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(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION P UBL UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) (19) World Intellectual Property Organization International Bureau (43) International Publication Date 2 9 November 2007 (29.11.2007) (51) International Patent Classification: PCT (10) International Publication Number W O 2007/137097 A3 DEY, Subrata [US/US]; 43433 Laurel Glen Common, Fremont, C A 94539 (US). WACKER, Barbara [US/US]; 18301 Vanderbilt Drive, B32B 9/00 (2006.01) (21) International Application Number: PCT/US2007/069082 Saratoga, C A 95070 (US). SCHWARTZ, Peter [US/US]; 4956 Janet Court, Livermore, C A 94550 (US). (22) International Filing Date: (25) Filing Language: (26) Publication Language: (30) Priority Data: 60/800,935 60/874,579 60/908,161 1 1/749,126 (71) Applicant 16 May 2007 (16.05.2007) English English 2006 2006 2007 2007 (16.05.2006) ( 12 . 12.2006) (26.03.2007) ( 15 .05 .2007) US US US US (74) Agents: BEYERS, Robert, B . e t al; Morgan Lewis & Bockius LIp, 2 Palo Alto Square, 3000 E l Camino Real, Suite 700, Palo Alto, C A 94306 (US). (81) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every kind of national protection available): AE, AG, AL, AM, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BH, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, GT, HN, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KM, KN, KP, KR, KZ, LA, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LY, MA, MD, ME, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MY, MZ, NA, NG, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RS, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, SV, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, ZA, ZM, ZW 16 May 12 December 2 6 March 15 May (for all designated States except US): NANOCONDUCTION, INC. [US/US]; 1244 Reamwood Avenue, Sunnyvale, C A 94089 (US). (72) Inventors; and (75) Inventors/Applicants (for US only): SUHIR, Ephraim [US/US]; 727 Alvina Court, Los Altos, C A 94024 (US). (84) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every kind of regional protection available): ARIPO (BW, GH, [Continued on next page] (54) Title: SINGLE LAYER CARBON NANOTUBE-BASED FROM SOLID-STATE DEVICES STRUCTURES AND METHODS FOR REMOVING HEAT U IfH II f (57) Abstract: One embodiment includes: a copper substrate; a catalyst o n top o f a single surface o f the copper substrate; and a thermal interface material o n top o f the single surface o f the copper substrate. The thermal interface material comprises: a layer o f carbon nanotubes that contacts the catalyst, and a filler material located between the carbon nanotubes. The carbon n a n otubes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the single s u r face o f the copper substrate. The thermal interface material has: a bulk thermal resistance, a contact resistance between the th er mal interface material and the copper substrate, and a contact r e sistance between the thermal interface material and a solid-state device. The summation of the bulk thermal resistance, the c o n tact resistance between the thermal interface material and the copper substrate, and the contact resistance between the th er mal interface material and the solid-state device has a value o f 0.06 cm2K/W or less. GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW), Eurasian (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), European (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LT, LU, LV, MC, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, TR), OAPI (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG). Published: — with international search report (88) Date of publication of the international search report: 3 April 2008 INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT International application No. PCT/US 07/69082 A. CLASSIFICATION O F SUBJECT MATTER IPC(8) - B32B 9/00 (2007.10) USPC - 428/408; 257/E23.1 1 According to International Patent Classification (IPC) or t o both national classification and IPC B. FIELDS SEARCHED Minimum documentation searched (classification system followed by classification symbols) USPC- 428/408; 257/E23 11 Documentation searched other than minimum documentation to the extent that such documents are included in the fields searched USPC: 977/701; 977/827, 977/852; 977/813, 977/854, 438/122, 977/$ - see keywords below google scholar, google patent - see keywords below Electronic data base consulted during the international search (name of data base and, where practicable, search terms used) GOOGLE SCHOLAR, GOOGLE PATENT, WEST (PGPB.USPT.EPAB.JPAB), ProQuest- heat, dissipate, heat sink, cooling, lateral transfer, integrated circuit, copper, phase change, acrylate, interstitial, filler, matrix, nanot υbe copper substrate aligned, array, perpendicular, oriented **** " *** SEE SEARCH HISTORY FOR DETAIL**""""" C. DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED TO BE RELEVANT Citation o f document, with indication, where appropriate, of the relevant passages W O 2005/041256 A2 (DANGELO) 2 5 August 2004 (25.08.2004); entire document, esp. pg 2 , In 14; pg 4 , In 10-12; pg 5 , In 1-4; pg 9 , In 24, 25,27,28, pg 10, In 21-23, claims 1-3, Fig 7 Category* Relevant to claim No. 1-67, 103-145 and 172207 X U e t al. Enhancement of thermal interface materials with carbon nanotube arrays. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Available online 0 6 January 2006. 49:1658-1666; entire document, esp. pg 1662, pg 1664, col 2 , Fig 6 1-67, 103-145 and 172207 US 2005/0037204 A 1 (OSIANDER et al.) 17 February 2005 (17.02.2005); entire document, esp. Fig 1 1B , para , [0025-29],  62-67, 132-137 and 205207 TEO e t a l Field emission from dense, sparse, and patterned arrays of carbon nanofibers. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 18 March 2002 80(1 1):201 1-2013, entire document, esp. pg 201 1 , col 2 1 and 39-44 US 6,1 10,264 A (BANNING e t al.) 2 9 August 2000 (29.08.2000); col 9 , In 15-23, 35 7-16, 23-29, 109-1 18, 125-131, 179-188 and 195-201 US 2003/01 17770 A 1 (MONTGOMERY e t al.) 2 6 June 2003 (26.06.2003); entire document, esp. para  and  6-16, 23-29, 58, 59, 108-1 18, 125-131, 138, 139, 178-188 and 195203 Further documents are listed in the continuation o f Box C . Special categories o f cited documents "A" document defining the general state o f the art which is not considered to be of particular relevance "E" earlier application or patent but published on o r after the international filing date "L" document which may throw doubts on priority claim(s) o r which is cited to establish the publication date o f another citation or other special reason (as specified) "O" document referring to an oral disclosure, use, exhibition o r other means "P" document published pπor t o the international filing date but later than the priority date claimed ♦ "T" later document published after the international filing date or priority date and not in conflict with the application but cited t o understand the principle or theory underlying the invention document o f particular relevance, the claimed invention cannot be considered novel or cannot be considered to involve a n inventive step when the document is taken alone document of particular relevance, the claimed invention cannot be considered t o involve an inventive step when the document is combined with one or more other such documents, such combination being obvious t o a person skilled in the art "X" "Y" "&" document member of the same patent family Date o f the actual completion o f the international search 23 December 2007 (23 12.2007) Name and mailing address o f the ISA/US Mail Stop PCT, Attn: ISA/US, Commissioner for Patents P.O Box 1450, Alexandria, Virginia 22313-1450 Facsimile No. 571-273-3201 Date o f mailing o f the international search report 1 7 JAN Authorized officer: Lee W . Young PCT Helpdesk 571-272-4300 PCTOSP 571-272-7774 - Form PCT/ISA/210 (second sheet) (April 2007) INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT International application No. PCT/US 07/69082 C (Continuation). Category* DOCUMENTS CONSIDERED T O BE RELEVANT Citation o f document, with indication, where appropriate, o f the relevant passages Relevant t o claim No. 30-32 SU. Study of Interactions at the Atomic Scale. PhD Thesis 2004. Retrieved from the Internet o n 22 December 2007: <http://www.physics.mcgill.ca/-peter/theses/sun.pdf>; pg 22 NGO et al. Thermal Interface Properties of Cu-filled Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber Arrays Nano Lett. December 2004, 4(12):2403-2407; entire document, esp. pg 2405, col 1 ; Fig 5 a and 5b 8,1 10, and 180 ANTUNES et al. Comparative study of first- and second-order Raman spectra of MWCNT at visible and infrared laser excitation Carbon Available online 18 April 2006, 44:2202-221 1;entire document, esp. pg 2202, col 2 ; pg 2203 and Fig 2 GAN et al. Branching carbon nanotubes deposited i n HFCVD system Diamond and Related Materials April 2000, 9(3-6):897-900; Abstract 55, 56, and 143-145 104 Form PCT/ISA/210 (continuation o f second sheet) (April 2007) INTERNATIONAL SEARCH REPORT International application No. PCT/US 07/69082 Box No. II Observations where certain claims were found unsearchable (Continuation o f item 2 o f first sheet) This international search report has not been established in respect o f certain claims under Article 17(2)(a) for the following reasons: 1. [_J Claims Nos.: because they relate to subject matter not required t o be searched by this Authority, namely: 2. Claims Nos.: because they relate to parts o f the international application that do not comply with the prescribed requirements t o such an extent that no meaningful international search can be carried out, specifically: 3. I I Claims Nos.: because they are dependent claims and are not drafted in accordance with the second and third sentences o f Rule 6.4(a). Box No. H I Observations where unity o f invention is lacking (Continuation o f item 3 o f first sheet) This International Searching Authority found multiple inventions in this international application, as follows: Group I : claims 1-67, 103-145, 172-207 are directed to a n article o f manufacture having high thermoconductivity. Group II: claims 68-100 and 146-171 are directed t o a method o f forming a n article o f manufacture having high thermoconductivity. Group III: claims 101 , 102, 208-213 are directed to a method of generating heat in a solid-state device; and conducting it away from the solid-state device via a thermal interface material o f a n article of manufacture o f group I . *SEE SUPPLEMENTAL SHEET T O CONTINUE * ' 1. I I A s all required additional search fees were timely paid by the applicant, this international search report covers all searchable claims. I A s all searchable claims could be searched without effort justifying additional fees, this Authority did not invite payment o f additional fees. I A s only some o f the required additional search fees were timely paid by the applicant, this international search report covers only those claims for which fees were paid, specifically claims Nos.: 2. J 3. I 4. | | N o required additional search fees were timely paid by the applicant. Consequently, this international search report is restricted to the invention first mentioned in the claims; it is covered by claims Nos.: Group I : claims 1-67, 103-145, 172-207 Remark o n Protest | | The additional search fees were accompanied b y the applicant's protest and, where applicable, the payment o f a protest fee. The additional search fees were accompanied b y the applicant's protest but the applicable protest fee was not paid within the time limit specified in the invitation. N o protest accompanied the payment o f additional search fees. D Form PCT/ISA/210 (continuation o f first sheet (2)) (April 2007)