with the mixture of NDV cDNAs and either pDsRed2-N1 vector (lanes 1 and 4), pBJ5-AIP 1-HA (lanes 2 and 5) or pDsRed2-N-1-AIP1-HA-RFP (lanes 3 and 6). Extracts are from pulse labeled cells. VLPs are released from pulse labeled cells during an 8-hour nonradioactive chase. Particles were then purified. Proteins were immunoprecipitated using NDV protein-specific antibodies and resolved by SDS-PAGE. Panels B, D, and F show quantification of VLPs released relative to vector and to wild type Vps protein controls. Identical results were obtained in two separate experiments.
[0135] FIG. 70 (SEQ ID NOS:293-302) presents exemplary data demonstrating the functionality of the L domain in NDV M protein. Panel A shows wild type M protein, mutant M proteins with alanine substitutions at amino acid positions 216 and 219 (M-A216A219) or 232 and 235 (M-A232A235), and YPDL or PTAP substitutions at positions 232-235. Panel B shows extract (top) and VLPs released (bottom) from 293T cells expressing wild type or mutant M proteins. Panel D shows extract (left) and VLPs released (right) from 293T cells expressing NP, F and HN proteins with either wild type or mutant M proteins. Particles were then purified. Proteins were immunoprecipitated using NDV protein-specific antibodies and resolved by SDS-PAGE. Panels C and E shows quantification of VLPs released relative to wild type M protein. Identical results were obtained in two separate experiments.
[0136] FIG. 71 presents exemplary data showing the incorporation of AIP1 in VLPs. 293T cells were transfected with pCAGGS M and either empty vector, or vector with HA-tagged AIP1. Panel A shows radioactively labeled M protein precipitated from cell extracts (anti-M IP) and VLPs using M protein-specific monoclonal antibody. HA-AIP1 (N-terminally tagged) and AIP1-HA (C-terminally tagged) were detected in extracts and VLPs by immunoblotting using HA antibody conjugated with peroxidase (anti-HA-IB). Panel B shows precipitated radiolabeled M protein and AIP1-HA from cell extracts (top) and VLPs (bottom).
[0137] FIG. 72 presents exemplary data comparing the protein content of purified NDV virus and VLPs without prior immunoprecipitation.
[0138] FIG. 73 presents exemplary electron micrographs showing virus (B1) (upper panel), M protein-only VLPs (middle panel) and NP, M, F, and HN VLPs (lower panel).
[0139] FIG. 74 presents exemplary data showing a silver stain of virus (B1) when grown in eggs as compared to VLPs prepared from a large scale tissue culture.
[0140] FIG. 75 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 186) for Canine Distemper Virus Fusion protein.
[0141] FIG. 76 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 187) for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) gG glycoprotein.
[0142] FIG. 77 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 188) for Cytomegalovirus gH Glycoprotein.
[0143] FIG. 78 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 209) encoding Cytomegalovirus gH Glycoprotein.
[0144] FIG. 79 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 189) for Ebola virus Glycoprotein precursor.
[0145] FIG. 80 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 210) encoding Ebola virus Glycoprotein precursor.
[0146] FIG. 81 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 190) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) envelope protein.
[0147] FIG. 82 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 211) encoding Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) envelope protein.
[0148] FIG. 83 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 191) for Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) gH glycoprotein.
[0149] FIG. 84 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 212) encoding Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) gH glycoprotein.
[0150] FIG. 85 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 192) for Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) gL Glycoprotein.
[0151] FIG. 86 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 213) encoding Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) gL Glycoprotein.
[0152] FIG. 87 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 193) for Influenza virus HA-type Hi protein.
[0153] FIG. 88 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 214) for Influenza virus B HA protein.
[0154] FIG. 89 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 194) for Influenza virus HA from influenza virus B HA Malaysia protein.
[0155] FIG. 90 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 215) encoding Influenza virus HA from influenza B Malaysia protein.
[0156] FIG. 91 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 195) for Influenza virus HA second representative H1 protein.
[0157] FIG. 92 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 216) encoding Influenza virus HA second representative H1 protein.
[0158] FIG. 93 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 196) for Influenza virus HA representative H3 protein.
[0159] FIG. 94 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 217) encoding Influenza virus HA representative H3 protein.
[0160] FIG. 95 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 197) for Influenza virus HA representative H5 HA protein.
[0161] FIG. 96 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 218) encoding Influenza virus HA representative H5 HA protein.
[0162] FIG. 97 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 198) for Influenza virus HA representative H7 HA protein.
[0163] FIG. 98 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 219) encoding Influenza virus HA representative H7 HA protein.
[0164] FIG. 99 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 199) for Influenza virus HA representative H9 HA protein.
[0165] FIG. 100 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 220) encoding Influenza virus HA representative H9 HA protein.
[0166] FIG. 101 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 200) for Nipah virus F protein.
[0167] FIG. 102 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 221) encoding Nipah virus F protein.
[0168] FIG. 103 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 201) for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) F protein (first example).
[0169] FIG. 104 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 222) encoding Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) F protein (first example).
[0170] FIG. 105 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 202) for Respiratory Syncytial Virus F protein (second example).
[0171] FIG. 106 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 203) for SARS virus surface spike glycoprotein.
[0172] FIG. 107 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 223) encoding SARS virus surface spike glycoprotein.
[0173] FIG. 108 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 205) for Varicella Zoster Virus gB glycoprotein.
[0174] FIG. 109 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 224) encoding Varicella Zoster Virus gB glycoprotein.
[0175] FIG. 110 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 206) for Varicella Zoster Virus gE glycoprotein.
[0176] FIG. 111 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 225) encoding Varicella Zoster Virus gE glycoprotein.
[0177] FIG. 112 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 207) for Varicella Zoster Virus gI glycoprotein.
[0178] FIG. 113 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 226) encoding Varicella Zoster Virus gI glycoprotein.
[0179] FIG. 114 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 115) for Canine Distemper Virus H Glycoprotein.
[0180] FIG. 115 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 116) for Avian Metapneumovirus G protein.
[0181] FIG. 116 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 133) encoding Avian Metapneumovirus G protein.
[0182] FIG. 117 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 117) for Human Metapneumovirus G Glycoprotein.
[0183] FIG. 118 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 134) encoding Human Metapneumovirus G Glycoprotein.
[0184] FIG. 119 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 118) for Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus G Glycoprotein.
[0185] FIG. 120 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 119) for Influenza Virus B NA Glycoprotein.
[0186] FIG. 121 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 120) for Influenza Virus N1 NA from H5N1 Virus protein.
[0187] FIG. 122 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 135) encoding Influenza Virus N1 NA from H5N1 Virus protein.
[0188] FIG. 123 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 121) for Influenza Virus NA N2 protein (first example).
[0189] FIG. 124 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 122) for Influenza Virus NA N2 type protein (second example).
[0190] FIG. 125 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 136) encoding Influenza Virus NA N2 type protein (second example).
[0191] FIG. 126 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 123) for Influenza Virus NA N3 type protein.
[0192] FIG. 127 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 137) encoding Influenza Virus NA N3 type protein.
[0193] FIG. 128 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 124) for Measles Virus HA protein.
[0194] FIG. 129 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 138) encoding Measles Virus HA protein.
[0195] FIG. 130 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 125) for Mumps Virus HN protein.
[0196] FIG. 131 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 139) encoding Mumps Virus HN protein.
[0197] FIG. 132 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 126) for Nipah Virus G protein.
[0198] FIG. 133 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 140) encoding Nipah Virus G protein.
[0199] FIG. 134 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 127) for Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 HN protein.
[0200] FIG. 135 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 141) encoding Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 HN protein.
[0201] FIG. 136 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 128) for Parainfluenza Virus 3 HN Glycoprotein (first example)
[0202] FIG. 137 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 129) for Parainfluenza 3 Virus HN protein (second example).
[0203] FIG. 138 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 142) encoding Parainfluenza 3 Virus HN protein (second example).
[0204] FIG. 139 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 130) for Respiratory Syncytial Virus G protein.
[0205] FIG. 140 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 143) encoding Respiratory Syncytial Virus G protein.
[0206] FIG. 141 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 131) for Vaccinia Virus Surface Antigen.
[0207] FIG. 142 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 144) encoding Vaccinia Virus Surface Antigen.
[0208] FIG. 143 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 145) for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) LMP2A protein.
[0209] FIG. 144 shows the nucleotide sequence of eight exons (SEQ ID Nos: 150-157) encoding Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) LMP2A protein.
[0210] FIG. 145 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 146) for Glut 1 HTLV receptor protein.
[0211] FIG. 146 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 158) encoding Glut 1 HTLV receptor protein.
[0212] FIG. 147 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 147) for Glutamate Receptor protein.
[0213] FIG. 148 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 159) encoding Glutamate Receptor protein.
[0214] FIG. 149 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 148) for Hepatitis B virus L form of S glycoprotein.
[0215] FIG. 150 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 160) encoding Hepatitis B virus L form of S glycoprotein.
[0216] FIG. 151 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 149) for Prion protein.
[0217] FIG. 152 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 161) encoding Prion protein.
[0218] FIG. 153 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 162) for Hepatitis A Virus VP 1 protein.
[0219] FIG. 154 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 167) encoding Hepatitis A Virus VP1 protein.
[0220] FIG. 155 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 163) for Human Parvovirus VP (B19 Virus) protein.
[0221] FIG. 156 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 168) encoding Human Parvovirus VP (B19 Virus) protein.
[0222] FIG. 157 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 164) for Norovirus VP1 protein.
[0223] FIG. 158 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 169) encoding Norovirus VP1 protein.
[0224] FIG. 159 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 165) for Human Rhinovirus VP1 protein.
[0225] FIG. 160 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 170) encoding Human Rhinovirus VP1 protein.
[0226] FIG. 161 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 166) for Human Rotavirus (strain K8) VP4 protein.
[0227] FIG. 162 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 171) encoding Human Rotavirus (strain K8) VP4 protein.
[0228] FIG. 163 shows generation of Influenza and ND VLPs. Avian cells were co-transfected with cDNAs encoding the influenza M1, HA, and NA proteins (influenza). In a separate plate, avian cells were co-transfected with cDNAs encoding the NDV M, NP, HN, and F proteins (NDV). Another plate received only empty vector DNA (vector). At 40 hours after transfection, cells were radioactively labeled and at 48 hours particles released into the cell supernatants were purified and concentrated by centrifugation through a 20% sucrose pad. The pelleted particles were resolved on a polyacrylamide gel and proteins in the particles detected by autoradiography.
[0229] FIG. 164 (SEQ ID NOS:371-375) shows construction of chimera protein genes. Top shows a diagram of the NDV F and the Influenza HA and the domains of each used for the constructions. Bottom shows the sequences at the junction of the HA ectodomain and the F protein TM domain.
[0230] FIG. 165 shows expression of chimera HA/F proteins. Avian cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding the proteins indicated at the top of each panel. Left panel, radioactively labeled proteins were immunoprecipitated (IP) with antibody specific for influenza virus. Middle panel: Surfaces of cells were biotinylated to label surface expressed proteins as previously described (McGinnes et al. (2006) J. Virol. 80:2894-2903). Biotinylated proteins are shown. Right panel: proteins were immunoprecipitated with antibody specific for the CT domain of the NDV F protein.
[0231] FIG. 166 shows incorporation of HA/F into ND VLPs. Avian cells were transfected with cDNAs indicated for each lane. At 40 hours after transfection, cells were radioactively labeled and at 48 hours particles in the cell supernatants were purified by centrifugation through a 20% sucrose pad. The proteins in the particles were resolved on polyacrylamide gels and detected by autoradiography.
[0232] FIG. 167 shows incorporation of HA/F into ND VLPs. Avian cells were transfected with cDNAs indicated for each lane. At 40 hours after transfection cells were radioactively labeled and at 48 hours particles in the cell supernatants were purified by centrifugation through a 30% sucrose pad. The proteins in the particles were resolved on polyacrylamide gels and detected by autoradiography.
[0233] FIG. 168 (SEQ ID NOS:376-378) shows construction of chimera protein genes. Top shows a diagram of the NDV HN and the Influenza NA and the domains of each used for the constructions. Bottom shows the sequences at the junction of the NA ectodomain and the HN TM domain.
[0234] FIG. 169 shows expression of HN/NA chimera protein. Avian cells were transfected with vector (lanes 1 and 4) or with cDNAs encoding the influenza NA (and HA) (lane 2) or a cDNA encoding the HN/NA chimera (lane 3). Proteins in the resulting cell extracts were immunoprecipitated with anti-influenza antibody and the precipitated proteins resolved on polyacrylamide gels.
[0235] FIG. 170 shows incorporation of HN/NA chimera into VLPs. Avian cells were transfected with cDNAs indicated at the top of each lane. Cells were radioactively labeled from 40-48 hours post transfection and particles released from cells were purified by sedimentation through a 20% sucrose pad. Radioactive proteins associated with the particles were resolved on polyacrylamide gels and visualized by autoradiography.
[0236] FIG. 171 shows influence of different NDV proteins on the incorporation of the HN/NA chimera into ND VLPs. The cDNA encoding the HN/NA chimera was co-transfected with cDNAs indicated at the bottom of each lane. Radioactively labeled particles were purified, lysed, and proteins immunoprecipitated with anti-influenza antisera. The HN/NA chimera protein in each precipitate was resolved on polyacrylamide gels and visualized by autoradiography.
[0237] FIG. 172 shows silver stain of VLPs. Proteins in purified VLPs, separated on polyacrylamide gels, were visualized by silver staining. Egg-grown B1 virus is also shown.
[0238] FIG. 173 shows ELISA titers of serum antibodies after immunization with VLP: Graph shows antibody titers (defined in FIG. 11) in serum collected at 10, 20, 37, and 49 days post immunization with VLPs. The initial immunization dose for each group of five mice is shown at the bottom (microgram of protein). A boost of 10 micrograms of VLP protein was given to each mouse at day 27. Horizontal line, average values for each group.
[0239] FIG. 174 shows ELISA titers of serum antibodies after immunization with virus: Graph shows antibody titers (defined in FIG. 173) in serum collected at 10, 20, 37, and 49 days post immunization with UV inactivated NDV. The initial immunization dose for each group of five mice is shown at the bottom (microgram of protein). A boost of 10 micrograms of virion protein was given to each mouse at day 27. Horizontal line shows average values for each group.
[0240] FIG. 175 shows CTL activity of spleen cells after immunization with different concentrations of VLPs and Virus. Effector-to-target ratios (E/T) are shown at the bottom and the percent specific lysis is shown on the y-axis. Results at each point are the average of the five mice in the group. The spontaneous chromium release was 10%.
[0241] FIG. 176 shows intracellular cytokine staining of CD8+ and CD4+ cells. Spleen cells harvested from each mouse at 50 days post immunization and stimulated in vitro for 6 days with NDV infected P815 cells were strained for intracellular gamma interferon and for surface expression of either CD8 or CD4 using standard protocols. Cells were sorted by FACS and the percent of total cells positive for both CD8 and gamma interferon are shown in the left panel while the percent of total cells positive for both CD4 and gamma interferon are shown in the right panel. Results from spleen cell cultures from individual mice are shown as circles and horizontal lines indicate average values. CD3 positive cells are a positive control for stimulation.
[0242] FIG. 177 (SEQ ID NOS:379-381) shows an expression construct containing the ectodomain and TM domain from a type 1 glycoprotein of the exemplary influenza HA, and CT domain from NDV F protein.
[0243] FIG. 178 (SEQ ID NOS:382-384) shows the CT domain from NDV HN, and the TM and ectodomain from a type 2 glycoprotein of the exemplary influenza NA.
[0244] FIG. 179 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 185) for Fujian strain of influenza HA protein.
[0245] FIG. 180 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 208) encoding Fujian strain of influenza HA protein.
[0246] FIG. 181 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 114) for Fujian strain of influenza NA protein.
[0247] FIG. 182 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 132) encoding Fujian strain of influenza NA protein.
[0248] FIG. 183 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 228) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain Hertz (GenBank Accession Number AF431744).
[0249] FIG. 184 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 239) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain Hertz (GenBank Accession Number AF431744).
[0250] FIG. 185 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 229) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain B1 (GenBank Accession Number NC_002617).
[0251] FIG. 186 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 240) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain B1 (GenBank Accession Number NC_002617).
[0252] FIG. 187 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 230) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain Anhing a (GenBank Accession Number AY562986).
[0253] FIG. 188 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 241) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain Anhing a (GenBank Accession Number AY562986).
[0254] FIG. 189 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 231) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain dove (GenBank Accession Number AY562989).
[0255] FIG. 190 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 242) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain dove (GenBank Accession Number AY562989).
[0256] FIG. 191 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 232) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain Fontana/72 (GenBank Accession Number AY562988).
[0257] FIG. 192 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 243) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain Fontana/72 (GenBank Accession Number AY562988).
[0258] FIG. 193 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 233) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain Largo (GenBank Accession Number AY562990).
[0259] FIG. 194 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 244) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain Largo (GenBank Accession Number AY562990).
[0260] FIG. 195 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 234) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Strain LaSota (GenBank Accession Number AY845400).
[0261] FIG. 196 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 245) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Strain LaSota (GenBank Accession Number AY845400).
[0262] FIG. 197 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 235) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Pigeon (GenBank Accession Number AJ880277).
[0263] FIG. 198 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 246) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Pigeon (GenBank Accession Number AJ880277).
[0264] FIG. 199 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 236) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), strain Italien (GenBank Accession Number EU293914).
[0265] FIG. 200 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 247) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), strain Italien (GenBank Accession Number EU293914).
[0266] FIG. 201 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 237) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain ZJ1 (GenBank Accession Number AF431744).
[0267] FIG. 202 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 248) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain ZJ1 (GenBank Accession Number AF431744).
[0268] FIG. 203 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 238) for M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), strain Ulster (GenBank Accession Number AY562991).
[0269] FIG. 204 shows the nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO: 249) encoding M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), strain Ulster (GenBank Accession Number AY562991).
[0270] FIG. 205 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 250) of Presenilin (human) protein (type 3 protein).
[0271] FIG. 206 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 251) of an ectodomain of Influenza Virus Fujian strain HA protein.
[0272] FIG. 207 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 252) of an ectodomain of CMV gB protein.
[0273] FIG. 208 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 253) of an ectodomain of CMV gH protein.
[0274] FIG. 209 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 254) of an ectodomain of Ebola G protein.
[0275] FIG. 210 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 255) of an ectodomain of Influenza virus HA H1 protein.
[0276] FIG. 211 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 256) of an ectodomain of Influenza virus B HA protein.
[0277] FIG. 212 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 257) of an ectodomain of Influenza virus H3 HA protein.
[0278] FIG. 213 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 258) of an ectodomain of HIV envelope protein.
[0279] FIG. 214 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 259) of an ectodomain of HSV gH protein.
[0280] FIG. 215 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 260) of an ectodomain of Influenza virus H7 HA protein.
[0281] FIG. 216 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 261) of an ectodomain of Influenza virus H9 protein.
[0282] FIG. 217 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 262) of an ectodomain of Influenza Virus H5 protein.
[0283] FIG. 218 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 263) of an ectodomain of Nipah virus F protein.
[0284] FIG. 219 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 264) of an ectodomain of Respiratory Syncytial virus F protein.
[0285] FIG. 220 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 265) of an ectodomain of Respiratory Syncytial virus F protein.
[0286] FIG. 221 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 266) of an ectodomain of SARS virus S glycoprotein.
[0287] FIG. 222 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 267) of an ectodomain of Varicella Zoster Virus gB protein.
[0288] FIG. 223 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 268) of an ectodomain of Varicella Zoster Virus gE protein.
[0289] FIG. 224 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 269) of an ectodomain of Varicella Zoster Virus gI protein.
[0290] FIG. 225 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 270) of an ectodomain of Influenza Virus Fujian strain NA protein.
[0291] FIG. 226 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 271) of an ectodomain of Metapneumovirus G protein.
[0292] FIG. 227 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 272) of an ectodomain of Influenza Virus B NA protein.
[0293] FIG. 228 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 273) of an ectodomain of Human metapneumovirus G protein.
[0294] FIG. 229 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 274) of an ectodomain of Human respiratory syncytial virus G
[0295] FIG. 230 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 275) of an ectodomain of Influenza virus N1 NA protein.
[0296] FIG. 231 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 276) of an ectodomain of Influenza virus N3 NA protein.
[0297] FIG. 232 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 277) of an ectodomain of Influenza virus N2 NA protein.
[0298] FIG. 233 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 278) of an ectodomain of Measles virus HA protein.
[0299] FIG. 234 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 279) of an ectodomain of Mumps virus HN protein.
[0300] FIG. 235 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 280) of an ectodomain of Nipah virus G protein.
[0301] FIG. 236 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 281) of an ectodomain of Parainfluenza 2 virus HN protein.
[0302] FIG. 237 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 282) of an ectodomain of Parainfluenza virus 3 HN protein.
[0303] FIG. 238 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 283) of an ectodomain of Vaccinia virus surface protein.
[0304] FIG. 239 shows the amino acid sequences (SEQ ID NOs: 284-285) of exemplary ectodomains of Prion protein.
[0305] FIG. 240 shows the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO: 292) of an ectodomain of Hepatitis B virus L form of HBsAg protein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0306] The present invention discloses methodS of making and using a novel, non-infective, paramyxovirus vaccine. Paramyxovirus structural proteins within a virus-like particle (VLP) comprise one example of such a vaccine. It is observed that the presence of matrix protein, alone, is sufficient and necessary to provide an effective VLP release. Co-expression of four paramyxovirus structural proteins, however, resultS in the release of non-infective VLPs with densities and efficiencies of release similar to that of infective particles. Representative diseases wherein a VLP vaccine might be useful include, but are not limited to, Newcastle disease, measles, respiratory syncytial virus infection, and parainfluenza 3 virus infection.
[0307] The present invention relates to the field of viral vaccines. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a paramyxoviral vaccine effective against diseases such as, but not limited to, Newcastle disease, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, and respiratory syncytial virus. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a vaccine comprising Newcastle disease virus-like particles (VLP). In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising transfecting avian cells with cDNAs encoding major NDV structural proteins. In another embodiment, a method wherein particles resembling infectious virions are released with nearly 100% efficiency. In one embodiment, the particles are non-infectious and provide a safe and effective NDV vaccine.
[0308] Paramyxoviruses have a negative, single-stranded RNA genome which is usually linear. Paramyxovirus morphology comprises a relatively spherical shape having diameters ranging between approximately 150-350 nanometers (nm). Generally, the genomes are packaged with nucleoprotein into ribonucleoprotein cores. Polymerase proteins may also be associated with these ribonucleoprotein cores which play a role in early infection replication and transcription processes. The matrix protein is a prominent feature of paramyxoviruses and lines the inner face of the viral membrane. Transmembrane proteins (i.e., for example, heamaglutinin, fusion or neuraminidase proteins) all form homo-oligomeric complexes (i.e., known in the art as spike proteins) and assist with virus assembly localized at the host cell plasma membrane. Garoff et al., “Virus Maturation By Budding” Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62:1171-1190 (1998).

I. Viral Structure and Assembly

[0309] Paramyxoviruses are enveloped and known to assemble their virion components at the plasma membrane of infected cells and subsequently release progeny particles by the process of budding. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), measles, parainfluenza virus 3, and respiratory syncytial virus all belong to Paramyxoviridae, characterized as an enveloped virus with a genomic negative-stranded RNA (i.e., for example, approximately 16 KB) that is packaged with nucleoprotein into a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core.
[0310] The paramyxovirus RNP core also contains the polymerase complex, which is composed of a Phosphoprotein and Large Polymerase. The RNP core is encased in a membrane which contains two transmembrane glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion (F) proteins, as well as the matrix (M) protein, which is associated with the inner surface of the lipid-containing viral envelope. Lamb et al., “Paramyxoviridae: The Viruses and Their Replication” pp. 1305-1340. In: Fields Virology, Third Edition Vol. 1., Eds: D. M. K. &. P. M. Howley, LippincottWilliams & Wilkins, Philadelphia (2001).
[0311] The matrix protein of many enveloped RNA viruses are believed to play a role in virus assembly and budding. Freed, E. O., “The HIV-TSGI01 interface: recent advances in a budding field” Trends Microbiol. 11:56-9 (2003); Jasenosky et al., “Filovirus budding” Virus Res. 106:1B1-8 (2004); Jayakar et al., “Rhabdovirus assembly and budding” Virus Res. 106:117-32 (2004); Peeples M. E., “Paramyxovirus M proteins: pulling it all together and taking it on the road” pp. 427-456. In: The Paramvxoviruses, Ed: D. W. Kingsbury, Plenum, New York, N.Y. (1991); Pomillos et al., “Mechanisms of enveloped RNA virus budding” Trends Cell Biol. 12:569-79 (2002); Schmitt et al., “Escaping from the cell: assembly and budding of negative-strand RNA viruses” Cuff Top Microbiol Immunol 283:145-96 (2004); and Takimoto et al., “Molecular mechanism of paramyxovirus budding” Virus Res. 106:133-45 (2004). However, expression of the retroviral gag precursor protein, in the absence of other viral components, also results in the assembly and release of gag virus-like particles (VLPs) from the plasma membrane. Delchambre et al., “The GAG precursor of simian immunodeficiency virus assembles into virus-like particles” EMBO J. 8:2653-60 (1989); Demirov et al., “Retrovirus budding” Virus Res 106:87-102 (2004); Gheysen et al., “Assembly and release of HIV-1 precursor Pr55gag virus-like particles from recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells” Cell 59:103-12 (1989); and Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 20:395-425 (2004). It has been unclear, therefore, which NDV proteins are sufficient and necessary to direct viral particle formation and release.
[0312] A. M Proteins
[0313] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising an M protein from a paramyxovirus, without any additional glycoproteins, wherein VLPs are created.
[0314] M proteins isolated from:
[0315] i) Ebola virus (Jasenosky et al., “Filovirus budding” Virus Res. 106:1B1-8 (2004); Jasenosky et al., “Ebola virus VP40-induced particle formation and association with the lipid bilayer” J. Virol. 75:5205-14 (2001); and Timmins et al., “Vesicular release of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40” Virology 283: 1-6 (2001));
[0316] ii) vesicular stomatitis virus (Jayakar et al., “Rhabdovirus assembly and budding” Virus Res. 106:117-32 (2004); Li et al., “Viral liposomes released from insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus expressing the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus” J. Virol. 67:4415-20 (1993); and Sakaguchi et al., “Double-layered membrane vesicles released from mammalian cells infected with Sendai virus expressing the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus” Virology 263:230-43 (1999))
[0317] and, iii) influenza virus (Gomez-Puertas et al., “Influenza virus matrix protein is the major driving force in virus budding” J. Virol. 74:11538-47 (2000)), when expressed alone, assemble into and are released as VLPs.
[0318] Conversely, M protein-deficient rabies virus is known to be severely impaired in virion formation. Mebatsion et al., “Matrix protein of rabies virus is responsible for the assembly and budding of bullet-shaped particles and interacts with the transmembrane spike glycoprotein G” J. Virol. 73:242-50 (1999).
[0319] Studies in several paramyxovirus systems have also suggested a role for the M protein in virus assembly and budding. Measles virus (MV) and Sendai virus (SV) modified by reverse genetics to lack the M protein genes were impaired in budding. Cathomen et al., “A matrix-less measles virus is infectious and elicits extensive cell fusion: consequences for propagation in the brain” EMBO J. 17:3899-3908 (1998); and Inoue et al., “A new Sendai virus vector deficient in the matrix gene does not form virus particles and shows extensive cell-to-cell spreading” J. Virol. 77:6419-29 (2003), respectively. Moreover, MV containing mutant M protein derived from subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) virus was also defective in budding. Patterson et al., “Evidence that the hypermutated M protein of a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis measles virus actively contributes to the chronic progressive CNS disease” Virology 291:215-25 (2001).
[0320] Recent studies of paramyxovirus assembly have also focused on identifying the viral protein requirements for assembly and budding of VLPs and have demonstrated a role for the M protein. The human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) M protein and the SV M protein expressed alone induced budding of VLPs from the plasma membrane. Coronel et al., “Human parainfluenza virus type 1 matrix and nucleoprotein genes transiently expressed in 12 mammalian cells induce the release of virus-like particles containing 13 nucleocapsid-like structures” J. Virol. 73:7035-8 (1999); Sakaguchi et al., “Double-layered membrane vesicles released from mammalian cells infected with Sendai virus expressing the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus” Virology 263:230-43 (1999); Sugahara et al., “Paramyxovirus Sendai virus-like particle formation by expression of multiple viral proteins and acceleration of its release by C protein” Virology 325:1-10 (2004); and Takimoto et al., “Role of matrix and fusion proteins in budding of Sendai virus” J. Virol. 75: 11384-91 (2001). Expression of M protein was also required for Simian Virus 5 (SV5) VLP formation. Schmitt et al., “Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus virus-like particles” J Virol 76:3952-64 (2002).
[0321] However, in contrast to PIY1 and SV, the SV5 M protein was not sufficient for VLP release. Rather, simultaneous expression of SV5 M protein, together with NP and either of the glycoproteins was required. Although existing reports agree upon a role for M protein as a budding organizer in paramyxovirus particle release, there are differences in the protein requirements for assembly and budding of virions. The budding capacities of retrovirus gag protein, Ebola virus M protein, and influenza M1 protein are attributed, in part, to Late Domains (infra). Demirov et al., “Retrovirus budding” Virus Res 106:87-102 (2004); Freed, E. O., “Viral late domains” J. Virol. 76:4679-87 (2002); Jasenosky et al., “Filovirus budding” Virus Res. 106:1B1-8 (2004); Jayakar et al., “Rhabdovirus assembly and budding” Virus Res. 106:117-32 (2004); Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 20:395-425 (2004); Nayak et al., “Assembly and budding of influenza virus” Virus Res 106:147-65 (2004); Pomillos et al., “Mechanisms of enveloped RNA virus budding” Trends Cell Biol. 12:569-79 (2002); Schmitt et al., “Escaping from the cell: assembly and budding of negative-strand RNA viruses” Cuff Top Microbiol Immunol 283:145-96 (2004); Strack et al., “AlP 1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIA V p9 functioning in virus budding” Cell 114:689-99 (2003); and von Schwedler et al., “The protein network of HIV budding” Cell 4:701-13 (2003).
[0322] B. Late Domains
[0323] Late Domains are short peptide motifs that mediate interactions with a member of the class E proteins, which are involved in the vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway. The Late Domain promotes budding by interacting with components of the cellular machinery responsible for sorting cargo into multivesicular bodies (MVB). The formation of MVB vesicles and the budding of a virus are topologically similar processes. Available evidence suggests that enveloped RNA viruses bud by co-opting the cellular machinery that is normally used to create MVB inside the cell. Carter, C. A., “Tsg101: HIV-1 's ticket to ride” Trends Microbiol. 10:203-205 (2002); Demirov et al., “Retrovirus budding” Virus Res 106:87-102 (2004); Freed, E. O., “The HIV-TSGI01 interface: recent advances in a budding field” Trends Microbiol. 11:56-9 (2003); Freed, E. O., “Viral late domains” J. Virol. 76:4679-87 (2002); Garrus et al., “Tsg 1-01 and the vacuolar protein sorting pathway are essential for HIV-1 budding” Cell 107:55-65 (2001); Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 20:395-425 (2004); Pornillos et al., “Mechanisms of enveloped RNA virus budding” Trends Cell Biol. 12:569-79 (2002); Pornillos et al., “HN Gag mimics the TsgI01-recruiting activity of the human Hrs protein” J Cell Biol 162:425-34 (2003); Strack et al., “AlP 1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIA V p9 functioning in virus budding” Cell 114:689-99 (2003); von Schwedler et al., “The protein network of HIV budding” Cell 4:701-13 (2003). Martindale, D., “Budding viral hijackers co-opt the endocytic machinery to make a getaway” J. Biol. 3:2 (2003); and Simons et al., “The budding mechanisms of enveloped animal viruses” J. Gen. Virol. 50:1-21 (1980).
[0324] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates that dominant negative mutant protein component of the VPS pathway may also inhibit particle release. In one embodiment, an YXXL (SEQ ID NO:3) sequence in the NDV M protein has properties of a Late Domain. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that the YXXL mutation abolishes particle release while substitution of late domains such as YPDL and/or PTAP fully restore particle release.
[0325] C. Budding
[0326] Within the paramyxovirus family, it is known that the VPS pathway is involved in the SV5 budding. It was shown that a dominant-negative mutation VPS4(E228Q) (an ATPase required for recycling protein complexes involved in the VPS pathway) inhibited budding of SV5 virions as well as VLPs. Schmitt et al., “Evidence for a new viral late-domain core sequence, FPIV, necessary for budding of a paramyxovirus” J. Virol. 79:2988-97 (2005). Since it is known that VPS4(E228Q) also inhibits the VPS pathway, one may believe that the VPS pathway is involved in SV5 budding. In addition, a putative Late Domain in SV5 M was identified. However, SV5 M protein is not sufficient for VLP formation and release, complicating the interpretation of this result. Thus, the general rules for assembly and release of paramyxoviruses are not yet clear. Schmitt et al., “Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus virus-like particles” J Virol 76:3952-64 (2002). Open questions include: i) the further definition of paramyxovirus late domains in viral structural proteins, ii) the role or contribution of each viral protein in virus assembly, and iii) the cellular factors involved in the assembly and budding process.
[0327] Various embodiments of the present invention answer these questions. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method for producing NDV VLPs from cells transfected with nucleic acids encoding viral structural proteins. In another embodiment, the present invention contemplates transfecting with nucleic acid encoding an NDV M protein that is both necessary and sufficient for release of lipid-containing particles (i.e., for example VLPs). In another embodiment, the present invention contemplates that the most efficient incorporation (i.e., for example, almost 100%) of other viral proteins into VLPs requires the expression of M protein with at least two other NDV proteins. For example, it is known that dominant-negative mutations of CHMP3 and Vps4 proteins (both components of the host VPS system) inhibited release of VLPs. Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 20:395-425 (2004); Strack et al., “AlP 1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIA V p9 functioning in virus budding” Cell 114:689-99 (2003); and von Schwedler et al., “The protein network of HIV budding” Cell 4:701-13 (2003). It is further contemplated that AIP1 is also incorporated into VLPs thereby playing a role in NDV particle budding.
[0328] D. Dominant Negative Mutations
[0329] The dominant negative Vps4 protein may block release of SV5 virions or VLPs composed of NP, HN, F, and M proteins, implicating the VPS system in paramyxovirus release. Schmitt et al., “Evidence for a new viral late-domain core sequence, FPIV, necessary for budding of a paramyxovirus” J. Virol. 79:2988-2997 (2005). Confirming these results, a dominant negative version of Vps4, Vps4 A-E228Q, blocked NDV VLP release. Martin-Serrano et al., “Role of ESCRT-I in retroviral budding” J Virol 77:4794-4804 (2003); Strack et al., “AIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding” Cell 114:689-699 (2003); and von Schwedler et al., “The protein network of HIV budding” Cell 114:701-713 (2003)).
[0330] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that the results demonstrated herein show that these dominant negative proteins blocked release of particles containing only M protein. For example, a dominant negative version of CHMP3, a subunit of the ESCRT III complex (1), and a dominant negative mutant of AIP1, a protein that binds both ESCT I and III proteins, inhibited NDV VLP release as well as release of particles containing only M protein. This inhibition was not due to over expression of the protein since transfection of the wild type versions of these proteins had little effect on M particle release. These results show that an intact VPS pathway facilitates NDV VLP budding. Furthermore, these results indicate that the VPS pathway is involved in M particle release.
[0331] Many studies have demonstrated that L domains in the matrix proteins of viruses mediate their interaction with specific molecules of the VPS pathway. Bieniasz, P. D., “Late budding domains and host proteins in enveloped virus release” Virology 344:55-63 (2006); Freed, E. O., “Viral late domains” J. Virol. 76:4679-4687 (2002); and Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 20:395-425 (2004). Three L domain motifs, PTAP, YPXL, and PPXY (Pomillos et al., “Mechanisms of enveloped RNA virus budding” Trends Cell Biol. 12:569-579 (2002)), have been identified in retroviruses (Puffer et al., “Equine infectious anemia virus utilizes a YXXL motif within the late assembly domain of the Gag p9 protein” J Virol 71:6541-6546 (1997)), rhabdoviruses and filoviruses (Irie et al., “Budding of PPxY-containing rhabdoviruses is not dependent on host proteins TGS101 and VPS4A” J Virol 78:2657-2665 (2004)). An YRKL sequence has been identified as a late domain in orthomyxoviruses (Hui et al., “YRKL sequence of influenza virus M1 functions as the L domain motif and interacts with VPS28 and Cdc42” J Virol 80:2291-2308 (2006)).
[0332] Binding of the PTAP sequence to TSG101 (tumor susceptibility gene 101) protein, a component of ESCRT I, has been reported. Huang et al., “p6Gag is required for particle production from full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 molecular clones expressing protease” J Virol 69:6810-6818 (1995). Further, the YPXL sequence has been shown to interact with AP2 (adaptor protein 2) and AIP1. Chen et al., “Functions of early (AP-2) and late (AIP1/ALIX) endocytic proteins in equine infectious anemia virus budding” J Biol Chem (2005); and Strack et al., “AIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding” Cell 114:689-699 (2003), respectively. The YRKL sequence in the influenza virus M1 protein binds to VSP28, an ESCRT 1 protein that binds tsg101, as well as Cdc42, a member of the Rho family of GTP-binding proteins. The PPXY motif binds to Nedd4-like (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down regulated gene 4) ubiquitin ligases. Vana et al., “Role of Nedd4 and ubiquitination of Rous sarcoma virus Gag in budding of virus-like particles from cells” J Virol 78:13943-13953 (2004); and Xiang et al., “Fine mapping and characterization of the Rous sarcoma virus Pr76gag late assembly domain” J Virol 70:5695-5700 (1996)).
[0333] Paramyxovirus M proteins do not have a PTAP, an YPXL, an YRKL, or a PPXY motif. The sequence FPIV, however, in the SV5 M protein may be a late domain in paramyxoviruses. Mutation of FPIV inhibited release of particles and addition of this sequence in a retrovirus gag construct stimulated the release of particles. However, since the SV5 M protein is not sufficient for SV5 particle release, FPIV is not believed to function independently as a late domain in the context of this paramyxovirus M protein. Schmitt et al., “Evidence for a new viral late-domain core sequence, FPIV, necessary for budding of a paramyxovirus” J. Virol. 79:2988-2997 (2005).
[0334] Thus, it is not clear how SV5 uses the VPS pathway or how the FPIV sequence might function as a late domain. Sequence analysis of the NDV M protein shows the presence of this FPIV motif. In addition, NDV M protein contains a PKSP and a YANL sequence, not found in the SV5 M protein. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a YANL motif comprising properties of an L domain. In one embodiment, a YANL mutation reduces M protein particle release. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that substitution of a YANL mutation with other known late domains (i.e., for example, PTAP or YPDL) particle release may become fully restored.
[0335] It is further believed that inhibition of particle release by mutation of the YANL sequence is not likely due only to effects on protein folding. The data provided herein suggests that the NDV M protein may access the VPS pathway using either type of late domain, an YPDL or a PTAP domain and that the FPIV sequence in the NDV M protein may not function as a late domain independent of the YANL sequence since the YANL mutant protein M-A232-A235 has a wild type FPIV sequence.
[0336] YPDL late domains have been shown to interact with the VPS protein AIP1. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates that AIP1 protein is found in released particles containing only M protein.
[0337] The M protein of Sendai virus has also been shown to be sufficient for release of particles (Sugahara et al., “Paramyxovirus Sendai virus-like particle formation by expression of multiple viral proteins and acceleration of its release by C protein” Virology 325:1-10 (2004); and Takimoto et al., “Role of matrix and fusion proteins in budding of Sendai virus” J. Virol. 75:11384-11391 (2001)). The Sendai virus M protein has an YLDL sequence, which could serve as a late domain for SV M protein. As noted above, the SV5 M protein is not sufficient for release of neither particles nor does it has an YXXL motif. Schmitt et al., “Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus 5 virus-like particles” J Virol 76:3952-3964 (2002). However, the SV5 NP protein has a number of YXXL motifs including a YPLL sequence. Alternatively, an SV5 late domain may be present on the SV5 NP rather than the M protein. Indeed, it has been reported that SV5 VLP release is significantly enhanced by the expression of the SV5 NP protein with M protein as well as a glycoprotein. Schmitt et al., “Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus 5 virus-like particles” J Virol 76:3952-3964 (2002). Consequently, it is clear that differential requirements for the release of particles in different paramyxovirus systems exist and may be due in part to different distributions of the late domains on structural proteins. Nevertheless, the present invention contemplates that the host cell VPS pathway facilitates M protein budding and that the YANL motif in the NDV M protein has the properties of a late domain.

II. Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Formation and Release

[0338] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates transfecting a host cell with nucleic acid encoding only a paramyxovirus M protein so that the transfected cells express the matrix protein and create paramyxoviral VLPs. In another embodiment, the present invention contemplates co-expression of two or more paramyxovirus glycoproteins including, but not limited to, NP, F-K115Q, and/or HN proteins (together with M protein) under conditions such that paramyxovirus VLP formation and release occurs.
[0339] The present invention contemplates conditions for the efficient generation of VLPs of a virulent paramyxoviral strain. In one embodiment, the paramyxoviral strain comprises the group including, but not limited to, Newcastle disease, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial virus. In another embodiment, the VLPs comprise the same major antigens as infectious virus. In another embodiment, the VLPs comprise major antigens having the same ratios as infectious virus. In one embodiment, the major antigens are selected from the group comprising nucleocapsid protein, membrane/matrix protein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein, and fusion protein.
[0340] The production of VLPs in accordance with embodiments of the present invention is much simpler and likely more cost effective than currently available live or attenuated virus vaccines. VLPs can be harvested from cell supernatants and purified by the same protocols used to purify virus. VLPs can be engineered to increase the spectrum of immune responses. The VLPs can also be engineered so that the immune response can be distinguished from that induced by an infection.
[0341] A. VLP Release Characteristics
[0342] In one embodiment, VLPs are released from cells co-expressing the major structural proteins of paramyxoviruses. In one embodiment, NDV VLP particles are released from a chicken fibroblast cell line co-expressing NP, M, F and HN proteins that can be purified and characterized. In one embodiment, an uncleaved version of F protein eliminated any potential effects of cell-to-cell fusion on virus release. In one embodiment, avian cells are used because birds are the natural host of NDV. For example, as detailed in the Examples below, cells (i.e., for example, avian or human) were co-transfected with plasmids encoding NDV viral proteins using concentrations of DNA previously determined to result in expression levels and ratios of proteins comparable to infected cells. Cells were then pulse-labeled with 35S-methionine and 35S-cysteine and then chased for 8 hours (a time also resulting in maximal particle release). VLPs in the cell supernatants were isolated and fractionated by sucrose density ultracentrifugation.
[0343] In one embodiment, the efficiency of paramyxoviral VLP release from cells expressing at least four viral proteins (85%) was comparable to the efficiency of infectious particle release from paramyxovirus-infected cells (92%). Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that this result suggests that four paramyxovirus proteins (i.e., for example, M protein, NP protein, F, protein, or HN protein) may provide an efficient formation of particles. It is further believed that the viral Large Polymerase or Phosphoprotein proteins have little quantitative effect on virus release.
[0344] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that paramyxoviral VLPs, which can be isolated on sucrose gradients, have a relatively homogeneous density that is slightly less than the average density of an authentic virus. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that this result is likely due to the absence of the viral genomic RNA in the particles. It is further believed, therefore, that the VLPs are non-infectious.
[0345] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that paramyxoviral VLPs are likely folded into conformations virtually identical to an authentic virus and are packaged into particles in a manner identical to paramyxoviral particles. As a result, these particles should be as antigenic as authentic virus. VLPs do not, however, contain the viral genome, since the cells (i.e., for example, avian or human), which are forming and releasing these particles, are not infected with virus. Therefore, VLPs cannot be infectious and cannot cause disease.
[0346] B. M Protein Function
[0347] In one embodiment, a paramyxovirus M protein is both sufficient and necessary for VLP particle release. In one embodiment, the paramyxovirus is selected from the group including, but not limited to, Newcastle disease virus, measles virus, parainfluenza virus 3, and syncytial respiratory virus. That is to say, expression of the M protein alone resulted in very efficient release of M protein containing paramyxovirus VLP particles. For example, the efficiency of M protein release is comparable to that observed when at least four proteins were co-expressed. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that this result suggests that it is the M protein that directs the budding of paramyxovirus VLPs. Furthermore, VLPs are released when only M protein is present. Consequently, significant VLP particle release will not occur the absence of M protein even if viral protein expression (or co-expression of a combination of viral proteins) is present. For example, cells expressing HN protein, alone, released only trace amounts of a very light density HN protein-containing material into cell supernatants, and it is unlikely that this material reflects a significant component of virus assembly. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates that no NDV protein, other than M protein, can function independently in the release of lipid containing particles that reflect virus assembly.
[0348] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that VLP particles released from cells expressing only M protein have very heterogeneous densities because this budding occurs indiscriminately from different cell membranes or from different plasma membrane domains and, consequently, contain different lipid-to-protein ratios due to variable M protein oligomerization. For example, particles formed from monomer M protein may have a higher lipid to protein ratio than particles formed from M protein in an oligomeric state. It is known that M proteins of other negative stranded RNA viruses can form oligomeric structures. Garoff et al., “Virus maturation by budding” Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62:1171-90 (1998); and Panch et al., “In vivo oligomerization and raft localization of Ebola virus protein VP40 during vesicular budding” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 15936-41 (2003).
[0349] C. Glycoprotein Function
[0350] Formation of infectious paramyxovirus virions is believed to involve the incorporation of both the HN and F glycoproteins. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a composition comprising glycoprotein incorporation into a paramyxovirus VLP when M protein is co-expressed with at least two glycoproteins. Single glycoprotein co-expression (i.e., for example HN+M or F+M) resulted in only trace amounts of either HN or F glycoprotein incorporated into VLP particles. Further, when HN and F glycoproteins were co-expressed with M protein, the glycoprotein incorporation levels were comparable to that observed with co-expression of at least four proteins.
[0351] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that these results indicate that the M protein binds more efficiently with a complex of HN and F glycoproteins. This possibility is also supported by observations that co-expression of these two glycoproteins with M protein resulted in paramyxovirus VLPs having a more homogenous and decreased density. M protein VLP particles generally have a very heterogeneous density. Co-expression of M protein with either glycoprotein, alone, did not change the general density of M protein containing particles. It is believed that these results indicate that interactions of M protein with an HN-F protein complex affected the protein to lipid ratio of the VLPs or affected the membrane from which the particles were released.
[0352] It should be noted that not just any combination of M protein and viral glycoproteins produce paramyxovirus VLPs in good yield as contemplated herein. For example, co-expression of a single glycoprotein and an M protein results in a 40-60% VLP release suppression when compared to VLP release observed after: i) co-expression with all four proteins; ii) expression of an M protein with at least two glycoproteins; and iii) expression of M protein alone. Empirical studies revealed that this release suppression is relieved by co-expression of M protein with NP and another glycoprotein.
[0353] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that VLP release suppression by a single glycoprotein+M protein is consistent with observations that NP+M protein VLP release is: i) 70% lower when compared to release from cells expressing at least four proteins; and ii) 80% lower when compared to release from cells expressing only M protein. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that the large amount of NP in the cytoplasm may pull M protein away from the plasma membrane, thereby preventing its association with this membrane and, therefore, budding of particles. Consequently, one hypothesis suggests that co-expression with another glycoprotein may redirect both NP and M protein to a cellular membrane thereby relieving VLP release suppression.
[0354] D. Vacuolar Protein Sorting (VPS) System and Multivesicular Buds (MVBs)
[0355] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that paramyxovirus M protein-dependent VLP release uses the host vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) system. The VPS system has been reported to mediate budding of other enveloped viruses. Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 20:395-425 (2004); and Pornillos et al., “Mechanisms of enveloped RNA virus budding” Trends Cell Biol. 12:569-79 (2002).
[0356] Budding of retroviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses are thought to depend upon the host cell VPS pathway. The VPS pathway also serves to form MVBs. Demirov et al., “Retrovirus budding” Virus Res 106:87-102 (2004); Jasenosky et al., “Filovirus budding” Virus Res. 106:1B1-8 (2004); Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 20:395-425 (2004); Pomillos et al., “Mechanisms of enveloped RNA virus budding” Trends Cell Biol. 12:569-79 (2002); Freed, E. O., “Viral late domains” J. Virol. 76:4679-87 (2002); and Schmitt et al., “Escaping from the cell: assembly and budding of negative-strand RNA viruses” Cuff Top Microbiol Immunol 283:145-96 (2004). MVBs are formed by invagination of endosomal membranes into the endosomallumen thereby creating a vesicle inside a vesicle. Martindale, D., “Budding viral hijackers co-opt the endocytic machinery to make a getaway” J Biol. 3:2 (2003). The topology of MVB formation is similar to that of virus budding from plasma membrane.
[0357] It has been proposed that viral proteins usurp this host cell machinery to direct virus budding. Demirov et al., “Retrovirus budding” Virus Res 106:87-102 (2004); Martindale, D., “Budding viral hijackers co-opt the endocytic machinery to make a getaway” J Biol. 3:2 (2003); and Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 20:395-425 (2004). Currently, research suggests that the formation of MVBs involves three protein complexes, first characterized in yeast, and are collectively known as the Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (i.e., for example, ESCRT I, II, and III). Babst et al., “ESCRT-III: an endosome-associated heterooligomeric protein complex 4 required for MVB sorting” Dev Cell 3:271-282 (2002); Jiang et al., “Multivesicular bodies: a mechanism to package lytic and storage functions in one organelle?” Trends Cell Biol. 12:362-7 (2002); Katzmann et al., “Ubiquitin-dependent sorting into the multivesicular body pathway requires the function of a conserved endosomal protein sorting complex, ESCRT-I” Cell 106:145-55 (2001); and Katzmann et al., “Vps27 recruits ESCRT machinery to endosomes during MVB sorting” J Cell Biol. 162:413-23 (2003). In addition, Vps4 protein (i.e., for example, an ATPase) is required for the dissociation of the full ESCRT complex. Raiborg et al., “Protein sorting into multivesicular endosomes” Cuff Opin Cell Biol 15:446-55 (2003).
[0358] E. VLP Release Inhibition
[0359] Studies with a number of virus types, most prominently retroviruses, have shown that cellular proteins involved in the formation of MVBs are recruited by retrovirus gag proteins and other matrix-like proteins by interactions of viral Late Domains with a component of the VPS pathway. Demirov et al., “Retrovirus budding” Virus Res 106:87-102 (2004); Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 20:395-425 (2004); Pomillos et al., “Mechanisms of enveloped RNA virus budding” Trends Cell Biol. 12:569-79 (2002); 44. It has been found that dominant negative mutants of Vps4, CHMP3, and CHMP2 can block retrovirus release. Strack et al., “PIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding” Cell 114:689-699 (2003).
[0360] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that a dominant-negative mutation of Vps4 or Vps4 A-E228Q is capable of blocking M protein paramyxovirus VLP release. It is further believed that a dominant-negative mutation of CHMP3 (i.e., for example, a subunit of the ESCRT III complex) inhibits M protein paramyxovirus VLP release. These observations indicate not only that the VPS pathway is involved in paramyxoviral budding (i.e., for example, VLP release) but that it is the M protein that directly interacts with the VPS pathway.
[0361] It has recently been reported that SV5 VLP and virion release are also inhibited by expression of the dominant negative form of VSP4 implicating the VPS pathway in SV5 assembly and release. Schmitt et al., “Evidence for a new viral late-domain core sequence, FPIV, necessary for budding of a paramyxovirus” J. Virol. 79:2988-97 (2005). Furthermore, the sequence FPIV (SEQ ID NO:1) in the SV5 M protein is believed to be a Late Domain. The SV5 M protein, however, is known not to be sufficient for particle release. Schmitt et al., “Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus virus-like particles” J Virol 76:3952-64 (2002). Consequently, it is not clear how SV5 uses the VPS pathway or how this sequence might function as a Late Domain.
[0362] In one embodiment, a sequence analysis of an NDV M protein also shows the presence of an FPIV motif (SEQ ID NO:1). In one embodiment, an NDV M protein further comprises a PXXP motif (SEQ ID NO:2) and an YXXL motif (SEQ ID NO:3), sequences not found in the SV5 M protein. Other motifs identified in the art might also be candidate Late Domains for other paramyxovirus M proteins; i.e., domains that could function in budding independent of other viral proteins. Demirov et al., “Retrovirus budding” Virus Res 106:87-102 (2004); and Freed, E. O., “Viral late domains” J. Virol. 76:4679-87 (2002).
[0363] F. Host-Specific VLP Expression
[0364] Virus-like particle expression from human 293T cells have been reported in three other paramyxovirus systems (Sendai virus (SV), PIV1, and SV5) at efficiencies ranging between 18% to 70%. Schmitt et al., “Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus virus-like particles” J Virol 76:3952-64 (2002); Sugahara et al., “Paramyxovirus Sendai virus-like particle formation by expression of multiple viral proteins and acceleration of its release by C protein” Virology 325:1-10 (2004); and Takimoto et al., “Role of matrix and fusion proteins in budding of Sendaivirus” J. Virol. 75: 11384-91 (2001).
[0365] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising improving the efficiency of paramyxovirus VLP release by using cells from the natural host of the virus. In one embodiment, a paramyxovirus is selected from the group including, but not limited to, Newcastle disease virus, measles virus, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial virus. In one embodiment, a M protein paramyxovirus VLP is released from avian cells with an efficiency of 90%. In another embodiment, M protein paramyxovirus VLP is released from human 293T cells with an efficiency of 50%. Furthermore, the efficiency of release of both M protein VLPs, as well as complete VLPs, from COS cells was significantly lower than release from avian cells; a difference that is not due to a lower expression level of viral proteins in COS cells versus avian cells. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that differences between the efficiencies of paramyxovirus VLP formation may be due to a host cell-specific dependency.
[0366] It is known that the protein requirements for VLP formation in other paramyxovirus systems also vary. For example, paramyxovirus systems comprising M proteins of SV, hPIV1 and SV5 are considered involved in directing virus assembly and budding, but there are differences in the role of M protein in actual particle formation. Coronel et al., “Human parainfluenza virus type 1 matrix and nucleoprotein genes transiently expressed in 12 mammalian cells induce the release of virus-like particles containing 13 nucleocapsid-like structures” J. Virol. 73:7035-8 (1999); Schmitt et al., “Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus virus-like particles” J Virol 76:3952-64 (2002); Sugahara et al., “Paramyxovirus Sendai virus-like particle formation by expression of multiple viral proteins and acceleration of its release by C protein” Virology 325:1-10 (2004); and Takimoto et al., “Role of matrix and fusion proteins in budding of Sendai virus” J. Virol. 75: 11384-91 (2001). Similar to NDV M protein, the SV and hPIV1 M proteins were sufficient for particle release, the SV5 M protein, however, was not sufficient. SV5 M protein co-expression with NP and at least one glycoprotein was required for efficient formation and release of SV5 VLPs. Schmitt et al., “Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus virus-like particles” J Virol 76:3952-64 (2002).
[0367] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates that only M protein, and no other paramyxovirus protein, can solely direct VLP particle release. Previous studies do indicate that SV F protein may exhibit an autonomous exocytosis activity demonstrated by the release of vesicles containing the only the F protein. Sugahara et al., “Paramyxovirus Sendai virus-like particle formation by expression of multiple viral proteins and acceleration of its release by C protein” Virology 325:1-10 (2004); and Takimoto et al., “Role of matrix and fusion proteins in budding of Sendai virus” J. Virol. 75: 11384-91 (2001).
[0368] In contrast, cells contemplated by the present invention expressing the NDV F protein, alone, did not release F protein-containing material, and cells expressing HN protein, alone, released only trace amounts of very light density material HN protein containing material into the cell supernatants. These observations are similar to other reports showing that expression of SV5 F or HN glycoproteins, alone, did not result in VLP particle release. Schmitt et al., “Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus virus-like particles” J Virol 76:3952-64 (2002). Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that despite observations that SV F and other enveloped negative strand virus glycoproteins have been shown to exhibit budding activity, no Late Domains have been identified in any viral glycoproteins. Schmitt et al., “Escaping from the cell: assembly and budding of negative-strand RNA viruses” Cuff Top Microbiol Immunol 283:145-96 (2004).
[0369] Embodiments of the present invention comprising co-expression of M protein and NP is also in contrast with those reported in the SV system. For example, simultaneous expression of SV M and NP is known to result in the release of VLPs containing both viral proteins. Sugahara et al., “Paramyxovirus Sendai virus-like particle formation by expression of multiple viral proteins and acceleration of its release by C protein” Virology 325:1-10 (2004).
[0370] G. Protein-Protein Interactions
[0371] The present invention contemplates using NDV as a prototype paramyxovirus in order to clarify the role of each paramyxovirus protein in particle assembly and release. Using this model, certain embodiments integrate a definition of the viral protein requirements for assembly and release of VLPs with a characterization of the protein-protein interactions in VLPs formed with different combinations of viral proteins.
[0372] Further, in some embodiments the present invention contemplates a co-localization of M protein with the viral glycoproteins in plasma membranes. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that the data presented herein show that particle assembly involves a network of specific protein-protein interactions and likely correct targeting of proteins to specific cellular domains.
[0373] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates, VLP protein interactions form with all combinations of three and four proteins (i.e., for example, when defined by co-immunoprecipitation). In another embodiment, cell surface HN and F proteins are co-localized with M protein when expressed in different combinations with M and NP proteins. In another embodiment, co-expression of two viral proteins with M protein also significantly increased the co-localization of M protein with either HN or F proteins in the plasma membrane indicating increased interactions with M protein.
[0374] To define these protein-protein interactions, VLPs formed with different combinations of three and four proteins were solubilized with nonionic detergent and proteins precipitated with cocktails of monospecific antibodies for M, HN, or F proteins. First, each antibody cocktail precipitated all proteins from VLPs formed with M, HN, F and NP, although the efficiency of precipitation for each protein varied with the antibody specificity. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that these results are consistent with a network of interactions between all four proteins such that precipitation of one resulted in the precipitation of the other three proteins but with efficiencies that varied determined by how directly a protein was linked to the precipitated protein.
[0375] Protein-protein interactions were more clearly defined by immunoprecipitation of proteins from VLPs formed with all combinations of three proteins. These results show a specific interaction between HN and M proteins, between NP and M protein, and between F protein and NP. (See, FIG. 66). A direct interaction between F protein and M protein was not directly observed but there is likely a weak interaction between F and HN proteins, since anti-F protein antibodies precipitated HN protein from VLPs containing M, HN, and F proteins. The apparent inability for F and M proteins to interact suggest that incorporation of F protein into these VLPs may be mediated by interactions with an HN protein. Alternatively, an interaction between HN protein and NP may also facilitate incorporation processes.
[0376] Thus, when all four proteins are co-expressed, NP and HN protein are incorporated into VLPs by a direct interaction with M protein. (See, FIG. 66). Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that F protein is likely incorporated indirectly due to interactions with NP and HN protein. It is further believed that an ordered complex of the four proteins is supported by a co-localization of M protein with F protein and M protein with HN protein in the plasma membrane when all four proteins are co-expressed.
[0377] However, when only F is expressed with M protein, F protein was likely not significantly incorporated into VLPs because a direct interaction between these two proteins was not observed. (See, FIG. 66). Supporting this conclusion is the observation that there was no co-localization of F and M proteins in the plasma membrane in these cells.
[0378] In spite of direct associations of M with NP, there was little NP protein incorporation into VLPs when NP and M proteins were co-expressed in the pair-wise combination. Previous reports that show that the M protein of Sendai virus is recruited in the cytoplasm by the viral nucleocapsid. Stricker et al., “The Sendai virus matrix protein appears to be recruited in the cytoplasm by the viral nucleocapsid to function in viral assembly and budding” J Gen Virol 75 (Pt 5):1031-1042 (1994). Perhaps NP causes the retargeting of M protein to this compartment. Indeed, co-expression of M protein with NP resulted in a 2.5 fold suppression of M protein containing VLP release, a result also consistent with retention of M protein in cells by NP protein.
[0379] Although co-immunoprecipitations of VLP proteins formed with M, HN, and F protein indicated a direct interaction of HN protein with M protein, there were only low levels of incorporation of HN protein into VLPs when HN and M proteins were co-expressed in a pair-wise combination. Furthermore, there was little co-localization of the two proteins in the plasma membrane. Perhaps, in the absence of other proteins, HN and M proteins show minimal co-localization in the same regions of the cell, thereby preventing their association. Alternatively, it is also possible that the conformation of the HN protein transmembrane or cytoplasmic tail may be different in the absence of expression of F protein or NP protein inhibiting association of HN protein with M protein. The 50% reduction of M protein VLPs upon co-expression of HN protein with M protein cannot be presently explained but similar results have been previously reported in Sendai virus system. Sugahara et al., “Paramyxovirus Sendai virus-like particle formation by expression of multiple viral proteins and acceleration of its release by C protein” Virology 325:1-10 (2004).
[0380] It should be realized that immunoprecipitation is not necessary to produce purified VLPs. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a VLP preparation comprising pure viral proteins. Protein compositions were compared between purified NDV whole virus and VLPs that have not undergone immunoprecipitation. The data show that the VLP preparation does not contain any proteins that are not present in the whole virus preparation. See, FIG. 72. Consequently, the VLPs are as pure as the whole virus.
[0381] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that VLPs formed with NP, M and F proteins are likely due to interactions between M and NP and interactions between F and NP. (See, FIG. 66). For example, F protein may relocate NP to the plasma membrane drawing M to specific domains containing F protein. Indeed, data presented herein show that addition of NP increases the co-localization of M protein with F protein in the plasma membrane. It is further believed that VLPs formed with NP, M and HN proteins likely form due to interactions of both HN protein and NP with M protein. Data presented herein show that expression of NP with HN and M proteins increase the co-localization of M and HN proteins in the plasma membrane. One possible hypothesis suggests that NP-M protein interactions alter the conformation of M thereby facilitating its interaction with HN protein. Indeed, surface HN protein in the presence of NP appears more punctuate along the cell edges.
[0382] This network of interactions proposed above could account for the conclusions that the cytoplasmic domains (CT) of the HN and F proteins have redundant functions. Schmitt et al., “Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus 5 virus-like particles” J Virol 76:3952-3964 (2002). For example, the CT domain of the F protein may target NP-M complexes to the plasma membrane by interactions with NP protein while the HN protein CT domain targets these complexes by virtue of direct interactions with M protein.
[0383] The interaction of M protein and NP suggested by the data herein is supported by studies using Sendai virus. Stricker et al., “The Sendai virus matrix protein appears to be recruited in the cytoplasm by the viral nucleocapsid to function in viral assembly and budding” J Gen Virol 75 (Pt 5):1031-1042 (1994). Further, a possible interaction of HN protein with other viral protein is consistent with numerous studies suggesting an interaction of M protein with viral glycoproteins in paramyxovirus-infected cells or in cells transfected with paramyxovirus cDNAs. Ali et al., “Assembly of Sendai virus: M protein interacts with F and HN proteins and with the cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domain of F protein” Virology 276:289-303 (2000); Ghildyal et al., “Interaction between the respiratory syncytial virus G glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain and the matrix protein” J Gen Virol 86:1879-1884 (2005); Henderson et al., “Sorting of the respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein into detergent-resistant structures is dependent on cell-surface expression of the glycoproteins” Virology 300:244-254 (2002); Sanderson et al., “Sendai virus assembly: M protein binds to viral glycoproteins in transit through the secretory pathway” J Virol 67:651-663 (1993); and Yoshida et al., “Membrane (M) protein of HVJ (Sendai virus)—Its role in virus assembly” Virology 71:143-161 (1976). Indeed, it has been reported that the respiratory syncytial virus G protein specifically interacts with M protein. However, there are no previous reports of a direct interaction between F protein and NP. It is possible that interactions between viral proteins vary within paramyxoviruses and the requirements for formation of VLPs may depend upon the distribution of late domains on the viral proteins. The results presented herein are consistent with the proposal that the NDV M protein buds and releases indiscriminately from different cellular membranes in the absence of other viral proteins. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that when both glycoproteins and M proteins are present in the plasma membrane, the M protein-plasma membrane association has an improved stability. It is further believed that NP association with F and M protein may also further stabilize and organize the network of interactions within the assembling particle.
[0384] This protein-protein interacting network hypothesis has support from observations comparing electron micrographs of whole virus (B1) with VLPs formed only with M protein, and VLPs formed with NP, M, F, and HN proteins. See, FIG. 73. When all four viral proteins are present, the VLP size and shape is very similar to the whole virus. However, an M protein-only VLP size and shape is more hetergeneous when compare to the whole virus but is still remarkably similar.
[0385] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a VLP production system for NDV. In one embodiment, the M protein facilitates NDV VLP budding such that NDV VLP budding is virtually non-existent in the absence of M protein. In other embodiments, specific protein-protein interactions occur in VLPs involved in the ordered assembly of particles. In one embodiment, an interaction between M and HN or F and NP directs the targeting of M and NP into assembly sites within the plasma membrane.

III. Paramyxoviral Diseases

[0386] The present invention is not limited to NDV, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, and respiratory syncytial paramyxovirus diseases. Many other paramyxoviruses diseases are also within the scope of this invention. For example, both human diseases (See Table 1) and animal diseases (See Table 2) are contemplated.
[0387] 
[00001] [TABLE-US-00001]
  TABLE 1
 
  Paramyxovirus-Mediated Human Diseases Susceptible
  To VLP Vaccination
  Virus Type   Disease Type   Current Vaccination
 
  Parainfluenza   Acute Respiratory Infection   None
  (1, 2, 3, and 4)    
  Mumps   Childhood Disease   Live Attenuated Virus
  Measles   Childhood Disease   Live Attenuated Virus
  Respiratory   Serious Respiratory Infection   None
  Syncytial    
  Nipah   Emerging Infection   None
    Acute Neurological Disease  
  Hendra   Emerging Infection   None
    Acute Neurological Disease  
  Metapneumovirus   Acute Respiratory Infection   None
 
[0388] 
[00002] [TABLE-US-00002]
  TABLE 2
 
  Paramyxovirus-Mediated Animal Diseases Susceptible
  To VLP Vaccination
    Virus Type   Animal Species
 
    Canine Distemper   Dogs
    Rhinderpest   Cattle
    Pneumoviruses   Birds
 
[0389] A. Newcastle Disease
[0390] Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian pathogen. There are different strains of this virus that have been isolated in many regions of the world. Some strains are avirulent and are used as live attenuated vaccines. Others are virulent and cause severe systemic disease in birds with a high mortality rate. Because of the threat to the poultry industry, the United States government has classified virulent NDV strains as select agents under the Patriots Act.
[0391] Most chickens in the United States are vaccinated with an avirulent NDV strain. The current vaccine, however, is not ideal. The vaccine, a live attenuated virus, infects chickens and causes a mild respiratory disease. As a result, vaccinated birds have a lower body weight and lower egg production than unvaccinated birds. For this reason, many other countries do not vaccinate against NDV. Thus, there are periodic outbreaks of the disease in these countries forcing massive bird slaughter to contain the disease. Flocks of vaccinated chickens can also be susceptible to some NDV virulent strains. Consequently, there have been Newcastle disease virus outbreaks in the United States. For example, there was an NDV outbreak in California in 2001-2002.
[0392] What is needed is a NDV vaccine that does not have negative productivity consequences and can induce a broader range of protection than currently used vaccines.
[0393] In birds, clinical evidence of NDV includes, but is not limited to, the respiratory, neurological and gastrointestinal systems. Clinical signs suggestive of Newcastle disease, are observed mainly in young birds. Common symptoms include, but are not limited to, inability to walk or fly, walking in circles, paralysis, twisted necks, depression, and high frequency of sudden death. In mammals, symptoms of Newcastle disease may include, but are not limited to, acute conjuctivitis.
[0394] A significant problem of the currently utilized NDV vaccines is a failure to protect against all NDV strains. Currently, inactivated NDV vaccines (i.e., attenuated) are sometimes used to vaccinate flocks of birds. While eliminating the detrimental effects of a live virus vaccination, these vaccines still have the disadvantage that they do not stimulate a broad spectrum of immune responses. Further, incomplete attenuation results in a percentage of vaccinated birds contracting Newcastle disease. These vaccines are also more expensive than embodiments contemplated by the present invention due to the increased manipulation required for inactivation and the monitoring of the effectiveness of inactivation.
[0395] Another problem with currently used vaccines, either live virus or inactivated virus, is that it is difficult to distinguish between birds that have been vaccinated and those that have been infected with a wild virus. The present invention contemplates antigens incorporated into a VLP preparation comprising a sequence tag. In one embodiment, the sequence tag may be detected in vivo, thereby identifying a vaccinated animal.
[0396] B. Measles
[0397] Measles is believed to be a childhood infection characterized by fever, cough, coryza (i.e., for example, an upper respiratory tract infection or inflammation), and often conjunctivitis followed by a maculopapular rash. It has been observed that the severity of the disease varies with the strain of the virus as well as the health status of the infected children. In most children, recovery is complete. However, there is a low incidence of neurological complications of varying severity. Furthermore, malnourishment or another underlying disease can significantly increase the severity of the disease. In addition, the infection is immunosuppressive resulting in increased susceptibility of the child to other life threatening infections, particularly in a third world setting.
[0398] The currently used vaccine is a live, attenuated virus that is effective in generating a protective immune response. However, the age of immunization is problematic. Vaccination too early results in a poor antibody response due to maternal antibody. Increasing the dose to overcome this effect results in immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to other potentially life threatening infections. Vaccination at a later age places the infant at a risk of acquiring the disease prior to immunization but after the maternal antibody level declines. Thus there is a need for a vaccine that will generate an effective immune response in the face of material antibody and, more importantly, a vaccine that will not be immunosuppressive at any dosage. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates that VLPs are a candidate for such a vaccine.
[0399] Certain embodiments of the present invention provide virus-like particles (VLPs) as a safe, broad-spectrum, and effective vaccine to protect mammals from a measles virus. Additionally, these embodiments provide systems and protocols for the large-scale, economical production of a measles VLP vaccine (i.e., for example, to be useful as a vaccine, VLP production must be easy and economical).
[0400] The present invention contemplates conditions for the generation of VLPs of a measles virus strain. In another embodiment, the VLPs comprise the same major antigens as infectious virus (but, of course, lack the complete viral genome). In another embodiment, the VLPs comprise major antigens having the same ratios as infectious virus. In one embodiment, the major antigens are selected from the group comprising nucleocapsid protein, membrane/matrix protein, hemagglutinin protein, and fusion protein.
[0401] Other embodiments of the present invention provide antigens derived from many different measles strains that may be incorporated into a single VLP preparation. A significant problem of the currently utilized measles vaccines is a failure to protect against all measles strains.
[0402] Measles is thought to be a highly contagious viral illness having primary symptoms including, but not limited to, fever, cough, conjunctivitis (i.e., redness and irritation in membranes of the eyes), and spreading rash. The viral infection may be spread by contact with droplets from the nose, mouth, or throat of an infected person. The incubation period is 8 to 12 days before symptoms generally appear.
[0403] Immunity to the disease occurs after vaccination or active infection. Currently, vaccination is limited to attenuated live virus that has a significant risk of causing measles in the vaccinated subject. Further some believe that the Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine can cause autism. Before widespread immunization, measles was so common during childhood that the majority of the population had been infected by age 20. Measles cases dropped over the last several decades to virtually none in the U.S. and Canada because of widespread immunization, but rates are currently on the rise. Public fear, therefore, results in lower vaccination rates that can cause outbreaks of measles, mumps, and rubella—which can be serious. One advantage of one embodiment of the present invention is that a VLP non-replicating measles vaccine carries no risk of infection. The VLP vaccine is thus expected to generate a much higher compliance rate and subsequently the measles occurrence should drop dramatically.
[0404] In one embodiment, measles symptoms include, but are not limited to, sore throat, runny nose, cough, muscle pain, fever, bloodshot eyes, tiny white spots inside the mouth (called Koplik's spots), photophobia (light sensitivity), a rash appearing around the fifth day of the disease and lasting 4-7 days that usually starts on the head and spreads to other areas, progressing downward (the rash may be a maculopapular rash appearing as both macules (flat, discolored areas) and papules (solid, red, elevated areas) that later merge together (confluent)), further the rash may itch.
[0405] There is no specific treatment of measles, though some children may require supplementation with Vitamin A. Symptoms may be relieved with bed rest, acetaminophen, and humidified air. The probable outcome is excellent in uncomplicated cases. However, pneumonia or encephalitis are possible complications.
[0406] C. Respiratory Syncytial Virus
[0407] Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is believed to be the single most common cause of hospitalization for respiratory infection of infants and young children worldwide. Re-infection also commonly occurs. RSV attack rates for all infant populations is estimated between 100% and 83% and an estimated 50% of these experience two or more infections during the first two years of life (reviewed in Collins, et al, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, in Fields Virology, Ed. Knipe, D. and Howley, P. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2001). RSV is also increasingly recognized as a serious pathogen for the elderly.
[0408] Currently, there is no vaccine available for this pathogen. Early trials with a formalin inactivated virus preparation had the disastrous effect of enhancing the severity of disease upon exposure to the live virus. In addition, protein subunit vaccines had a similar effect in experimental animals. It is speculated that proteins in an abnormal conformation, either induced by formalin treatment or by expression and purification of individual proteins, resulted in a loss of epitopes that stimulated a protective immune response. Animal studies suggested that immunopathology was due to immune cells (reviewed in Collins, et al, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, in Fields Virology, Ed. Knipe, D. and Howley, P. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2001. VLPs formed with RSV proteins will likely incorporate viral proteins in their native conformation. These immunogens have the potential to stimulate a protective immune response and to avoid the adverse effects of unfolded proteins.
[0409] Certain embodiments of the present invention provide virus-like particles (VLPs) as a safe, broad-spectrum, and effective vaccine to protect mammals from Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). Additionally, these embodiments provide systems and protocols for the large-scale, economical production of RSV VLP vaccines (i.e., for example, to be useful as a vaccine, VLP production must be easy and economical).
[0410] The present invention contemplates conditions for the efficient generation of VLPs of a virulent RSV strain. In another embodiment, the VLPs comprise the same major antigens as infectious virus. In another embodiment, the VLPs comprise major antigens having the same ratios as infectious virus. In one embodiment, the major antigens are selected from the group comprising nucleocapsid protein, membrane/matrix protein, G or attachment protein, and fusion protein.
[0411] Other embodiments of the present invention provide antigens derived from many different RSV strains that may be incorporated into a single VLP preparation. A significant problem of the currently utilized RSV vaccines is a failure to protect against all RSV strains.
[0412] Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is believed to be a very common virus that causes mild cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. RSV may cause serious respiratory infections in young babies, especially those born prematurely, who have heart or lung disease, or who are immunocompromised.
[0413] RSV is believed to be the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children. Specifically, RSV is believe to infect nearly all infants by the age of two years. Seasonal outbreaks of acute respiratory illness occur each year, on a schedule that is somewhat predictable in each region. The season typically begins in the fall and runs into the spring.
[0414] RSV may be spread easily by physical contact including, but not limited to, touching, kissing, and shaking hands with an infected subject. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that RSV transmission is usually by contact with contaminated secretions, which may involve tiny droplets or objects that droplets have touched. RSV can live for half an hour or more on the skin surface. It is also believed that RSV can also live up to five hours on countertops and for several hours on used tissues, consequently, RSV often spreads very rapidly in crowded households and day care centers.
[0415] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a VLP RSV vaccine that prevents the development of infant and young adult diseases such as, but not limited to, pneumonia, bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways of the lungs), and tracheobronchitis (croup). In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a VLP RSV vaccine that prevents the development of a mild respiratory illness in healthy adults and older children.
[0416] The lack of a safe and effective RSV vaccine poses a significant public safety and health risk. For example, it is believed that each year up to 125,000 infants are hospitalized due to severe RSV disease; and about 1-2% of these infants die. Further, infants that are: i) born prematurely; ii) suffering chronic lung disease; iii) immunocompromised; or iv) afflicted with certain forms of heart disease are at increased risk for severe RSV disease. Even adults who are exposed to tobacco smoke, attend daycare, live in crowded conditions, or have school-age siblings are also at higher risk of contracting RSV.
[0417] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates RSV symptoms including, but not limited to, nasal congestion, nasal flaring, cough, rapid breathing (tachypnea), breathing difficulty or labored breathing, shortness of breath, cyanosis (bluish discoloration of skin caused by lack of oxygen), wheezing, fever, or croupy cough (often described as a “seal bark” cough). It should be recognized that symptoms are variable and differ with age. For example, infants less than one year old are most severely affected and often have the most trouble breathing. Conversely, older children usually have only mild, cold-like symptoms. In general, symptoms usually appear 4-6 days after exposure.
[0418] Because there is no known treatment for an active RSV infection, those in the art have considered preventative drugs. For example, Synagis® (palivizumab) has been approved for prevention of RSV disease in children younger than 24 months of age who are at high risk for serious RSV disease. Synagis® however, must be prescribed and given as a monthly shot to provide complete protection.
[0419] D. Parainfluenza 3 (PIV 3)
[0420] PIV3 is believed to be a common cause of respiratory disease (rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia). This virus is the second most common cause of respiratory infection in hospitalized pediatric patients. No vaccines are available for PIV 3. A number of different approaches to vaccination have been considered but none has resulted in a licensed vaccine. (reviewed in Chanock, et al, Parainfluenza Viruses, in Fields Virology, Ed. Knipe, D. and Howley, P. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2001).
[0421] Physiologically, PIV 3 usually infects the upper and lower respiratory systems. Currently, five serotypes of Parainfluenza virus are known (1, 2, 3, 4a, and 4b), all of which are associated with causing disease. Children are believed highly susceptible to Parainfluenza and may be responsible for approximately 40 percent to 50 percent of all cases of croup, and 10 percent to 15 percent of bronchiolitis and bronchitis and some pneumonias. In the general population, the incidence of parainfluenza is unknown but suspected to be very high. Illness causing only a runny nose and cold-like symptoms may pass as a simple cold rather than parainfluenza. Risk factors include young age. By school age most children have been exposed to parainfluenza virus. Most adults have antibodies against parainfluenza although they can get repeat infections.
[0422] Laryngotracheobronchitis (i.e., for example, croup) is believed to be a common clinical manifestation of parainfluenza virus infection. Parainfluenza viruses are found uncommonly associated with other respiratory tract infections in children such as tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and bronchopneumonia. Occasionally, a mild non-specific illness is seen after parainfluenza virus infection. Parainfluenza viruses produce disease throughout the year, but peak prevalence rates occur during wintertime outbreaks of respiratory tract infections, especially croup, in children throughout the temperate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres. Parainfluenza virus infections are primarily childhood diseases, the highest age-specific attack rates for croup occur in children below the age of 3 years. Serotype 3 infections occur earliest and most frequently, so that 50% of children in the US are infected during the first year of life and almost all by 6 years, as determined by seroepidemiological studies.
[0423] Parainfluenza viruses generally enters a host through the inhalation of infected droplet nuclei. Virus multiplication occurs throughout the tracheobronchial tree, inducing the production of mucus. The vocal cords of the larynx become grossly swollen, causing obstruction to the inflow of air, which is manifested by inspiratory stridor. In adults, the virus is usually limited to causing inflammation in the upper parts of the respiratory tract. In infants and young children, the bronchi, bronchioles and lungs are occasionally involved, which may reflect on the small size of the airways and the relative immunological immaturity. Viraemia is neither an essential nor a common phase of infection.
[0424] Typically, children may exhibit a croupy cough, inspiratory stridor, hoarse voice or cry and respiratory difficulty on inspiration, and are usually afebrile. About 80% of patients exhibit a cough and runny nose 1 to 3 days before the onset of the cough. Respiratory rhonchi are heard frequently throughout the lung fields. Radiological examination is usually normal. Occasionally the epiglottitis is grossly swollen and reddened. Severe airway obstruction may ensue, necessitating an emergency tracheotomy.

IV. VLP Vaccines

[0425] Paramyxovirus VLP vaccines are novel in the art. While virosome vaccines are known, these vaccines require disrupting a purified virus, extracting the genome, and reassembling particles with the viral proteins and lipids to form lipid particles containing viral proteins. This approach is very costly. Also, since the starting material is live virus, there is a danger of contaminating the vaccine with live virus. In addition, the resulting vaccine is likely not a broad-spectrum vaccine. Furthermore, the immune response to this vaccine cannot be distinguished from a virus infection.
[0426] Paramyxovirus VLPs are believed to be a highly effective type of subunit vaccine that mimics the overall virus structure without containing genetic material that results in host cell infection. For example, a virus-like particle may completely lack the DNA or RNA genome while maintaining the authentic conformation of viral capsid proteins. Consequently, the VLP is non-infectious. Further, a virus-like particle comprising viral capsid proteins may undergo spontaneous self-assembly similar to authentic viruses. It is known, however, that polyomavirus VLP preparations are among the least developed in the art. Noad et al., “Virus-like particles as immunogens” Trends Microbiol 11:438-444 (2003).
[0427] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a vaccine comprising a paramyxovirus VLP. In one embodiment, the paramyxovirus is selected from the group including, but not limited to, Newcastle disease, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial virus. In one embodiment, the VLP comprises an M protein. In another embodiment, the VLP further comprises at least two glycoproteins. In one embodiment, the glycoproteins are selected from the group consisting of F protein and HN protein.
[0428] A. Newcastle Disease Virus
[0429] Certain embodiments of the present invention provide virus-like particles (VLPs) as a safe, broad-spectrum, and effective vaccine to protect poultry from Newcastle disease virus. Additionally, these embodiments provide systems and protocols for the large-scale, economical production of VLPs (i.e., for example, to be useful as a vaccine, VLP production must be easy and economical).
[0430] A silver stain comparision of whole virus (B1) grown in eggs are compared to VLPs grown in large scale tissue culture demonstrates that VLPs may be produced in microgram quantities (i.e., sufficient for immunogenicity testing in mice). See, FIG. 74. VLPs have been rapidly purified from large amounts of media to faciliate large scale VLP production techniques. See, Table 3.
[0431] 
[00003] [TABLE-US-00003]
  TABLE 3
 
  Large Scale VLP Preparations
          total   Total
    Particle     ng/μl   volume   protein (μg)
 
    B1 virus   HN   23.05     1 ml     23.05  
      F   11.09       11.09  
      NP   100.32       100.09  
      M   75.08       75.08  
              209.54   total
    VLP   HN   177.35   1.1 ml     195.08  
    prep1   F   349.56       384.52  
      NP   140.19       154.21  
      M   72.02       79.22  
              813.04   total
    VLP   HN   109.70   0.5 ml     54.85  
    prep2   F   85.42       42.71  
      NP   98.24       49.71  
      M   63.50       31.75  
              178.43   total
    VLP   HN   92.55   0.2 ml     18.4  
    prep 3   F   53.54       10.70  
      NP   92.13       18.26  
      M   60.89       12.18  
              59.54   total
 
[0432] Preparation 1 was contaiminated with albumin, which co-migrates with F protein. Therefore, the amounts of F in Preparation I appear enhanced when compared to NP. This albumin contamination was successfully eliminated in Preparations 2 & 3
[0433] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that virus (B1) grown in eggs (as is standard in the art) are deficient in the HN and F glycoproteins (typical of avirulent (AV) virus particles), unlike the presently disclosed VLP production methods in which virus (AV) VLP comprise HN and F glycoproteins. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates an improved vaccine comprising an NVD VLP comprising HN and F glycoproteins.
[0434] NDV subunit protein expression has been reported in the art. For example, electron microscopic examination of negatively stained extracellular fluids (ECF) from Spodoptera frugiperda cell cultures infected with a recombinant baculovirus expressing the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) revealed NDV-like envelopes which resembled the envelopes of authentic NDV. Immunogold staining with anti-NDV HN monoclonal antibodies demonstrated HN antigen in spikes on the NDV-like envelopes. The ECF from the recombinant-infected cultures also contained baculovirus particles which resembled standard baculovirus particles except that some showed polar protrusions of the envelope. Unlike the embodiments contemplated in the present invention, it was concluded that NDV HN, in the absence of the matrix protein (i.e., M protein), might be able to initiate and control the production of viral envelopes which are morphologically identical to those of authentic NDV. Nagy et al., “Synthesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-like envelopes in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase of NDV” J Gen Virol. 72:753-756 (1991).
[0435] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising a commercially usable NDV VLP vaccine. In one embodiment, producing a NDV VLP vaccine is economical and efficient. In another embodiment, immunization with an NDV VLP vaccine stimulates production of a broad spectrum of protective antibodies. In one embodiment, an avian cell line continuously expresses at least four NDV glycoproteins
[0436] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method producing NDV VLP vaccines in a transient expression system. In one embodiment, the system comprises avian cells transfected with nucleic acid (e.g., in plasmids, expression vectors, etc) encoding at least one NDV viral glycoprotein. In one embodiment, the system comprises an avian cell line with select viral genes as part of the avian cell chromosome, wherein the incorporated viral gene continually releases NDV VLP particles useful for vaccines. In one embodiment, the viral gene comprises a viral glycoprotein. In one embodiment, the viral glycoprotein is selected from the group comprising NP protein, M protein, F-K115Q protein, or HN protein.
[0437] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method of generating VLPs comprising antigens for many different NDV strains of NDV. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that an integrated NDV vaccine confers a broader protection range than that generated by current vaccines. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates an VLP vaccine expression system comprising a first cDNA encoding a first viral protein gene from a first strain; a second cDNA encoding a second viral protein gene from a second strain; and a third cDNA encoding a third viral protein gene from a third strain. In one embodiment, the first viral protein gene is selected from the group comprising HN protein, F protein, NP protein or M protein. In one embodiment, the first strain is selected from the group comprising strain Hertz, strain AV, or strain B1. In one embodiment, the second viral protein gene is selected from the group comprising HN protein, F protein, NP protein or M protein. In one embodiment, the second strain is selected from the group comprising strain Hertz, strain AV, or strain B1. In one embodiment, the third viral protein gene is selected from the group comprising HN protein, F protein, NP protein or M protein. In one embodiment, the third strain is selected from the group comprising strain Hertz, strain AV, or strain B1. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method for detecting a viral protein gene incorporated into a VLP vaccine comprising contacting the viral protein gene with strain specific antibodies or incorporated sequence tags.
[0438] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising a baculovirus expression system producing NDV VLP vaccines. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that baculovirus expression systems are capable the highest levels of expression of a protein of all expression systems available. In one embodiment, a baculovirus expression system produces milligrams of VLP vaccine. In one embodiment, a baculovirus expression vector encodes an NDV VLP vaccine. In one embodiment, an insect cell is transfected with a baculovirus expression system encoding an NDV VLP vaccine. In one embodiment, a baculovirus vector comprises at least four NDV structural proteins. For a VLP to be a realistic vaccine candidate, it needs to be produced in a safe expression system that is amenable to large-scale production. An insect-ceil-based protein production system has many advantages for VLP production. The first is that large amounts of recombinant proteins can be produced in high-density cell culture conditions in eukaryotic cells, resulting in high recovery of correctly folded antigen. Second, as the insect cells used for vaccine production can be cultured without mammalian-cell-derived supplements, the risk of culturing opportunistic pathogens is minimized. Third, the baculovirus used for recombinant protein expression has a narrow host range that includes only a few species of Lepidoptera, and therefore represents no threat to vaccinated individuals. Fourth, baculovirus is easily inactivated by simple chemical treatment, and is localized mainly in the nucleus and culture media of insect cell preparations, whereas most VLPs are purified from cytoplasmic extracts. Finally, the baculovirus system can be scaled-up for large-scale vaccine production.
[0439] B. Measles
[0440] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a measles vaccine comprising a measles virus like particle, wherein said particle comprises a measles matrix protein. In one embodiment, the vaccine further comprises at least two measles glycoproteins.
[0441] The use of VLP vaccines have been proposed for the measles paramyxovirus virus, but only retrovirus HIV VLP production was demonstrated in yeast cells. Morikawa Y., “Virus-like micrograms and process of producing the same” United States Patent Application Publ. No. 20040009193 (2004). This proposed technique is limited to VLP expression in eukaryotic bacterial cells and does not suggest either baculovirus or mammalian cell culture techniques. Further, there is no showing that these eukaryotic VLP vaccines are, in fact, safe and effective. More importantly, Morikawa's VLP measles vaccines relies upon type IV budding as described by Garoff et al., supra. Some embodiments described herein clearly demonstrate that the ribonucleic acid core is not required for paramyxovirus budding; as Garoff et al. teaches.
[0442] Another approach suggested as useful for the development of a paramyxovirus measles vaccine involves gene therapy techniques by administering a DNA vaccine. Robinson et al., “Compositions and methods for generating an immune response” United States Patent Application Publ. No. 20040105871 (2004). This technique has been demonstrated by the stable transfection of a host genome with an expression cassette comprising an HIV DNA VLP vaccine. See also, Mazzara et al., “Self assembled, defective, nonself-propagating viral particles” U.S. Pat. No. 5,804,196 (1998)(herein incorporated by reference)
[0443] An alternative gene therapy approach suggests incorporating live attenuated measles virus into an expression vector to produce a vaccine, either in vivo or in vitro. VLPs, however, are not contemplated for measles virus vaccines. Herold J., “SARS-coronavirus virus-like particles and methods of use” United States Patent Application Publ. No. 20050002953 (2005).
[0444] C. Respiratory Syncytial Virus
[0445] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine comprising a respiratory syncytial virus like particle, wherein said particle comprises a respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein. In one embodiment, the vaccine further comprises at least two respiratory syncytial virus glycoproteins.
[0446] VLPs have been disclosed for the production and use of HIV-related vaccines. In passing, it is suggested that many other virus (i.e., respiratory syncytial virus and measles virus) might also be compatible with the disclosed technology. No detail, however, is presented to support these speculations. Barnett et al., Expression of HIV polypeptides and production of virus-like particles” U.S. Pat. No. 6,602,705 (2003).
[0447] It has also been suggested that it might be possible to produce respiratory syncytial virus VLP vaccines in a manner identical to Bluetongue VLPs comprising the VP3, VP7, VP2, and VP5 genes. Ermak et al., “Oral immunization with multiple particulate antigen delivery system” U.S. Pat. No. 5,690,938 (1997)(herein incorporated by reference). Aside from this brief mention, Ermak does not provide any technical information regarding paramyxoviruses, and is limited to the Orbivirus genus (Reoviridae family).
[0448] In vivo mouse cytotoxic lymphocyte responses (i.e., an immunization response) are hypothesized to occur following exposure to recombinant HIV-1-IIIB gp 160 envelope glycoprotein complexed to microspheres and administered as a vaccine. Rock, K. L., “Compositions and methods for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses by immunization with protein antigens” U.S. Pat. No. 6,328,972 (2001). Rock suggests that VLPs having antigens to either respiratory syncytial virus or measles virus might also stimulate these cytotoxic lymphocytes to generate an immune response. There is, however, no discussion, of any technical details or expectations of success regarding this approach. In fact, Rock does not show any data relevant to VLP vaccines for any antigen.
[0449] D. Parainfluenza 3 Virus
[0450] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a parainfluenza 3 virus vaccine comprising a parainfluenza 3 virus like particle, wherein said particle comprises a parainfluenza 3 virus matrix protein. In one embodiment, the vaccine further comprises at least two parainfluenza 3 glycoproteins.
[0451] E. Enhancement of VLP Vaccines
[0452] Vaccine or treatment compositions of the invention may be administered parenterally, by injection, for example, either subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Additional formulations which are suitable for other modes of administration include suppositories, and in some cases, oral formulations or formulations suitable for distribution as aerosols. Oral formulations include such normally employed excipients as, for example, pharmaceutical grades of mannitol, lactose, starch magnesium stearate, sodium saccharine, cellulose, magnesium carbonate, and the like. These compositions take the form of solutions, suspensions, tablets, pills, capsules, sustained release formulations or powders and contain 10%-95% of active ingredient, preferably 25-70%.
[0453] In the case of the oral formulations, the manipulation of T-cell subsets employing adjuvants, antigen packaging, or the addition of individual cytokines to various formulation can result in improved oral vaccines with optimized immune responses.
[0454] 1. Adjuvants
[0455] The present invention further contemplates immunization with or without adjuvant. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a co-administration of a paramxyovirus VLP vaccine and an adjuvant, wherein the resultant immune response is enhanced. If adjuvant is used, it is not intended that the present invention be limited to any particular type of adjuvant—or that the same adjuvant, once used, be used all the time. While the present invention contemplates all types of adjuvant, whether used separately or in combinations, the preferred use of adjuvant is the use of Complete Freund's Adjuvant followed sometime later with Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant. Another preferred use of adjuvant is the use of Gerbu adjuvant (GMDP; C.C. Biotech Corp.). The invention also contemplates the use of RIBI fowl adjuvant (MPL; RIBI Immunochemical Research, Inc.). Other adjuvants include, but are not limited to, potassium alum, aluminum phosphate, aluminum hydroxide, QS21 (Cambridge Biotech), Titer Max adjuvant (CytRx), or Quil A adjuvant.
[0456] 2. Cytokines
[0457] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a co-administration of a paramxyovirus VLP vaccine and a cytokine, wherein the resultant immune response is enhanced. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that cytokines may modulate proliferation, growth, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells that ultimately produce vaccine related antibodies. In one embodiment, a cytokine may be selected from the group comprising interleukin-12 (IL-12), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), alpha, beta, or gamma-interferon (α,β,γ-IFN) or chemokines. Especially preferred cytokines include IL-12 and GM-CSF. The cytokines can be used in various combinations to fine-tune the response of an animal's immune system, including both antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, to bring out the specific level of response needed to control or eliminate a paramyxovirus infection.

V. VLP Vaccine Expression Systems

[0458] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates methods to produce VLP vaccines economically and at high production rates. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising transfecting a cell culture with a nucleic acid expression vector comprising a paramyxovirus VLP vaccine cassette. In one embodiment, the cell culture comprises avian cells (i.e., for example, ELL-0 cells). In one embodiment, the cell culture comprises a virus (i.e., for example, baculovirus).
[0459] Other cells that are useful for expression of the invention's vectors include, without limitation, avian cells, insect cells and mammalian cells. In one embodiment, the cells are in vitro.
[0460] In one embodiment the avian cell is an ELL-0 cell (East Lansing Strain of Chicken embryo fibroblast), such as that used in Examples 29-33 and 36-37. Insect cells are exemplified by Trichoplusia ni (Tn5) cells and SF9 cells. In a further embodiment, the mammalian cell may be a Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells (ATCC CC1-61), bovine mammary epithelial cells (ATCC CRL 10274), monkey kidney CV1 line transformed by SV40 (COS-7, ATCC CRL 1651), (293 or 293 cells subcloned for growth in suspension culture; see, e.g., Graham et al, J. Gen Virol., 36:59 (1977)), baby hamster kidney cells (BHK, ATCC CCL 10), mouse sertoli cells (TM4, Mather, Biol. Reprod. 23:243-251 (1980)), monkey kidney cells (CV1 ATCC CCL 70), African green monkey kidney cells (VERO-76, ATCC CRL-1587), human cervical carcinoma cells (HELA, ATCC CCL 2), canine kidney cells (MDCK, ATCC CCL 34), buffalo rat liver cells (BRL 3A, ATCC CRL 1442), human lung cells (W138, ATCC CCL 75), human liver cells (Hep G2, HB 8065), mouse mammary tumor cells (MMT 060562, ATCC CCL51); TR1 cells (Mather et al., Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci., 383:44-68 (1982)), MRC 5 cells, FS4 cells, rat fibroblast cells (208F), and MDBK cells (bovine kidney cells).
[0461] A. Avian Continuous Cell Culture Expression Systems
[0462] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising expressing paramyxoviral proteins using an avian cell culture (i.e., for example, ELL-0 cell culture). In one embodiment, the cell culture continuously expresses the proteins. In one embodiment, the paramyxoviral proteins are selected from the group including, but not limited to, Newcastle disease viral protein, measles virus proteins, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial virus proteins. In one embodiment, the paramyxoviral proteins are selected from the group including, but not limited to, matrix (M) proteins, nucleocapsid (NP) proteins, fusion (F) proteins, or heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (NM) proteins (and combinations thereof).
[0463] To generate avian cell lines expressing paramyxoviral proteins, it is useful to integrate the viral genes into an avian cell chromosome. The use of retrovirus vectors is a useful approach to accomplish this integration. Avian cells can be infected with a retrovirus containing a paramyxovirus gene and, as part of the retrovirus replication cycle, the retrovirus genome with the paramyxovirus gene will integrate into the cell chromosome. Four avian cell lines will be made: i) avian cells expressing M, NP, F, and HN proteins; ii) avian cells expressing M, NP, and F; iii) avian cells expressing M, NP, and HN proteins; and iv) avian cells expressing M, HN, and F proteins.
[0464] The retrovirus vector may be constructed such that the vector is unable to direct the formation of new, progeny retroviruses in the avian cells (i.e., non-replicability). The general approach for such studies is as follows. The paramyxovirus genes are cloned into a vector with the retrovirus ends (LTRs) and the packaging signal. This vector is, however, replication incompetent due to the lack of essential genes for that process (i.e., for example, gag or pol).
[0465] The vector DNA is transfected into a packaging cell line (i.e., for example, GP-293), a cell line expressing the retroviral structural proteins; gag, pol, and env. Also transfected with the vector is another DNA encoding the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G protein (i.e., for example, pVSV-G). These cells then replicate retrovirus vectors and package the vector RNAs in an envelope with the env protein as well as the VSV-G protein (called a pseudotype). These cells release particles, which are then purified and used to infect avian cells. The presence of the VSV-G protein allows these particles to initiate infection in the avian cells and expands the host range of the retrovirus.
[0466] Following transfection, the vector RNA is converted to DNA, which is then integrated into the avian cell chromosome. Because the avian cells are not expressing gag or pol, the retrovirus infection does not proceed and no progeny virus are released. The transfected avian cells thus continuously express the integrated paramyxoviral genes, but not retrovirus genes.
[0467] This protocol will be repeated to sequentially integrate each of the four paramyxovirus proteins. Cell lines will be characterized for expression of the paramyxovirus genes and the release of VLPs from these cell lines will be verified.
[0468] Vectors and packaging cell lines (pantropic retrovirus expression system) to accomplish these steps are available from Clontech (BD Biosciences Clontech). In addition, there is available a vector (Q vector) which is engineered so that transcription of the target gene is driven by an internal promoter once the expression cassette is integrated into the avian cell genome. The Q vectors reduce the likelihood that cellular sequences located adjacent to the vector integration site will interfere with the expression of the paramyxovirus genes or that these sequences are abnormally expressed due to proximity with the retroviral LTR.
[0469] B. Baculovirus Expression Systems
[0470] In one embodiment, the present invention may be practiced using the BacVector® system (Novagen). This system uses the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) containing inserted genes to express proteins in an insect cell line (i.e., for example, Sf9). See FIG. 30. The present invention is not limited to one method of integrating target genes in to the AcNPV genome. Numerous different transfer plasmids may be used. For example, by co-transfecting cells with AcNPV DNA and the transfer plasmid, viruses can be isolated to have the genes inserted into the virus genome by homologous recombination (i.e., for example, using BacVector® Triple Cut Virus DNA, Novagen). See FIG. 28. In one embodiment, target genes (i.e., for example, NDV, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial viral particle proteins) maybe cloned into a pBAC transfer plasmid to produce recombinant baculovirus vectors. In one embodiment, the recombination may comprise a ligation-independent cloning (LIC) technique. See FIG. 29. For example, a LIC transfer plasmid pBAC/pBACgus-2 cp may encode an upstream His-Tag and S-Tag peptide having an enterokinase (ek) cleavage site. The recombination is facilitated by primer sequences comprising: sense strand, 5′ to ATG: GACGACGACAAG (SEQ ID NO:89); antisense strand, 5′ to TTA: GAGGAGAAGCCCGG (SEQ ID NO:90).
[0471] Upon transfection, the BacVector® DNA will not produce virus unless there is a recombination event between the virus DNA and the transfer plasmid; i.e., a recombination that repairs the circular viral DNA required for replication. In one embodiment, the transfer plasmid comprises pBAC4x-1 (Novagen). See FIG. 31. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that pBAC4x-1 is constructed such that up to four (4) genes can be inserted into a single plasmid and, therefore, a single AcNPV. It is also believed that each gene is expressed using either the polh or the p10 promoters; promoters that can result in very high levels of protein expression from 24-72 hours post-infection. The pBAC4x-1 transfer vector was designed for expression of multi-subunit protein complexes and is capable of expressing the NDV M, NP, HN, and F genes either singly or in any combination.
[0472] Subsequent to co-transformation using a transfer plasmid and virus DNA, the infected cells (i.e., for example, Sf9) form plaques and express virus particles. These plaques are then isolated, wherein the expressed virus particles are purified and characterized for inserted protein gene expression. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates an infected cell expressing virus particles comprising NDV, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial protein genes, wherein the cell was transformed with baculovirus transfer plasmid. In one embodiment, the expression is characterized for optimal conditions, and times of expression, to support large-scale VLP preparation.
[0473] AcNPV-infected cells are known to produce extremely high quantities of the major very late gene products; polyhedrin (polh) and p10; 40-50% of the total cellular protein consists of these two gene products by the end of the infection cycle. Very late in infection (i.e., occurring after the budding and release phase), in both insects and in tissue culture, a large majority of the cell's transcriptional activity is dedicated to the polh and p10 promoters, which makes them ideal for use to drive the high-level expression of introduced target genes that replace these viral genes. Yields of up to 100 mg target protein per 109 cells can be obtained.
[0474] The convenience of baculoviral expression systems has improved by developing viruses having Bsu36 I restriction sites positioned within an essential gene (i.e., for example, ORF 1629) downstream of the AcNPV polyhedrin gene and in the upstream ORF 603. such that digestion releases a fragment containing a sequence necessary for virus growth. Kitts et al., BioTechniques 14:810-817 (1993). When insect cells are co-transfected with an appropriate recombinant transfer plasmid and Bsu36 I-cut virus DNA, the necessary ORF 1629 sequence is supplied by the transfer plasmid through homologous recombination. The vast majority of the progeny viruses derived from these co-transfections contain the repaired virus with the target gene, thus minimizing the need to screen and multiply plaque purify recombinants. Alternatively, other baculoviral expression systems utilize other essential genes. For example, the progenitor BacVector-1000® and BacVector-2000® viruses from which the high efficiency BacVector-1000 and -2000 Triple Cut Virus DNAs® are prepared for cotransfections have the lacZ gene (β-galactosidase) in lieu of AcNPV polyhedrin gene. These lacZ-negative recombinants can be distinguished easily from any residual parental viruses, which are visualized as blue plaques when stained with X-Gal.
[0475] LacZ recombinants form clear plaques on staining with X-Gal, since the target gene replaces lacZ when the transfer plasmid recombines with the viral genome. A third Bsu36 I site within the lacZ gene further reduces the likelihood of reforming the parental virus. In practice and under optimal conditions, the commercially available baculovirus transfection technology produces plaques that are approximately >95% recombinant.
[0476] The recent elucidation of the complete sequence of the 133,894bp AcNPV genome has revealed a total of some 154 potential genes. See FIG. 30. A large number of these genes are unnecessary for growth of the virus in tissue culture. These non-essential genes are known to compete with target genes for cellular resources and can be deleterious to the expression of some gene products. It is preferable to use a baculovirus expression system wherein competing non-essential genes have been deleted.
[0477] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates using pBAC transfer plasmids designed for the expression of target proteins (i.e., for example, NDV, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial viral proteins). Several potential pBAC transfer plasmids are shown in FIG. 31. For example, two vector backbones (shown at the top) differ only by the presence of the reporter β-glucuronidase (gus) gene driven by the p6.9 promoter (i.e., for example, the pBACgus series). Because the gus gene and P6.9 are carried with the target gene into the baculovirus genome, recombinants produce β-glucuronidase and can be identified by staining with X-gluc. The corresponding transfer plasmids lacking the gus indicator gene are about 2 kbp smaller in size and may produce higher cloning efficiencies with some large inserts.
[0478] Additionally, LIC vectors including, but not limited to, pBAC-2cp and pBACgus-2cp plasmids are ready for annealing with appropriately prepared inserts. See FIG. 31. In practice, a target sequence is generated by PCR using primers extended with defined sequences. See FIG. 29. For example, vector compatible cohesive ends (13 and 14bp on the N- and C-terminal coding sequences, respectively) are produced by treatment with T4 DNA polymerase in the presence of dATP. The 3′-5′ exonuclease activity of the enzyme digests one strand of the duplex until a dT residue is encountered in the complementary strand, whereupon the available dA is added by the polymerase activity. Aslanidis et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 18:6069-6074 (1990). The treated insert and pBAC LIC transfer plasmid are briefly annealed, and the mixture transformed into NovaBlue Competent Cells.
[0479] The prepared vectors allow fusion of target genes at the most desirable position relative to the enterokinase cleavage site following the His-Tag and S-Tag fusion sequences. Inserts may be placed such that vector-encoded sequences can be completely removed by enterokinase cleavage. See FIG. 29. In addition, the configuration of restriction sites in the multiple cloning region allows direct subcloning of inserts from many pET bacterial vectors into pBAC-1 or -2 series plasmids. The His-Tag sequence may be incorporated into, for example, the pBAC-1 or -2 vectors and encodes a consecutive stretch of 6 histidines. Alternatively, a S-Tag sequence encodes a 15 AA domain of ribonuclease A, which has a strong affinity for the 104 AA S-protein. Richards et al., In: The Enzymes, Vol. IV (Boyer, P. D., Ed.), pp. 647-806, Academic Press, New York (1971). This highly specific protein-protein interaction forms the basis for sensitive detection of fusion proteins with S-protein-reporter molecule conjugates. Chemiluminescent detection of S-Tag fusion proteins may be observed using an S-protein HRP conjugate and SuperSignal™ CL-HRP substrate. (S-Tag Rapid Assay Kit, Novagen).
[0480] The pBAC4x vectors are designed for coexpression of up to 4 genes in the same cell. These vectors are extremely useful for expression of multisubunit proteins, multiple copies of a gene, multiprotein complexes, and for studies of protein-protein interactions. Weyer et al., J. Gen. Virol. 72:2967-2974 (1991); Belyaev et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 21:1219-1223 (1993); and Belyaev et al., Gene 156:229-233 (1995).
[0481] It is known that baculoviral expression technology may be developed into an eukaryotic virus display system. Boublik et al., Bio/Technology 13:1079-1084 (1995). By appropriately engineering the AcNPV major surface glycoprotein (i.e., for example, gp64) functional proteins, including glycoproteins, can be expressed on the virus surface. A pBACsurf-1 transfer plasmid may be designed for in-frame insertion of target genes between the gp64 signal sequence and the mature protein coding sequence, under the control of the polh promoter. See FIG. 31. With this system, it is possible to construct and screen virus libraries of complex proteins for desired functional characteristics.
[0482] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates using baculovirus expression technology to infect an Sf9 insect cell culture to express NDV, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial viral proteins. These cells may be adapted for serum or serum-free monolayer, suspension, or fermentation culture, and ready for direct infection, transfection and plaque assay.
[0483] Extracts of wild-type AcNPV infected and uninfected Sf9 cells are useful for blocking non-specific binding of antibodies and other reagents to virus and insect cell proteins. The extracts are also useful for running as negative controls on Western blots, ELISA, binding assays, or enzymatic assays in which target proteins are analyzed in cell lysates.
[0484] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a VLP vaccine comprising proteins from different paramyxovirus strains. In one embodiment, the paramyxovirus strain is selected from the group including, but not limited to, Newcastle disease virus, measles virus, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial virus. In one embodiment, the NDV strain is virulent. In another embodiment, the virulent NDV strain may be selected from the group comprising strain AV and strain Hertz. In one embodiment, the NDV strain is avirulent. In another embodiment, the avirulent strain comprises strain B1.
[0485] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a composition comprising a cDNA clones encoding at least one paramyxovirus structural protein. In one embodiment, the structural protein comprises an HN glycoprotein. In one embodiment, the paramyxovirus is selected from the group including, but not limited to, Newcastle disease virus, measles virus, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial virus. In one embodiment, the clone is derived from a virulent NDV strain. In another embodiment, the virulent NDV strain may be selected from the group comprising strain AV and strain Hertz. In another embodiment, the clone is derived from an avirulent NDV strain. In one embodiment, the avirulent NDV strain comprises strain B1.

VI. VLP Vaccine Sequence Tags

[0486] In another embodiment, the present invention contemplates a paramyxovirus VLP vaccine such as, but not limited to, a Newcastle disease virus VLP vaccine, a measles virus VLP vaccine, a parainfluenza virus 3 VLP vaccine, or a respiratory syncytial virus VLP vaccine, wherein said vaccine comprises a sequence tag. In one embodiment, the vaccine is administered to a host. In one embodiment, the sequence tag is detected.
[0487] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a vector comprising at least one cDNA encoding a paramyxoviral protein, wherein said cDNA comprises a sequence tag. In one embodiment, the cDNA is transfected into a host cell. In one embodiment, the cDNA is incorporated into a host genome. In another embodiment, the cDNA resides in the host cytoplasm. In one embodiment, the sequence tag is detected.
[0488] A. Antibody Tags
[0489] The present invention contemplates some embodiments comprising a paramyxoviral glycoprotein expressed with a terminal sequence tag. In one embodiment, the tag comprises FLAG, HA and MYC tags.
[0490] In response to the rapidly growing field of proteomics, the use of recombinant proteins has increased greatly in recent years. Recombinant hybrids contain a polypeptide fusion partner, termed affinity tag (i.e., for example, a sequence tag), to facilitate the purification of the target polypeptides. The advantages of using fusion proteins to facilitate purification and detection of recombinant proteins are well-recognized. The present invention is compatible with various affinity sequence tags including, but not limited to, Arg-tag, calmodulin-binding peptide, cellulose-binding domain, DsbA, c-myc-tag, glutathione S-transferase, FLAG-tag, HAT-tag, His-tag, maltose-binding protein, NusA, S-tag, SBP-tag, Strep-tag, and thioredoxin. Terpe K., “Overview of tag protein fusions: from molecular and biochemical fundamentals to commercial systems” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 60:523-33 (2003).
[0491] FLAG, HA, and MYC are short amino acid sequences for which there are commercially available antibodies (i.e., for example, ELISA kits). In one embodiment, a F protein comprises a terminal FLAG tag. In one embodiment, the terminal comprises the C-terminal. In another embodiment, the terminal comprises the N-terminal. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that F or HN viral proteins comprising a terminal sequence tag (i.e., for example, FLAG or HA) are completely functional. It is further believed that when an F protein (or any other viral protein) comprising a terminal tag is incorporated into a VLP, immunized animals will make antibodies not only to the F protein, but also to the terminal tag (i.e., for example, a FLAG amino acid sequence).
[0492] Antibodies specific for sequence tags have affinities for specific protein sequences, known as an epitopes. An epitope has the property that it selectively interacts with molecules and/or materials containing acceptor groups. The present invention is compatible with many epitope sequences reported in the literature including, but not limited to, H is X6 (HHHHHH) (SEQ ID NO:91) (ClonTech), C-myc (-EQKLISEEDL) (SEQ ID NO:92) (Roche-BM), FLAG (DYKDDDDK) (SEQ ID NO:93) (Stratagene), SteptTag (WSHPQFEK) (SEQ ID NO:94) (Sigma-Genosys), and HA Tag (YPYDVPDYA) (SEQ ID NO:95) (Roche-BM).
[0493] The FLAG peptide (Asp-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys) (SEQ ID NO:93) has been used as an epitope tag in a variety of cell types. For example, the modification of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter containing vector, pCMV5, created two transient expression vectors designed for secretion and intracellular expression of FLAG-fusion proteins in mammalian cells. As a functional test, the bacterial alkaline phosphatase gene was cloned into both vectors, and anti-FLAG monoclonal antibodies were used for detection of FLAG epitope-tagged bacterial alkaline phosphatase in mammalian cells. In addition, secreted bacterial alkaline phosphatase was purified from the extracellular medium by anti-FLAG affinity chromatography. Chubet et al., “Vectors for expression and secretion of FLAG epitope-tagged proteins in mammalian cells” Biotechniques 20:136-41 (1996).
[0494] The net negatively charged HA-tag sequence (Tyr-Pro-Tyr-Asp-Val-Pro-Asp-Tyr-Ala) (SEQ ID NO:95) from the hemagglutinin influenza virus has proven useful in tagging proteins related to a wide variety of proteomic applications. In one embodiment, embodiment the present invention contemplates an improved HA epitope tag. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that the ability to metabolically label proteins with 35S-methionine facilitates the analysis of protein synthesis and turnover. However, efficient labeling of proteins in vivo is often limited by a low number of available methionine residues, or by deleterious side-effects associated with protein overexpression. To overcome these limitations, a methionine-rich variant of the widely used HA tag, called HAM, maybe useful with ectopically expressed proteins. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates the development of a series of vectors, and corresponding antisera, for the expression and detection of HAM-tagged VLP viral proteins. These HAM tags improve the sensitivity of 35S-methionine labeling and permit the analysis of Myc oncoprotein turnover even when HAM-tagged Myc is expressed at levels comparable to that of the endogenous protein. Because of the improved sensitivity provided by the HAM tag, the vectors described herein should be useful for the detection of radiolabeled VLP proteins. Herbst et al., “HAM: a new epitope-tag for in vivo protein labeling” Mol Biol Rep. 27:203-8 (2000).
[0495] Alternatively, antibodies may be generated to recognize specific sequences within a protein or oligonucleotide. Such antibodies may be polyclonal or monoclonal. For example, specific sequences to a carcinoembryonic antigen may be detectable by antibodies. Barnett et al., “Antibody preparations specifically binding to unique determinants of CEA antigens or fragments thereof and use of the antibody preparations in immunoassays” U.S. Pat. No. 6,013,772 (2000)(herein incorporated by reference). Similarly, antibodies may be raised to specific nucleotide sequences. Tchen et al., “Probe containing a modified nucleic acid recognizable by specific antibodies and use of this probe to detect and characterize a homologous DNA sequence” U.S. Pat. No. 5,098,825 (1992)(herein incorporated by reference).
[0496] Numerous immunoassays may be used according to the present invention. The readout systems capable of being employed in these assays are numerous and non-limiting examples of such systems include fluorescent and colorimetric enzyme systems, radioisotopic labeling and detection and chemiluminescent systems. For example, an antibody preparation having a sequence-specific affinity for a sequence-tagged NDV viral protein (preferably a VLP particle protein) is attached to a solid phase (i.e., for example, a microtiter plate or latex beads). This antibody-VLP protein complex is then washed to remove unbound VLP particle proteins. After washing, color or fluorescence is developed by adding a chromogenic or fluorogenic substrate to activate the VLP protein sequence tag. The amount of color or fluorescence developed is proportional to the amount of VLP protein in the sample.
[0497] B. Chemical Tags
[0498] Sequence tags (i.e., nucleotide and/or protein sequences) also include molecules which will be recognized by the enzymes of the transcription and/or translation process without steric or electrostatic interference. Detection of sequence tags may occur through release of a label. Such labels may include, but are not limited to one or more of any of dyes, radiolabels, binding moieties such as biotin, mass tags, such as metal ions or chemical groups, charge tags, such as polyamines or charged dyes, haptens such as digoxygenin, luminogenic, phosphorescent or fluorogenic moieties, and fluorescent dyes, either alone or in combination with moieties that can suppress or shift emission spectra, such as by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) or collisional fluorescence energy transfer. Aizenstein et al., “Methods and compositions for detecting target sequences” U.S. Pat. No. 6,913,881 (2005)(herein incorporated by reference).
[0499] When TdT or polyA polymerase is employed, an oligonucleotide may contain a 5′ end label. The invention is not limited by the nature of the 5′ end label; a wide variety of suitable 5′ end labels are known to the art and include biotin, fluorescein, tetrachlorofluorescein, hexachlorofluorescein, Cy3 amidite, Cy5 amidite and digoxigenin. A radioisotope label (e.g., a 32P or 35S-labelled nucleotide) may be placed at either the 5′ or 3′ end of the oligonucleotide or alternatively, distributed throughout the oligonucleotide (i.e., a uniformly labeled oligonucleotide). A biotinylated oligonucleotide may be detected by probing with a streptavidin molecule that is coupled to an indicator (e.g., alkaline phosphatase or a fluorophore) or a hapten such as dioxigenin and may be detected using a specific antibody coupled to a similar indicator. The reactive group may also be a specific configuration or sequence of nucleotides that can bind or otherwise interact with a secondary agent, such as another nucleic acid, and enzyme, or an antibody.
[0500] To be useful, sequence tags must possess certain physical and physio-chemical properties. First, a sequence tag must be suitable for incorporation into either a growing peptide chain or oligonucleotide. This may be determined by the presence of chemical groups which will participate in peptide or phosphodiester bond formation. Second, sequence tags should be attachable to a tRNA molecule or a nucleic acid polymerase complex. Third, sequence tags should have one or more physical properties that facilitate detection and possibly isolation of nascent proteins or oligonucleotides. Useful physical properties include a characteristic electromagnetic spectral property such as emission or absorbance, magnetism, electron spin resonance, electrical capacitance, dielectric constant or electrical conductivity.
[0501] Useful sequence tags comprise native amino acids coupled with a detectable label, detectable non-native amino acids, detectable amino acid analogs and detectable amino acid derivatives. Labels and other detectable moieties may be ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, diamagnetic, luminescent, electrochemiluminescent, fluorescent, phosphorescent, chromatic or have a distinctive mass. Fluorescent moieties which are useful as sequence tags include dansyl fluorophores, coumarins and coumarin derivatives, fluorescent acridinium moieties and benzopyrene based fluorophores. Preferably, the fluorescent marker has a high quantum yield of fluorescence at a wavelength different from native amino acids and more preferably has high quantum yield of fluorescence can be excited in both the UV and visible portion of the spectrum. Upon excitation at a preselected wavelength, the marker is detectable at low concentrations either visually or using conventional fluorescence detection methods. Electrochemiluminescent markers such as ruthenium chelates and its derivatives or nitroxide amino acids and their derivatives are preferred when extreme sensitivity is desired. DiCesare et al., BioTechniques 15:152-59 (1993). These sequence tags are detectable at the femtomolar ranges and below.
[0502] In addition to fluorescence, properties based on the interaction and response of a sequence tag to electromagnetic fields, radiation, light absorption (i.e., for example, UV, visible and infrared), resonance Raman spectroscopy, electron spin resonance activity, nuclear magnetic resonances, and mass spectrometry. Electromagnetic spectroscopic properties of a sequence tag are preferably not possessed by a naturally occurring compound and, therefore, are readily distinguishable. For example, the amino acid tryptophan absorbs near 290 nm, and has fluorescent emission near 340 nm. Thus, tryptophan analogs with absorption and/or fluorescence properties that are sufficiently different from tryptophan can be used to facilitate their detection in proteins.
[0503] For example, many different modified amino acids which can be used as sequence tags are commercially available (Sigma Chemical; St. Louis, Mo.; Molecular Probes; Eugene, Oreg.). One such sequence tag is N-ε-dansyllysine and may created by the misaminoacylation of a dansyl fluorophore to a tRNA molecule. Another such sequence tag is a fluorescent amino acid analog based on the highly fluorescent molecule coumarin. This fluorophore has a much higher fluorescence quantum yield than dansyl chloride and can facilitate detection of much lower levels. Rothschild et al., “Methods for the detection, analysis and isolation of nascent proteins” U.S. Pat. No. 6,875,592 (2005)(herein incorporated by reference).
[0504] Sequence tags for a protein can be chemically synthesized from a native amino acid and a molecule with marker properties which cannot normally function as an amino acid. For example a highly fluorescent molecule can be chemically linked to a native amino acid group. The chemical modification can occur on the amino acid side-chain, leaving the carboxyl and amino functionalities free to participate in a polypeptide bond formation. For example, a highly fluorescent dansyl chloride can be linked to the nucleophilic side chains of a variety of amino acids including lysine, arginine, tyrosine, cysteine, histidine, etc., mainly as a sulfonamide for amino groups or sulfate bonds to yield fluorescent derivatives. Such derivatization leaves the ability to form peptide bond intact, allowing the normal incorporation of dansyllysine into a protein.
[0505] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a fluorophore comprising a dipyrrometheneboron difluoride (BODIPY) derivative. The core structure of all BODIPY fluorophores is 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene. See U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,774,339; 5,187,288; 5,248,782; 5,274,113; 5,433,896; 5,451,663 (all hereby incorporated by reference). All BODIPY fluorophores have a high extinction coefficient, high fluorescence quantum yield, spectra that are insensitive to solvent polarity and pH, narrow emission bandwidth resulting in a higher peak intensity compared to other dyes such as fluorescein, absence of ionic charge and enhanced photostability compared to fluorescein. The addition of substituents to the basic BODIPY structure which cause additional conjugation can be used to shift the wavelength of excitation or emission to convenient wavelengths compatible with the means of detection.
[0506] A variety of BODIPY molecules are commercially available in an amine reactive form which can be used to derivatize aminoacylated tRNAs. One example of a compound from this family which exhibits superior properties for incorporation of a detectable sequence tag into nascent proteins is 4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY-FL). When the sulfonated N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) derivative of BODIPY-FL is used to place a sequence tag on an E. coli initiator tRNAfmet, the labeled protein can be easily detected on polyacrylamide gels after electrophoresis using a standard UV-transilluminator and photographic or CCD imaging system. This can be accomplished by using purified tRNAfmet which is first aminoacylated with methionine and then the α-amino group of methionine is specifically modified using NHS-BODIPY. Varshney et al., “Direct analysis of aminoacylation levels of tRNA in vitro” J. Biol. Chem. 266:24712-24718 (1991).
[0507] C. Unique Sequence Tags
[0508] Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) is a technique that allows a rapid, detailed analysis of thousands of transcripts. SAGE is based on two principles. First, a short nucleotide sequence tag (i.e., for example, 9 to 10 base pairs (bps)) contains sufficient information to uniquely identify a transcript, provided it is isolated from a defined position within the transcript. For example, a sequence as short as 9 bp can distinguish 262,144 transcripts given a random nucleotide distribution at the tag site, whereas current estimates suggest that even the human genome encodes only about 80,000 transcripts. Second, concatenation of short sequence tags allows the efficient analysis of transcripts in a serial manner by the sequencing of multiple tags within a single clone. As with serial communication by computers, wherein information is transmitted as a continuous string of data, serial analysis of the sequence tags requires a means to establish the register and boundaries of each tag.
[0509] Double-stranded cDNA may then be synthesized from mRNA by means of a biotinylated oligo(dT) primer. The cDNA is then cleaved with a restriction endonuclease (anchoring enzyme) that can be expected to cleave most transcripts at least once. Typically, restriction endonucleases with 4-bp recognition sites are used for this purpose because they cleave every 256 bp on average, whereas most transcripts are considerably larger. The most 3′ portion of the cleaved cDNA is then isolated by binding to streptavidin beads. This process provides a unique site on each transcript that corresponds to the restriction site located closest to the polyadenylated [poly(A)] tail. The cDNA is then divided in half and ligated via the anchoring restriction site to one of two linkers containing a type IIS (tagging enzyme). Type IIS restriction endonucleases cleaves at a defined distance up to 20 bp away from their asymmetric recognition sites. The linkers are designed so that cleavage of the ligation products with the tagging enzyme results in release of the linker with a short piece of the cDNA.
[0510] For example, a combination of anchoring enzyme and tagging enzyme that would yield a 9-bp tag can be cured. After blunt ends are created, the two pools of released tags are ligated to each other. Ligated tags then serve as templates for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific to each linker. This step serves several purposes in addition to allowing amplification of the tag sequences. First, it provides for orientation and punctuation of the tag sequence in a very compact manner. The resulting amplification products contain two tags (one ditag) linked tail to tail, flanked by sites for the anchoring enzyme. In the final sequencing template, this results in 4 bp of punctuation per ditag. Second and most importantly, the analysis of ditags, formed before any amplification steps, provides a means to completely eliminate potential distortions introduced by PCR. Because the probability of any two tags being coupled in the same ditag is small, even for abundant transcripts, repeated ditags potentially produced by biased PCR can be excluded from analysis without substantially altering the final results. Cleavage of the PCR product with the anchoring enzyme allows for the isolation of ditags that can then be concentrated by ligation, cloned, and sequenced.
[0511] In addition to providing quantitative information on the abundance of known transcripts, SAGE can be used to identify NDV expressed genes. SAGE can provide both quantitative and qualitative data about gene expression. The combination of different anchoring enzymes with various recognition sites and type IIS enzymes with cleavage sites 5 to 20 bp from their recognition elements lends great flexibility to this strategy.
[0512] D. Direct Detection Technology
[0513] When a sufficient amount of a nucleic acid to be detected is available, there are advantages to detecting that sequence directly, instead of making more copies of that target, (e.g., as in PCR and LCR). Most notably, a method that does not amplify the signal exponentially is more amenable to quantitative analysis. Even if the signal is enhanced by attaching multiple dyes to a single oligonucleotide, the correlation between the final signal intensity and amount of target is direct. Such a system has an additional advantage that the products of the reaction will not themselves promote further reaction, so contamination of lab surfaces by the products is not as much of a concern. Traditional methods of direct detection including Northern and Southern blotting and RNase protection assays usually require the use of radioactivity and are not amenable to automation. Recently devised techniques have sought to eliminate the use of radioactivity and/or improve the sensitivity in automatable formats. Two examples are the “Cycling Probe Reaction” (CPR), and “Branched DNA” (bDNA).
[0514] The cycling probe reaction (CPR), uses a long chimeric oligonucleotide in which a central portion is made of RNA while the two termini are made of DNA. Duck et al., BioTech., 9:142 (1990). Hybridization of the probe to a target DNA and exposure to a thermostable RNase H causes the RNA portion to be digested. This destabilizes the remaining DNA portions of the duplex, releasing the remainder of the probe from the target DNA and allowing another probe molecule to repeat the process. The signal, in the form of cleaved probe molecules, accumulates at a linear rate. While the repeating process increases the signal, the RNA portion of the oligonucleotide is vulnerable to RNases that may be carried through sample preparation.
[0515] Branched DNA (bDNA) involves oligonucleotides with branched structures that allow each individual oligonucleotide to carry 35 to 40 labels (e.g., alkaline phosphatase enzymes). Urdea et al., Gene 61:253-264 (1987). While this enhances the signal from a hybridization event, signal from non-specific binding is similarly increased.

VII. In Vivo Vaccination

[0516] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a paramyxovirus VLP vaccine comprising at least one viral glycoprotein wherein the vaccine is antigenic. In one embodiment, the vaccine stimulates an immune response to diseases including, but not limited to, Newcastle disease, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial virus infection. In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising administering a purified antigenic paramyxovirus VLP vaccine to a host (i.e., for example, a mouse or chicken) under conditions that generate an immune response. In one embodiment, the immune response is characterized by measuring the serum glycoprotein antibody levels. In one embodiment, the viral glycoprotein comprises an NDV glycoprotein. In one embodiment, the viral glycoprotein comprises a measles virus glycoprotein. In one embodiment, the viral glycoprotein comprises a respiratory syncytial virus glycoprotein.
[0517] In one embodiment, the present invention contemplates a method comprising administering a purified antigenic NVD, measles, parainfluenza virus 3, or respiratory syncytial virus VLP vaccine to a chicken to create a vaccinated chicken. In one embodiment, the method further comprises administering a live virus challenge to the vaccinated chicken. In one embodiment, the method further comprises determining the NDV infection rate to the vaccinated chicken.

VIII. Vectors Containing Newcastle Disease Virus Sequences

[0518] The invention provides expression vectors containing Newcastle Disease Virus Sequences. These vectors are useful in, for example, generating VLPs that contain proteins of interest. In one embodiment, the expressed VLPs are capable of eliciting an immune response by an animal host against the protein.
[0519] The invention is premised, in part, on the inventor's discovery that expression of protein chimeras in which a heterologous type 1 protein, or a portion thereof, is flanked by a transmembrane domain and by a cytoplasmic domain of Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein results in expression of VLPs (see for example, Examples 29-31) that are capable of immunizing a host against the type 1 protein (see for example, Examples 34-36).
[0520] The invention is also based, in part, on the inventor's discovery that NDV proteins that are incorporated into VLPs elicit an immune response, and that foreign glycoproteins can be incorporated into VLPs (see, for example, Examples 32-36).
[0521] The invention is further premised, in part, on the inventor's discovery that expression of protein chimeras in which an epitope is expressed as a fusion protein with either the NDV HN protein or NDV NP protein resulted in the incorporation of the epitope into VLPs (see for example, Example 37).
[0522] In one embodiment, the invention provides a expression vector comprising, in operable combination: a) a nucleic acid sequence encoding a Newcastle Disease Virus matrix (M) protein, b) a first nucleic acid sequence encoding a transmembrane domain (TM) protein, c) a second nucleic acid sequence encoding Newcastle Disease Virus cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, and c) a third nucleic acid sequence encoding a protein, wherein the first nucleic acid sequence is flanked by the second and third nucleic acid sequences. This is exemplified by FIGS. 164-171 and 177-178, and Examples 29-33 and 36-37.
[0523] The term “expression vector” as used herein refers to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a desired coding sequence and appropriate nucleic acid sequences necessary for the expression (i.e., transcription and/or translation) of the operably linked coding sequence in a host cell. Expression vectors are exemplified by, but not limited to, plasmid, phagemid, shuttle vector, cosmid, virus, chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, plastid DNA, and nucleic acid fragment. Nucleic acid sequences used for expression in prokaryotes include a promoter, optionally an operator sequence, a ribosome binding site and possibly other sequences. Eukaryotic cells are known to utilize promoters, enhancers, and termination and polyadenylation signals.
[0524] The terms “operable combination” and “operably linked” when in reference to the relationship between nucleic acid sequences and/or amino acid sequences refers to linking the sequences such that they perform their intended function. For example, operably linking a promoter sequence to a nucleotide sequence of interest refers to linking the promoter sequence and the nucleotide sequence of interest in a manner such that the promoter sequence is capable of directing the transcription of the nucleotide sequence of interest resulting in an mRNA that directs the synthesis of a polypeptide encoded by the nucleotide sequence of interest. The term also refers to the linkage of amino acid sequences in such a manner so that a functional protein is produced.
[0525] In another example, the nucleotide sequences encoding the TM domain and protein are operably linked if the vector containing the nucleotide sequences is capable of directing expression of the TM domain and of the protein. Thus, while not intending to limit the number of nucleotides between the nucleic acid sequence that encodes the TM domain and the nucleic acid sequence that encodes the protein of interest, in one embodiment, the vector may contain from 0 to 30 nucleotides between the nucleic acid sequence that encodes the TM domain and the nucleic acid sequence that encodes the protein of interest. In another embodiment, the vector contains from 0 to 3 nucleotides between the nucleic acid sequence that encodes the TM domain and the nucleic acid sequence that encodes the protein of interest (See, for example, FIGS. 165 and 168, and Examples 30 and 32).
[0526] Also, while not intending to limit the number of nucleotides between the nucleic acid sequence that encodes the TM domain and the nucleic acid sequence that encodes the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) cytoplasmic domain (CT), in one embodiment the vector may contain from 0 to 10 nucleotides between the nucleic acid sequence that encodes the TM domain and the nucleic acid sequence that encodes the NDV CT.
[0527] The term “flanked,” when used in reference to, for example, a DNA sequence that is flanked by two nucleic acid sequences, means that one of the nucleic acid sequences is located near or at the 3′-end of the DNA sequence while the other nucleic acid sequence is located near or at the 5′-end of the DNA sequence. The term “flanked,” when used in reference to, for example, a protein sequence that is flanked by two polypeptide sequences, means that one of the polypeptide sequences is located near or at the amino-terminal of the protein sequence while the other polypeptide sequence is located near or at the carboxy-terminal of the protein sequence.
[0528] A. Transmembrane Domain (TM)
[0529] In one embodiment, the invention's expression vectors are contemplated to contain nucleic acid sequences encoding a transmembrane domain. The terms “transmembrane domain” and “TM” are used interchangeably to refer to a protein sequence, and portions thereof, that spans the lipid bilayer of a cell, virus and the like. Methods for determining the TM of a protein are known in the art (Elofsson et al. (2007) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 76:125-140; Bemsel et al. (2005) Protein Science 14:1723-1728).
[0530] The TM may be derived from any membrane protein. In one embodiment, the TM is derived from a NDV protein, such as NDV F protein and NDV HN protein. In a particular embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encodes one or more Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. This is useful in, for example, expressing type 1 proteins and portions thereof (see Examples 29-31), type 3 proteins and portions thereof, soluble proteins and portions thereof, and epitopes (see for example, Example 37). Exemplary Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein transmembrane domain (TM) proteins are shown in Table 4 (SEQ ID NOs: 303-317).
[0531] 
[00004] [TABLE-US-00004]
  TABLE 4
 
  Exemplary New Castle Disease Virus (NDV) F protein Cytoplasmic
  (CT) and Transmembrane (TM) Sequences
  Strain of    
  NDV   TM   CT
 
  AV   TSTSALITYIALTAISLVCGILSLVLACYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLGQMRATTKM
    (SEQ ID NO: 303)   (SEQ ID NO: 318)
 
  QUE   TSTSALITYIVLTVISLVCGILSLVLACYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLGQMRATTKM
    (SEQ ID NO: 304)   (SEQ ID NO: 319)
 
  ULS   TSTSALITYIVLTVISLVCGILSLVLACYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLGQMRATTKM
    (SEQ ID NO: 305)   (SEQ ID NO: 320)
 
  B1   TSTSALITYIVLTIISLVCGILSLILAFYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLGQMRATTKM
    (SEQ ID NO: 306)   (SEQ ID NO: 321)
 
  LAS   TSTSALITYIVLTIISLVCGILSLILAFYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLGQMRATTKM
    (SEQ ID NO: 307)   (SEQ ID NO: 322)
 
  TEX   TSTSALITYIVLTIISLVCGILSLVLAFYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLGQMRATTKM
    (SEQ ID NO: 308)   (SEQ ID NO: 323)
 
  D26   TSTSALITYIFLTVISLVCGILSLVLACYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLGQMRATTKM
    (SEQ ID NO: 309)   (SEQ ID NO: 324)
 
  MIY   TSTSALITYIVLTVISLVCGILSLVLACYLMH   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLGQMRATTKA
    (SEQ ID NO: 310)   (SEQ ID NO: 325)
 
  HER   TSTSALITYIVLTVISLVCGVLSLVLAFYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLGQMRATTKI
    (SEQ ID NO: 311)   (SEQ ID NO: 326)
 
  ITA   TSTSALITYIVLTVISLVCGVLSLVLAFYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLGQMRATTKI
    (SEQ ID NO: 312)   (SEQ ID NO: 327)
 
  MEX   TSTSALITYIVLAVVSLAFGVISLVLACYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLDQMRATTRT
  37821-   (SEQ ID NO: 313)   (SEQ ID NO: 328)
  550-1/96    
 
  HOND   TSTSALITYIVLAVISLAFGVISLVLACYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLDQMRATTRT
  44815/00   (SEQ ID NO: 314)   (SEQ ID NO: 329)
 
  ZJ1-00   TSTSALITYIVLTVISLVFGALSLGLACYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLDQMRATTRA
  China   (SEQ ID NO: 315)   (SEQ ID NO: 330)
 
  SD6.04   TSTSALITYIVLTIISLVFGILSLVLACYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLDQMRATT
  China   (SEQ ID NO: 316)   (SEQ ID NO: 331)
 
  JS2.98   INTSALITYIVLTVISLVFSALGLILGCYLMY   KQKAQQKTLLWLGNNTLDQMRATT
  China   (SEQ ID NO: 317)   (SEQ ID NO: 332)
 
[0532] In a further embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encodes one or more Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. This is useful in, for example, expressing type 2 proteins and portions thereof (see Examples 32-33), type 3 proteins and portions thereof, soluble proteins and portions thereof, and epitopes (see for example, Example 37). Exemplary Newcastle Disease Virus HN protein transmembrane domain (TM) proteins are shown in Table 5 (SEQ ID NOs: 352-370).
[0533] 
[00005] [TABLE-US-00005]
  TABLE 5
 
  Exemplary New Castle Disease Virus (NDV) HN protein Cyto-
  plasmic (CT) and Transmembrane (TM) Sequences
  Strain of    
  NDV   CT   TM
 
  AV   MNRAVCQVALENDEREAKNTWRLVFR   IAILLLTVMTLAISAAALAYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 333)   (SEQ ID NO: 352)
 
  V   MNRAVCQVALENDEREAKNTWRLVFR   IAILLLTVMTLAISAAALAYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 334)   (SEQ ID NO: 353)
 
  QUE   MDRAVSQVALENDEREAKNTWRLVFR   IAILLSTVVTLAISAAALAYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 335)   (SEQ ID NO: 354)
 
  ULS   MDRAVSQVALENDEREAKNTWRLVFR   IAILFLTVVTLAISAAALAYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 336)   (SEQ ID NO: 355)
 
  B1   MDRAVSQVALENDEREAKNTWRLIFR   IAILFLTVVTLAISVASLLYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 337)   (SEQ ID NO: 356)
 
  LAS   MDRAVSQVALENDEREAKNTWRLIFR   IAILFLTVVTLAISVASLLYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 338)   (SEQ ID NO: 357)
 
  TEX   MDRAVSQVALENDEREAKNTWRLIFR   IAILLLTVVTLATSVASLVYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 339)   (SEQ ID NO: 358)
 
  D26   MDRAVSQVALENDEREAKNTWRLVFR   IAILLLTVVTLAISAAALAYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 340)   (SEQ ID NO: 359)
 
  MIY   MDRTVNQVALENDEREAKNTWRLVFR   IATLLLIVMTLAFSAAALAYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 341)   (SEQ ID NO: 360)
 
  HER   MDRAVSRVALENEEREAKNTWRFVFR   IAILLLIVITLAISAAALVYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 342)   (SEQ ID NO: 361)
 
  ITA   MDLPVGRVALENEEREAKNTWRFVFR   IAIFLLIVITLAISAAALVYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 343)   (SEQ ID NO: 362)
 
  CHI   MDRAVNRVVLENEEREAKNTWRLVFR   IAVLLLMVMTLAISAAALVYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 344)   (SEQ ID NO: 363)
 
  IBA   MDRAVSRVVLENEEREAKNTWRFVFR   IAVLLLIVMTLAISAAALVYSM
    (SEQ ID NO: 345)   (SEQ ID NO: 364)
 
  JS-1/06   MDRAVNRVVLENEEREAKNTWRLVF   IAVLLLMVMTLAISAAALAYSTGAST
  CHINA   (SEQ ID NO: 346)   (SEQ ID NO: 365)
 
  GPMV   MDRAVNRVVLENEEREAKNTWRLVFR   IAVLLLMVMTLAISSAALAYSTGAST
  QY97-1   (SEQ ID NO: 347)   (SEQ ID NO: 366)
  CHINA    
 
  ASTR/74   MDRVVSRVVLENEEREAKNTWRLVFR   IAVLLLIVMTLAISAAALVYSMGAIM
  RUSSIA   (SEQ ID NO: 348)   (SEQ ID NO: 367)
 
  MK13   MDHTVNRVVLENEEREAKNTWRSVFR   TTVLLLMVMTLAISIAALVYIMGAST
  IRAN   (SEQ ID NO: 349)   (SEQ ID NO: 368)
 
  US/CA   MDRVVSRVVLENEEREAKNTWRLVFR   IAVLSLVVMTLAISVATLVYSM
  211472/02   (SEQ ID NO: 350)   (SEQ ID NO: 369)
  UNITED    
  STATES    
 
  MEXICO/96   MDRVVSRVVLENEEREAKNTWRLVFR   IAVLSLIVMTLAISVAALVYSM
  37821-550   (SEQ ID NO: 351)   (SEQ ID NO: 370)
 
[0534] In another embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encodes one or more transmembrane domain protein that is derived from a membrane protein other than from an NDV protein. This is useful in, for example, expressing type 1 proteins and portions thereof (see for example, Examples 29-31), type 2 proteins and portions thereof, type 3 proteins and portions thereof, soluble proteins and portions thereof, and epitopes (see for example, Example 37).
[0535] TM derived from proteins other than from an NDV protein include, but are not limited to, the TM of influenza virus HA protein (type 1 glycoprotein) (see, for example, FIG. 177), TM of influenza virus NA protein (type 2 glycoprotein) (see, for example, FIG. 178), TM of the G protein-coupled receptor (U.S. Pat. No. 7,105,488), TM of leucine zipper EF hand transmembrane receptor (U.S. Pat. No. 7,005,254), TM of Escherichia coli LipoF and OmpF proteins (U.S. Pat. No. 6,875,853), TM of Escherichia coli OmpA protein (U.S. Pat. No. 5,348,867), TM of human T cell receptor a chain (U.S. Pat. No. 6,696,545), TM of HLA class I and CD4 proteins (U.S. Pat. No. 6,423,316), TM of human MHC HLA-G protein (U.S. Pat. No. 6,291,659), TM of squalene synthetase (U.S. Pat. No. 5,589,372), and TM of CD4 and of CD8 (U.S. Pat. No. 5,250,431).
[0536] B. Newcastle Disease Virus Cytoplasmic Domain (CT)
[0537] In one embodiment, the invention's expression vectors are contemplated to contain a nucleic acid sequence encoding a Newcastle Disease Virus cytoplasmic domain. The terms “cytoplasmic domain,” “cytoplasmic tail,” and “CT” are used interchangeably to refer to a protein sequence, and portions thereof, that is on the cytoplasmic side of the lipid bilayer of a cell, virus and the like. Methods for determining the CT of a protein are known in the art (Elofsson et al. (2007) and Bermsel et al. (2005)).
[0538] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. This is useful in, for example, expressing type 1 proteins and portions thereof (see for example, Examples 29-31), type 3 proteins and portions thereof, soluble proteins and portions thereof, and epitopes (see for example, Example 37). Examples of NDV fusion (F) protein CT proteins are in Table 4, supra (SEQ ID NOs: 318-332).
[0539] In another embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. This is useful in, for example, expressing type 2 proteins and portions thereof (see for example, Examples 32-33), type 3 proteins and portions thereof, soluble proteins and portions thereof, and epitopes (see for example, Example 37). Examples of NDV heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein CT proteins are in Table 5, supra (SEQ ID NOs: 333-351).
[0540] C. Proteins of Interest
[0541] In one embodiment, the invention's expression vectors are contemplated to contain a nucleic acid sequence encoding a protein of interest. The term “protein of interest” refers to any protein, or portion thereof, that one of ordinary skill in the art may wish to use for any reason, including, without limitation, endogenous and heterologous proteins. The terms “endogenous” and “wild type” refer to a sequence that is naturally found in the cell, virus, or virus-like particle into which it is introduced so long as it does not contain some modification relative to the naturally-occurring sequence. The term “heterologous” refers to a sequence, which is not endogenous to the cell, virus, or virus-like particle into which it is introduced. For example, heterologous DNA includes a nucleotide sequence, which is ligated to, or is manipulated to become ligated to, a nucleic acid sequence to which it is not ligated in nature, or to which it is ligated at a different location in nature. Heterologous DNA also includes a nucleotide sequence, which is naturally found in the cell or VLP into which it is introduced and which contains some modification relative to the naturally-occurring sequence. Generally, although not necessarily, heterologous DNA encodes heterologous RNA and protein of interest that are not normally produced by the cell, virus, or virus-like particle into which it is introduced.
[0542] Examples of proteins of interest include proteins, and portions thereof, that are expressed as glycoproteins, membrane proteins and portions thereof, soluble proteins and portions thereof, epitopes and portions thereof, and the like.
[0543] The vectors of the invention may be used to express one or more protein of interest. Where it is desirable to simultaneously express more than one protein of interest, the invention contemplates that the simultaneously expressed proteins may be of the same type (e.g., type 1 protein, type 2 protein, type 3 protein, soluble protein, epitope). Alternatively, the simultaneously expressed proteins may be of different types (for example, type 1 protein combined with type 2 protein, type 1 protein combined with type 3 protein, etc.). Simultaneously expressed proteins may be encoded by nucleotide sequences that are on the same, or different, vectors.
[0544] a. Membrane Proteins
[0545] In one embodiment, the protein of interest comprises a membrane protein. A “membrane protein” refers to a protein that is at least partially embedded in the lipid bilayer of a cell, virus and the like. Membrane proteins include type 1 proteins, type 2 proteins, and type 3 proteins (Exemplified in Tables 6-11). Methods for determining the type of membrane protein are known (for example, Singer (1990) Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 6:247-296 and High et al. (1993) J. Cell Biol. 121:743-750), including commercially available software, such as McVector software, Oxford Molecular.
[0546] In one embodiment, the protein of interest comprises an ectodomain of a membrane protein. The term “ectodomain” when in reference to a membrane protein refers to the portion of the protein that is exposed on the extracellular side of a lipid bilayer of a cell, virus and the like. Methods for determining the ectodomain of a protein are known in the art (Singer (1990); High et al. (1993), and McVector software, Oxford Molecular).
[0547] Exemplary ectodomains include, but are not limited to those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,262,270; 7,253,254; 7,250,171; 7,223,390; 7,189,403; 7,122,347; 7,119,165; 7,101,556; 7,067,110; 7,060,276; 7,029,685; 7,022,324; 6,946,543; 6,939,952; 6,713,066; 6,699,476; 6,689,367; 6,566,074; 6,531,295; 6,417,341; 6,248,327; 6,140,059; 5,851,993; 5,847,096; 5,837,816; 5,674,753; and 5,344,760. Additional examples of ectodomains include ectodomains of membrane type 1 proteins (Table 7), type 2 proteins (Table 9), and type 3 proteins (Table 11).
[0548] In one embodiment, the protein of interest comprises a type 1 protein. The term “type 1 protein” refers to a membrane protein that contains one transmembrane domain (TM) sequence, which is embedded in the lipid bilayer of a cell, virus and the like. The portion of the protein on the NH2-terminal side of the TM domain is exposed on the exterior side of the membrane, and the COOH-terminal portion is exposed on the cytoplasmic side. Exemplary type 1 proteins are described in Table 6.
[0549] 
[00006] [TABLE-US-00006]
  TABLE 6
 
  Exemplary Type 1 Proteins
    Amino Acid   Nucleotide
    Sequence   Sequence
    SEQ ID     SEQ ID  
  Source   NO:   FIG. No.   NO:   FIG. No.
 
  Fujian Strain of Influenza   185   179   208   180
  HA        
  Canine Distemper Virus   186   75   —   —
  Fusion Protein        
  Cytomegalovirus (CMV)   187   76   —   —
  gG glycoprotein        
  Cytomegalovirus gH   188   77   209   78
  Glycoprotein        
  Ebola virus Glycoprotein   189   79   210   80
  precursor        
  Human Immunodeficiency   190   81   211   82
  Virus (HIV) envelope        
  protein        
  Herpes Simplex virus   191   83   212   84
  (HSV) gH glycoprotein        
  Herpes Simplex virus   192   85   213   86
  (HSV) gL Glycoprotein        
  Influenza virus HA-type   193   87   —   —
  H1        
  Influenza Virus B   214   88   —   —
  HA        
  Influenza virus HA from   194   89   215   90
  influenza B Malaysia        
  Influenza virus HA second   195   91   216   92
  representative H1        
  Influenza virus HA   196   93   217   94
  representative H3        
  Influenza virus HA   197   95   218   96
  representative H5 HA        
  Influenza virus HA   198   97   219   98
  representative H7 HA        
  Influenza virus HA   199   99   220   100
  representative H9 HA        
  Nipah virus F protein   200   101   221   102
  Respiratory Syncytial   201   103   222   104
  Virus (RSV) F protein (first        
  example)        
  Respiratory Syncytial   202   105   —   —
  Virus F protein (second        
  example)        
  SARS virus surface spike   203   106   223   107
  glycoprotein        
  Varicella Zoster Virus gB   205   108   224   109
  glycoprotein        
  Varicella Zoster Virus gE   206   110   225   111
  glycoprotein        
  Varicella Zoster Virus gI   207   112   226   113
  glycoprotein
 
[0550] In another embodiment, the protein of interest comprises an ectodomain of a type 1 protein. The term “ectodomain” of a type 1 protein refers to at least a portion of the type 1 protein on the NH2-terminal side of the TM domain that is exposed on the exterior side of the membrane. Exemplary type 1 protein ectodomains are listed in Table 7.
[0551] 
[00007] [TABLE-US-00007]
  TABLE 7
 
  Exemplary Ectodomain Sequences of Type 1 Proteins
    Amino Acid Sequence
  Source   SEQ ID NO:   FIG. No.
 
  Influenza Virus Fujian strain HA protein   251   206
  CMV gB protein   252   207
  CMV gH protein   253   208
  Ebola G protein   254   209
  Influenza virus HA H1 protein   255   210
  Influenza virus B HA protein   256   211
  Influenza virus H3 HA protein   257   212
  HIV envelope protein   258   213
  HSV gH protein   259   214
  Influenza virus H7 HA protein   260   215
  Influenza virus H9 protein   261   216
  Influenza Virus H5 protein   262   217
  Nipah virus F protein   263   218
  Respiratory Syncytial virus F protein   264   219
  Respiratory Syncytial virus F protein   265   220
  SARS virus S glycoprotein   266   221
  Varicella Zoster Virus gB protein   267   222
  Varicella Zoster Virus gE protein   268   223
  Varicella Zoster Virus gI protein   269   224
 
[0552] Data herein shows expression of the exemplary type 1 protein ectodomain of influenza virus Fujian strain HA protein (SEQ ID NO: 251) (see for example, Examples 29-31).
[0553] In a further embodiment, the protein of interest comprises a type 2 protein. The term “type 2 protein” refers to a membrane protein that contains one transmembrane domain (TM) sequence, which is embedded in the lipid bilayer of a cell, virus and the like. In contrast to type 1 proteins, in type 2 proteins the portion of the protein on the NH2-terminal side of the TM domain is exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, and the COOH-terminal portion is exposed on the exterior side. Exemplary type 2 proteins as shown in Table 8.
[0554] 
[00008] [TABLE-US-00008]
  TABLE 8
 
  Exemplary Type 2 Proteins
    Amino Acid   Nucleotide
    Sequence   Sequence
    SEQ ID     SEQ ID  
  Source   NO:   FIG. No.   NO:   FIG. No.
 
  Fujian Influenza NA   114   181   132   182
  Canine Distemper Virus H   115   114   —   —
  Glycoprotein        
  Avian Metapneumovirus G   116   115   133   116
  Protein        
  Human Metapneumovirus   117   117   134   118
  G Glycoprotein        
  Human Respiratory   118   119   —   —
  Syncytial Virus G        
  Glycoprotein        
  Influenza Virus B NA   119   120   —   —
  Glycoprotein        
  Influenza Virus N1 NA   120   121   135   122
  from H5N1 Virus        
  Influenza Virus NA N2   121   123   —   —
  (first example)        
  Influenza Virus NA N2   122   124   136   125
  type (second example)        
  Influenza Virus NA N3   123   126   137   127
  type        
  Measles Virus HA Protein   124   128   138   129
  Mumps Virus HN   125   130   139   131
  Nipah Virus G Protein   126   132   140   133
  Parainfluenza Virus Type   127   134   141   135
  2 HN Protein        
  Parainfluenza Virus 3 HN   128   136   —   —
  Glycoprotein (first        
  example)        
  Parainfluenza 3 Virus HN   129   137   142   138
  (second example)        
  Respiratory Syncytial   130   139   143   140
  Virus G Protein        
  Vaccinia Virus Surface   131   141   144   142
  Antigen
 
[0555] In a particular embodiment, the protein of interest comprises an ectodomain of a type 2 protein. The term “ectodomain” of a type 2 protein refers to at least a portion of the type 2 protein on the COOH-terminal side of the TM domain that is exposed on the exterior side of the membrane. Examples of type 2 protein ectodomains are listed in Table 9.
[0556] 
[00009] [TABLE-US-00009]
  TABLE 9
 
  Exemplary Ectodomain Sequences of Type 2 Proteins
    Amino Acid Sequence
  Source   SEQ ID NO:   FIG. No.
 
  Influenza Virus Fujian strain NA protein   270   225
  Metapneumovirus G protein   271   226
  Influenza Virus B NA protein   272   227
  Human Metapneumovirus G protein   273   228
  Human respiratory Syncytial virus G   274   229
  protein    
  Influenza virus N1 NA protein   275   230
  Influenza virus N3 NA protein   276   231
  Influenza virus N2 NA protein   277   232
  Measles virus HA protein   278   233
  Mumps virus HN protein   279   234
  Nipah virus G protein   280   235
  Parainfluenza 2 virus HN protein   281   236
  Parainfluenza virus 3 HN protein   282   237
  Vaccinia virus surface protein   283   238
 
[0557] Data herein shows expression of the exemplary type 2 protein ectodomain of influenza virus Fujian strain NA protein (SEQ ID NO: 270) (see for example, Examples 32-33).
[0558] In yet another embodiment, the protein of interest comprises a type 3 protein. The term “type 3 protein” refers to a membrane protein that contains more than one transmembrane domain (TM) sequence containing hydrophobic amino acids, which are embedded in the lipid bilayer of a cell, virus and the like. The portion of the protein on the NH2-terminal side of the TM domain may be exposed on either the cytoplasmic side or the exterior side of the membrane. Conversely, the portion of the protein on the COOH-terminal side of the TM domain may be exposed on either the cytoplasmic side or the exterior side of the membrane. Exemplary type 3 proteins are listed in Table 10.
[0559] 
[00010] [TABLE-US-00010]
  TABLE 10
 
  Exemplary Type 3 Proteins
    Amino Acid   Nucleotide
    Sequence   Sequence
    SEQ ID     SEQ ID  
  Source   NO:   FIG. No.   NO:   FIG. No.
 
  Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)   145   143   150-157   144
  LMP2A protein        
  Glut 1 HTLV receptor   146   145   158   146
  protein        
  Glutamate Receptor   147   147   159   148
  protein        
  Hepatitis B virus L form of   148   149   160   150
  S glycoprotein        
  Prion Protein   149   151   161   152
  Presenilin (human) protein   250   205   —   —
 
[0560] In a particular embodiment, the protein of interest comprises an ectodomain of a type 3 protein. The term “ectodomain” of a type 3 protein refers to at least a portion of the type 3 protein of either the NH2-terminal or the COOH-terminal side of the TM domain that is exposed on the exterior side of the membrane. Table 11 lists some examples of type 3 protein ectodomains.
[0561] 
[00011] [TABLE-US-00011]
  TABLE 11
 
  Exemplary Ectodomain Sequences of Type 3
  Proteins Amino Acid Sequence
    Amino Acid Sequence
        Figure
  Source   Sequence   SEQ ID NO:   No.
 
  Prion protein   —   284   239 A
 
  Prion protein   —   285   239 B
 
  Glut-1 protein   EEFYNQTWVHRYGES   286   —
 
  Glut-1 protein   FEKAGVQQP   287   —
 
  Glut-1 protein   EQLCGPY   288   —
 
  LMP2A protein   SSYAAAQRK   289   —
 
  LMP2A protein   RRRWRRLTVCGGIM   290   —
 
  Presenilin   TFGLVFYFATDYLVQP   291   —
  protein   FMDQLAFHQFYI    
 
  Hepatitis B   —   292   240
  virus L form      
  of HBsAg      
  protein
 
[0562] b. Soluble Proteins
[0563] In one embodiment, the protein of interest comprises a soluble protein. The term “soluble protein” refers to a protein that is not embedded in the lipid bilayer of a cell, virus and the like. Examples of soluble proteins are listed in Table 12.
[0564] 
[00012] [TABLE-US-00012]
  TABLE 12
 
  Exemplary Soluble Proteins
    Amino Acid   Nucleotide
    Sequence   Sequence
    SEQ ID     SEQ ID  
  Source   NO:   FIG. No.   NO:   FIG. No.
 
  Hepatitis A Virus VP1   162   153   167   154
  Human Parvovirus VP   163   155   168   156
  (B19 Virus)        
  Norovirus VP1   164   157   169   158
  Human Rhinovirus VP1   165   159   170   160
  Human Rotavirus (strain   166   161   171   162
  K8) VP4
 
[0565] c. Antigens and Epitopes
[0566] In one embodiment, the protein of interest comprises an antigen. The terms “antigen,” “immunogen,” “antigenic,” “immunogenic,” “antigenically active,” and “immunologically active” when made in reference to a molecule, refer to any substance that is capable of inducing a specific humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response.
[0567] In one embodiment, the antigen comprises an epitope. The terms “epitope” and “antigenic determinant” refer to a structure on an antigen, which interacts with the binding site of an antibody or T cell receptor as a result of molecular complementarity. An epitope may compete with the intact antigen, from which it is derived, for binding to an antibody. Generally, secreted antibodies and their corresponding membrane-bound forms are capable of recognizing a wide variety of substances as antigens, whereas T cell receptors are capable of recognizing only fragments of proteins which are complexed with MHC molecules on cell surfaces. Antigens recognized by immunoglobulin receptors on B cells are subdivided into three categories: T-cell dependent antigens, type 1 T cell-independent antigens; and type 2 T cell-independent antigens. Also, for example, when a protein or fragment of a protein is used to immunize a host animal, numerous regions of the protein may induce the production of antibodies which bind specifically to a given region or three-dimensional structure on the protein; these regions or structures are referred to as antigenic determinants. An antigenic determinant may compete with the intact antigen (i.e., the immunogen used to elicit the immune response) for binding to an antibody.
[0568] Exemplary epitopes include, without limitation YPYDVPDYA (SEQ ID NO: 227) (see for example, Example 37), EphrinA2 epitopes from renal cell carcinoma and prostate cancer (U.S. Pat. No. 7,297,337), hepatitis C virus epitopes (U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,238,356 and 7,220,420), vaccinia virus epitopes (U.S. Pat. No. 7,217,526), dog dander epitopes (U.S. Pat. No. 7,166,291), human papilloma virus (HPV) epitopes (U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,153,659 and 6,900,035), Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitopes (U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,037,510 and 6,991,797), bacterial meningitis epitopes (U.S. Pat. No. 7,018,637), malaria epitopes (U.S. Pat. No. 6,942,866), and type 1 diabetes mellitus epitopes (U.S. Pat. No. 6,930,181).
[0569] Data herein (see for example, Example 37) shows that the exemplary CTL epitope sequence YPYDVPDYA (SEQ ID NO: 227) was incorporated into VLPs following its expression as a fusion protein to the carboxyl terminus of NDV HN protein, to the amino terminus of NDV NP protein, or to the carboxyl terminus of NDV NP protein.
[0570] Exemplary vectors that are useful for expressing type 1 proteins, and portions thereof, contain a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a type 1 protein in operable combination with a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. More preferably, but without limitation, the vector further comprises a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. This combination is exemplified in Examples 29-31 and 36, and FIGS. 164-167 and 177.
[0571] The efficiency of expressing type 1 proteins in ND VLPs may be increased by co-expression of other Newcastle Disease Virus proteins (see for example Table 14 and FIG. 172). In one embodiment, the efficiency of expressing type 1 proteins in ND VLPs may be increased by co-expression of Newcastle Disease Virus nucleocapsid (NP) protein and Matrix (M) protein (see for example, Example 31, FIG. 167). Improved efficiency of expressing VLPs that contain type 1 proteins may also be obtained upon co-expression of Newcastle Disease Virus nucleocapsid (NP) protein, Matrix (M) protein, and fusion (F) protein (see for example, Example 31, FIG. 167). In another embodiment, VLPs that contain type 1 proteins are produced upon co-expression of Newcastle Disease Virus nucleocapsid (NP) protein, Matrix (M) protein, and NDV heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein (see for example, Example 31, FIG. 167).
[0572] In one embodiment, NDV NP amino acid and nucleotide sequences are exemplified by SEQ ID NOs: 6, 7, 22 and 23 (see for example, FIGS. 8 and 24). In another embodiment, NDV HN amino acid and nucleotide sequences are exemplified by SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9 and 15-18 (see for example, FIGS. 9, 20 and 21). In a further embodiment, NDV F amino acid and nucleotide sequences are exemplified by SEQ ID NOs:10, 11, 19-21 (see for example, FIGS. 10, 22 and 23). In another embodiment, NDV M amino acid and nucleotide sequences are exemplified by the sequences in Table 13.
[0573] Exemplary vectors that are useful for expressing type 2 proteins, and portions thereof, contain a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a type 2 protein in operable combination with a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. In one embodiment, the vector further comprises a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein. This combination is exemplified in Examples 32-33 and 37, and FIGS. 168-171 and 178.
[0574] The efficiency of expressing type 2 proteins in ND VLPs may be increased by co-expression of other Newcastle Disease Virus proteins. In one embodiment, the efficiency of expressing type 2 proteins in ND VLPs may be increased by co-expression of Newcastle Disease Virus nucleocapsid (NP) protein and Matrix (M) protein (see for example, Example 33, FIG. 171). Improved efficiency of expressing VLPs that contain type 2 proteins may also be obtained upon co-expression of Newcastle Disease Virus nucleocapsid (NP) protein, Matrix (M) protein, and fusion (F) protein (see for example, Example 33, FIG. 171). In a further embodiment, improved efficiency of expressing VLPs that contain type 2 proteins may also be obtained upon co-expression of Newcastle Disease Virus nucleocapsid (NP) protein, Matrix (M) protein, fusion (F) protein and heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein (see for example, Example 33, FIG. 171).
[0575] Exemplary vectors that are useful for expression of at least a portion of a type 3 protein, of a soluble protein, and of an epitope, contain nucleic acid sequences encoding these proteins of interest in operable combination with a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein, and a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. This combination may be used to express the amino-terminal portion of the protein of interest on the outside surface of the expressed NDV VLP.
[0576] In an alternative embodiment for expression of at least a portion of a type 3 protein, of a soluble protein, and of an epitope, the vector contains nucleic acid sequences encoding the protein of interest in operable combination with a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein, and a nucleic acid sequence that encodes a Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein. This combination may be used to express the carboxy-terminal portion of the protein of interest on the outside surface of the expressed NDV VLP.
[0577] D. Matrix Protein
[0578] In one embodiment, the invention's expression vectors are contemplated to contain nucleic acid sequences encoding Newcastle Disease Virus Matrix (M) protein, such as those exemplified in Table 13 (see, for example, Examples 29-33, 36 and 37, and FIGS. 164-171 and 177-178).
[0579] 
[00013] [TABLE-US-00013]
  TABLE 13
 
  Exemplary M protein from Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Strains
    Amino Acid Sequence   Nucleotide Sequence
  GenBank   SEQ ID     SEQ ID  
  Accession No.   NO:   FIG. No.   NO:   FIG. No.
 
  AY728363   12   11A   13   11B
  M16622   24   25A   25   25B
  U25828   26   26A   27   26B
  AF431744   228   183   239   184
  NC_002617   229   185   240   186
  AY562986   230   187   241   188
  AY562989   231   189   242   190
  AY562988   232   191   243   192
  AY562990   233   193   244   194
  AY845400   234   195   245   196
  AJ880277   235   197   246   198
  EU293914   236   199   247   200
  AF431744   237   201   248   202
  AY562991   238   203   249   204
 
[0580] Sequences that encode Newcastle Disease Virus matrix (M) protein may be located on expression vectors that are “the same or different” from sequences that encode the transmembrane domain (TM) protein, cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, and protein of interest. Thus, in one embodiment, an expression vector that contains sequences encoding the transmembrane domain (TM) protein, cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, and protein of interest may additionally contain sequences encoding Newcastle Disease Virus matrix (M) protein. In another embodiment, as exemplified in Examples 28-37 herein, sequences encoding Newcastle Disease Virus matrix (M) protein are located on a different vector from the vector that contains sequences encoding the transmembrane domain (TM) protein, cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, and protein of interest

IX. Newcastle Disease VLPs

[0581] The invention provides recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) comprising any one of the expression vectors disclosed herein. The invention's VLPs are useful in, for example, eliciting an immune response to a protein expressed on the VLPs. This may be used to immunize a recipient host against the protein. Alternatively, the antibodies that are generated may be used for detection of the protein, such as in ELISA assays.
[0582] In one embodiment, the VLP comprises: a) a Newcastle disease virus matrix (M) protein, b) a transmembrane domain (TM) protein, c) a Newcastle Disease Virus cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein, and d) a protein of interest, wherein said TM protein is flanked by said CT protein and said protein of interest.
[0583] In one embodiment, the virus-like particle (VLP) is purified. The terms “purified” and “isolated” and grammatical equivalents thereof as used herein, refer to the reduction in the amount of at least one undesirable contaminant (such as protein and/or nucleic acid sequence) from a sample. Thus, purification results in an “enrichment,” i.e., an increase in the amount of a desirable composition, such as VLP, protein and/or nucleic acid sequence in the sample.
[0584] In one embodiment, the invention's VLPs express the protein of interest on the outside surface of the virus-like particle (VLP), thereby making the protein available for eliciting an immune response upon introduction of the VLP into a host.
[0585] Methods for determining that proteins are expressed on the outer surface of a VLP are exemplified by those described herein, Example 30 and FIG. 165, for biotinylation of cell surface proteins that are expressed by cells that harbor constructs for VLP expression (McGinnes et al. (2006) J. Virol. 80:2894-2903). In addition, expression of the protein of interest on the outer surface of VLPs may also be determined by using the VLPs to produce antibodies, such as in an animal, egg cell, or tissue culture. The production of an antibody that specifically binds to the protein of interest indicates that the protein of interest is expressed on the outside surface of the VLP.
[0586] In one embodiment, the virus-like particles (VLPs) of the invention are comprised in a vaccine. The term “vaccine” refers to a preparation that may be administered to a host to induce a cellular and/or antibody immune response. Vaccines may contain pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, diluents or excipients. Data herein shows that exemplary VLPs of the invention elicited a soluble antibody response as well as increased CTL activity (see for example, Example 35).
[0587] In one embodiment, the efficiency of producing the invention's virus-like particles (VLPs) is at least 10 fold greater, at least 20 fold greater, and/or at least 30 fold greater than the efficiency of producing influenza virus-like particles (VLPs). In one embodiment, the efficiency of producing the virus-like particles (VLPs) is from 30 to 100 fold greater than the efficiency of producing influenza virus-like particles (VLPs). Data in Example 28 and FIG. 163 demonstrate the surprising result that ND VLP release was approximately 30 to 100 fold higher over a 24 hour period than that of influenza VLPs.
[0588] The term “efficiency” when in reference to production of VLPs by a cell refers to the number of VLPs produced by a cell, such as following expression of an expression vector by those cells. The number of VLPs may be determined directly or indirectly by, for example, quantifying the amount of protein expressed in the VLPs, such as NDV matrix (M) protein, influenza matrix (M1) protein, and NDV heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
[0589] In one embodiment, the virus-like particle (VLP) is immunogenic. The term “immunogenic” refers to a molecule that is capable of eliciting an immune response in a host animal, including producing an antibody response and/or a cell mediated immune response (for example, involving cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)).
[0590] Exemplary host animals include, without limitation, mammals, avians, amphibians, reptiles, and insects. Data herein shows the use of exemplary mice as recipients of the invention's exemplary VLPs (see for example, Examples 34-35).
[0591] In one embodiment, the immune response comprises production of an antibody that specifically binds to the protein of interest that is expressed on the VLP. The terms “specific binding” or “specifically binding” when used in reference to the interaction of an antibody or cell (such as a lymphocyte cell) with another molecule (such as a protein or peptide), means that the interaction is dependent upon the presence of a particular structure (i.e., the antigenic determinant or epitope) on the molecule. For example, if an antibody is specific for epitope “A,” the presence of a protein containing epitope A (or free, unlabelled A) in a reaction containing labeled “A” and the antibody will reduce the amount of labeled A that is bound to the antibody. Similarly, if a lymphocyte cell is specific for epitope “A,” the presence of a protein containing epitope A (or free, unlabelled A) in a reaction containing labeled “A” and the lymphocyte cell will reduce the amount of labeled A that is bound to the lymphocyte cell.
[0592] Data herein demonstrates that the invention's exemplary VLPs produced an antibody response against the exemplary NDV glycoproteins (see for example, Example 35, FIG. 173).
[0593] In another embodiment, the immune response comprises increasing the number of T lymphocytes that specifically bind to the protein of interest. The term “T lymphocytes” includes, but is not limited to, one or more of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), helper T cells, and suppressor T cells. T lymphocytes express receptors that recognize antigen in the form of peptide fragments complexed with MHC molecules.
[0594] The terms “increase,” “elevate,” “raise,” and grammatical equivalents (including “higher,” “greater,” etc.) when in reference to the level of any molecule (e.g., VLP, amino acid sequence, nucleic acid sequence, etc.) and/or phenomenon (e.g., immune response, binding to a molecule, efficiency of expression of a nucleic acid sequence, etc.) in a first sample relative to a second sample, mean that the quantity of the molecule and/or phenomenon in the first sample is higher than in the second sample by any amount that is statistically significant using any art-accepted statistical method of analysis. In one embodiment, the quantity of the molecule and/or phenomenon in the first sample is at least 10% greater than, at least 25% greater than, at least 50% greater than, at least 75% greater than, and/or at least 90% greater than the quantity of the same molecule and/or phenomenon in a second sample.
[0595] The terms “reduce,” “inhibit,” “diminish,” “suppress,” “decrease,” and grammatical equivalents (including “lower,” “smaller,” etc.) when in reference to the level of any molecule (e.g., VLP, amino acid sequence, nucleic acid sequence, etc.) and/or phenomenon (e.g., immune response, binding to a molecule, efficiency of expression of a nucleic acid sequence, etc.) in a first sample relative to a second sample, mean that the quantity of molecule and/or phenomenon in the first sample is lower than in the second sample by any amount that is statistically significant using any art-accepted statistical method of analysis. In one embodiment, the quantity of the molecule and/or phenomenon in the first sample is at least 10% lower than, at least 25% lower than, at least 50% lower than, at least 75% lower than, and/or at least 90% lower than the quantity of the same molecule and/or phenomenon in a second sample.
[0596] Data herein demonstrates an increase in CTL activity against NDV proteins after immunization with the invention's exemplary VLPs that contain NDV proteins (see for example, Example 39, FIG. 175). Data herein further demonstrate that in response to immunization with the invention's exemplary VLPs that express influenza virus proteins, there was an increase in the percentage of CD8+ spleen cells that were positive for Interferon γ and an increase in the percentage of CD4+ spleen cells that were positive for Interferon γ (see for example, Example 39, FIG. 176).

EXPERIMENTAL

[0597] The following examples are only illustrative of specific embodiments of the present invention and are not intended as limiting.

Example 1

Cell Cultures

[0598] This example describes the cell cultures used in the Examples below to construct specific embodiments of the present invention.
[0599] A spontaneously transformed fibroblast cell line derived from the East Lansing strain (ELL-O) of chicken embryos (UMNSAH/DF-1) was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with penicillin-streptomycin and 10% fetal calf serum (FCS).
[0600] Human renal epithelial cells expressing the SV 40 T antigen (293T) were also propagated in DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS, penicillin-streptomycin, vitamins, non-essential amino acids, and glutamine. NDV, strain A V, was propagated in embryonated chicken eggs by standard protocols.

Example 2

Plasmids

[0601] This example describes the types of plasmids used in the Examples below to construct various embodiments of the present invention.
[0602] NDV cDNA sequences encoding NP (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:23), M (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:27), HN (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:18), and uncleaved F (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:20 or, alternatively, an F-K115Q) proteins were subcloned into the expression vector pCAGGS to generate pCAGGS-NP, pCAGGS-M, pCAGGS-HN and pCAGGS-F-K115Q, respectively. Miyazaki et al., “Expression vector system based on the chicken beta-actin promoter directs efficient production of interleukin-5” Gene 79:269-77 (1989); and Niwa et al., “Efficient selection for high-expression transfectants with a NDVel eukaryotic vector” Gene 108:193-9 (1991).
[0603] F protein cDNA contains a point mutation in the cleavage site sequence, F-K115Q, which eliminates the furin recognition site. Li et al., “Effect of cleavage mutants on syncytium formation directed by the wild-type fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus” J. Virol. 72:3789-95 (1998).
[0604] pBJ5 expression vector containing the gene encoding a Flag-tagged Vps4A with E228Q mutation and pDsRed2-N1 vector (Clontech) containing the gene encoding the CHMP3-RFP fusion protein were previously described. Strack et al., “PIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding” Cell 114:689-699 (2003).

Example 3

Transfection, Infection, And Metabolic Labeling

[0605] This examples describes the basic techniques used to develop and express various embodiments of the present invention.
[0606] Transfections of sub-confluent ELL-O cells and/or 293T cells were accomplished using Lipofectamine (Invitrogen) as recommended by the manufacturer. The following amounts of plasmid DNA were used per 35 mm dish: 1.0 μg pCAGGS-NP, 1.0 μg pCAGGS-M, 0.75 μg pCAGGS-F-K115Q, and 1.0 μg pCAGGS-HN, either alone or in mixtures. These amounts were previously determined to yield levels of expression similar to cells infected with NDV at a multiplicity of infection of 5.
[0607] A total of 3.75 μg of plasmid DNA per 35 mm plate was used in all transfection experiments. When only one, two, or three cDNAs were used, the total amount of transfected DNA was kept constant by adding vector pCAGGS DNA. For each transfection, a mixture of DNA and 5 μl of Lipofectamine in OptiMEM media (Gibco/Invitrogen) was incubated at room temperature for 45 minutes, and added to cells previously washed with OptiMEM. The cells were incubated for 5 hours, the Lipofectamine-DNA complexes were removed, and 2 ml of supplemented DMEM was added.
[0608] After 36 hours, the medium was replaced with 0.7 ml DMEM without cysteine and methionine and supplemented with 100 μCi of 35S-methionine and 35S-cysteine mixture (NEG-772 EASYTAG™ Express Protein Labeling Mix, 35S, Perkin Elmer Life Sciences Inc.). After 4 hours of pulse label, one set of transfected plates was lysed, while in another set the medium was replaced with 1.0 ml of supplemented DMEM with 0.1 mM cold methionine (Nutritional Biochemicals Corporation). After 8 hours of chase, the medium was collected and the cells were lysed in 0.5 ml lysis buffer containing Triton-DOC (1% Triton, 1% sodium deoxycholate) and 25 mg N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Cells were harvested with a cell scraper and homogenized by passing through a 26 gauge needle 10 to 15 times.
[0609] Sub-confluent 293T cells were simultaneously transfected with pCAGGS-M and different concentrations of either pBJ5-Vps4-E228Q-Flag or pDsRed2-N1-CHMP3. Corresponding empty vectors were used as control. Cells were incubated for 36 hours and the same pulse-chase protocol was performed as described above.
[0610] ELL-O cells were infected at an MOI of 5 pfu for 5 hours, labeled with 35S-methionine and 35S-cysteine mixture for 30 min, and chased in nonradioactive medium for 8 hours as described above. Cell supernatant was harvested and virions purified as described below. Cells were lysed and homogenized as described above.

Example 4

VLP Purification And Isolation

[0611] Virus and VLP, as well as virions, were purified from cell supernatants in protocols previously reported. Levinson et al., “Radiation studies of avian tumor viruses and Newcastle disease virus” Virology 28:533-542 (1966). The cell supernatants were centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 5 min at 4° C., overlaid on top of a block gradient consisting of 3.5 ml 20% and 0.5 ml 65% sucrose solutions in TNE buffer (25 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA), and re-centrifuged at 40,000 rpm for 12 hours at 4° C. using a SW50.1 rotor (Beckman). The sucrose gradient interface (containing concentrated particles) was collected in 0.5 ml, mixed with 2.0 ml of 80% sucrose, and overlaid on top of 1.0 ml 80% sucrose cushion. Additional layers of sucrose (1.0 ml of 50% and 0.5 ml of 10% sucrose) were layered on top of the sample. The gradient was centrifuged at 38,000 rpm for 20 h at 4° C. The gradient was collected from the bottom into one 1 ml fraction and eight 0.5 ml fractions using a polystaltic pump. Densities of each fraction were determined using a refractometer. VLPs derived from expression of all combinations of proteins were prepared in a single experiment, thus enabling direct comparison of results.
[0612] The experiments were repeated three times. Immunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoprecipitation was accomplished by combining one volume of cell lysate or sucrose gradient fraction with two volumes of TNE buffer. Samples were incubated with specific antibodies for 16 hours at 4° C. Antisera used to precipitate NP, F and HN were rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against UV inactivated NDV by standard protocols; anti-HR1 and anti-HR2McGinnes et al., “Newcastle disease virus HN protein alters the conformation of the F protein at cell surfaces” J. Virol. 76:12622-33 (2002); anti-F2-96 and anti-A. McGinnes et al., “Role of carbohydrate processing and calnexin binding in the folding and activity of the HN protein of Newcastle disease virus” Virus Res 53:175-85 (1998).
[0613] Anti-F2-96 was raised against a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein that contained the F protein sequences from amino acid 96 to 117. Antiserum used to precipitate M protein was a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against purified M protein. Faeberg et al., “Strain variation and nuclear association of 20 NDV Matrix protein” J. Virol. 62:586-593 (1988). Immune complexes (ICs) were adsorbed to Protein A (Pansorbin Cells, CALBIOCHEM) for 2 hours at 4° C., pelleted, and then washed three times in immunoprecipitation (IP) wash buffer (phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing 0.5% 9 Tween-20 and 0.4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). ICs were resuspended in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer (125 mM Tris-HCI [pH 6.8], 2% SDS, 10% glycerol, 0.4% Bromphenol blue) with 1 M J3 mercaptoethanol (BME) and boiled.
[0614] Proteins were separated in 8% polyacrylamide-SDS gel and detected by autoradiography. Quantification of resulting autoradiographs was accomplished using a Fluor-STM MultiImager (BioRad).

Example 5

High Efficiency VLP Release

[0615] Co-expression of NP, M, F and HN proteins resulted in the release of VLPs with a density of 1.19 to 1.16 g/cc (FIG. 1, panel A). Virus particles purified in parallel from NDV, strain AV, infected cells had a density of 1.21 to 1.19 g/cc (FIG. 1, panel B). Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that the slightly lighter density of VLPs compared to authentic virus is likely due to the absence of the virion RNA within the VLPs. The efficiencies of VLP and virus release were calculated as the percentage of M protein remaining in the cell extracts after the chase relative to the amount of protein in the pulse. The loss of M protein from cells in the chase portion of the experiment is due to release from cells as VLPs or virions. By this criterion, the efficiency of VLP release was 85%, while the efficiency of NDV release was 92% (FIG. 1, panel C). The results show that release of VLPs is almost as efficient as release of virions.
[0616] These results demonstrate that NDV VLPs are efficiently assembled and released from avian cells expressing the four major structural proteins. In one embodiment, M protein is sufficient for VLP release. Minimum protein requirements for VLP formation, were determined by individually assessing the capability of each protein to direct particle release. Cells expressing each of the viral proteins individually were radioactively labeled in a pulse-chase protocol and VLPs were isolated as described above.

Example 6

M Protein Dependent VLP Release

[0617] VLPs are released only from cells expressing the M protein. FIG. 2, Panel B. Almost no M protein is detectable in cell extracts after the 8 hour chase. FIG. 2A, right panel. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that this indicates that much of the pulse-labeled protein was released from cells. It is further believed that by comparing the levels of M protein in the pulse labeled extract and the chase extract, the efficiency of release was calculated to be 90%.
[0618] In contrast, most of the pulse labeled NP, F and HN proteins remained in extracts after the chase (FIG. 2A). Significant amounts of VLPs were also not detected in the corresponding cell supernatant (FIG. 2, panel B) although there was a trace of very light density material released from HN protein expressing cells. FIG. 2, panel C, shows the quantification of VLPs produced from cells expressing each protein individually. Interestingly, the amount of M protein-containing particles from cells expressing M protein alone was greater than when all four structural proteins were expressed. However, the M protein-only VLPs had a very heterogeneous density, with values ranging from 1.23 to 1.12 g/cc (FIG. 2, panel B). These results reveal that M protein is sufficient for the release of particles.

Example 7

M Protein Dependent VLP Release: Pair Wise Combinations

[0619] As shown in Example 6, M protein is required for VLP release. To determine the contribution of NP, F or HN proteins to M protein-driven VLP formation, VLPs from cells expressing all possible combinations of two proteins were isolated and characterized as described above. Cells expressing any combination of proteins without M protein did not release VLPs (FIG. 3; panel C). Furthermore, in the absence of M protein, NP, F and HN proteins expressed in pair wise combinations were retained in cell extracts after the 8 hour chase (FIG. 3A). This finding suggests that M protein is required for particle release. Pair wise expression of NP, F, or HN proteins with M protein resulted in the release of VLPs containing both proteins (FIG. 3, panel B). Intriguingly, however, there was only trace amounts of NP, F or HN proteins and M protein was the predominant protein in the VLPs (FIG. 3, panel B).
[0620] The distribution of NP, F, or HN proteins in the gradients was identical to that of M protein (FIG. 3, panel B). In addition, the VLP densities were very heterogeneous and were much like that of M protein-only VLPs. Surprisingly also, the amount of M protein containing VLPs was significantly decreased (by about 2 to 2.5 fold) upon co-expression of M protein with either NP, F, or HN proteins (FIG. 3, panel C). These results suggest that NP, F, or HN proteins can individually suppress M protein-driven VLP release.

Example 8

M Protein Dependent VLP Protein Incorporation

[0621] Efficient incorporation of other viral proteins into VLPs requires the expression of M protein and at least two of the other proteins. To examine the effects of expression of three viral proteins on particle release, cells were transfected with all possible combinations of three cDNAs. Again, VLPs were only released from cells expressing M protein. Expression of NP, F, and HN proteins without the M protein did not result in the release of any particles (FIG. 4, panel C). This finding further strengthens our conclusion that the M protein is required for release of VLPs.
[0622] In contrast to the expression of a single glycoprotein with the M protein, co-expression of both F and HN glycoproteins with M protein resulted in significantly increased incorporation of both glycoproteins into VLPs (FIG. 4, panels B and C). The F and HN proteins were detected in the same gradient fractions as M protein. Furthermore, the densities of the VLPs were more homogenous compared to those generated from cells expressing M protein alone (compare FIG. 4, panel B and FIG. 2, panel B) or M protein with a single glycoprotein. These results indicate that expression of both F and LIN proteins with M protein is necessary for efficient incorporation of either glycoprotein into particles.
[0623] Expression of M protein with NP and either F or HN protein resulted in increased incorporation of NP as well as the glycoprotein into VLPs (FIG. 4, panels B and C). The distribution of NP protein-containing particles in the gradient was similar to that of VLPs released from cells expressing all four structural proteins (compare FIG. 1, panel A and FIG. 4, panel B). Importantly, the densities of these particles were more homogenous compared to particles released from cells expressing M alone, and were analogous to the density of the authentic virus or complete VLPs (compare FIG. 4, panel B, and FIG. 1, panel B). Overall, these results indicate that M protein is necessary and sufficient for particle release and that expression of M protein with at least two other proteins is required for efficient incorporation of other proteins into VLPs.

Example 9

VLP Release Inhibition

[0624] Host cell VPS pathway is involved in VLP formation and release. Previous studies have implicated the VPS pathway in budding of other enveloped RNA viruses. Demirov et al., “Retrovirus budding” Virus Res 106:87-102 (2004); Pomillos et al., “Mechanisms of enveloped RNA virus budding” Trends Cell Biol. 12:569-79 (2002); and Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 20:395-425 (2004). This pathway might be involved in M protein-driven VLP release because CHMP3 is a subunit of the ESCRT III complex. von Schwedler et al., “The protein network of HIV budding” Cell 4:701-13 (2003).
[0625] Fusion of CHMP3 with RFP transforms it into a dominant-negative protein which inhibits HIV-1 gag VLP release. Strack et al., “PIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding” Cell 114:689-699 (2003). Simultaneous expression of the M protein with CHMP3-RFP resulted in 98.5% inhibition of VLP release (FIG. 5, panels A and C). Expression of another dominant-negative component of the VPS pathway, Vps4A-E228Q with M protein, yielded the same result, with 96.2% inhibition (FIG. 5, panels B and D). Expression of both dominant-negative CHMP3 and Vps4A did not suppress the expression of M protein (FIG. 5, panels E and F). Thus an intact host cell VPS pathway is essential for M protein VLP release.

Example 10

Cell Type Dependent Effects on Virus and VLP Release

[0626] This example provides exemplary data showing that VLP release is dependent upon the host cell type. Host cell type affects basic VLP release mechanisms as well as overall VLP release efficiencies.
[0627] Basic Release Mechanisms
[0628] VLP release from avian cells (ELL-0) was compared with VLP release from primate cells (COS-7 cells). To compare virus particle release from these cells, equal numbers of avian cells and COS-7 cells were infected with NDV at an MOI=5. The cells were radioactively labeled in a pulse and then subjected to a nonradioactive chase. Virions were harvested from the cell supernatant at various times during the chase and the proteins in the virus particles resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
[0629] An autoradiograph of the NP and F proteins in virus particles at different times of chase are shown in FIG. 14A and FIG. 14B, respectively (top gel: avian; bottom gel: COS-7). A quantification of the levels of each protein is shown in FIG. 15A and FIG. 15B, respectively. Clearly, the amounts of virus released from avian cells were higher than amounts released from COS-7 cells and the rate of release from avian cells was faster than the rate of release from COS-7 cells. This difference between avian and primate cells was not due to differences in the levels of protein expression in the two cell types. The levels of total viral proteins made during the pulse label were higher in COS-7 cells than avian cells (not shown), a result that suggests that virus entry, replication and translation were at least as efficient in COS-7 as in avian cells.
[0630] These data show that the rate of virus particle release is faster in avian cells than primate cells and the amounts of virus released from avian cells are significantly higher than amounts released from primate cells.
[0631] Release Efficiencies
[0632] To determine if avian cells were also more efficient in the release of VLPs, equal numbers of avian cells and COS-7 cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding the NP, M, HN, and F-K115Q proteins of NDV. Cells were radioactively labeled for four (4) hours (i.e., pulsed) and then subjected to a non-radioactive incubation for eight (8) hours (i.e., chased). VLPs were subsequently isolated from the cell supernatant. VLPs in the supernatants were purified by flotation into sucrose gradients.
[0633] Sucrose gradients were generated that contain VLPs released from avian cells and COS-7 cells, respectively. See FIGS. 16A and 16B, respectively. Clearly, the data show that more VLPs were released from avian cells than from COS-7 cells.
[0634] Cell lysate extracts from avian cell and COS-7 cells were prepared after the pulse-label and after the nonradioactive chase. See FIGS. 17A and 17B, respectively. Importantly, the HN, F, and M proteins were no longer present in avian cell extracts after the nonradioactive chase. This observation is consistent with a more efficient release from avian cells and/or incorporation into VLPs. Conversely, significant levels of these viral proteins remained in the COS-7 cell extracts. This observation is consistent with viral protein retention in COS-7 cells and a lower release of the viral proteins into particles. Clearly, the data demonstrate that VLP release is more efficient from avian cells than from COS-7 cells.

Example 11

Comparison Of Specific Viral Protein-Induced VLP Release

[0635] This example demonstrates that VLPs are also more efficiently released from avian cells when transfected with NDV containing only an M protein.
[0636] VLP particle release was determined from cells transfected with only M protein cDNA as described above. A sucrose density gradient purification of M protein VLPs were generated from both avian and COS-7 primate cells. See FIG. 18A and FIG. 18 B, respectively. Clearly, the amounts of VLP M proteins released from avian cells were significantly higher, and therefore more efficient, than VLP M proteins released from primate cells.
[0637] Further, equal numbers of cells were transfected with either NP protein cDNA, M protein cDNA, F-K115Q protein cDNA, or HN protein cDNA alone. Alternatively, the experiment used cells transfected with a vector having all four (4) viral protein cDNAs in combination. VLPs were then prepared as described above. A sucrose gradient purification was generated for each transfection and particle release was determined by densitometry. When the various viral protein cDNAs were transfected individually, only M protein resulted in any VLP viral protein release (i.e., only M protein). When a cell was transfected with all four proteins, VLP viral protein release contained all four proteins. In both cases, released VLPs contained greater amounts of viral proteins in avian cells versus COS-7 cells. See FIG. 19A and FIG. 19B, respectively. Clearly, release efficiency of both M protein VLPs and complete VLPs is better from avian cells than COS-7 cells.

Example 12

Generation of Antibodies To VLP Viral Vaccines

I. Monoclonal Antibodies

[0638] Balb/c mice are immunized with multiple I.P. inoculations of a KLH conjugated NDV viral peptide. Splenocytes from immunized animals are then fused with the mouse myeloma AG8 using standard protocols. Wunderlich et al., J. Immunol. Methods 147:1-11 (1992). Supernatants from resultant hybridomas are then screened for immunoreactivity to an ovalbumin-coupled NDV viral peptide using standard ELISA protocols known in the art. Hybridomas positive for the expression of immunoreactive MAbs are cloned at least twice by limiting dilution and MAb isotype analysis performed. Purified MAb IgG will be prepared from ascites fluid using protein-A affinity chromatography. After fusion, screening will show a plurality of positive parental signals, from which monoclonal antibody producing clones may be prepared.
[0639] Immunoprecipitation/Scintillation Assay for Hybridoma Screening
[0640] To develop and screen for monoclonal antibodies which recognize the VLP viral protein in solution rather, than when attached to a solid phase, an assay will be developed in which immunoprecipitation of an 35 S-methionine-labeled in vitro-translated VLP viral protein is measured. A standard amount of in vitro translated VLP viral protein is allowed to form antibody/antigen complexes in a solution which can be optimized for ionic strength, pH, and detergent composition. After the immune complexes are precipitated with Protein G (Omnisorb cells) and washed extensively, bound radioactivity is counted in a liquid scintillation counter; background is subtracted and the efficiency of precipitation calculated. This Immunoprecipitation/Scintillation assay (IPSA) allows for both the rapid identification and characterization of antibodies, and will be used to test a variety of monoclonal VLP viral protein antibodies. The assay is applicable, in general, to monoclonal hybridoma supernatants as well as polyclonal sera to identify antibodies which can be used for immunoprecipitations.
[0641] Briefly, approximately 1.5×105 DPMs of 35 S-methionine-labeled in vitro-translated VLP viral proteins are added to 10 μl of a 10× immunoprecipitation buffer (150 mM NaCl, 10% NP-40, 5% deoxycholic acid, 1% SDS, 500 mM Tris pH 8). To this, 90 μl of monoclonal cell supernatant from the monoclonal fusion of interest is added and allowed to react for 2 hrs at 4° C. After 2 hrs, 40 μl of a 10% solution of Omnisorb cells (Calbiochem) equilibrated in 1× immunoprecipitation buffer (RIPA buffer; 150 mM NaCl, 1% NP-40, 0.5% deoxycholic acid, 0.1% SDS, 50 mM Tris pH8) is added and allowed to react for an additional 2 hrs at 4° C. with rocking. The cells are pelleted by centrifugation for 5 min at 4500 g and 4° C., and washed 3× with 800 μl cold 1× immunoprecipitation buffer. Pellets were quantitatively transferred to scintillation vials and counted in a Beckman LS6000 scintillation counter in the Auto DPM mode. The percentage of VLP viral protein immunoprecipitated may then be calculated.
[0642] Characterization of VLP Viral Protein MAbs
[0643] To further characterize a best cell line, a competition immunoprecipitation/scintillation assay (Competition IPSA) may be performed. In this variation, a clone producing monoclonal antibodies to a VLP viral protein was added to an approximate 200 fold molar excess of unlabelled competitor peptide at the same time as labeled in vitro translated VLP viral protein. As expected, peptides to the suspected epitope regions will be compared with peptides that are not suspected of representing the epitope regions. A high percentage of competition in assays containing the suspected epitope regions will verify the VLP viral protein monoclonal antibody binding specificity.

II. Antisera

[0644] Antisera used to precipitate viral proteins were a cocktail of anti-NDV antibodies. Antiserum used to precipitate NP was rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against UV inactivated NDV by standard protocols. Antisera used to precipitate F protein were raised against glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins that contained amino acid sequences 130 to 173 (anti-HR1) (McGinnes et al., “Newcastle disease virus HN protein alters the conformation of the F protein at cell surfaces” J. Virol. 76:12622-12633 (2002).), 470 to 500 (anti-HR2) (Dolganiuc et al., “Role of the cytoplasmic domain of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein in association with lipid rafts” J Virol 77:12968-12979 (2003)), or 96 to 117 (anti-F2-96). Antiserum used to precipitate HN protein was raised against HN protein sequences from amino acid 96 to 117 (anti-A) (McGinnes et al., “Role of carbohydrate processing and calnexin binding in the folding and activity of the HN protein of Newcastle disease virus” Virus Res 53:175-185 (1998)). Antiserum used to precipitate M protein was a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against purified M protein (Faeberg et al., “Strain variation and nuclear association of NDV Matrix protein” J. Virol. 62:586-593 (1988)). Antibody used to precipitate HA-tagged proteins was a mouse monoclonal HA antibody conjugated to agarose beads (Sigma). Secondary antibody used for immunoblotting was a peroxidase conjugated mouse monoclonal anti-HA antibody (Sigma).

Example 13

Construction Of Recombinant Baculovirus Vectors

[0645] This example describes a general methodology from the construction of recombinant baculovirus vectors.
[0646] A general scheme for constructing baculovirus recombinants is shown in FIG. 28. As a first step, the target gene (i.e., for example, an NDV particle protein), shown as a PCR-derived DNA, is cloned downstream of a copy of an AcNPV promoter in a suitable plasmid transfer vector (i.e., for example, pBAC4x-1). The transfer vector has upstream and downstream segments of baculovirus DNA flanking the promoter and target gene.
[0647] A selected clone of the derived recombinant transfer vector is grown in a bacterial cell culture (i.e., for example, E. coli), avian cell culture (i.e., for example, ELL-O), or a human cell culture (i.e., for example, 293T) and the resulting recombinant plasmid DNA is characterized and purified.
[0648] In the second step, the purified recombinant transfer plasmid is co-transfected with linearized virus DNA into insect cells (i.e., for example, Sf9) to construct the recombinant baculovirus. The flanking regions of the transfer vector participate in homologous recombination with the virus DNA sequences during virus replication and introduce the target gene into the baculovirus genome at a specific locus (usually polyhedrin or p10, depending on the transfer plasmid).
[0649] Following transfection and plaque purification to remove parental virus, a high titer virus stock is prepared from the appropriate recombinant. Once a high titer virus stock is obtained, it is employed to determine the optimal times for target protein expression (depending on the promoter and the properties of the gene product). After these parameters are established, a large scale culture is prepared and used for protein production.

Example 14

Production Of Measles VLP Vaccine

[0650] This example presents a protocol that will result in the production of VLP vaccines specific for the measles virus.
[0651] Vectors: MV cDNA sequences encoding NP (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:42), M (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:48), HA (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:30), and uncleaved F (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:36) proteins will be subcloned into the expression vector pCAGGS to generate pCAGGS-NP, pCAGGS-M, pCAGGS-HA and pCAGGS-F-K111G, respectively. The cDNA encoding the MV F protein will be mutated to eliminate the furin recognition site at amino acid 108-112. The mutation will introduce a glycine in place of lysine at amino acid 111, the position analogous to the K115Q mutation in the NDV F protein. Elimination of cleavage of the F protein will inhibit the ability of the F protein to fuse. Absence of cell-cell fusion in the culture will likely increase the yield of VLPs.
[0652] Cell lines: Measles virus is released efficiently from human and primate cell lines but not murine cell lines (Vincent, et al Virology 265: 185). Thus Hela cells (human cervical carcinoma cells), 293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells), VERO cells (African green monkey kidney cells) and COS-7 (primate) cells will be used.
[0653] Transfection, infection and metabolic labeling: Transfections of sub confluent cells will be accomplished using Lipofectamine (Invitrogen) as recommended by the manufacturer. The following amounts of plasmid DNA will be used per 35 mm dish: 1.0 μg pCAGGS-NP, 1.0 μg pCAGGS-M, 0.75 μg pCAGGS-F-K111G, and 1.0 μg pCAGGS-HA. A total of 3.75 μg of plasmid DNA per 35 mm plate will be used in all transfection experiments. When only one, two, or three cDNAs are used, the total amount of transfected DNA will be kept constant by adding vector pCAGGS DNA. For each transfection, a mixture of DNA and 5 μl of Lipofectamine in OptiMEM media (Gibco/Invitrogen) will be incubated at room temperature for 45 minutes, and added to cells previously washed with OptiMEM. The cells will be incubated for 5 hours, the Lipofectamine-DNA complexes removed, and 2 ml of supplemented DMEM added. After 36 hours, the medium will be replaced with 0.7 ml DMEM without cysteine and methionine and supplemented with 100 μCi of 35S-methionine and 35S-cysteine mixture (NEG-772 EASYTAG™ Express Protein Labeling Mix, 35S, Perkin Elmer Life Sciences Inc.). After 4 hours of pulse label, one set of transfected plates will be lysed, while in another set the medium will be replaced with 1.0 ml of supplemented DMEM with 0.1 mM cold methionine (Nutritional Biochemicals Corporation). After 8 hours of chase, the cell supernatant will be collected. In addition, the cells will be sonicated to release cell-associated VLPs. The resulting cell supernatants will be combined. The cells will be lysed in 0.5 ml lysis buffer (10 mM NaCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM Tris-HCl pH7.4) containing Triton-DOC (1% Triton, 1% sodium deoxycholate) and 1.25 mg N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Cells will be harvested with a cell scraper and homogenized by passing through a 26-gauge needle 10 to 15 times.
[0654] To determine if the VPS pathway is involved in VLP budding, sub confluent 293T cells will be simultaneously transfected with pCAGGS-M and different concentrations of either pBJ5-Vps4-E228Q-Flag or pDsRed2-N1-CHMP3. Corresponding empty vectors will be used as control. Cells will be incubated for 36 hours and the same pulse-chase protocol was performed as described above.
[0655] To generate virus particles for controls, primate or human cells will be infected at an MOI of 5 pfu for 30 hours and labeled with 35S-methionine and 35S-cysteine mixture for 4 hours, and chased in nonradioactive medium for 8 hours as described above. Cell supernatant will be harvested and virions purified as described below. Cells will be lysed and homogenized as described above.
[0656] Virus and VLP purification: VLPs as well as virions will be purified from cell supernatants in protocols previously developed for virus purification. The cell supernatants will be clarified by centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min at 4° C., overlaid on top of a step gradient consisting of 3.5 ml 20% and 0.5 ml 65% sucrose solutions in TNE buffer (25 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA), and centrifuged at 40,000 rpm for 12 hours at 4° C. using a SW50.1 rotor (Beckman). The interface (containing concentrated particles) will be collected in 0.5 ml, mixed with 2.0 ml of 80% sucrose, and overlaid on top of 1.0 ml 80% sucrose cushion. Additional layers of sucrose (1.0 ml of 50% and 0.5 ml of 10% sucrose) will be layered on top of the sample. The gradient will be centrifuged at 38,000 rpm for 20 h at 4° C. The gradient will be collected from the bottom into one 1 ml fraction and eight 0.5 ml fractions using a polystaltic pump. Densities of each fraction will be determined using a refractometer. VLPs derived from expression of all combinations of proteins will be prepared in a single experiment, thus enabling direct comparison of results.
[0657] Immunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: Immunoprecipitation will be accomplished by combining one volume of cell lysate or sucrose gradient fraction with two volumes of TNE buffer. Samples were incubated with MV specific polyclonal antibodies for 16 hours at 4° C. Antiserum used to precipitate NP, F and HA will be rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against UV inactivated MV by standard protocols. Immune complexes (ICs) will be adsorbed to Protein A (Pansorbin Cells, CALBIOCHEM) for 2 hours at 4° C., pelleted, and then washed three times in immunoprecipitation (IP) wash buffer (phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing 0.5% Tween-20 and 0.4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)). ICs will be resuspended in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer (125 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 2% SDS, 10% glycerol, 0.4% Bromphenol blue) with 1 M β-mercaptoethanol (BME) and boiled. Proteins will be separated on 8% polyacrylamide-SDS gel and subjected to autoradiography. Quantification of resulting autoradiographs will be accomplished using a Fluor-S™ MultiImager (BioRad).

Example 15

Production of Respiratory Syncytial Virus VLP Vaccine

[0658] This example presents a protocol that will result in the production of VLP vaccines specific for the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
[0659] Vectors: RSV cDNA sequences encoding NP (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:70), M (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:66 or, alternatively, M2-1), G (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:54), and an uncleaved F (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:60) protein will be subcloned into the expression vector pCAGGS to generate pCAGGS-NP, pCAGGS-M2-1, pCAGGS-G and pCAGGS-F-R108N/R109N, respectively. The cDNA encoding the RSV F protein will be mutated to eliminate one of the two furin recognition sites at amino acids 106-109 and 131-136, as previously reported (Gonzalez-Reyes, et al, PNAS 98: 9859). Elimination of cleavage will inhibit the ability of the F protein to fuse. The absence of cell-cell fusion will likely increase the release of VLPs. A double mutation, R108N/R109N, eliminates one cleavage and inhibits the fusion activity of the protein (Gonzalez-Reyes, et al, PNAS 98: 9859). Additional RSV proteins not found in other paramyxoviruses are NS1, NS2, M2-2, and SH, but all have been shown to be nonessential for virus assembly (reviewed in Collins, et al, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, in Fields Virology, Ed. Knipe, D. and Howley, P. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2001). G protein is also nonessential for assembly but likely contributes to a protective immune response to the virus.
[0660] Cell lines: RSV grows efficiently in a variety of cell lines from human and animal sources. However, HEp-2 cells (a Hela cell variant) are the most efficient in production of virus (reviewed in Collins, et al, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, in Fields Virology, Ed. Knipe, D. and Howley, P. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2001), thus these cells will be used. A549 cells (type II alveolar epithelial lung carcinoma cells), also reported to be permissive for RSV, will be used as well.
[0661] Transfection infection and metabolic labeling: Transfections of sub confluent cells will be accomplished using Lipofectamine (Invitrogen) as recommended by the manufacturer. The following amounts of plasmid DNA will be used per 35 mm dish: 1.0 μg pCAGGS-NP, 1.0 μg pCAGGS-M2-1, 0.75 μg pCAGGS-F-R108N/R109N, and 1.0 μg pCAGGS-G. A total of 3.75 μg of plasmid DNA per 35 mm plate will be used in all transfection experiments. When only one, two, or three cDNAs are used, the total amount of transfected DNA will be kept constant by adding vector pCAGGS DNA. For each transfection, a mixture of DNA and 5 μl of Lipofectamine in OptiMEM media (Gibco/Invitrogen) will be incubated at room temperature for 45 minutes, and added to cells previously washed with OptiMEM. The cells will be incubated for 5 hours, the Lipofectamine-DNA complexes removed, and 2 ml of supplemented DMEM added. After 36 hours, the medium will be replaced with 0.7 ml DMEM without cysteine and methionine and supplemented with 100 μCi of 35S-methionine and 35S-cysteine mixture (NEG-772 EASYTAG™ Express Protein Labeling Mix, 35S, Perkin Elmer Life Sciences Inc.). After 4 hours of pulse label, one set of transfected plates will be lysed, while in another set the medium will be replaced with 1.0 ml of supplemented DMEM with 0.1 mM cold methionine (Nutritional Biochemicals Corporation). After 8 hours of chase, the medium will be collected. In addition, the cells will sonicated to release cell associated VLPs. The resulting cell supernatants will be combined. The cells will be lysed in 0.5 ml lysis buffer (10 mM NaCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) containing Triton-DOC (1% Triton, 1% sodium deoxycholate) and 1.25 mg N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Cells will be harvested with a cell scraper and homogenized by passing through a 26-gauge needle 10 to 15 times.
[0662] To determine if the VPS pathway is involved in VLP budding, sub confluent HEp-2 cells will be simultaneously transfected with pCAGGS-M2-1 and different concentrations of either pBJ5-Vps4-E228Q-Flag or pDsRed2-N-1-CHMP3. Corresponding empty vectors will be used as control. Cells will be incubated for 36 hours and the same pulse-chase protocol was performed as described above.
[0663] To generate virus particles for controls, cells will be infected at an MOI of 10 pfu for 30 hours and labeled with 35S-methionine and 35S-cysteine mixture for 4 hours, and chased in nonradioactive medium for 8 hours as described above. Cell supernatant will be harvested and virions purified as described below. Cells will be lysed and homogenized as described above.
[0664] Virus and VLP purification: VLPs as well as virions will be purified from cell supernatants in protocols previously developed for virus purification. The cell supernatants will be clarified by centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min at 4° C., overlaid on top of a step gradient consisting of 3.5 ml 20% and 0.5 ml 65% sucrose solutions in TNE buffer (25 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA), and centrifuged at 40,000 rpm for 12 hours at 4° C. using a SW50.1 rotor (Beckman). The interface (containing concentrated particles) will be collected in 0.5 ml, mixed with 2.0 ml of 80% sucrose, and overlaid on top of 1.0 ml 80% sucrose cushion. Additional layers of sucrose (1.0 ml of 50% and 0.5 ml of 10% sucrose) will be layered on top of the sample. The gradient will be centrifuged at 38,000 rpm for 20 h at 4° C. The gradient will be collected from the bottom into one 1 ml fraction and eight 0.5 ml fractions using a polystaltic pump. Densities of each fraction will be determined using a refractometer. VLPs derived from expression of all combinations of proteins will be prepared in a single experiment, thus enabling direct comparison of results.
[0665] Immunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: Immunoprecipitation will be accomplished by combining one volume of cell lysate or sucrose gradient fraction with two volumes of TNE buffer. Samples will be incubated with RSV specific polyclonal antibodies for 16 hours at 4° C. Antiserum to be used is commercially available from several sources. Immune complexes (ICs) will be adsorbed to Protein A (Pansorbin Cells, CALBIOCHEM) for 2 hours at 4° C., pelleted, and then washed three times in immunoprecipitation (IP) wash buffer (phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing 0.5% Tween-20 and 0.4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)). ICs will be resuspended in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer (125 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 2% SDS, 10% glycerol, 0.4% Bromphenol blue) with 1 M β-mercaptoethanol (BME) and boiled. Proteins will be separated on 8% polyacrylamide-SDS gel and subjected to autoradiography. Quantification of resulting autoradiographs will be accomplished using a Fluor-S™ MultiImager (BioRad).

Example 16

Production Of Parainfluenza 3 VLP Vaccine

[0666] This example presents a protocol that will result in the production of VLP vaccines specific for the parainfluenza 3 (PIV).
[0667] Vectors: PIV3 cDNA sequences encoding NP (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:76), M (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:80), HN (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:84), and an uncleaved F (i.e., for example, SEQ ID NO:78) protein will be subcloned into the expression vector pCAGGS to generate pCAGGS-NP, pCAGGS-M, pCAGGS-HN and pCAGGS-F, respectively. The cDNA encoding the PIV3 F protein will be mutated to eliminate the furin recognition site at amino acid 109. The lysine at amino acid 108 will be changed to glycine. Elimination of cleavage will inhibit the ability of the F protein to fuse. The absence of cell-cell fusion will likely increase the release of VLPs.
[0668] Cell lines: PIV 3 grows efficiently in a variety of cell lines from human and primate sources. Thus Hela cells (human cervical carcinoma cells), 293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells), VERO cells (African green monkey kidney cells) and COS-7 (primate) cells will be used. (reviewed in Chanock, et al, Parainfluenza Viruses, in Fields Virology, Ed. Knipe, D. and Howley, P. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2001. LLC-MK2 (rhesus kidney cells) and NCI-H292 (human lung carcinoma) cells will also be used as they have been successfully used to generate virus.
[0669] Transfection, infection and metabolic labeling: Transfections of sub confluent cells will be accomplished using Lipofectamine (Invitrogen) as recommended by the manufacturer. The following amounts of plasmid DNA will be used per 35 mm dish: 1.0 μg pCAGGS-NP, 1.0 μg pCAGGS-M, 0.75 μg pCAGGS-F-K108G, and 1.0 μg pCAGGS-HN. A total of 3.75 μg of plasmid DNA per 35 mm plate will be used in all transfection experiments. When only one, two, or three cDNAs are used, the total amount of transfected DNA will be kept constant by adding vector pCAGGS DNA. For each transfection, a mixture of DNA and 5 μl of Lipofectamine in OptiMEM media (Gibco/Invitrogen) will be incubated at room temperature for 45 minutes, and added to cells previously washed with OptiMEM. The cells will be incubated for 5 hours, the Lipofectamine-DNA complexes removed, and 2 ml of supplemented DMEM added. After 36 hours, the medium will be replaced with 0.7 ml DMEM without cysteine and methionine and supplemented with 100 μCi of 35S-methionine and 35S-cysteine mixture (NEG-772 EASYTAG™ Express Protein Labeling Mix, 35S, Perkin Elmer Life Sciences Inc.). After 4 hours of pulse label, one set of transfected plates will be lysed, while in another set the medium will be replaced with 1.0 ml of supplemented DMEM with 0.1 mM cold methionine (Nutritional Biochemicals Corporation). After 8 hours of chase, the cell supernatant will be collected. The cells will be lysed in 0.5 ml lysis buffer (10 mM NaCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 10 mM Tris-HCl pH7.4) containing Triton-DOC (1% Triton, 1% sodium deoxycholate) and 1.25 mg N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Cells will be harvested with a cell scraper and homogenized by passing through a 26-gauge needle 10 to 15 times.
[0670] To determine if the VPS pathway is involved in VLP budding, sub confluent HEp-2 cells will be simultaneously transfected with pCAGGS-M and different concentrations of either pBJ5-Vps4-E228Q-Flag or pDsRed2-N1-CHMP3. Corresponding empty vectors will be used as control. Cells will be incubated for 36 hours and the same pulse-chase protocol was performed as described above.
[0671] To generate virus particles for controls, cells will be infected at an MOI of 10 pfu for 30 hours and labeled with 35S-methionine and 35S-cysteine mixture for 4 hours, and chased in nonradioactive medium for 8 hours as described above. Cell supernatant will be harvested and virions purified as described below. Cells will be lysed and homogenized as described above.
[0672] Virus and VLP purification: VLPs as well as virions will be purified from cell supernatants in protocols previously developed for virus purification. The cell supernatants will be clarified by centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min at 4° C., overlaid on top of a step gradient consisting of 3.5 ml 20% and 0.5 ml 65% sucrose solutions in TNE buffer (25 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA), and centrifuged at 40,000 rpm for 12 hours at 4° C. using a SW50.1 rotor (Beckman). The interface (containing concentrated particles) will be collected in 0.5 ml, mixed with 2.0 ml of 80% sucrose, and overlaid on top of 1.0 ml 80% sucrose cushion. Additional layers of sucrose (1.0 ml of 50% and 0.5 ml of 10% sucrose) will be layered on top of the sample. The gradient will be centrifuged at 38,000 rpm for 20 h at 4° C. The gradient will be collected from the bottom into one 1 ml fraction and eight 0.5 ml fractions using a polystaltic pump. Densities of each fraction will be determined using a refractometer. VLPs derived from expression of all combinations of proteins will be prepared in a single experiment, thus enabling direct comparison of results.
[0673] Immunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: Immunoprecipitation will be accomplished by combining one volume of cell lysate or sucrose gradient fraction with two volumes of TNE buffer. Samples will be incubated with PIV3 specific polyclonal antibodies for 16 hours at 4° C. Antiserum to be used is commercially available from several sources. Immune complexes (ICs) will be adsorbed to Protein A (Pansorbin Cells, CALBIOCHEM) for 2 hours at 4° C., pelleted, and then washed three times in immunoprecipitation (IP) wash buffer (phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing 0.5% Tween-20 and 0.4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)). ICs will be resuspended in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer (125 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 2% SDS, 10% glycerol, 0.4% Bromphenol blue) with 1 M β-mercaptoethanol (BME) and boiled. Proteins will be separated on 8% polyacrylamide-SDS gel and subjected to autoradiography. Quantification of resulting autoradiographs will be accomplished using a Fluor-STM MultiImager (BioRad).

Example 17

Site-Specific Mutagenesis of Late Domains

[0674] Mutations in the M protein PKSP and YANL sequences at amino acids 216 and 219 and amino acids 232 and 235 were introduced by PCR to yield M-A216A219 and M-A232A235, respectively. Specific sited-directed mutagenic primers were designed to substitute the proline residues at positions 216 and 219 and tyrosine and leucine residues at positions 232 and 235, respectively, with alanine. Additional mutant M genes were constructed by substituting PTAP or YPDL sequences for YANL at amino acid positions 232 to 235. The entire genes of each M protein mutant DNA were sequenced to verify that no additional mutation was introduced by the mutagenesis protocol. Mutations generated are illustrated in FIG. 70.

Example 18

VLP Release from 293T Cells

[0675] This example evaluates the effects on particle release of available dominant negative mutant human VPS proteins and whether human renal epithelial cells (293T) could support the release of NDV VLPs.
[0676] VLP particles were released from 293T cells expressing M protein alone (top panel) or 293T cells co-expressing NP, M, F-K115Q and HN proteins (bottom panel). FIG. 67, Panel A. Particles released from 293T cells expressing M protein alone were very heterogeneous with respect to density (FIG. 67, panel A, top panel), very similar to particles released from avian cells expressing M protein alone. In contrast, VLPs released from 293T cells expressing all 4 major structural proteins were more homogenous in density. These particles were slightly less dense (1.18 g/cc) than the authentic virus (1.2 g/cc; (Lamb et al., In: Paramvxoviridae: The Viruses and Their Replication, Third edition ed, vol. 1. LippincottWilliams & Wilkins, Philadelphia (2001))) due to absence of genomic RNA.
[0677] These combined results show that M protein VLPs and complete VLPs were released from 293T cells. However, the efficiency of release of particles from 293T cells, as measured by the percentage of pulse labeled M protein remaining in cells after a long nonradioactive chase, was lower than VLP release from avian cells (50% vs. 84%, respectively).

Example 19

Dominant Negative VPS Protein Mutants Inhibit Particle Release

[0678] This example was designed to determine if inhibition of particle release was due only to over expression of dominant negative VPS proteins.
[0679] 293T cells were transfected with vector control, wild type CHMP3, wild type Vps4A, wild type AIP1, dominant negative (dn) CHMP3, dn Vps4A, and dn AIP1.
[0680] The wild type forms of each VPS protein had little effect on particle release. M protein particle release was inhibited by dn-CHMP3 to about 90%. (FIG. 68, Panels A and B). Vps4A-E228Q inhibited M protein VLP release by about 90% (FIG. 68, Panels C and D), and AIP-1-RFP inhibited particle release by 90% (FIG. 68, Panels E and F). The dominant negative forms of CHMP3, Vps4A, and AIP1, but not the wild type forms, inhibited the release of VLPs containing all four viral proteins. FIG. 69.
[0681] These combined results show that the inhibition of VLP release was not due to over expression of the VPS protein, but rather due to specific effect of the dn mutant proteins. These results support the conclusion that an intact VPS pathway facilitates M protein particle release.

Example 20

YANL Sequence Mutations Inhibit VLP Release

[0682] This example presents data showing that the L domain of an NDV M protein plays a role in particle budding. For example, the sequence of a NDV M protein has two possible L domain sequences, PKSP and YANL, which are similar to the classical L domains PTAP and YPXL, respectively (Freed, E. O., “Mechanisms of enveloped virus release” Virus Res 106:85-86 (2004)). The data below show that by inducing mutations in these L domain sequences, VLP release maybe inhibited.
[0683] The proline residues in the PKSP sequence were substituted with alanine (M-A216A219); and the tyrosine and leucine in the YANL sequence were substituted with alanine (M-A232A235) (FIG. 70, Panel A). These mutant M proteins were expressed either individually (FIG. 70, Panel B, extracts) or in combination with NP, F-K115Q and HN proteins (FIG. 70, Panel D, extracts). Particles were released from cells expressing the M-A216A219 mutant at levels comparable to cells expressing wild type M protein. FIG. 5, Panels B-E.
[0684] In contrast, there was a significant reduction of particles released from cells expressing the M-A232A235 mutant (FIG. 70, Panel B). Similarly, co-expression M-A232A235 mutant protein with NP, F-K115Q and HN proteins resulted in 80% reduction in particles released (FIG. 70, Panel D, compare lanes 6 and 8 and Panel E). Amounts of VLPs released from cells co-expressing the M-A216A219 mutant protein with NP, F-K115Q and HN proteins were comparable to wild type levels (FIG. 70, Panel D, lanes 6 and 7).
[0685] To determine if the inhibition of particle release by mutation of the YANL sequence was due to elimination of L domain activity or defects in conformation of the M protein, the YANL sequence was substituted separately with two known classical L domain sequences, YPDL and PTAP (Morita et al., “Retrovirus budding” Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 20:395-425 (2004); Strack et al., “AIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding” Cell 114:689-699 (2003)).
[0686] Both the YPDL and PTAP sequences supported release of the NDV M protein particles. FIG. 705, Panels B & C. The amounts of particles released from NDV M protein containing the substituted YPDL and PTAP motif were comparable to wild type levels. These results strongly indicate that the YANL sequence at position 232 to 235 in the NDV M protein functions as an L domain.
[0687] Retrovirus particles, which have a gag protein with an YPXL L domain, contain AIP1 (Strack et al., “AIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding” Cell 114:689-699 (2003)) and may represent a polypeptide with an approximate size of 100 kD in the SDS-PAGE gels containing NDV VLP proteins or virion proteins. AIP1 was incorporated into NDV particles and VLPs, thereby co-expressing M protein with an HA-tagged AIP1 at either the N-terminal (HA-AIP 1) or the C-terminal (AIP1-HA), or with vector alone. M protein particles were released from both cells expressing M protein with vector and cells expressing M protein and either HA-tagged AIP1. FIG. 71, Panel A. The expression of HA-AIP1 and AIP1-HA were at comparable levels (FIG. 71, panel A, IB extract gel, lanes 2 and 3). However, only AIP1-HA incorporated into VLPs (FIG. 71, panel A, IB VLP gel lane 3). AIP1-HA can also be precipitated from purified disrupted VLPs. FIG. 71, Panel B, right.
[0688] These results demonstrated that AIP1 is incorporated into VLPs and suggest that AIP1 may be interacting directly or indirectly with the M protein in particles.

Example 21

Co-Immunoprecipitation

[0689] Purified VLPs were incubated in ice cold TNE buffer (25 mM Tris HCl, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA) containing 1% Triton X-100, 2.5 mg/ml N-ethylmaleimide for 15 minutes. Excess primary antibody was added and VLPs were incubated at 4° C. overnight. Pansorbin cells, blocked overnight in TNE buffer containing 1% Triton X-100 and 5 mg bovine serum albumin (BSA) and then prewashed in TNE containing 1% Triton X-100 and 1 mg/ml BSA, were added in excess as determined in preliminary experiments, and incubation was continued at 4° C. with constant mixing for at least 2 h. Immune complexes were collected by centrifugation (10,000 rpm for 30 seconds in a microcentrifuge) and washed three times in ice-cold TNE containing 0.5% Triton X-100. The pelleted complexes were resuspended in gel sample buffer.

Example 22

Protease Protection Assay

[0690] Protease digestion of M protein from avian cell extracts and VLPs was accomplished by adding 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20 μg of proteinase K per ml of sample and incubating for 30 min on ice. In parallel, VLPs were also made 0.5% with respect to Triton X-100 prior to incubation with proteinase K. After digestion, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) (0.1 M) was added. For subsequent immunoprecipitation, the reaction mixtures were made 1% with respect to Triton X-100 and 0.5% with respect to sodium deoxycholate.

Example 23

Immunofluorescence Microscopy

[0691] Avian cells, grown in 35 mm dish containing glass coverslips, were transfected with different combinations of NDV cDNAs as described above. After 40 hours, nuclei were stained with 5 μg/ml 4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for 30 min at 37° C. Cells were washed twice with ice-cold immunofluoresecence (IF) buffer (PBS containing 1% bovine serum albumin, 0.02% sodium azide, and 5 mM CaCl2), fixed with 2% paraformaldehyde, blocked with IF buffer for 2 hours, and incubated for 1 hour at 4° C. in IF buffer containing polyclonal antibodies against HN and F proteins.
[0692] Cells were washed twice with ice-cold IF buffer, permeabilized with 0.05% Triton X-100, blocked with IF buffer for at least 2 hours and incubated for 1 hour at 4° C. in IF buffer containing purified ascites fluids containing anti-M protein monoclonal antibody (52-E5). Cells were then washed twice with ice-cold buffer followed by incubation for 1 hour at 4° C. in IF buffer containing fluorescein conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Alexa® 488; Molecular Probes) and rhodamine conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (Alexa® 568; Molecular Probes) secondary antibodies. Cells were washed with ice-cold IF buffer, mounted onto slides using a mounting medium (Vectashield®, Vector Labs, Inc) for immunofluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence images were acquired using a Nikon fluorescence microscope and Openlab® software and processed using Adobe Photoshop®.

Example 24

Membrane Associated M Protein

[0693] This example provides data confirming sucrose gradient data suggesting that M protein may be associated with membranes by incubation with a protease.
[0694] VLPs and cell extracts were either left untreated (FIG. 62, lane 1) or treated with different concentrations of Proteinase K (lanes 2 to 7). As expected, the M protein in cell extracts was sensitive to low concentrations of protease (FIG. 62 upper panel). The lower band below the M protein is a protease digestion product indicating that M protein has a protease resistant core. However, M proteins in VLPs were largely protected from protease digestion (FIG. 62, middle panel). In contrast, disruption of the particle membrane with detergent resulted in digestion of the M protein (FIG. 62, lower panel).
[0695] Taken together, these results demonstrated that the M protein VLPs are membrane-bound particles.

Example 25

M Protein Mediated VLP Release

[0696] This example extends the data relevant to M protein sufficiency for VLP release by studying the release of VLPs in the absence of an M protein gene.
[0697] Cells were transfected with all possible combinations of NP, F, and HN cDNAs in the absence of the M gene. Cells expressing any combination of proteins without M protein did not release VLPs. FIG. 63. Furthermore, in the absence of M protein, NP, F and HN proteins (expressed in pair-wise combinations) were retained in cell extracts after the 8 hour chase (FIG. 3; Panel A: lanes 2, 4 and 5, and Panel C).
[0698] These results strongly suggest that VLP release is mediated by the M protein.

Example 26

M Protein/Glycoprotein Co-Localization

[0699] This example explores further the role played by each protein in VLP assembly. Specifically, the plasma membrane localization of M, F and HN proteins was determined by immunofluorescence.
[0700] Transfected cells were incubated with anti-F protein or anti-HN protein antibodies prior to cell permeabilization to limit binding of antibodies to cell surface F or HN proteins. Cells were then permeabilized using 0.05% Triton X-100 and then incubated with M protein specific antibody.
[0701] Vector-transfected control cells and as well as cells expressing individually M, F-K115Q or HN proteins, demonstrated that the F-K115Q and HN proteins were diffusely distributed on the surface of the cells (FIG. 64, Panel A). M protein exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic staining as well as punctate structures of various sizes (FIG. 64, Panel A; anti-M image and merged image). Co-expression of either F or HN proteins with M protein, however, had little effect on the distribution of M protein, F protein, or HN protein. Further, little to no co-localization of F or HN glycoproteins with M protein was observed. FIG. 64, Panel B. These findings correlate with the very low incorporation of F or HN proteins into M protein containing VLPs after pair-wise co-expression.
[0702] Co-expression of M protein with at least two other proteins slightly changed the distribution of M protein. For example, M protein co-expression with F and HN proteins increased the co-localization of M protein with either F or HN proteins. FIG. 64, Panel C. This result is consistent with an increased incorporation of HN, F, or NP proteins when two proteins are co-expressed with M protein.
[0703] When all four proteins were co-expressed, the distribution of M protein was changed to more punctuate structures distributed mostly along the edges of the cells. Further, most of the F or HN protein signal co-localized with the M protein. FIG. 64, Panel D. Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that this result is consistent with a more ordered assembly of VLPs when all four proteins are co-expressed.
[0704] Altogether, these results suggest that co-localization of viral proteins is detected with expression of three proteins and is most dramatic when NP, M, F and HN proteins are co-expressed. These results also suggest that there are specific protein-protein interactions involved in assembling particles.

Example 27

VLP Viral Protein Interactions

[0705] This example provides identification of several specific protein interactions involved in VLP assembly using co-immunoprecipitation techniques.
[0706] Radioactively labeled VLPs formed with different combinations of proteins were solubilized in 1% Triton X-100 and the proteins present were precipitated, separately, with cocktails of monospecific antibodies for M, HN or F proteins. Proteins were also precipitated with a mix of antibodies with specificities for all proteins in order to precipitate total VLP proteins (lane 6).
[0707] First, each antibody cocktail precipitated all proteins from VLPs formed with M, HN, F and NP, although the efficiency of precipitation for each protein varied with the antibody specificity (FIG. 65, Panel A). Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that these results are consistent with a network of interactions between all four proteins such that precipitation of one resulted in the precipitation of the other three proteins.
[0708] The results also suggested that proteins indirectly linked to the precipitated protein were less efficiently precipitated than a protein directly linked to a precipitated protein. For example, anti-F protein antibody precipitated NP very efficiently but M protein very inefficiently (lane 3). This observation suggests that there may be a direct link between F protein and NP, but not F protein and M protein.
[0709] The protein interactions in VLPs were more clearly defined by precipitation of proteins from VLPs formed with all combinations of three proteins. In VLPs released from cells expressing M, F-K115Q and HN proteins, anti-F protein precipitated only F protein and traces of HN protein (FIG. 65, Panel B, lane 3). This result indicates that the F protein does not directly complex with the M protein.
[0710] Anti-HN protein antibody co-precipitated M protein and HN protein (FIG. 65, panel B, lane 4). Likewise, anti-M protein antibody co-precipitated HN protein and M protein (FIG. 65, panel B, lane 5). These results strongly suggest that the M protein interacts with HN protein but not with the F protein.
[0711] VLPs were also released containing NP, M and F-K115Q proteins. Anti-F protein antibody co-precipitated NP and F protein, but not M protein. (FIG. 65, panel C, lane 3). Anti-M protein antibody co-precipitated NP and M protein, but not F protein (FIG. 65, panel C, lane 4). These observations indicate that M protein directly interacts with NP and that the F protein interacts with NP and confirm that F and M protein do not interact.
[0712] Although it is not necessary to understand the mechanism of an invention, it is believed that anti-M protein antibody does not indirectly precipitate detectible amounts of F protein because an inefficient precipitation of NP protein may decrease the amounts of F protein precipitated to very low levels. Alternatively, NP—NP interactions required to precipitate F protein with anti-M protein antibody may be disrupted by VLP lysis. For example, when VLPs containing NP, M and HN were used, complexes formed with anti-HN protein antibody contained NP and M proteins as well as FIN protein (FIG. 65, panel D, lane 3). In addition, anti-M protein antibody precipitated NP and FIN proteins (FIG. 65, panel D, lane 4). These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the M protein interacts with both NP and HN proteins. It is further contemplated that, in one embodiment, HN protein and NP protein may interact.
[0713] Overall, results of co-immunoprecipitation of proteins in VLPs as well as results of cellular co-localization studies provide a rational basis for the incorporation of viral proteins into VLPs and suggest that specific protein interactions are involved in the assembly of an NDV virus-like particle.

Example 28

Comparison of NDV and Influenza VLP Release

[0714] In order to determine if an NDV platform for presentation of influenza virus antigens in a vaccine had an advantage over use of influenza VLPs, the inventor compared the release of VLPs from comparable numbers of avian ELL-0 cells expressing the influenza M1, HA, and NA proteins with cells expressing the NDV M, NP, F, and HN proteins. FIG. 163 shows the total proteins associated with particles (VLPs) released from each culture. Quantification of release of influenza VLPs and ND VLPs showed that, based on release of M1 and M proteins and the release of HA and HN proteins, the ND VLP release was 30-100 fold higher respectively, over a 24 hour period than that of influenza VLPs
[0715] These results demonstrate that ND VLPs were much more efficiently released than influenza virus VLPs. The inventor therefore proceeded to explore the incorporation of influenza HA and NA proteins into ND VLPs.

Example 29

Construction of Chimera Type 1 Protein Genes

[0716] Because the inventors considered it likely that specific incorporation of a glycoprotein into ND VLPs would require the CT and TM domains of the NDV glycoproteins for interactions with NDV M or NP proteins, a hybrid gene was constructed with the ectodomain of the influenza HA and the TM and CT domains of the NDV F protein. The constructions are diagramed in FIG. 164. Three constructions were made which varied the junction sequences. Chimera #1 joined the two domains without additional amino acids. Chimeras #2 and #3 included two to three additional amino acids to provide some flexibility between the two domains.

Example 30

Expression of Chimera HA/F Proteins

[0717] The inventor next determined if the chimera proteins were expressed, folded, and delivered to cell surfaces. FIG. 165 shows that all three chimera proteins were expressed in ELL-0 avian cells and precipitated with antibody specific for influenza HA. All were detected at cell surfaces at levels comparable or better than the wild type HA protein. The chimera proteins were also detected with antibody specific for the cytoplasmic domain (CT) (anti-Ftail) of the NDV F protein showing that they were chimera proteins.

Example 31

Incorporation of an HA/F Chimera Protein into ND VLPs

[0718] HA/F #1 was used to determine if chimera type 1 proteins could be incorporated into ND VLPs. HA/F#1 cDNA was co-transfected with NDV M and NP protein cDNAs as well as various combinations of NDV glycoprotein cDNAs into ELL-0 cells. In addition, to compare the efficiency of the wild type HA protein incorporation into ND VLPs with the chimera protein, duplicate transfections were performed substituting the wild type HA cDNA for the HA/F chimera protein cDNA. Particles released from each of these transfections were purified by centrifugation through a 20% sucrose pad and the proteins present in each particle preparation were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (FIG. 166).
[0719] The results show that, most significantly, the HA/F chimera can be incorporated into ND VLPs. In addition, the data show that wild type HA was minimally incorporated into ND VLPS. Further, the data show that the HA/F chimera was most efficiently incorporated into ND VLPs in the presence of only NDV M and NP. Inclusion of NDV wild type fusion (Fwt) protein allows incorporation of the HA/F while the uncleaved F (F-K115G) inhibits chimera incorporation. Inclusion of both HN and F protein appears to inhibit incorporation of the chimera protein.
[0720] To determine the relative roles of HN, F, and NP proteins in incorporation of HA/F chimera, the chimera cDNA was transfected with glycoproteins in the absence of NP and with each NDV glycoprotein individually. All combinations contained NDV M protein cDNA. The results are shown in FIG. 167.
[0721] These results indicate that efficient chimera protein incorporation into ND VLPs occurs in the presence of NP. In the presence of NP, HN protein, in the absence of F protein, allows incorporation of the chimera protein and F protein, in the absence of HN protein allows incorporation of the chimera.
[0722] The data show that a chimera protein which contains the ectodomain of the HA glycoprotein fused to the TM and CT domain of the NDV F protein can be expressed, transported to cell surfaces. The data also show that the HA/F chimera protein was incorporated into ND VLPs. Further, the data demonstrate that incorporation of the HA/F protein occurs upon M and NP protein expression. Moreover, the data show that incorporation of the chimera protein also occurs when NDV F or HN protein was co-expressed with the chimera protein.
[0723] It was the inventor's opinion that the HA/F chimeras #2 and #3 will be more efficiently incorporated into ND VLPs as both of these chimera proteins were expressed on cell surfaces at higher levels than HA/F #1.

Example 32

Construction of Chimera Type 2 Glycoprotein Genes and Expression of the HN/NA Chimera Protein

[0724] To test the expression and VLP incorporation of a type 2 glycoprotein chimera into ND VLPs, sequences encoding. the ectodomain of the influenza NA protein were fused to sequences encoding the NDV HN protein CT and TM domains in order to construct a chimera protein gene between these two type 2 glycoproteins. FIG. 168 shows a diagram of the construction. FIG. 169 shows that the chimera HN/NA protein was expressed in avian cells (lane 3).

Example 33

Incorporation of HN/NA Chimera Protein into ND VLPs

[0725] To test the incorporation of the HN/NA chimera protein into ND VLPs, ELL-0 cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding the NDV M and NP proteins along with the cDNA encoding the chimera protein. The inventor also transfected cells in parallel with cDNAs encoding the wild type influenza HA, NA, and M1 proteins in order to compare release of the chimera protein in ND VLPs with release of the wild type NA in influenza VLPs. FIG. 170 shows the proteins in particles released from each of these cell populations. Clearly the HN/NA chimera was very efficiently incorporated into ND VLPs containing the M and NP protein. The levels of release were significantly increased over levels of wild type NA protein released in influenza VLPs. Interestingly, a small amount of the HN/NA chimera protein was released as a particle when expressed alone.
[0726] To determine the role of NP, F, and HN protein on the incorporation of the HN/NA chimera protein into ND VLPs, the chimera protein was expressed with M protein and different combinations of NP, HN, and F protein. The results are shown in FIG. 171.
[0727] The results show that NP expression is important for HN/NA protein incorporation. Addition of F protein increases incorporation and addition of both NDV glycoproteins with NP significantly enhances incorporation of the chimera protein.
[0728] The data show that an HN/NA chimera can be expressed. The data also show that an HN/NA chimera can be incorporated into ND VLPs very efficiently. In addition, the data show that incorporation of the HN/NA chimera occurs in the presence of M and NP expression, and incorporation was enhanced by the co-expression of F protein, or a combination of HN and F proteins.

Example 34

ND VLPs Stimulate Immune Responses in Mice

[0729] Use of ND VLPs as a vaccine platform requires that these particles will stimulate an immune response in animals. To determine if these particles are effective immunogens, the inventor first developed conditions to purify the VLPs and to generate significant quantities for use as an immunogen.

A. Purity of VLPs

[0730] Purification of VLPs was based on standard protocols used to purify intact virus grown in eggs. FIG. 172 shows a silver stain of the purified VLPs as well as purified NDV, strain B1, grown in eggs. Clearly the VLPs were as pure as the virus stock. Significantly, the amounts of HN and F proteins relative to NP were higher in the VLPs. The cDNAs, used to generate VLPs, were derived from NDV, strain AV. This strain of NDV has increased amounts of glycoproteins in egg grown virus preparations compared to the egg grown avirulent B1 strain.

B. Generation of Microgram Quantities of VLPs

[0731] Because the release of VLPs was so efficient from avian cells, this experiment was conducted to determine if microgram quantities of these particles could be generated from transiently transfected avian cells. Indeed, only a minor scale up of the numbers of cells used yielded significant amounts of these particles. VLPs and egg grown B1 virus were purified using protocols used to purify virus from allantoic fluid of infected eggs (McGinnes et al. (2006) Newcastle Disease Virus: Propagation, quantification, and storage,” Vol 1, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.) Proteins, separated in polyacrylamide gels, were visualized by silver staining (see FIG. 172). Protein concentrations were measured by using albumin as a standard. Table 14 shows a comparison of yields of VLPs with an egg grown stock of virus. These VLPs were used to immunize mice.
[0732] 
[00014] [TABLE-US-00014]
  TABLE 14
 
  Yields of VLPs from tissue culture cells
          Total protein
  Particle   Protein   Conc (ng/ml)   Total volume   (μg)
 
  Strain B1 virus   H   23.05     1 ml   23.05
  (from 3.3 dozen        
  eggs)        
    F   11.09     11.09
    NP   100.32     100.09
    M   75.08     75.08
    Total       209.54
  VLP (from 1.0 ×   HN   109.70   0.5 ml   54.85
108 cells)        
    F   85.42     42.71
    NP   98.24     49.71
    M   63.50     31.75
    Total       178.43
 

Example 35

Immunization

[0733] Groups of five BALB/c mice were injected with different concentrations of VLPs or virus. Importantly, the inventor did not use any adjuvant, the absence of which significantly decreases toxic effects of vaccination in animals. One group of mice received 10 micrograms of total VLP protein, another group received 20 micrograms, and a third group received 40 micrograms. In parallel, groups of mice were injected with UV inactivated virions (10, 20, or 40 micrograms of total viral protein). Sham vaccinated mice (using phosphate buffered saline) were included in the protocol. The mice were injected intraperitoneally (IP). A second injection of 10 micrograms of either VLPs or virus was given to each mouse (IP) in the VLP or virus groups, respectively, on day 27. Sera were collected from the tail veins on day 10, day 20, day 37, and day 49.
[0734] On day 50, spleens were collected, and spleen cells were co-cultured for 6 days with NDV infected P815 cells. These spleen cells were then assayed for CTL activity as well as intracellular cytokine staining. UV inactivated virus was used as an immunogen since injection of live NDV into animals is not permitted by the USDA.

A. ELISA Titers of Soluble Antibody

[0735] The anti-NDV antibody in each mouse serum was titered by serial dilution in an ELISA assay using as capture antigen purified, egg grown NDV that had been disrupted with Triton X-100. FIG. 173 shows a scatter plot of the titers of antibodies in the serum of each animal immunized with VLPs, while the results after virus immunization are shown in FIG. 174.
[0736] These results show that VLPs can stimulate a robust soluble immune response in mice, a response that was at least as good as that stimulated by virus. Furthermore, as little as 10 micrograms of total VLP protein was sufficient to result in significant soluble immune responses.

B. CTL Activities of Spleen Cells from Immunized Mice

[0737] The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activities of spleen cells, harvested at 50 days post immunization and stimulated in vitro with NDV infected cells, were measured in a standard chromium release assay and the percents of cell lysis of target cells (NDV infected P815 cells) at different effector to target ratios are shown in FIG. 175.
[0738] The results show that VLPs do stimulate CTL activity and that, under these conditions, the levels were at least as high as those detected after immunization with virus particles.

C. Intracellular Cytokine Staining of Spleen Cells from Immunized Mice

[0739] As an additional measure of T cell activation after immunization with either VLPs or virus, spleen cells harvested and stimulated, as described above, were characterized for intracellular expression of gamma interferon. The percent of CD8+ cells that were positive for interferon gamma is shown in FIG. 176, left panel, while the percent of CD4+ cells that were positive for this cytokine expression is shown in FIG. 176, right panel.
[0740] The results show that VLPs can stimulate CD8 and CD4 T cells as well as inactivated virus. The above data also demonstrate that VLPs can stimulate both soluble and cellular immune responses to the NDV proteins. The data also show that the VLPs were at least as good an immunogen as virus particles. The data also show that very small amounts of total VLP protein were effective as immunogens. These results demonstrate that foreign proteins incorporated into NDV VLPs stimulate robust immune responses.

Example 37

Incorporation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) Epitope into Newcastle Disease (ND) VLPs

[0741] Using the above described methods, the CTL epitope sequence YPYDVPDYA (SEQ ID NO: 227) was expressed in ELL-0 cells as a fusion protein that was fused to the carboxyl terminus of NDV HN protein, to the amino terminus of NDV NP protein, or to the carboxyl terminus of the NDV NP protein. Each of the three fusion proteins resulted in the incorporation of the CTL epitope into VLPs.
[0742] All publications and patents mentioned in the above specification are herein incorporated by reference. Various modifications and variations of the described compositions and methods of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. Although the invention has been described in connection with specific preferred embodiment, it should be understood that the invention as claimed should not be unduly limited to such specific embodiments. Indeed, various modifications of the described modes for carrying out the invention which are obvious to those skilled in the art and in fields related thereto are intended to be within the scope of the following claims.
(57)

Claims

1. A non-infectious, replication incompetent, recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) comprising, in operable combination:
a) Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein,
b) NDV nucleocapsid (NP) protein,
c) a first chimeric protein comprising NDV haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein flanked by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) HN protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein and by a first protein sequence that comprises a first copy of a heterologous protein of interest, and
d) a second chimeric protein comprising NDV fusion (F) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein flanked by NDV F protein cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein and by a second protein sequence that comprises a second copy of said heterologous protein of interest,
wherein said VLP lacks NDV RNA.
2. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 1, wherein said protein of interest comprises an ectodomain of a membrane protein.
3. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 1, wherein said virus-like particle (VLP) further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein.
4. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 1, wherein said virus-like particle (VLP) further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
5. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 1, wherein said virus-like particle (VLP) is purified.
6. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 1, wherein said virus-like particle (VLP) is immunogenic.
7. A vaccine comprising the virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 1.
8. The vaccine of claim 7, further comprising an adjuvant.
9. A non-infectious, replication incompetent virus-like particle (VLP) produced by a method comprising:
a) providing an expression vector comprising, in operable combination:
1) a first nucleic acid sequence encoding a Newcastle Disease Virus transmembrane domain (TM) protein,
2) a second nucleic acid sequence encoding Newcastle Disease Virus cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein,
3) a third nucleic acid sequence encoding a protein of interest, wherein said first nucleic acid sequence is flanked by said second and third nucleic acid sequences, and
4) a fourth nucleic acid sequence encoding Newcastle Disease Virus matrix (M) protein,
b) providing a host cell, and
c) transfecting said host cell with said vector to produce a virus-like particle (VLP) comprising said protein of interest,
wherein said VLP lacks NDV RNA.
10. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 1, wherein said VLP further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein.
11. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 1, wherein said VLP further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus heamagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
12. The recombinant VLP of claim 1, wherein said VLP further comprises an ectodomain sequence of RSV G protein.
13. A non-infectious, replication incompetent, recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) comprising, in operable combination:
a) Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein,
b) NDV nucleocapsid (NP) protein, and
c) NDV haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein transmembrane domain (TM) protein flanked by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) HN cytoplasmic domain (CT) protein and by a protein of interest that comprises an ectodomain sequence of RSV G protein,
wherein said VLP lacks NDV RNA.
14. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 12, wherein said protein of interest comprises an ectodomain of a membrane protein.
15. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 14, wherein said virus-like particle (VLP) further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein.
16. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 14, wherein said virus-like particle (VLP) further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
17. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 13, wherein said virus-like particle (VLP) is purified.
18. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 13, wherein said virus-like particle (VLP) is immunogenic.
19. A vaccine comprising the virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 13.
20. The vaccine of claim 19, further comprising an adjuvant.
21. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 13, wherein said VLP further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus fusion (F) protein.
22. The recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) of claim 13, wherein said VLP further comprises Newcastle Disease Virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
23. The recombinant VLP of claim 13, wherein said VLP further comprises an ectodomain sequence of RSV G protein.
*****

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