Novel Diagnostic Marker For Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

  *US20120015383A1*
  US20120015383A1                                 
(19)United States 
(12)Patent Application Publication(10)Pub. No.: US 2012/0015383 A1
 Park et al.(43)Pub. Date:Jan.  19, 2012

(54)NOVEL DIAGNOSTIC MARKER FOR TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS 
    
(75)Inventors: Sang Gyu Park,  Seoul (KR); 
  Kyong Soo Park,  Seoul (KR); 
  Sunghoon Kim,  Seoul (KR) 
(73)Assignees:SNU R&DB FOUNDATION,  Seoul (KR), Type: Foreign Company;
SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL,  Seoul (KR), Type: Foreign Company
 
(21)Appl. No.: 13/198,990 
(22)Filed: Aug.  5, 2011 
 Related U.S. Application Data 
(63) .
Continuation of application No. PCT/KR2010/000710, filed on Feb.  5, 2010 .
 
(30)Foreign Application Priority Data 
 Feb.  5, 2009(KR)10-2009-0009231
 Publication Classification 
(51)Int. Cl. C12Q 001/25 (20060101); G01N 033/566 (20060101); G01N 021/64 (20060101); C12N 009/00 (20060101)
(52)U.S. Cl. 435/7.92; 435/183; 435/4; 435/7.1

        

(57)

Abstract

The present invention provides, as a novel diagnosis marker for type 1 diabetes mellitus, a type 1 diabetes mellitus diagnostic composition comprising alanyl-tRNA synthetase, glycyl-tRNA synthetase, asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase, or tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, a diagnostic kit comprising the same, and a diagnostic method using the same. The composition, the kit, and the method, according to the present invention, may be used for early diagnosis and confirmed diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus because type 1 diabetes mellitus can be easily diagnosed from a patient sample.
 Claim(s),  Drawing Sheet(s), and Figure(s)
 
 


TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present invention relates to a novel diagnostic marker for type 1 diabetes mellitus. More particularly the present invention relates to a diagnostic composition for type 1 diabetes mellitus comprising an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase or an antibody thereto, as an active ingredient, the use of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase for preparing an agent for diagnosing of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and a method for diagnosing type 1 diabetes mellitus by detecting an anti-alanyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-glycyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-asparaginyl tRNA synthetase antibody, and an anti-tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase antibody, from an individual test sample.

BACKGROUND OF THE ART

[0002] Diabetes mellitus may be divided into type 1 diabetes mellitus and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease in which genetic susceptibility and virus infection cause immunological responses in a pancreas, and β-cells are selectively destroyed. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is preceded by insulin resistance, and has been reported to be caused by complicated factors such as obesity, reduction of insulin receptor, reduction of tyrosine kinase activity, reduction of muscle/adipose tissue type transporter in a muscle tissue and an adipose tissue, and intracellular deficiency of insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1).
[0003] Especially, type 1 diabetes mellitus is known to be one of typical autoimmune diseases, and is a chronic disease in which pancreas β-cells-recognizable auto-activating T cells destroy insulin-producing pancreas β-cells. Humoral and cellular immune responses are mainly related to type 1 diabetes mellitus, and an autoantibody against various islet cell antibodies exists in the plasma of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Autoantibodies, against glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65), insulin, and protein tyrosine phosphatase-related islet antibodies 2 (IA-2), are used together with HbA1C and c-peptide quantification, to diagnose type 1 diabetes mellitus. Early diagnosis and exact determination allow medical treatment to be carried out at an early stage, and then is useful in delaying the progress of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Thus, they are clinically important. In the use of an autoantibody diagnosis, anti-GAD65 antibody showed a sensitivity of about 60 to 80%, anti-insulin antibody showed 40 to 60%, and anti-IA-2 antibody showed 30 to 70%. Even when three autoantibodies are combined, only 80 to 90% of type 1 diabetes mellitus can be covered. Accordingly, it has been required to develop a novel autoantibody diagnosis method for early diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

DISCLOSURE

Technical Problem

[0004] Accordingly, the inventors of the present invention researched physiological functions of an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. Then, they found that a lot of autoantibodies against the synthetase exist in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, and can be detected by the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. Thus, they completed the present invention by developing a diagnostic composition for type 1 diabetes mellitus comprising the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase.
[0005] Accordingly, an object of the present invention is to provide a novel use of an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase.

Technical Solution

[0006] In order to accomplish the object, the present invention provides a diagnostic composition for type 1 diabetes mellitus comprising aminoacyl tRNA synthetase.
[0007] In order to accomplish another object, the present invention provides a diagnostic kit for type 1 diabetes mellitus comprising the composition.
[0008] In order to accomplish still another object, the present invention provides a method detecting one or more antibody selected from the group consisting of anti-ARS antibody, anti-GRS antibody, anti-NRS antibody and anti-WRS antibody to provide information for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus through antigen-antibody reaction of patient's test sample.
[0009] In order to accomplish still another object, the present invention provides the use of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase selected from the group consisting of alanyl tRNA synthetase, glycyl tRNA synthetase, asparaginyl tRNA synthetase and tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase for preparing a reagent for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
[0010] In order to accomplish still another object, the present invention provides a method for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus comprising a step of detecting an anti-alanyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-glycyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-asparaginyl tRNA synthetase antibody, and an anti-tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase antibody, from an individual test sample.
[0011] Hereinafter, exemplary embodiments will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
[0012] A composition of the present invention comprises aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and may be used for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
[0013] Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase of the present invention is a protein catalyzing binding of corresponding tRNA and aminoacyl tRNA synthetases of the present invention preferably may be alanyl tRNA synthetase, glycyl tRNA synthetase, asparaginyl tRNA synthetase and tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase alone or in combination.
[0014] The alanyl tRNA synthetase, glycyl tRNA synthetase, asparaginyl tRNA synthetase and tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase may be, but not limited thereto, the polypeptide represented by the SEQ ID NO: 1 (ARS), SEQ ID NO: 2 (GRS), SEQ ID NO: 3 (NRS) and SEQ ID NO: 4 (WRS) respectively. In addition, alanyl tRNA synthetase may be the sequence described in Genbank Accession No. D32050, glycyl tRNA synthetase may be the sequence described in Genbank Accession No. U9510, asparaginyl tRNA synthetase may be the sequence described in Genbank Accession No. D84273 and tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase may be the sequence described in Genbank Accession No. M61715. In addition, the alanyl tRNA synthetase, the glycyl tRNA synthetase, the asparaginyl tRNA synthetase and the tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase comprise functional equivalent thereof.
[0015] The term “functional equivalents” refers to polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence having at least 70% amino acid sequence homology (i.e., identity), preferably at least 80%, and more preferably at least 90%, for example, 70%, 71%, 72%, 73%, 74%, 75%, 76%, 77%, 78%, 79%, 80%, 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, and 100% amino acid sequence homology, that exhibit substantially identical physiological activity to individual aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (i.e. ARS, GRS, NRS or WRS). The “substantially identical physiological activity” means a polypeptide showing activity of individual aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. The functional equivalents may include, for example peptides produced by as a result of addition, substitution or deletion of some amino acid of the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO: 3 or SEQ ID NO: 4. Substitutions of the amino acids are preferably conservative substitutions. Examples of conservative substitutions of naturally occurring amino acids are as follows: aliphatic amino acids (Gly, Ala, Pro), hydrophobic amino acids (Ile, Leu, Val), aromatic amino acids (Phe, Tyr, Trp), acidic amino acids (Asp, Glu), basic amino acids (His, Lys, Arg, Gln, Asn) and sulfur-containing amino acids (Cys, Met). Furthermore, the functional equivalents also include variants with deletion of some of the amino acid sequence of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. Deletion or substitutions of the amino acids are preferably located at regions that are not directly involved in the physiological activity of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. And deletion of the amino acids is preferably located at regions that are not directly involved in the physiological activity of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. In addition, the functional equivalents also include variants with addition of several amino acids in both terminal ends of the amino acid sequence of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase or in the sequence. Moreover, the inventive functional equivalents also include polypeptide derivatives which have modification of some of the chemical structure of the inventive polypeptide while maintaining the fundamental backbone and physiological activity of the inventive polypeptide. Examples of this modification include structural modifications for changing the stability, storage, volatility or solubility of the inventive polypeptide.
[0016] Sequence identity or homology is defined herein as the percentage of amino acid residues in the candidate sequence that are identical with amino acid sequence of ARS, GRS, NRS or WRS, after aligning the sequences and introducing gaps, if necessary, to achieve the maximum percent sequence identity, and not considering any conservative substitutions (as described above) as part of the sequence identity. None of N-terminal, C-terminal, or internal extensions, deletions, or insertions into the amino acid sequence of ARS, GRS, NRS or WRS shall be construed as affecting sequence identity or homology. Thus, sequence identity can be determined by standard methods that are commonly used to compare the similarity in position of the amino acids of two polypeptides. Using a computer program such as BLAST or FASTA, two polypeptides are aligned for optimal matching of their respective amino acids (either along the full length of one or both sequences or along a predetermined portion of one or both sequences). The programs provide a default opening penalty and a default gap penalty, and a scoring matrix such as PAM 250 (a standard scoring matrix; see Dayhoff et al., in Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, vol. 5, supp. 3 (1978)) can be used in conjunction with the computer program. For example, the percent identity can be calculated as the follow. The total number of identical matches multiplied by 100 and then divided by the sum of the length of the longer sequence within the matched span and the number of gaps introduced into the longer sequences in order to align the two sequences.
[0017] ARS, GRS, NRS or WRS of the present invention can be prepared by separating from nature materials or genetic engineering methods. For example, ARS, GRS, NRS or WRS or its functional equivalents is constructed according to any conventional method. The DNA molecule may synthesize by performing PCR using suitable primers. Alternatively, the DNA molecule may also be synthesized by a standard method known in the art, for example using an automatic DNA synthesizer (commercially available from Biosearch or Applied Biosystems). The constructed DNA molecule is inserted into a vector comprising at least one expression control sequence (ex: promoter, enhancer) that is operatively linked to the DNA sequence so as to control the expression of the DNA molecule, and host cells are transformed with the resulting recombinant expression vector. The transformed cells are cultured in a medium and condition suitable to express the DNA sequence, and a substantially pure polypeptide encoded by the DNA sequence is collected from the culture medium. The collection of the pure polypeptide may be performed using a method known in the art, for example, chromatography. In this regard, the term “substantially pure polypeptide” means the inventive polypeptide that does not substantially contain any other proteins derived from host cells. For the genetic engineering method for synthesizing the inventive polypeptide, the reader may refer to the following literatures: Maniatis et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 1982; Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning; A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Press, N.Y., Second (1998) and Third (2000) Editions; Gene Expression Technology, Method in Enzymology, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Method in Enzymology, Guthrie & Fink (eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. 1991; and Hitzeman et al., J. Biol. Chem., 255, 12073-12080, 1990.
[0018] Alternatively, ARS, GRS, NRS or WRS of the present invention can be chemically synthesized easily according to any technique known in the art (Creighton, Proteins: Structures and Molecular Principles, W.H. Freeman and Co., NY, 1983). As a typical technique, they are not limited to, but include liquid or solid phase synthesis, fragment condensation, F-MOC or T-BOC chemistry (Chemical Approaches to the Synthesis of Peptides and Proteins, Williams et al., Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton Fla., 1997; A Practical Approach, Atherton & Sheppard, Eds., IRL Press, Oxford, England, 1989).
[0019] Meanwhile, the present invention provides a diagnostic composition for type 1 diabetes mellitus comprising one or more of ARS, GRS, NRS or WRS.
[0020] The kit of the present invention may comprise an instrument and/or an agent for immunological analysis which is well known in the art as well as ARS, GRS, NRS or WRS.
[0021] The immunological analysis may comprise a method as long as it can measure binding of antigen-antibody. These methods are well known in the art and for example, there are immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, radioimmunoassays, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunoabsorbent assay), immunoblotting, Farr assay, immunoprecipitation, latex cohesion, erythrocyte cohesion, nephelometry, immunodiffusion, count-current electrophoresis, single radical immunodiffusion, protein chip and immunofluorescence.
[0022] As an instrument and/or a reagent for immunological analysis, it comprises a suitable carrier or a support, a marker which produces a detectable signal, a diluents and a cleansing agent. In addition, when the marker is an enzyme, it may comprise a substrate which enables to measure activity of the enzyme and a reaction blocking agent.
[0023] ARS, GRS, NRS or WRS which is included in the diagnostic kit of the present invention preferably may be fixed to a suitable carrier or a support as disclosed in the reference (Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, Harlow & Lane, Cold Spring Harbor, 1988). As examples of a suitable carrier or a support, there are agarose, cellulose, nitrocellulose, dextran, sephadex, sepharose, liposome, carboxymethylcellulose, polyacrylamide, polysterine, gabbro, filter paper, ion exchange resin, plastic film, plastic tube, glass, polyamine-methylvinyl-ether-maleic acid copolymer, amino acid copolymer, ethylene-maleic acid copolymer, nylon, cup, flat packs. As other solid substrates, there are a cell culture plate, an ELISA plate, a tube and a polymeric membrane. The support may have a random form, for example, a form of globular (beads), cylindrical (test tube or inside of well), plane (sheet, test strip).
[0024] A marker which produces a detectable signal enables to measure formation of antigen-antibody complex qualitatively and quantitatively and the examples are an enzyme, a fluorescent material, a ligand, a luminous material, microparticle, a redox molecule and a radioactive isotope. As an enzyme, β-glucuronidase, β-D-glucosidase, urase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholine esterase, glucose oxidase, hexokinase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate hydrogenase or invertase may be used. As a fluorescent material, fluorescin, isothiocyanate, rodamin, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin or fluorescinisothiocyanate may be used. As a ligand, there are biotin derivatives and as a luminous material, acridium, ester, luciferin and luciferase. As a microparticle, there are colloid gold and colored latex, and as a redox molecule, there are ferrocene, ruthenium complex compound, biologen, quinone, Ti ion, Cs ion, dimide, 1,4-benzoquinone and hydroquinone. As a radioactive isotope, 3H, 14C, 32P, 35S, 36Cl, 51Co, 58Co, 59Fe, 90Y, 125I, 131I and 186Re. However, besides the above mentioned things, anything can be used as long as it can be used in immunological analysis.
[0025] Also, the diagnostic kit for type 1 diabetes mellitus may further comprise composition for detecting a marker for type 1 diabetes mellitus which is well known in the art. For example, a marker for type 1 diabetes mellitus which is well known in the art may be, but not limited thereto, anti-GAD65 antibody, anti-IA-2 antibody, anti-insulin antibody, anti-islet cell antigen (ICA) antibody, Hb1Ac, C-peptide, Slc30A8.
[0026] Also, to provide necessary information for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, the present invention provides a method for detecting one or more antibody selected from the group consisting of anti-ARS antibody, anti-GRS antibody, anti-NRS antibody and anti-WRS antibody through antigen-antibody reaction from a sample of a patient. At this time, antigen-antibody reaction is well described above.
[0027] Above-mentioned anti-ARS antibody, anti-GRS antibody, anti-NRS antibody and anti-WRS antibody mean protein molecules specific to an epitope of ARS, GRS, NRS and WRS respectively. For the purpose of the present invention, the antibody means an antibody specifically binding to ARS, GRS, NRS or WRS respectively and preferably it is an autoantibody.
[0028] In addition, the antibodies of the present invention include complete forms having two full-length light chains and two full-length heavy chains, as well as functional fragments of antibody molecules. The functional fragments of antibody molecules refer to fragments retaining at least an antigen-binding function, and include Fab, F(ab′), F(ab′)2 and Fv.
[0029] A composition of the present invention may comprise 0.01 to 99.99 weight % of one or more aminoacyl tRNA synthetase which is selected from the group consisting of alanyl tRNA synthetase, glycyl tRNA synthetase, asparaginyl tRNA synthetase, and tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase and the rest may be a carrier. Further, a composition of the present invention may comprise 0.01 to 99.99 weight % of one or more anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase antibody which is selected from the group consisting of an anti-alanyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-glycyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-asparaginyl tRNA synthetase antibody, and an anti-tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase antibody and the rest may be a carrier.
[0030] In addition, in the present invention, ARS, GRS, NRS and WRS may be a fragment which can bind to an anti-alanyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-glycyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-asparaginyl tRNA synthetase antibody, and an anti-tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase antibody as well as full length ARS, GRS, NRS and WRS.
[0031] In addition, the present invention provides the use of one or more aminoacyl tRNA synthetase which is selected from the group consisting of alanyl tRNA synthetase, glycyl tRNA synthetase, asparaginyl tRNA synthetase, and tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase for preparing a reagent for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
[0032] In order to accomplish still another object, the present invention provides a method for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus comprising a step of detecting an anti-alanyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-glycyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-asparaginyl tRNA synthetase antibody, and an anti-tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase antibody, from an individual test sample.
[0033] As used herein, the term “subject” means mammals, particularly animals including human beings. The subject may be patients in need of diagnosis.
[0034] As used herein, the term “biological sample” or “sample” comprises solid tissue samples such as biologically originated and liquefied samples, biopsy samples, and tissue culture or cells originated thereof. More specifically, for example, but not limited thereto, it may be tissue, extract, cell lysate, hole blood, blood plasma, serum, saliva, ocular humor, cerebrospinal fluid, sweat, urine, milk, ascites, synovial fluid and peritoneum fluid and preferably it may be serum or synovial fluid. The sample is acquired from animals, preferably from mammals and most preferably from human beings. The sample may be pretreated before use. For example, it may comprise filtration, distillation, extraction, concentration, inactivation of inhibitors, adding of a reagent. In addition, the protein may be isolated from the sample and used for detection.
[0035] For the genetic engineering method for nucleotides and proteins of the present invention, it may be referred to the following literatures: Maniatis et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 1982; Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning; A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Press, N.Y., Second (1998) and Third (2000) Editions; Gene Expression Technology, Method in Enzymology, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Method in Enzymology, Guthrie & Fink (eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. 1991; and Hitzeman et al., J. Biol. Chem., 255, 12073-12080 1990.
[0036] Further, regarding the type 1 diabetes mellitus, the below-mentioned are referred: Latent autoimmune (Type-1) diabetes mellitus in adults. Part. I. Serologic markers of autoimmune involvement of pancreatic beta-cells: GADA, ICA, IA-2 a IA-A. Martinka E, Ocen A, Strakov J, MokM. Vnitr Lek. 1999 February; 45(2):97-102; Prevalence of ICA and GAD antibodies at initial presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Singapore children. Lee Y S, Ng W Y, Thai A C, Lui K F, Loke K Y. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2001 June; 14(6):767-72; A comparison of serum and EDTA plasma in the measurement of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) and autoantibodies to islet antigen-2 (IA-2A) using the RSR radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Rahmati K, Lernmark A, Becker C, Foltyn-Zadura A, Larsson K, Ivarsson S A, TC. Clin Lab. 2008; 54(7-8):227-35; GAD treatment and insulin secretion in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Ludvigsson J, Faresj M, Hjorth M, Axelsson S, ChM, Pihl M, Vaarala O, Forsander G, Ivarsson S, Johansson C, Lindh A, Nilsson N O, Aman J, Ortqvist E, Zerhouni P, Casas R. N Engl J. Med. 2008 Oct. 30; 359(18):1909-20; Analysis of pancreas tissue in a child positive for islet cell antibodies.23: Oikarinen M, Tauriainen S, Honkanen T, Vuori K, Karhunen P, Vasama-Nolvi C, Oikarinen S, Verbeke C, Blair G E, Rantala I, Ilonen J, Simell O, Knip M, HyH.Diabetologia. 2008 October; 51(10):1796-802; Autoimmune mechanisms in type 1 diabetes. Knip M, Siljander H. Autoimmun Rev. 2008 July; 7(7):550-7; A common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the SLC30A8 gene determines ZnT8 autoantibody specificity in type 1 diabetes. Wenzlau J M, Liu Y, Yu L, Moua O, Fowler K T, Rangasamy S, Walters J, Eisenbarth G S, Davidson H W, Hutton J C. Diabetes. 2008 October; 57(10):2693-7; Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program: evaluation of assays for autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase and islet antigen-2. Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program: evaluation of assays for autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase and islet antigen-2. Diabetologia. 2008 May; 51(5):846-52.
[0037] In one example of the present invention, in order to determine the expression profile of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases in a human pancreas, the inventors found positions of ARS, GRS, NRS and WRS in the pancreas by using indirect immunofluorescence by using an anti-ARS antibody, an anti-GRS antibody, an anti-NRS antibody, and an anti-WRS antibody. As a result, in can be found that ARS and GRS are mainly positioned in beta cells of langerhans islets (C and D in FIG. 1), and pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (areas indicated by arrows in C and D of FIG. 1). On the other hand, it can be found that NRS and WRS are uniformly distributed in langerhans islets and acinar cells within the pancreas (see E and F FIG. 1).
[0038] In another example of the present invention, from plasmas of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus patients, autoantibodies against aminoacyl tRNA synthetases were detected, and then it was determined if they can be utilized in diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. As a result, all of an anti-ARS antibody, an anti-GRS antibody, an anti-NRS antibody and an anti-WRS antibody were detected in a large amount in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, compared to normal people and Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, and thus it can be found that they can be used as a diagnostic marker for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Advantageous Effects

[0039] Accordingly, the present invention provides, as a novel diagnosis marker for type 1 diabetes mellitus, a type diabetes mellitus diagnostic composition comprising alanyl-tRNA synthetase, glycyl-tRNA synthetase, asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase, or tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, a diagnostic kit comprising the same, and a diagnostic method using the same. The composition, the kit, and the method, according to the present invention, may be used for early diagnosis and confirmed diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus because type 1 diabetes mellitus can be easily diagnosed from a patient sample.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0040] FIG. 1 is a result of immunofluorescence on ARS, GRS, NRS and WRS in the pancreas (A: Mock, B: insulin, C: ARS, D: GRS, E: NRS, F: WRS).
[0041] FIG. 2 is a result of detection of an autoantibody against each aminoacyl tRNA synthetase in plasma (A: ARS, B: GRS, C: NRS, D: WRS, E: aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, F: immunoblot result through ARS, GRS, NRS and WRS in plasma).
[0042] FIG. 3 shows classifications of autoantibodies specific to GAD, ICA and aaRS (A: WRS, B: GRS, C: NRS, D: ARS, E: aminoacyl tRNA synthetase).

BEST MODE FOR INVENTION

[0043] Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail with reference to Examples.
[0044] However, Examples below are intended to only illustrate the present invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.

Example Method

1. Expression and Purification of Protein

[0045] 1-685(GRS), 1-548(NRS), 1-968(AlaRS) and 1-471(WRS) were PCR-amplified so that sequences to be encoded can be amplified. Each of a PCR product and a pET28a vector was treated with EcoRI/SalI, and then, cut and subcloned by pET28a (Novagen). The resultant product was added with 0.5 mM IPTG and subjected to overexpression in E. Coli BL21 for 12 hours at 23° C. (herein, inserted sequences of GRS, NRS, ARS, and WRS are denoted by sequence Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8 respectively). The cell was collected and then dissolved through high frequency decomposition in buffer A (50 mM Tris-HCl, 50 mM NaCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, pH 7.8), and was centrifuged at a rate of 22,000×g. After the centrifugation, the supernatant was subjected to precipitation through addition of ammonium sulfate while being slowly stirred. About 25 to 50% of the resultant product was dialyzed with buffer B (50 mM Tris-HCl, 100 mM NaCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 15% glycerol, pH 7.6), and then loaded on SP-sepharose column (BioRad). The resultant precipitated protein was eluted with 0.7 M NaCl concentration gradient and heparin column. The protein was loaded again on Ni++-column (Invitrogen), and eluted with 250 mM imidazole. The protein was dialyzed against 1×PBS and stored at 70° C.

2. ELISA

[0046] In order to detect autoantibodies of GAD and ICA, ELISA kits for GAD and ICA were bought from Biomerica, and ELISA was carried out under the manufacturer protocol. In order to analyze an aaRS autoantibody, each well was coated with 2 ng/Ml of ARSs at 4° C., for 12 hours, and blocked with PBS containing 2.5% BSA at room temperature for 1 hour. Then, 1/100 diluted serum was added to each well and cultured at room temperature for 1 hour. PBS containing 0.1% Tween 20 was used to wash the plate, and 1/10,000 diluted HRP-binding anti-human antibody was added to each well, followed by culturing at room temperature for 1 hour. The plate was washed with a washing buffer, and TMB (tetramethylbenzidine, Sigma) was added thereto, followed by a reaction for 20 minutes at a room temperature in a light-blocked state. Then, 1N HCl was added to stop the reaction, and then absorbance was measured at 405 nm.

3. Western Blot Using a Patient's Serum

[0047] Each purified aaRSs 10 ng was loaded on 10% SDS-PAGE, and transferred onto PVDF membrane (0.4 μm, Millipore). The membrane was blocked with TBST (20 mM Tris-HCl, 130 mM NaCl, 0.2% Tween 20) containing 5% BSA at room temperature for 1 hour. Meanwhile, the inventors of the present invention diluted each patient sample up to 1/100 by using TBST containing 1% BSA, and cultured the membrane at room temperature for 1 hour. They washed the membrane, and added 1/10,000 diluted HRP (horseradish peroxidase) binding anti-human antibody to the membrane, followed by a reaction.

Example Result

1. Immunofluorescence of aaRSs (Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases) in the Pancreas

[0048] From recently conducted researches, it was determined that expression of some aaRSs frequently occurred in the pancreas. In order to determine the expression profile of aaRSs in a human pancreas, the inventors of the present invention generated a specific antibody of each aaRS, and found positions of ARS, -GRS, -NRS and -WRS in the pancreas by using indirect immunofluorescence.
[0049] As a result, in can be found that ARS and GRS are mainly specifically positioned in beta cells of langerhans islets (C and D in FIG. 1), and pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (areas indicated by arrows in C and D of FIG. 1). On the other hand, it can be found that NRS and WRS are uniformly distributed in langerhans islets and acinar cells within pancreas (see E and F FIG. 1).

2. Analysis of Autoantibody by Using Human Plasma

[0050] An autoantibody against aaRSs is discovered from an autoimmune disease patient, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) is caused by autoimmunity through destruction of β-cells in the pancreas. Accordingly, the inventors of the present invention determined if diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed based on the existence of an anti-aaRSs autoantibody in plasmas of a normal person, and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus patients, and if the autoantibody can be a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus.
[0051] They coated respective wells in 96 well-plate, with respective purified aaRSs, and loaded plasmas of normal people (n=65), type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (n=58), and Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n=60) so as to detect an anti-aaRS autoantibody.
[0052] As a result, an anti-ARS autoantibody was discovered in a ratio of 4.6% of normal people, in a ratio of 25.9% of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, and in a ratio of 5% of Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (see FIG. 2A). An anti-GRS autoantibody was discovered in a ratio of 4.6% of normal people, in a ratio of 10.3% of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, and in a ratio of 5% of Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (see FIG. 2B). An anti-NRS autoantibody was discovered in a ratio of 4.6% of normal people, in a ratio of 17.2% of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, and in a ratio of 5% of Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (see FIG. 2C). An anti-WRS autoantibody was discovered in a ratio of 4.6% of normal people, in a ratio of 13.8% of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, and in a ratio of 5% of Type diabetes mellitus patients (see FIG. 2D). Through the results, it can be found that 41.3% of plasmas of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients have the anti-aaRS antibody while only 5% of plasmas of normal people and Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have the anti-aaRS antibody.
[0053] Next, the inventors determined if an anti-aaRS antibody-positive plasma can specifically recognize each aaRS. They carried out immunoblot by ARS, GRS, NRS and WRS, and as a result, found that a human plasma can specifically recognize each aaRS.
[0054] Through the result, it can be found that an anti-aaRS antibody is specifically discovered in type 1 diabetes mellitus, and can be a diagnostic marker for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

3. Analysis of Difference Between aaRSs by GAD and ICA

[0055] In order to analyze the difference between aaRSs in an autoantibody through GAD and ICA, the inventors carried out ELISA by using a detection kit for anti-GAD and anti-ICA. In analysis using type 1 diabetes mellitus plasma, an anti-GAD antibody and an anti-ICA antibody were discovered in ratios of 62.1% and 22.4%, respectively. Then, 19% of patients were double positive (see FIG. 3A).
[0056] Then, the inventors analyzed by antibodies against GAD and ICA, if each aaRS antibody can distinguishably diagnose type 1 diabetes mellitus. For an anti-WRS antibody, an overlapping ratio in both anti-GAD antibody and anti-ICA antibody was 5.2%, and an overlapping ratio in anti-GAD antibody or anti-ICA antibody was 1.7%. Thus, they found that 5.2% with respect to 13.2% was specific to WRS. For an anti-GRS antibody, an overlapping ratio in both anti-GAD antibody and anti-ICA antibody was 6.9%, and an overlapping ratio in anti-GAD antibody or anti-ICA antibody was 1.7%. Thus, they found that there is no autoantibody only specific to GRS. For an anti-NRS antibody, an overlapping ratio in both anti-GAD antibody and anti-ICA antibody was 6.9%, and an overlapping ratio in anti-GAD antibody was 6.9%. Thus, they found that 3.4% with respect to 17.2% was specific to NRS. For an anti-ARS antibody, an overlapping ratio in both anti-GAD antibody and anti-ICA antibody was 8.6%, and an overlapping ratio in anti-GAD antibody was 13.8%. Thus, they found that 3.5% with respect to 25.9% was specific to ARS. When all anti-aaRS antibodies were used in an analysis, an overlapping ratio in both anti-GAD antibody and anti-ICA antibody was 10.3%, and overlapping ratios in anti-GAD antibody and anti-ICA antibody, respectively, were 17.2% and 3.5%.
[0057] Through the test results, it can be found that 10.3% with respect to 41.35% was specific as anti-aaRS, and especially, there is no specific ICA.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

[0058] As can be seen foregoing, the present invention provides, as a novel diagnosis marker for type 1 diabetes mellitus, a type 1 diabetes mellitus diagnostic composition comprising alanyl-tRNA synthetase, glycyl-tRNA synthetase, asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase, or tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, a diagnostic kit comprising the same, and a diagnostic method using the same. The composition, the kit, and the method, according to the present invention, may be used for early diagnosis and confirmed diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus because type 1 diabetes mellitus can be easily diagnosed from a patient sample.
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Claim

1. A composition for diagnosing of type 1 diabetes mellitus comprising one or more aminoacyl tRNA synthetase selected from the group consisting of alanyl-tRNA synthetase, glycyl-tRNA synthetase and asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase as an active ingredient.
2. A diagnostic kit for type 1 diabetes mellitus comprising the composition of claim 1.
3. The diagnostic kit of claim 2, wherein the kit further comprises a marker for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus selected from the group consisting of GAD65, IA-2, Insulin, ICA, Hb1Ac, C-peptide, Slc30A8.
4. A method for detecting one or more antibody selected from the group consisting of anti-alanyl-tRNA synthetase antibody, anti-glycyl-tRNA synthetase antibody and anti-asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase antibody through antigen-antibody reaction from a sample of a patient to provide necessary information for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus
5. Use of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase selected from the group consisting of alanyl tRNA synthetase, glycyl tRNA synthetase and asparaginyl tRNA synthetase for preparing an agent for diagnosing of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
6. A method for diagnosing of type 1 diabetes mellitus comprising a step of detecting an anti-alanyl tRNA synthetase antibody, an anti-glycyl tRNA synthetase antibody, and an anti-asparaginyl tRNA synthetase antibody from an individual test sample.
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