Inhibitors Of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (faah) Enzyme With Improved Oral Bioavailability And Their Use As Medicaments

  *US09822068B2*
  US009822068B2                                 
(12)United States Patent(10)Patent No.: US 9,822,068 B2
  et al. (45) Date of Patent:Nov.  21, 2017

(54)Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme with improved oral bioavailability and their use as medicaments 
    
(75)Inventors: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,  Oakland, CA (US); 
  FONDAZIONE ISTITUTO ITALIANO DI TECNOLOGIA,  Genoa (IT) 
(73)Assignees:The Regents of the University of California,  Oakland, CA (US), Type: US Company;
Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Technologia,  Genoa (IT), Type: Foreign Company
 
(*)Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. 
(21)Appl. No.: 15/287,366 
(22)Filed: Oct.  6, 2016 
(65)Prior Publication Data 
 US 2017/0088510 A1 Mar.  30, 2017 
 Related U.S. Patent Documents 
(63) .
Continuation of application No. PCT/US2015/024753, filed on Apr.  7, 2015 .
 
(60)Provisional application No. 61/976,439, filed on Apr.  7, 2014.
 
Jan.  1, 2013 C 07 C 271 56 F I Nov.  21, 2017 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 07 C 311 29 L I Nov.  21, 2017 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 07 C 317 22 L I Nov.  21, 2017 US B H C May  1, 2017 C 07 C 2601 04 L A Nov.  21, 2017 US B H C May  1, 2017 C 07 C 2601 08 L A Nov.  21, 2017 US B H C May  1, 2017 C 07 C 2601 14 L A Nov.  21, 2017 US B H C
(51)Int. Cl. C07C 271/56 (20060101); C07C 311/29 (20060101); C07C 317/22 (20060101)

 
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     * cited by examiner
 
     Primary Examiner —Shawquia Jackson
     Art Unit — 1626
     Exemplary claim number — 1
 
(74)Attorney, Agent, or Firm — Anson M. Nomura; Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.

(57)

Abstract

Described herein, inter alia, are compositions and methods useful for inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase.
20 Claims, Drawing Sheets, and Figures
 
 

CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is a continuation of International Patent Application No. PCT/US2015/024753, filed Apr. 7, 2015, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/976,439 filed on Apr. 7, 2014, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety and for all purposes.

STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

[0002] This invention was made with government support under grant no. DA031387, awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Described herein are certain O-arylcarbamate inhibitors of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme that showed, unexpectedly, an improved oral bioavailability, their methods of preparation, their formulations as medicaments, and their therapeutic application for the treatment of pathologies, conditions and disorders which would clinically benefit from inhibition of the activity of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme.

BACKGROUND

[0004] The ethanolamides of long-chain fatty acids, or fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), are a class of bioactive lipids that serve important signaling function in both plants and animals (Piomelli, D. Trends Endocr Metab 2013; 24: 332-341). Polyunsaturated FAEs such as arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) are endogenous agonists (endocannabinoids) for type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, and participate in the control of stress-coping responses and pain initiation (Calignano, A. et al., Nature 1998; 394: 277-281). On the other hand, monounsaturated and saturated FAEs, such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), regulate energy balance, pain and inflammation primarily by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily (Fu, J. et al., Nature 2003; 425: 90-93; Schwartz, G. J. et al., Cell Metab 2008; 8(4): 281-288; LoVerme, J. et al., J Pharm Exp Ther 2006; 19(3):1051-1061).
[0005] Since the discovery that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary bioactive constituent of the cannabis plant, interacts with CB1 and CB2 receptors, several synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists have been prepared. Some CB1 agonists, deriving from chemical modification of THC, have been approved for the treatment of different pathological conditions, such as anorexia nervosa (Marinol), refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (Nabilone), neuropathic pain induced by multiple sclerosis, and adjunctive treatment of advanced cancer pain (Sativex).
[0006] The therapeutic potential of direct-acting cannabinoid agonists is limited by an undesirable profile of side effects, which includes dysphoria, dizziness, and effects on motor coordination and memory. An alternative strategy to achieve the desired modulation of cannabinoid receptor activity, without exposing patients to the risk of serious side effects, consists in increasing endocannabinoid levels (Cravatt, B. F., Lichtman, A. H. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2003; 7:469-475; Piomelli, D. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2005; 6:672-679).
[0007] Endocannabinoids and other fatty acid ethanolamides are not stored in the cell, but are produced on demand, and their levels are regulated by enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation (Piomelli, D. Trends Endocr Metab 2013; 24: 332-341; Di Marzo, V., et al. Curr Opin Lipidol 2007; 18(2): 129-140; (Ueda, N., et al. Prog Lipid Res 2010; 49(4): 299-315). In particular, anandamide is inactivated via a two-step process consisting of high-affinity transport into cells (Di Marzo, V. et al. Nature 1994; 372: 686-691; Beltramo, M. et al. Science 1997; 277: 1094-1097) followed by intracellular degradation catalysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (McKinney, M. K. and Cravatt, B. F. Annu Rev Biochem 2005; 74: 411-432), thus releasing arachidonic acid and ethanolamine.
[0008] Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a membrane-bound serine hydrolase that belongs to the amidase signature family of hydrolases. The active site of FAAH is characterized by an atypical catalytic triad consisting in Ser241-Ser217-Lys142, which is capable of hydrolysing amide and ester bonds at similar rates (Ahn, K., et al. Chem Rev 2008; 108(5): 1687-1707; McKinney, M. K., et al. Annual Rev Biochem 2005; 74: 411-432). FAAH can catalyse the hydrolysis of the amide bond of PEA and OEA (Muccioli, G. G. Drug Discovery Today 2010; 15(11-12): 474-483; Boger, D. L., et al. Curr Pharm Des 1998; 4(4): 303-314), and regulates the endogenous levels of other classes of amide-derived lipids, such as the N-acyl taurines (NATs), which activate transient receptor potential (TRP) (Saghatelian, A., et al. Biochemistry-U 2006; 45(30): 9007-9015) ions channels, and fatty acid primary amides (FAPAs) (Fowler, C. J., et al. Br J Pharmacol 2004; 141(2): 195-196), like the sleep-inducing lipid oleamide. A second isoform of FAAH, named FAAH-2 was isolated from the human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3 and the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This second isoform shares 20% homology with FAAH and shows a higher affinity for oleamide than anandamide (Wei, B. Q., et al. J Biol Chem 2006; 281(48): 36569-36578). FAAH-2 also differs from FAAH-1 for the intracellular localization, as it is found in the lipid droplets and not in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum.
[0009] Several disease conditions are characterized by alterations in the endogenous levels of the biomolecules hydrolysed by FAAH. Therefore, this enzyme has been considered a target for modulating endocannabinoid and other fatty acid ethanolamide levels in vivo (Hansen, H. S., et al. Exp Neurol 2010; 224(1): 48-55). Substantial efforts have been directed to the discovery of potent and selective FAAH inhibitors, aiming at the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of several pathologic conditions, including pain, inflammation, appetite regulation, anxiety, and depression (Piomelli, D. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2005; 6: 672-679; Lambert, D. M., et al. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2007; 10(6): 735-744; Di Marzo, V. et al. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2008; 7(5): 438-455).
[0010] FAAH inhibitors having improved adsorption and/or oral bioavailability (F %) are of particular therapeutic interest in order to decrease the daily dose administered while maintaining therapeutic afficacy and improving patient's compliance. Provided herein, inter alia, are solutions to these and other problems in the art.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0011] In an aspect is provided a compound having the formula:
[0012]  [see pdf for image]
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. R1 is substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. R3 is —SO2R6, —SO2NR4R5, or —C(O)NR4R5. R4, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. R4 and R5 bonded to the same nitrogen atom, may optionally be joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl, The symbol z is an integer from 1 to 4. The symbol X is —F, —Cl, —Br, or —I.
[0013] In another aspect is provided a compound of Formula (I)
[0014]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R1 is a cycloalkyl group; R3 is SO2NR4R5, CONR4R5, or SO2R6, where R4 and R5 can be, independently, hydrogen, alkyl or R4 and R5 together with the N atom to which they are connected may form a 4- to 6-membered ring, and R6 is an alkyl group; z is an integer selected from 1 or 2; R2 is F or OCHF2, and can be attached to any position of the ring with the proviso that when R1 is cyclohexyl, R3 is CONH2, z is 1 and R2 is F, then R2 is not attached in position para to the carbamate.
[0015] In another aspect is provided a pharmaceutical composition including a compound described herein (including embodiments thereof).
[0016] In another aspect is provided a method for modulating the level of a fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) in a subject including administering an effective amount of a composition described herein (e.g., compound described herein (e.g., including embodiments thereof) or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0017] In an aspect is provided a method of reducing tobacco use by a subject, the method including administering an effective amount of a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0018] In an aspect is provided a method of treating or preventing a disease in a subject in need of the treatment, the method including administering an effective amount of a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein), wherein the disease is reduced appetite, gastric damage, enteric damage, a nicotine use disorder, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, a cannabis use disorder, a cocaine use disorder, an opioid use disorder, an amphetamine use disorder, a methamphetamine use disorder, an alcohol use disorder, an eating disorder, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, a mood disorder, pain, inflammation, or ocular glaucoma.
[0019] In an aspect is provided a method of preventing or treating pathological behaviour in a subject, the method including administering an effective amount of a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0020] In another aspect is provided a method for preparing a compound described herein (including embodiments thereof).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0021] Disclosed herein, inter alia, is a specific selection of compounds bearing a fluorine atom or a difluoromethoxy group attached to the aromatic ring proximal to the carbamate functionality of biphenyl carbamate FAAH inhibitors having unexpected improvements in solubility and absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract, thus resulting in an improved oral bioavailability over corresponding non-fluorinated compounds. Such advantage is a key factor for compounds that are meant to enter the systemic circulation in order to reach a variety of organs in the body, including the CNS, where the inhibition of FAAH will be clinically beneficial.
[0022] In addition, the possibility to utilize the oral route to administer a drug represents by far for the patients the best compliant form of administration, particularly in the elderly population, as this treatment avoids the need of intravenous administration, either at home or in hospital, in order to achieve the range of drug concentration necessary to treat the disease.

DEFINITIONS

[0023] The definitions and embodiments described in this section are applicable only to the embodiments and descriptions contained within this section. All other sections or portions of this patent application other than this section use the definitions, terms, descriptions, and embodiments, contained outside of this section.
[0024] The abbreviations used herein have their conventional meaning within the chemical and biological arts, unless otherwise defined. The chemical structures and formulae set forth herein are constructed according to the standard rules of chemical valency known in the chemical arts. The following terms, used in the specification and claims of this application, have the meaning specified hereunder, unless otherwise defined.
[0025] Where substituent groups are specified by their conventional chemical formulae, written from left to right, they equally encompass the chemically identical substituents that would result from writing the structure from right to left, e.g., —CH2O— is equivalent to —OCH2—.
[0026] The term “alkyl,” by itself or as part of another substituent, means, unless otherwise stated, a non-cyclic straight (i.e., unbranched) or branched carbon chain (or carbon), or combination thereof, which may be fully saturated, mono- or polyunsaturated and can include di- and multivalent radicals, having the number of carbon atoms designated (i.e., C1-C10 means one to ten carbons). Examples of saturated hydrocarbon radicals include, but are not limited to, groups such as methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, (cyclohexyl)methyl, homologs and isomers of, for example, n-pentyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-octyl, and the like. An unsaturated alkyl group is one having one or more double bonds or triple bonds. Examples of unsaturated alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, vinyl, 2-propenyl, crotyl, 2-isopentenyl, 2-(butadienyl), 2,4-pentadienyl, 3-(1,4-pentadienyl), ethynyl, 1- and 3-propynyl, 3-butynyl, and the higher homologs and isomers. An alkoxy is an alkyl attached to the remainder of the molecule via an oxygen linker (—O—). In embodiments, the term “alkyl”, as used herein, indicates a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon radical, including straight chain and branched chain radicals of 1 to 6 carbon atoms.
[0027] The term “alkylene,” by itself or as part of another substituent, means, unless otherwise stated, a divalent radical derived from an alkyl, as exemplified, but not limited by, —CH2CH2CH2CH2—. Typically, an alkyl (or alkylene) group will have from 1 to 24 carbon atoms, with those groups having 10 or fewer carbon atoms being preferred in the present invention. A “lower alkyl” or “lower alkylene” is a shorter chain alkyl or alkylene group, generally having eight or fewer carbon atoms. The term “alkenylene,” by itself or as part of another substituent, means, unless otherwise stated, a divalent radical derived from an alkene.
[0028] The term “heteroalkyl,” by itself or in combination with another term, means, unless otherwise stated, a non-cyclic stable straight or branched chain, or combinations thereof, including at least one carbon atom and at least one heteroatom selected from the group consisting of O, N, P, Si, and S, and wherein the nitrogen and sulfur atoms may optionally be oxidized, and the nitrogen heteroatom may optionally be quaternized. The heteroatom(s) O, N, P, S, and Si may be placed at any interior position of the heteroalkyl group or at the position at which the alkyl group is attached to the remainder of the molecule. Examples include, but are not limited to: —CH2—CH2—O—CH3, —CH2—CH2—NH—CH3, —CH2—CH2—N(CH3)—CH3, —CH2—S—CH2—CH3, —CH2—CH 2, —S(O)—CH3, —CH2—CH2—S(O)2—CH3, —CH═CH—O—CH3, —Si(CH3)3, —CH2—CH═N—OCH3, —CH═CH—N(CH3)—CH3, —O—CH3, —O—CH2—CH3, and —CN. Up to two or three heteroatoms may be consecutive, such as, for example, —CH2—NH—OCH3 and —CH2—O—Si(CH3)3.
[0029] Similarly, the term “heteroalkylene,” by itself or as part of another substituent, means, unless otherwise stated, a divalent radical derived from heteroalkyl, as exemplified, but not limited by, —CH2—CH2—S—CH2—CH2— and —CH2—S—CH2—CH2—NH—CH2—. For heteroalkylene groups, heteroatoms can also occupy either or both of the chain termini (e.g., alkyleneoxy, alkylenedioxy, alkyleneamino, alkylenediamino, and the like). Still further, for alkylene and heteroalkylene linking groups, no orientation of the linking group is implied by the direction in which the formula of the linking group is written. For example, the formula —C(O)2R′— represents both —C(O)2R′— and —R′C(O)2—. As described above, heteroalkyl groups, as used herein, include those groups that are attached to the remainder of the molecule through a heteroatom, such as —C(O)R′, —C(O)NR′, —NR′R″, —OR′, —SR′, and/or —SO2R′. Where “heteroalkyl” is recited, followed by recitations of specific heteroalkyl groups, such as —NR′R″ or the like, it will be understood that the terms heteroalkyl and —NR′R″ are not redundant or mutually exclusive. Rather, the specific heteroalkyl groups are recited to add clarity. Thus, the term “heteroalkyl” should not be interpreted herein as excluding specific heteroalkyl groups, such as —NR′R″ or the like.
[0030] The terms “cycloalkyl” and “heterocycloalkyl,” by themselves or in combination with other terms, mean, unless otherwise stated, non-aromatic cyclic versions of “alkyl” and “heteroalkyl,” respectively, wherein the carbons making up the ring or rings do not necessarily need to be bonded to a hydrogen due to all carbon valencies participating in bonds with non-hydrogen atoms. Additionally, for heterocycloalkyl, a heteroatom can occupy the position at which the heterocycle is attached to the remainder of the molecule. Examples of cycloalkyl include, but are not limited to, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, 1-cyclohexenyl, 3-cyclohexenyl, cycloheptyl, and the like. Examples of heterocycloalkyl include, but are not limited to, 1-(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridyl), 1-piperidinyl, 2-piperidinyl, 3-piperidinyl, 4-morpholinyl, 3-morpholinyl, tetrahydrofuran-2-yl, tetrahydrofuran-3-yl, tetrahydrothien-2-yl, tetrahydrothien-3-yl, 1-piperazinyl, 2-piperazinyl, and the like. A “cycloalkylene” and a “heterocycloalkylene,” alone or as part of another substituent, means a divalent radical derived from a cycloalkyl and heterocycloalkyl, respectively. In embodiments, the term “cycloalkyl”, as used herein, indicates a saturated 3- to 7-membered all-carbon monocyclic ring.
[0031] The terms “halo” or “halogen,” by themselves or as part of another substituent, mean, unless otherwise stated, a fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine atom. Additionally, terms such as “haloalkyl” are meant to include monohaloalkyl and polyhaloalkyl. For example, the term “halo(C1-C4)alkyl” includes, but is not limited to, fluoromethyl, difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl, 4-chlorobutyl, 3-bromopropyl, and the like.
[0032] The term “acyl” means, unless otherwise stated, —C(O)R where R is a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.
[0033] The term “aryl” means, unless otherwise stated, a polyunsaturated, aromatic, hydrocarbon substituent, which can be a single ring or multiple rings (preferably from 1 to 3 rings) that are fused together (i.e., a fused ring aryl) or linked covalently. A fused ring aryl refers to multiple rings fused together wherein at least one of the fused rings is an aryl ring. The term “heteroaryl” refers to aryl groups (or rings) that contain at least one heteroatom such as N, O, or S, wherein the nitrogen and sulfur atoms are optionally oxidized, and the nitrogen atom(s) are optionally quaternized. Thus, the term “heteroaryl” includes fused ring heteroaryl groups (i.e., multiple rings fused together wherein at least one of the fused rings is a heteroaromatic ring). A 5,6-fused ring heteroarylene refers to two rings fused together, wherein one ring has 5 members and the other ring has 6 members, and wherein at least one ring is a heteroaryl ring. Likewise, a 6,6-fused ring heteroarylene refers to two rings fused together, wherein one ring has 6 members and the other ring has 6 members, and wherein at least one ring is a heteroaryl ring. And a 6,5-fused ring heteroarylene refers to two rings fused together, wherein one ring has 6 members and the other ring has 5 members, and wherein at least one ring is a heteroaryl ring. A heteroaryl group can be attached to the remainder of the molecule through a carbon or heteroatom. Non-limiting examples of aryl and heteroaryl groups include phenyl, 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, 4-biphenyl, 1-pyrrolyl, 2-pyrrolyl, 3-pyrrolyl, 3-pyrazolyl, 2-imidazolyl, 4-imidazolyl, pyrazinyl, 2-oxazolyl, 4-oxazolyl, 2-phenyl-4-oxazolyl, 5-oxazolyl, 3-isoxazolyl, 4-isoxazolyl, 5-isoxazolyl, 2-thiazolyl, 4-thiazolyl, 5-thiazolyl, 2-furyl, 3-furyl, 2-thienyl, 3-thienyl, 2-pyridyl, 3-pyridyl, 4-pyridyl, 2-pyrimidyl, 4-pyrimidyl, 5-benzothiazolyl, purinyl, 2-benzimidazolyl, 5-indolyl, 1-isoquinolyl, 5-isoquinolyl, 2-quinoxalinyl, 5-quinoxalinyl, 3-quinolyl, and 6-quinolyl. Substituents for each of the above noted aryl and heteroaryl ring systems are selected from the group of acceptable substituents described below. An “arylene” and a “heteroarylene,” alone or as part of another substituent, mean a divalent radical derived from an aryl and heteroaryl, respectively. Non-limiting examples of heteroaryl groups include pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, thiophenyl, thienyl, furanyl, indolyl, benzoxadiazolyl, benzodioxolyl, benzodioxanyl, thianaphthanyl, pyrrolopyridinyl, indazolyl, quinolinyl, quinoxalinyl, pyridopyrazinyl, quinazolinonyl, benzoisoxazolyl, imidazopyridinyl, benzofuranyl, benzothienyl, benzothiophenyl, phenyl, naphthyl, biphenyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazinyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, furylthienyl, pyridyl, pyrimidyl, benzothiazolyl, purinyl, benzimidazolyl, isoquinolyl, thiadiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, pyrrolyl, diazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, benzothiadiazolyl, isothiazolyl, pyrazolopyrimidinyl, pyrrolopyrimidinyl, benzotriazolyl, benzoxazolyl, or quinolyl. The examples above may be substituted or unsubstituted and divalent radicals of each heteroaryl example above are non-limiting examples of heteroarylene.
[0034] The term “oxo,” as used herein, means an oxygen that is double bonded to a carbon atom.
[0035] The term “alkylsulfonyl,” as used herein, means a moiety having the formula —S(O2)—R′, where R′ is a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group as defined above. R′ may have a specified number of carbons (e.g., “C1-C4 alkylsulfonyl”).
[0036] Each of the above terms (e.g., “alkyl,” “heteroalkyl,” “aryl,” and “heteroaryl”) includes both substituted and unsubstituted forms of the indicated radical. Preferred substituents for each type of radical are provided below.
[0037] Substituents for the alkyl and heteroalkyl radicals (including those groups often referred to as alkylene, alkenyl, heteroalkylene, heteroalkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, and heterocycloalkenyl) can be one or more of a variety of groups selected from, but not limited to, —OR′, ═O, ═NR′, ═N—OR′, —NR′R″, —SR′, -halogen, —SiR′R″R′″, —OC(O)R′, —C(O)R′, —CO2R′, —CONR′R″, —OC(O)NR′R″, —NR″C(O)R′, —NR′—C(O)NR″R′″, —NR″C(O)2R′, —NR—C(NR′R″R′″)═NR″″, —NR—C(NR′R″)═NR′″—S(O)R′—S(O)2R′, —S(O)2NR′R″, —NRSO2R′, —NR′NR″R′″, —ONR′R″, —NR′C═(O)NR″NR′″R″″, —CN, —NO2, in a number ranging from zero to (2m′+1), where m′ is the total number of carbon atoms in such radical. R, R′, R″, R′″, and R″″ each preferably independently refer to hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl (e.g., aryl substituted with 1-3 halogens), substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkoxy, or thioalkoxy groups, or arylalkyl groups. When a compound of the invention includes more than one R group, for example, each of the R groups is independently selected as are each R′, R″, R′″, and R″″ group when more than one of these groups is present. When R′ and R″ are attached to the same nitrogen atom, they can be combined with the nitrogen atom to form a 4-, 5-, 6-, or 7-membered ring. For example, —NR′R″ includes, but is not limited to, 1-pyrrolidinyl and 4-morpholinyl. From the above discussion of substituents, one of skill in the art will understand that the term “alkyl” is meant to include groups including carbon atoms bound to groups other than hydrogen groups, such as haloalkyl (e.g., —CF3 and —CH2CF3) and acyl (e.g., —C(O)CH3, —C(O)CF3, —C(O)CH2OCH3, and the like).
[0038] Similar to the substituents described for the alkyl radical, substituents for the aryl and heteroaryl groups are varied and are selected from, for example: —OR′, —NR′R″, —SR′, -halogen, —SiR′R″R′″, —OC(O)R′, —C(O)R′, —CO2R′, —CONR′R″, —OC(O)NR′R″, —NR″C(O)R′, —NR′—C(O)NR″R′″, —NR″C(O)2R′, —NR—C(NR′R″R′″)═NR″″, —NR—C(NR′R″)═NR′″, —S(O)R′, —S(O)2R′, —S(O)2NR′R″, —NRSO2R′, —NR′NR″R′″, —ONR′R″, —NR′C═(O)NR″NR′″R″″, —CN, —NO2, —R′, —N3, —CH(Ph)2, fluoro(C1-C4)alkoxy, and fluoro(C1-C4)alkyl, in a number ranging from zero to the total number of open valences on the aromatic ring system; and where R′, R″, R′″, and R″″ are preferably independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, and substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. When a compound of the invention includes more than one R group, for example, each of the R groups is independently selected as are each R′, R″, R′″, and R″″ groups when more than one of these groups is present.
[0039] Two or more substituents may optionally be joined to form aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, or heterocycloalkyl groups. Such so-called ring-forming substituents are typically, though not necessarily, found attached to a cyclic base structure. In one embodiment, the ring-forming substituents are attached to adjacent members of the base structure. For example, two ring-forming substituents attached to adjacent members of a cyclic base structure create a fused ring structure. In another embodiment, the ring-forming substituents are attached to a single member of the base structure. For example, two ring-forming substituents attached to a single member of a cyclic base structure create a spirocyclic structure. In yet another embodiment, the ring-forming substituents are attached to non-adjacent members of the base structure.
[0040] Two of the substituents on adjacent atoms of the aryl or heteroaryl ring may optionally form a ring of the formula -T-C(O)—(CRR′)q—U—, wherein T and U are independently —NR—, —O—, —CRR′—, or a single bond, and q is an integer of from 0 to 3. Alternatively, two of the substituents on adjacent atoms of the aryl or heteroaryl ring may optionally be replaced with a substituent of the formula -A-(CH2)r—B—, wherein A and B are independently —CRR′—, —O—, —NR—, —S—, —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, —S(O)2NR′—, or a single bond, and r is an integer of from 1 to 4. One of the single bonds of the new ring so formed may optionally be replaced with a double bond. Alternatively, two of the substituents on adjacent atoms of the aryl or heteroaryl ring may optionally be replaced with a substituent of the formula —(CRR)s—X′— (C″R″R′″)d—, where s and d are independently integers of from 0 to 3, and X′ is —O—, —S—, —S(O)—, —S(O)2—, or —S(O)2NR′—. The substituents R, R′, R″, and R′″ are preferably independently selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, and substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl.
[0041] As used herein, the terms “heteroatom” or “ring heteroatom” are meant to include, oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), and silicon (Si).
[0042] A “substituent group,” as used herein, means a group selected from the following moieties:
[0043] (A) oxo, halogen, —CF3, —CN, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2Cl, —SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC═(O)NHNH2, —NHC═(O)NH2, —NHSO2H, —NHC═(O)H, —NHC(O)—OH, —NHOH, —OCF3, —OCHF2, —NHSO2CH3, —N3, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted aryl, unsubstituted heteroaryl, and
[0044] (B) alkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted with at least one substituent selected from:
[0045] (i) oxo, halogen, —CF3, —CN, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2Cl, —SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC═(O)NHNH2, —NHC═(O)NH2—NHSO2H, —NHC═(O)H, —NHC(O)—OH, —NHOH, —OCF3, —OCHF2, —NHSO2CH3, —N3, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted aryl, unsubstituted heteroaryl, and
[0046] (ii) alkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted with at least one substituent selected from:
[0047] (a) oxo, halogen, —CF3, —CN, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2Cl, —SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC═(O)NHNH2, —NHC═(O)NH2, —NHSO2H, —NHC═(O)H, —NHC(O)—OH, —NHOH, —OCF3, —OCHF2, —NHSO2CH3, —N3, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted aryl, unsubstituted heteroaryl, and
[0048] (b) alkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted with at least one substituent selected from: oxo, halogen, —CF3, —CN, —OH, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2Cl, —SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC═(O)NHNH2, —NHC═(O)NH2, —NHSO2H, —NHC═(O)H, —NHC(O)—OH, —NHOH, —OCF3, —OCHF2, —NHSO2CH3, —N3, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted aryl, unsubstituted heteroaryl.
[0049] A “size-limited substituent” or “size-limited substituent group,” as used herein, means a group selected from all of the substituents described above for a “substituent group,” wherein each substituted or unsubstituted alkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C20 alkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 20 membered heteroalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted aryl is a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C10 aryl, and each substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl is a substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl.
[0050] A “lower substituent” or “lower substituent group,” as used herein, means a group selected from all of the substituents described above for a “substituent group,” wherein each substituted or unsubstituted alkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted C3-C7 cycloalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 7 membered heterocycloalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted aryl is a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C10 aryl, and each substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl is a substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 9 membered heteroaryl.
[0051] In some embodiments, each substituted group described in the compounds herein is substituted with at least one substituent group. More specifically, in some embodiments, each substituted alkyl, substituted heteroalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, substituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, substituted alkylene, substituted heteroalkylene, substituted cycloalkylene, substituted heterocycloalkylene, substituted arylene, and/or substituted heteroarylene described in the compounds herein are substituted with at least one substituent group. In other embodiments, at least one or all of these groups are substituted with at least one size-limited substituent group. In other embodiments, at least one or all of these groups are substituted with at least one lower substituent group.
[0052] In other embodiments of the compounds herein, each substituted or unsubstituted alkyl may be a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C20 alkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 20 membered heteroalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted aryl is a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C10 aryl, and/or each substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl is a substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl. In some embodiments of the compounds herein, each substituted or unsubstituted alkylene is a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C20 alkylene, each substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkylene is a substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 20 membered heteroalkylene, each substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkylene is a substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkylene, each substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkylene is a substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkylene, each substituted or unsubstituted arylene is a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C10 arylene, and/or each substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene is a substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 10 membered heteroarylene.
[0053] In some embodiments, each substituted or unsubstituted alkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted C3-C7 cycloalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl is a substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 7 membered heterocycloalkyl, each substituted or unsubstituted aryl is a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C10 aryl, and/or each substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl is a substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 9 membered heteroaryl. In some embodiments, each substituted or unsubstituted alkylene is a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkylene, each substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkylene is a substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkylene, each substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkylene is a substituted or unsubstituted C3-C7 cycloalkylene, each substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkylene is a substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 7 membered heterocycloalkylene, each substituted or unsubstituted arylene is a substituted or unsubstituted C6-C10 arylene, and/or each substituted or unsubstituted heteroarylene is a substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 9 membered heteroarylene.
[0054] The term “pharmaceutically acceptable salts” is meant to include salts of the active compounds that are prepared with relatively nontoxic acids or bases, depending on the particular substituents found on the compounds described herein. When compounds of the present invention contain relatively acidic functionalities, base addition salts can be obtained by contacting the neutral form of such compounds with a sufficient amount of the desired base, either neat or in a suitable inert solvent. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable base addition salts include sodium, potassium, calcium, ammonium, organic amino, or magnesium salt, or a similar salt. When compounds of the present invention contain relatively basic functionalities, acid addition salts can be obtained by contacting the neutral form of such compounds with a sufficient amount of the desired acid, either neat or in a suitable inert solvent. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts include those derived from inorganic acids like hydrochloric, hydrobromic, nitric, carbonic, monohydrogencarbonic, phosphoric, monohydrogenphosphoric, dihydrogenphosphoric, sulfuric, monohydrogensulfuric, hydriodic, or phosphorous acids and the like, as well as the salts derived from relatively nontoxic organic acids like acetic, propionic, isobutyric, maleic, malonic, benzoic, succinic, suberic, fumaric, lactic, mandelic, phthalic, benzenesulfonic, p-tolylsulfonic, citric, tartaric, methanesulfonic, and the like. Also included are salts of amino acids such as arginate and the like, and salts of organic acids like glucuronic or galactunoric acids and the like (see, e.g., Berge et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 66:1-19 (1977)). Certain specific compounds of the present invention contain both basic and acidic functionalities that allow the compounds to be converted into either base or acid addition salts. Other pharmaceutically acceptable carriers known to those of skill in the art are suitable for the present invention. Thus, the compounds of the present invention may exist as salts, such as with pharmaceutically acceptable acids. The present invention includes such salts. Examples of such salts include hydrochlorides, hydrobromides, sulfates, methanesulfonates, nitrates, maleates, acetates, citrates, fumarates, tartrates (e.g., (+)-tartrates, (−)-tartrates, or mixtures thereof including racemic mixtures), succinates, benzoates, and salts with amino acids such as glutamic acid. These salts may be prepared by methods known to those skilled in the art.
[0055] The neutral forms of the compounds are preferably regenerated by contacting the salt with a base or acid and isolating the parent compound in the conventional manner. The parent form of the compound differs from the various salt forms in certain physical properties, such as solubility in polar solvents.
[0056] In addition to salt forms, the present invention provides compounds, which are in a prodrug form. Prodrugs of the compounds described herein are those compounds that readily undergo chemical changes under physiological conditions to provide the compounds of the present invention. Additionally, prodrugs can be converted to the compounds of the present invention by chemical or biochemical methods in an ex vivo environment. For example, prodrugs can be slowly converted to the compounds of the present invention when placed in a transdermal patch reservoir with a suitable enzyme or chemical reagent.
[0057] Described herein are active metabolites of compounds described herein, for example but without limitation, those displaying a hydroxyl group (e.g., attached to the cycloalkyl ring R or to an aromatic ring of the biphenyl system).
[0058] Certain compounds of the present invention can exist in unsolvated forms as well as solvated forms, including hydrated forms. In general, the solvated forms are equivalent to unsolvated forms and are encompassed within the scope of the present invention. Certain compounds of the present invention may exist in multiple crystalline or amorphous forms. In general, all physical forms are equivalent for the uses contemplated by the present invention and are intended to be within the scope of the present invention.
[0059] Those skilled in the art of organic chemistry will appreciate that many organic compounds can form complexes with solvents in which they are reacted or from which they are precipitated or crystallized. These complexes are known as “solvates”. For example, a complex with water is known as a “hydrate”. Described herein are solvates of the compounds described herein. The compounds described herein may be isolated in association with solvent molecules by crystallization or evaporation of an appropriate solvent to give the corresponding solvates. The compounds described herein may be in crystalline form. In embodiments, the crystalline forms of the compounds described herein are polymorphs.
[0060] As used herein, the term “salt” refers to acid or base salts of the compounds described herein.
[0061] Certain compounds of the present invention possess asymmetric carbon atoms (optical or chiral centers) or double bonds; the enantiomers, racemates, diastereomers, tautomers, geometric isomers, stereoisometric forms that may be defined, in terms of absolute stereochemistry, as (R)- or (S)- or, as (D)- or (L)- for amino acids, and individual isomers are encompassed within the scope of the present invention. The compounds of the present invention do not include those which are known in art to be too unstable to synthesize and/or isolate. The present invention is meant to include compounds in racemic and optically pure forms. Optically active (R)- and (S)-, or (D)- and (L)-isomers may be prepared using chiral synthons or chiral reagents, or resolved using conventional techniques. When the compounds described herein contain olefinic bonds or other centers of geometric asymmetry, and unless specified otherwise, it is intended that the compounds include both E and Z geometric isomers.
[0062] Compounds described herein may contain one or more chiral centres. Compounds containing one chiral centre can occur as single enantiomer or mixtures of the two enantiomers. Such mixtures occur as racemates or racemic mixtures. Compounds containing more than one chiral centre can occur as single enantiomer and pairs of enantiomers, and as stereoisomers which are not enantiomers, referred to as diastereoisomers. A compound described herein may be any possible stereoisomer or mixture of stereoisomers thereof.
[0063] As used herein, the term “isomers” refers to compounds having the same number and kind of atoms, and hence the same molecular weight, but differing in respect to the structural arrangement or configuration of the atoms.
[0064] The term “tautomer,” as used herein, refers to one of two or more structural isomers which exist in equilibrium and which are readily converted from one isomeric form to another.
[0065] It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that certain compounds of this invention may exist in tautomeric forms, all such tautomeric forms of the compounds being within the scope of the invention.
[0066] Unless otherwise stated, structures depicted herein are also meant to include all stereochemical forms of the structure; i.e., the R and S configurations for each asymmetric center. Therefore, single stereochemical isomers as well as enantiomeric and diastereomeric mixtures of the present compounds are within the scope of the invention.
[0067] Unless otherwise stated, structures depicted herein are also meant to include compounds which differ only in the presence of one or more isotopically enriched atoms. For example, compounds having the present structures except for the replacement of a hydrogen by a deuterium or tritium, or the replacement of a carbon by 13C- or 14C-enriched carbon are within the scope of this invention.
[0068] The compounds of the present invention may also contain unnatural proportions of atomic isotopes at one or more of the atoms that constitute such compounds. For example, the compounds may be radiolabeled with radioactive isotopes, such as for example tritium (3H), iodine-125 (125I) or carbon-14 (14C). All isotopic variations of the compounds of the present invention, whether radioactive or not, are encompassed within the scope of the present invention. Examples of isotopes that can be incorporated into compounds described herein include isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, fluorine, such as 2H, 3H, 11C, 13C, 14C, 15N 17O, 18O, 35S, or 18F.
[0069] Compounds described herein that contain the aforementioned isotopes and/or other isotopes of other atoms are within the scope of the present invention. Isotopically-labelled compounds of the present invention, for example those into which radioactive isotopes such as 3H, 14C are incorporated, are useful in drug and/or substrate tissue distribution assays. Tritiated, i.e., 3H, and carbon-14, i.e., 14C, isotopes are particularly preferred for their ease of preparation and detectability. 11C and 18F isotopes are particularly useful in PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography), all useful in brain imaging. Further, substitution with heavier isotopes such as deuterium, i.e., 2H, can afford certain therapeutic advantages resulting from greater metabolic stability, for example increased in vivo half-life or reduced dosage requirements and, hence, may be preferred in some circumstances (see, for instance, Shao, L., Hewitt, M C. The kinetic isotope effect in the search for deuterated drugs. Drug News Perspect 2010; 23(6): 398-404, which is herein incorporated by reference). Isotopically labelled compounds described herein may be prepared by carrying out the procedures disclosed herein (e.g., in the Schemes and/or in the Examples) by substituting a readily available isotopically labelled reagent for a non-isotopically labelled reagent.
[0070] The symbol “ [see pdf for image] ” denotes the point of attachment of a chemical moiety to the remainder of a molecule or chemical formula.
[0071] The terms “a” or “an,” as used in herein means one or more. In addition, the phrase “substituted with a[n],” as used herein, means the specified group may be substituted with one or more of any or all of the named substituents. For example, where a group, such as an alkyl or heteroaryl group, is “substituted with an unsubstituted C1-C20 alkyl, or unsubstituted 2 to 20 membered heteroalkyl,” the group may contain one or more unsubstituted C1-C20 alkyls, and/or one or more unsubstituted 2 to 20 membered heteroalkyls. Moreover, where a moiety is substituted with an R substituent, the group may be referred to as “R-substituted.” Where a moiety is R-substituted, the moiety is substituted with at least one R substituent and each R substituent is optionally different.
[0072] Descriptions of compounds of the present invention are limited by principles of chemical bonding known to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, where a group may be substituted by one or more of a number of substituents, such substitutions are selected so as to comply with principles of chemical bonding and to give compounds which are not inherently unstable and/or would be known to one of ordinary skill in the art as likely to be unstable under ambient conditions, such as aqueous, neutral, and several known physiological conditions. For example, a heterocycloalkyl or heteroaryl is attached to the remainder of the molecule via a ring heteroatom in compliance with principles of chemical bonding known to those skilled in the art thereby avoiding inherently unstable compounds.
[0073] The terms “treating” or “treatment” refers to any indicia of success in the treatment or amelioration of an injury, disease, pathology or condition, including any objective or subjective parameter such as abatement; remission; diminishing of symptoms or making the injury, pathology or condition more tolerable to the patient; slowing in the rate of degeneration or decline; making the final point of degeneration less debilitating; improving a patient's physical or mental well-being. The treatment or amelioration of symptoms can be based on objective or subjective parameters; including the results of a physical examination, neuropsychiatric exams, and/or a psychiatric evaluation. For example, the compounds and methods described herein may be useful in the treatment of smoking tobacco (e.g., cessation or reduction); tobacco use (e.g., cessation or reduction); a nicotine use disorder (e.g., nicotine craving, nicotine addiction, nicotine dependence, or nicotine withdrawal) or a symptom thereof; substance abuse or a symptom thereof; a cannabis use disorder (e.g., cannabis craving, cannabis addiction, cannabis dependence, or cannabis withdrawal) or a symptom thereof; a cocaine use disorder (e.g., cocaine craving, cocaine addiction, cocaine dependence, or cocaine withdrawal) or a symptom thereof; an opioid use disorder (e.g., opioid craving, opioid addiction, opioid dependence, or opioid withdrawal) or a symptom thereof; an opiate use disorder (e.g., opiate craving, opiate addiction, opiate dependence, or opiate withdrawal) or a symptom thereof; an amphetamine use disorder (e.g., amphetamine craving, amphetamine addiction, amphetamine dependence, or amphetamine withdrawal) or a symptom thereof; a methamphetamine use disorder (e.g., methamphetamine craving, methamphetamine addiction, methamphetamine dependence, or methamphetamine withdrawal) or a symptom thereof; or an alcohol use disorder (e.g., alcohol craving, alcohol addiction, alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, or alcohol induced delirium) or a symptom thereof; an eating disorder (e.g., bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, a binge eating disorder, or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS)) or a symptom thereof; anxiety or a symptom thereof, post-traumatic stress disorder or a symptom thereof; schizophrenia or a symptom thereof; a mood disorder (e.g., bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymia, substance-induced mood disorder, depression, atypical depression, psychotic major depression, post-partum depression, dysthymia, catatonic depression, melancholic depression, or a depressive disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS)) or a symptom thereof; pain (e.g., nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, non-inflammatory pain, or pain associated with a chronic condition) or a symptom thereof; or ocular glaucoma or a symptom thereof; or for modulating (e.g., increasing) appetite, or for treating inflammation or a symptom thereof.
[0074] An “effective amount” is an amount sufficient to accomplish a stated purpose (e.g. achieve the effect for which it is administered, treat a disease, reduce enzyme activity, increase enzyme activity, reduce one or more symptoms of a disease or condition). An example of an “effective amount” is an amount sufficient to contribute to the treatment, prevention, or reduction of a symptom or symptoms of a disease, which could also be referred to as a “therapeutically effective amount.” A “reduction” of a symptom or symptoms (and grammatical equivalents of this phrase) means decreasing of the severity or frequency of the symptom(s), or elimination of the symptom(s). A “prophylactically effective amount” of a drug is an amount of a drug that, when administered to a subject, will have the intended prophylactic effect, e.g., preventing or delaying the onset (or reoccurrence) of an injury, disease, pathology or condition, or reducing the likelihood of the onset (or reoccurrence) of an injury, disease, pathology, or condition, or their symptoms. The full prophylactic effect does not necessarily occur by administration of one dose, and may occur only after administration of a series of doses. Thus, a prophylactically effective amount may be administered in one or more administrations. An “activity decreasing amount,” as used herein, refers to an amount of antagonist (inhibitor) required to decrease the activity of an enzyme or protein relative to the absence of the antagonist. An “activity increasing amount,” as used herein, refers to an amount of agonist (activator) required to increase the activity of an enzyme or protein relative to the absence of the agonist. A “function disrupting amount,” as used herein, refers to the amount of antagonist (inhibitor) required to disrupt the function of an enzyme or protein relative to the absence of the antagonist. A “function increasing amount,” as used herein, refers to the amount of agonist (activator) required to increase the function of an enzyme or protein relative to the absence of the agonist. The exact amounts will depend on the purpose of the treatment, and will be ascertainable by one skilled in the art using known techniques (see, e.g., Lieberman, Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms (vols. 1-3, 1992); Lloyd, The Art, Science and Technology of Pharmaceutical Compounding (1999); Pickar, Dosage Calculations (1999); and Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 20th Edition, 2003, Gennaro, Ed., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins).
[0075] “Control” or “control experiment” is used in accordance with its plain ordinary meaning and refers to an experiment in which the subjects or reagents of the experiment are treated as in a parallel experiment except for omission of a procedure, reagent, or variable of the experiment. In some instances, the control is used as a standard of comparison in evaluating experimental effects.
[0076] “Contacting” is used in accordance with its plain ordinary meaning and refers to the process of allowing at least two distinct species (e.g. chemical compounds including biomolecules, or cells) to become sufficiently proximal to react, interact or physically touch. It should be appreciated, however, that the resulting reaction product can be produced directly from a reaction between the added reagents or from an intermediate from one or more of the added reagents which can be produced in the reaction mixture. The term “contacting” may include allowing two species to react, interact, or physically touch, wherein the two species may be a compound as described herein and a protein or enzyme.
[0077] As defined herein, the term “inhibition”, “inhibit”, “inhibiting” and the like in reference to a protein-inhibitor (e.g. antagonist) interaction means negatively affecting (e.g. decreasing) the activity or function of the protein relative to the activity or function of the protein in the absence of the inhibitor. In some embodiments inhibition refers to reduction of a disease or symptoms of disease. Thus, inhibition includes, at least in part, partially or totally blocking stimulation, decreasing, preventing, or delaying activation, or inactivating, desensitizing, or down-regulating signal transduction or enzymatic activity or the amount of a protein.
[0078] The term “modulator” refers to a composition that increases or decreases the level of a target molecule or the function of a target molecule.
[0079] “Patient” or “subject in need thereof” refers to a living organism suffering from or prone to a disease or condition that can be treated by administration of a compound or pharmaceutical composition, as provided herein. Non-limiting examples include humans, other mammals, bovines, rats, mice, dogs, monkeys, goat, sheep, cows, deer, and other non-mammalian animals. In some embodiments, a patient is human.
[0080] “Disease” or “condition” refer to a state of being or health status of a patient or subject capable of being treated with a compound, pharmaceutical composition, or method provided herein.
[0081] Examples of diseases, disorders, or conditions include, but are not limited to smoking tobacco; tobacco use; a nicotine use disorder (e.g., nicotine craving, nicotine addiction, nicotine dependence, or nicotine withdrawal); substance abuse; a cannabis use disorder (e.g., cannabis craving, cannabis addiction, cannabis dependence, or cannabis withdrawal); a cocaine use disorder (e.g., cocaine craving, cocaine addiction, cocaine dependence, or cocaine withdrawal); an opioid use disorder (e.g., opioid craving, opioid addiction, opioid dependence, or opioid withdrawal); an opiate use disorder (e.g., opiate craving, opiate addiction, opiate dependence, or opiate withdrawal); an amphetamine use disorder (e.g., amphetamine craving, amphetamine addiction, amphetamine dependence, or amphetamine withdrawal); a methamphetamine use disorder (e.g., methamphetamine craving, methamphetamine addiction, methamphetamine dependence, or methamphetamine withdrawal); or an alcohol use disorder (e.g., alcohol craving, alcohol addiction, alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, or alcohol induced delirium); an eating disorder (e.g., bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, a binge eating disorder, or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS)); anxiety or a symptom thereof, post-traumatic stress disorder; schizophrenia; a mood disorder (e.g., bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymia, substance-induced mood disorder, depression, atypical depression, psychotic major depression, post-partum depression, dysthymia, catatonic depression, melancholic depression, or a depressive disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS)); pain (e.g., nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, non-inflammatory pain, or pain associated with a chronic condition); inflammation; or ocular glaucoma; or reduced appetite.
[0082] “Pharmaceutically acceptable excipient” and “pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” refer to a substance that aids the administration of an active agent to and absorption by a subject and can be included in the compositions of the present invention without causing a significant adverse toxicological effect on the patient. Non-limiting examples of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients include water, NaCl, normal saline solutions, lactated Ringer's, normal sucrose, normal glucose, binders, fillers, disintegrants, lubricants, coatings, sweeteners, flavors, salt solutions (such as Ringer's solution), alcohols, oils, gelatins, carbohydrates such as lactose, amylose or starch, fatty acid esters, hydroxymethycellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidine, and colors, and the like. Such preparations can be sterilized and, if desired, mixed with auxiliary agents such as lubricants, preservatives, stabilizers, wetting agents, emulsifiers, salts for influencing osmotic pressure, buffers, coloring, and/or aromatic substances and the like that do not deleteriously react with the compounds of the invention. One of skill in the art will recognize that other pharmaceutical excipients are useful in the present invention.
[0083] A pharmaceutical composition may include another active ingredient. The term “carrier” refers to a vehicle, excipient, diluent, or adjuvant with which the therapeutic or active ingredient is administered. Any carrier and/or excipient suitable for the form of preparation desired for administration is contemplated for use with the compounds described herein. The carrier may take a wide variety of forms depending on the form of preparation desired for administration, e.g. oral or parenteral (including intravenous). In preparing the compositions for oral dosage form, any of the pharmaceutical media commonly used in the art for oral dosage forms may be employed, such as, for example, water, glycols, oils, alcohols, flavoring agents, preservatives, coloring agents and the like in the case of oral liquid preparations, such as, for example, suspensions, elixirs and solutions; or carriers such as starches, sugars, microcrystalline cellulose, diluents, granulating agents, lubricants, binders, disintegrating agents, and the like in the case of oral solid preparations such as, for example, powders, hard and soft capsules and tablets, with the solid oral preparations being preferred over the liquid preparations.
[0084] The term “preparation” is intended to include the formulation of the active compound with encapsulating material as a carrier providing a capsule in which the active component with or without other carriers, is surrounded by a carrier, which is thus in association with it. Similarly, cachets and lozenges are included. Tablets, powders, capsules, pills, cachets, and lozenges can be used as solid dosage forms suitable for oral administration.
[0085] As used herein, the term “administering” means oral administration, administration as a suppository, topical contact, intravenous, parenteral, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, intralesional, intrathecal, intracranial, intranasal or subcutaneous administration, or the implantation of a slow-release device, e.g., a mini-osmotic pump, to a subject. Administration is by any route, including parenteral and transmucosal (e.g., buccal, sublingual, palatal, gingival, nasal, vaginal, rectal, or transdermal). Parenteral administration includes, e.g., intravenous, intramuscular, intra-arteriole, intradermal, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intraventricular, and intracranial. Other modes of delivery include, but are not limited to, the use of liposomal formulations, intravenous infusion, transdermal patches, etc. By “co-administer” it is meant that a composition described herein is administered at the same time, just prior to, or just after the administration of one or more additional therapies. The compound of the invention can be administered alone or can be coadministered to the patient. Coadministration is meant to include simultaneous or sequential administration of the compound individually or in combination (more than one compound or agent). Thus, the preparations can also be combined, when desired, with other active substances (e.g. to reduce metabolic degradation). The compositions of the present invention can be delivered by transdermally, by a topical route, formulated as applicator sticks, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, gels, creams, ointments, pastes, jellies, paints, powders, and aerosols. Oral preparations include tablets, pills, powder, dragees, capsules, liquids, lozenges, cachets, gels, syrups, slurries, suspensions, etc., suitable for ingestion by the patient. Solid form preparations include powders, tablets, pills, capsules, cachets, suppositories, and dispersible granules. Liquid form preparations include solutions, suspensions, and emulsions, for example, water or water/propylene glycol solutions. The compositions of the present invention may additionally include components to provide sustained release and/or comfort. Such components include high molecular weight, anionic mucomimetic polymers, gelling polysaccharides and finely-divided drug carrier substrates. These components are discussed in greater detail in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,911,920; 5,403,841; 5,212,162; and 4,861,760. The entire contents of these patents are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety for all purposes. The compositions of the present invention can also be delivered as microspheres for slow release in the body. For example, microspheres can be administered via intradermal injection of drug-containing microspheres, which slowly release subcutaneously (see Rao, J. Biomater Sci. Polym. Ed. 7:623-645, 1995; as biodegradable and injectable gel formulations (see, e.g., Gao Pharm. Res. 12:857-863, 1995); or, as microspheres for oral administration (see, e.g., Eyles, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 49:669-674, 1997). In another embodiment, the formulations of the compositions of the present invention can be delivered by the use of liposomes which fuse with the cellular membrane or are endocytosed, i.e., by employing receptor ligands attached to the liposome, that bind to surface membrane protein receptors of the cell resulting in endocytosis. By using liposomes, particularly where the liposome surface carries receptor ligands specific for target cells, or are otherwise preferentially directed to a specific organ, one can focus the delivery of the compositions of the present invention into the target cells in vivo. (See, e.g., Al-Muhammed, J. Microencapsul. 13:293-306, 1996; Chonn, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 6:698-708, 1995; Ostro, Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 46:1576-1587, 1989). The compositions of the present invention can also be delivered as nanoparticles.
[0086] Pharmaceutical compositions provided by the present invention include compositions wherein the active ingredient (e.g. compounds described herein, including embodiments or examples) is contained in a therapeutically effective amount, i.e., in an amount effective to achieve its intended purpose. The actual amount effective for a particular application will depend, inter alia, on the condition being treated. When administered in methods to treat a disease, such compositions will contain an amount of active ingredient effective to achieve the desired result, e.g., modulating the activity of a target molecule, and/or reducing, eliminating, or slowing the progression of disease symptoms. Determination of a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the invention is well within the capabilities of those skilled in the art, especially in light of the detailed disclosure herein.
[0087] If desired, tablets may be coated by standard aqueous or non-aqueous techniques. In embodiments, such compositions and preparations can include at least 0.1 percent of active compound. The percentage of active compound in these compositions may be varied and may conveniently be between about 1 percent to about 60 percent of the weight of the unit. The amount of active compound in such therapeutically useful compositions is such that therapeutically active dosage will be obtained. The active compounds can also be administered intranasally as, for example, liquid drops or spray.
[0088] The tablets, pills, capsules, and the like may include a binder such as gum tragacanth, acacia, corn starch or gelatin; excipients such as dicalcium phosphate; a disintegrating agent such as corn starch, potato starch, alginic acid; a lubricant such as magnesium stearate; or a sweetening agent such as sucrose, lactose or saccharin. When a dosage unit form is a capsule, it may include, in addition to materials of the above type, a liquid carrier such as a fatty oil. Various other materials may be included as coatings or to modify the physical form of the dosage unit. For instance, tablets may be coated with shellac, sugar or both. A syrup or elixir may contain, in addition to the active ingredient, sucrose as a sweetening agent, methyl or propylparabens as preservatives, a dye; or a flavoring agent such as cherry or orange flavor. To prevent breakdown during transit through the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract, the composition may be an enteric coated formulation.
[0089] Compositions for topical administration include, but are not limited to, ointments, creams, lotions, solutions, pastes, gels, sticks, liposomes, nanoparticles, patches, bandages and wound dressings. In certain embodiments, the topical formulation comprises a penetration enhancer.
[0090] Compositions for pulmonary administration include, but are not limited to, dry powder compositions including the powder of a compound of Formula I (including embodiments thereof) or a salt thereof, and the powder of a suitable carrier and/or lubricant. The compositions for pulmonary administration can be inhaled from any suitable dry powder inhaler device known to a person skilled in the art.
[0091] Administration of the compositions may be performed under a protocol and at a dosage sufficient to reduce inflammation and/or pain in a subject. In some embodiments, in the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention the active principle or active principles are generally formulated in dosage units. The dosage unit may contain from 0.1 to 1000 mg of a compound of Formula I (including embodiments thereof) per dosage unit for daily administration.
[0092] In some embodiments, the amount effective for topical formulation will depend on the severity of the disease, disorder or condition, previous therapy, the individual's health status and response to the drug. In some embodiments, the dose is in the range from 0.001% by weight to about 60% by weight of the formulation.
[0093] When used in combination with one or more other active ingredients, a compound described herein (e.g., Formula I, including embodiments) and the other active ingredient may be used in lower doses than when each is used singly.
[0094] With respect to formulations with respect to any variety of routes of administration, methods and formulations for the administration of drugs are disclosed in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th Edition, Gennaro et al. Eds., Mack Publishing Co., 1985, and Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gennaro A R ed. 20th Edition, 2000, Williams & Wilkins PA, USA, and Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 21st Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Eds., 2005; and in Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, 8th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Eds., 2005, which are herein incorporated by reference.
[0095] Compounds
[0096] In an aspect is provided a compound having the formula:
[0097]  [see pdf for image]
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. R1 is substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. R3 is —SO2R6, —SO2NR4R5, or —C(O)NR4R5. R4, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. R4 and R5 may optionally be joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl, The symbol z is an integer from 1 to 4. The symbol X is —F, —Cl, —Br, or —I.
[0098] The compound may have the formula
[0099]  [see pdf for image]
The compound may have the formula
[0100]  [see pdf for image]
The compound may have the formula
[0101]  [see pdf for image]
The compound may have the formula
[0102]  [see pdf for image]
[0103] R1 may be substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted or unsubstituted aryl. R1 may be substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. R1 may be substituted cycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted aryl. R1 may be substituted heteroaryl. R1 may be unsubstituted cycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted aryl. R1 may be unsubstituted heteroaryl.
[0104] R1 may be substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C6-C10 aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl. R1 may be substituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted C6-C10 aryl. R1 may be substituted 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl. R1 may be unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted C6-C10 aryl. R1 may be unsubstituted 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl.
[0105] R1 may be substituted or unsubstituted C4-C6 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. R1 may be substituted C4-C6 cycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted 4 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted phenyl. R1 may be substituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. R1 may be unsubstituted C4-C6 cycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted 4 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted phenyl. R1 may be unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl.
[0106] R1 may be substituted or unsubstituted C5-C6 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. R1 may be substituted C5-C6 cycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted 5 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted C5-C6 cycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0107] R1 may be substituted C5 cycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted 5 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted C5 cycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted 5 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted C6 cycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted C6 cycloalkyl. R1 may be unsubstituted 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be substituted cyclohexyl. R1 may be unsubstituted cyclohexyl.
[0108] R1 may be R1A-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted or unsubstituted aryl. R1 may be R1A-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. R1 may be R1A-substituted cycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted aryl. R1 may be R1A-substituted heteroaryl.
[0109] R1 may be R1A-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, R1A-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl, R1A-substituted or unsubstituted C6-C10 aryl, or R1A-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl. R1 may be R1A-substituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted C6-C10 aryl. R1 may be R1A-substituted 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl.
[0110] R1 may be R1A-substituted or unsubstituted C4-C6 cycloalkyl, R1A-substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R1A-substituted or unsubstituted phenyl, or R1A-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. R1 may be R1A-substituted C4-C6 cycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted 4 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted phenyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl.
[0111] R1 may be R1A-substituted or unsubstituted C5-C6 cycloalkyl, R1A-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R1A-substituted or unsubstituted phenyl, or R1A-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. R1 may be R1A-substituted C5-C6 cycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted 5 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0112] R1 may be R1A-substituted C5 cycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted 5 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted C6 cycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. R1 may be R1A-substituted cyclohexyl.
[0113] R1A is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX1A3, —CHX1A2, —CH2X1A, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R1B-substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, R1B-substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, R1B-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, R1B-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, R1B-substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or R1B-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X1A is independently a halogen.
[0114] R1A may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX1A3, —CHX1A2, —CH2X1A, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R1B-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, R1B-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, R1B-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, R1B-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R1B-substituted or unsubstituted C6 aryl, or R1B-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X1A is independently a halogen.
[0115] R1B is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX1B3, —CHX1B2, —CH2X1B, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R1C-substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, R1C-substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, R1C-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, R1C-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, R1C-substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or R1C-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X1B is independently a halogen.
[0116] R1B may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX1B3, —CHX1B2, —CH2X1B, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R1C-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, R1C-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, R1C-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, R1C-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R1C-substituted or unsubstituted C6 aryl, or R1C-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X1B is independently a halogen.
[0117] R1C is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX1C3, —CHX1C2, —CH2X1C, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted aryl, or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X1C is independently a halogen.
[0118] R1C may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX1C3, —CHX1C2, —CH2X1C, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted C6 aryl, or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X1C is independently a halogen.
[0119] In embodiments, R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently halogen. In embodiments, R2 is independently —CX3. In embodiments, R2 is independently —OCX3. In embodiments, R2 is independently —OCHX2. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. X may be —F. X may be —Cl. X may be —Br. X may be —I. In embodiments, R2 is independently —F. In embodiments, R2 is independently —Cl. In embodiments, R2 is independently —Br. In embodiments, R2 is independently —I. In embodiments, R2 is independently —OCHF2. In embodiments, R2 is independently —OCHFX. In embodiments, R2 is independently —CX3. In embodiments, R2 is independently —CF3. In embodiments, R2 is independently —CFX2. In embodiments, R2 is independently —CXF2. In embodiments, R2 is independently —OCX3. In embodiments, R2 is independently —OCF3. In embodiments, R2 is independently —OCFX2. In embodiments, R2 is independently —OCXF2. In embodiments, R2 is independently halogen or —OCHX2.
[0120] In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0121] In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently substituted 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently unsubstituted 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0122] In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted or unsubstituted 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0123] In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R2 is independently R2A-substituted 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0124] R2A is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX2A3, —CHX2A2, —CH2X2A, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R2B-substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, R2B-substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, R2B-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, R2B-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, R2B-substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or R2B-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X2A is independently a halogen.
[0125] R2A may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX2A3, —CHX2A2, —CH2X2A, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R2B-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, R2B-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, R2B-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, R2B-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R2B-substituted or unsubstituted C6 aryl, or R2B-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X2A is independently a halogen.
[0126] R2B is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX2B3, —CHX2B2, —CH2X2B, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R2C-substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, R2C-substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, R2C-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, R2C-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, R2C-substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or R2C-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X2B is independently a halogen.
[0127] R2B may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX2B3, —CHX2B2, —CH2X2B, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R2C-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, R2C-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, R2C-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, R2C-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R2C-substituted or unsubstituted C6 aryl, or R2C-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X2B is independently a halogen.
[0128] R2C is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX2C3, —CHX2C2, —CH2X2C, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted aryl, or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X2C is independently a halogen.
[0129] R2C may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX2C3, —CHX2C2, —CH2X2C, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted C6 aryl, or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X2C is independently a halogen.
[0130] R3 may be —SO2R6. R3 may be —SO2NR4R5. R3 may be —C(O)NR4R5.
[0131] In embodiments, R4 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently hydrogen, substituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently hydrogen. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl.
[0132] In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0133] In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently substituted methyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently unsubstituted methyl.
[0134] In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted or unsubstituted 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0135] In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R4 is independently R4A-substituted 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0136] R4A is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX4A3, —CHX4A2, —CH2X4A, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R4B-substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, R4B-substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, R4B-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, R4B-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, R4B-substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or R4B-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X4A is independently a halogen.
[0137] R4A may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX4A3, —CHX4A2, —CH2X4A, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R4B-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, R4B-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, R4B-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, R4B-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R4B-substituted or unsubstituted C6 aryl, or R4B-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X4A is independently a halogen.
[0138] R4B is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX4B3, —CHX4B2, —CH2X4B, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R4C-substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, R4C-substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, R4C-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, R4C-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, R4C-substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or R4C-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X4B is independently a halogen.
[0139] R4B may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX4B3, —CHX4B2, —CH2X4B, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R4C-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, R4C-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, R4C-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, R4C-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R4C-substituted or unsubstituted C6 aryl, or R4C-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X4B is independently a halogen.
[0140] R4C is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX4C3, —CHX4C2, —CH2X4C, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted aryl, or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X4C is independently a halogen.
[0141] R4C may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX4C3, —CHX4C2, —CH2X4C, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted C6 aryl, or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X4C is independently a halogen.
[0142] In embodiments, R5 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently hydrogen, substituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently hydrogen. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl.
[0143] In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0144] In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently substituted methyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently unsubstituted methyl.
[0145] In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted or unsubstituted 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0146] In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R5 is independently R5A-substituted 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0147] R5A is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX5A3, —CHX5A2, —CH2X5A, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R5B-substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, R5B-substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, R5B-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, R5B-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, R5B-substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or R5B-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X5A is independently a halogen.
[0148] R5A may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX5A3, —CHX5A2, —CH2X5A, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R5B-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, R5B-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, R5B-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, R5B-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R5B-substituted or unsubstituted C6 aryl, or R5B-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X5A is independently a halogen.
[0149] R5B is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX5B3, —CHX5B2, —CH2X5B, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R5C-substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, R5C-substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, R5C-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, R5C-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, R5C-substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or R5C-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X5B is independently a halogen.
[0150] R5B may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX5B3, —CHX5B2, —CH2X5B, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —COOH, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R5C-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, R5C-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, R5C-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, R5C-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R5C-substituted or unsubstituted C6 aryl, or R5C-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X5B is independently a halogen.
[0151] R5C is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX5C3, —CHX5C2, —CH2X5C, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted aryl, or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X5C is independently a halogen.
[0152] R5C may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX5C3, —CHX5C2, —CH2X5C, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted C6 aryl, or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X5C is independently a halogen.
[0153] R4 and R5 bonded to the same nitrogen atom, may be joined to independently form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl.
[0154] In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form an unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form an unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted 5 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form an unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0155] In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted 5 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form an unsubstituted 5 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted 5 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form an unsubstituted 5 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form an unsubstituted 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted 6 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form an unsubstituted 6 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted 7 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form an unsubstituted 7 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a substituted 4 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form an unsubstituted 4 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0156] R4 and R5 bonded to the same nitrogen atom, may be joined to independently form a R5A-substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or R5A-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl.
[0157] In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted 5 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0158] In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted 5 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted 5 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted 6 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted 6 membered heteroaryl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted 7 membered heterocycloalkyl. In embodiments, R4 and R5 are joined to independently form a R5A-substituted 4 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0159] In embodiments, R6 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently hydrogen, substituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently hydrogen. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl.
[0160] In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0161] In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently substituted methyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently unsubstituted methyl.
[0162] In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted or unsubstituted 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0163] In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted C1-C8 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted C1-C6 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted C1-C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted C1 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted 2 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted C2 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted C3 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted 3 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted C4 alkyl. In embodiments, R6 is independently R6A-substituted 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0164] R6A is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX6A3, —CHX6A2, —CH2X6A, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R6B-substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, R6B-substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, R6B-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, R6B-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, R6B-substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or R6B-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X6A is independently a halogen.
[0165] R6A may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX6A3, —CHX6A2, —CH2X6A, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R6B-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, R6B-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, R6B-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, R6B-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R6B-substituted or unsubstituted C6 aryl, or R6B-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X6A is independently a halogen.
[0166] R6B is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX6B3, —CHX6B2, —CH2X6B, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R6C-substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, R6C-substituted or unsubstituted heteroalkyl, R6C-substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, R6C-substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, R6C-substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or R6C-substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X6B is independently a halogen.
[0167] R6B may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX6B3, —CHX6B2, —CH2X6B, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, R6C-substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, R6C-substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, R6C-substituted or unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, R6C-substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, R6C-substituted or unsubstituted C6 aryl, or R6C-substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X6B is independently a halogen.
[0168] R6C is halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX6C3, —CHX6C2, —CH2X6C, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted aryl, or unsubstituted heteroaryl. X6C is independently a halogen.
[0169] R6C may be halogen, oxo, —N3, —CX6C3, —CHX6C2, —CH2X6C, —CN, —CHO, —OH, —NH2, —COOH, —CONH2, —NO2, —SH, —SO2, —SO2Cl, —SO2CH3—SO3H, —SO4H, —SO2NH2, —NHNH2, —ONH2, —NHC(O)NHNH2, unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl, unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl, unsubstituted C3-C6 cycloalkyl, unsubstituted 3 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted C6 aryl, or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. X6 is independently a halogen.
[0170] The symbol z may be an integer from 2 to 4. The symbol z may be an integer from 3 to 4. The symbol z may be an integer from 1 to 3. The symbol z may be an integer from 1 to 2. The symbol z may be 1. The symbol z may be 2. The symbol z may be 3. The symbol z may be 4.
[0171] In embodiments, R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl; R2 is —F or —OCHF2; R3 is —SO2NH2, —SO2NHMe, —SO2NMe2, —CONH2, —CONHMe, —CONMe2, or —SO2Me; and z is 1.
[0172] In embodiments, R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl; R2 is —F or —OCHF2; and R3 is —SO2NH2, —SO2NHMe, —SO2NMe2, —CONH2, —CONHMe, —CONMe2, or —SO2Me.
[0173] In embodiments, the compound is
[0174]  [see pdf for image] [see pdf for image] [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0175]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0176]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0177]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0178]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0179]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0180]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0181]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0182]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0183]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0184]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0185]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0186]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, the compound is
[0187]  [see pdf for image]
[0188] In embodiments, the compound is [4-fluoro-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [4-fluoro-3-(3-sulfamoylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclobutylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [4-fluoro-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]phenyl] N-cyclopentylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclopentylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [4-fluoro-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]phenyl] N-cyclobutylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [4-fluoro-3-(3-methylsulfonylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-(3-sulfamoylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-(3-methylsulfonylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-5-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate. In embodiments, the compound is [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-2-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate.
[0189] In another aspect is provided a compound of Formula (I)
[0190]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R1 is a cycloalkyl group; R3 is SO2NR4R5, CONR4R5, or SO2R6, where R4 and R5 can be, independently, hydrogen, alkyl or R4 and R5 together with the N atom to which they are connected may form a 4- to 6-membered ring, and R6 is an alkyl group; z is an integer selected from 1 or 2; R2 is F or OCHF2, and can be attached to any position of the ring with the proviso that when R1 is cyclohexyl, R3 is CONH2, z is 1 and R2 is F, then R2 is not attached in position para to the carbamate.
[0191] In an embodiment, the compound includes: R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl; R3 is SO2NH2, SO2NHMe, SO2NMe2, CONH2, CONHMe, CONMe2, or SO2Me; z is 1; R2 is F or OCHF2 and can be attached to any position of the ring; with the proviso that when R1 is cyclohexyl, R3 is CONH2 and R2 is F, then R2 is not attached in position para to the carbamate.
[0192] In an embodiment, the compound includes: R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl; R3 is SO2NH2, SO2NHMe, SO2NMe2, CONH2, CONHMe, CONMe2, or SO2Me; z is 1; R2 is F or OCHF2 and is attached in position para to the carbamate, with the proviso that when R1 is cyclohexyl and R3 is CONH2, then R2 is not F.
[0193] In embodiments, the compound is described in an aspect, embodiment, example, figure, table, drawing, or claim herein.
[0194] In embodiments, the compound modulates (e.g., decreases, inhibits) the level of activity of FAAH. In embodiments, the compound is a FAAH inhibitor. In embodiments, the compound is peripherally restricted (i.e., reduced concentration in the brain relative to outside the brain, reduced concentration in the brain relative to in circulation, reduced concentration immediately inside the blood brain barrier relative to immediately outside the blood brain barrier).
[0195] In embodiments, the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 35% in a subject. In embodiments, the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 45% in a subject. In embodiments, the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 55% in a subject. In embodiments, the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 65% in a subject. In embodiments, the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 75% in a subject. In embodiments, the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 85% in a subject. In embodiments, the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 95% in a subject.
[0196] In an aspect is provided a compound having the formula:
[0197]  [see pdf for image]
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 is substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl (e.g., unsubstituted cyclohexyl); R2 is —OH or a physiologically hydrolyzable ester thereof (e.g., —OH); and (a) R3 is —SO2R6 or —SO2NR4R5 and R4, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl (e.g., R4 and R5 are H, R4 is H and R5 is —CH3, or R6 is —CH3); or (b) R3 is —C(O)NR4R5 and R4 is independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl and R5 is substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl (e.g., R4 is H and R5 is —CH3). R4 and R5 may optionally be joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl. The symbol z is 1. The symbol X is —F, —Cl, —Br, or —I. In embodiments, the compound may have a formula described herein (e.g., R2 is para to the carbamate-R1 and ortho to the phenyl).
[0198] In embodiments, a compound described herein is not
[0199]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, a compound described herein is not
[0200]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, a compound described herein is not
[0201]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments, a compound described herein is not
[0202]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, a compound described herein is not
[0203]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl. In embodiments, a compound described herein is not
[0204]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, or —OCHX2. In embodiments, a compound described herein is not
[0205]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is halogen or —OCHX2. In embodiments, a compound described herein is not
[0206]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is —OCHX2. In embodiments, a compound described herein is not
[0207]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is halogen.
[0208] In embodiments, the compound is not a compound having the formula:
[0209]  [see pdf for image]
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. In Formula Iz, R1z is hydrogen, hydroxy or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof, —SH, carboxy or the physiologically hydrolysable esters thereof, hydroxy (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., —CH2OH or —CH2CH2OH) or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof, —NR7zR8z, or —NHSO2R9z. In Formula Iz, R7z and R8z are independently hydrogen or (C1-C3)alkyl. In Formula Iz, R9z is hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, trifluoromethyl or trifluoroethyl. In Formula Iz, R2z and R3z are independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl. In Formula Iz, each R4z is independently a hydrogen, a substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl. In Formula Iz, nz is an integer from 0 to 4. In Formula Iz, R5z is independently hydrogen, halogen, hydroxy or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof, carboxy or the physiologically hydrolysable esters thereof, hydroxyl-(C1-C3)alkyl or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof, —(C1-C3)alkoxy, or —NR20zR21z. In Formula Iz, R20z and R21z are independently hydrogen or (C1-C3)alkyl. In Formula Iz, mz is an integer from 0 to 3. In Formula Iz, R6z is an unsubstituted or substituted cyclohexyl, cyclopentyl, cyclobutyl or tetrahydropyran-4-yl.
[0210] In embodiments of formula Iz, mz and nz are each 0, and R2z and R3z are each H. In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is hydroxy, carboxy, or hydroxymethyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z hydrogen. In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is hydroxy or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof. In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is —SH. In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is carboxy or the physiologically hydrolysable esters thereof. In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is hydroxyl-(C1-C3)alkyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is —CH2OH or —CH2CH2OH or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof. In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is —NR7zR8z. In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is —NHSO2R9z. In embodiments of formula Iz, R7z and R8z are independently hydrogen or (C1-C3)alkyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R7z and R8z are independently methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, t-butyl, isobutyl, n-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, or octyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R9z is hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, trifluoromethyl or trifluoroethyl.
[0211] In embodiments of formula Iz, R6z is substituted or unsubstituted. In embodiments of formula Iz, R6z is cyclohexyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, the cyclohexyl is unsubstituted. In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is a physiologically acceptable ester of any of the embodiments of the compound of formula Iz. In embodiments of formula Iz, R7z and R8z are each H and R9z is methyl, ethyl, trifluoromethyl or trifluoroethyl.
[0212] In embodiments of formula Iz, mz is 0 and nz is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. In embodiments of formula Iz, mz is 1 and nz is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. In embodiments of formula Iz, mz is 2 and nz is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. In embodiments of formula Iz, mz is 3, and nz is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. In embodiments of formula Iz, the sum of mz and nz is 0, 1, 2, or 3. In embodiments of formula Iz, each R1z, R2z, R3z, R4z, R6z, R7z, and R8z member is also unsubstituted.
[0213] In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is hydroxy or a hydroxy(C1-C3)alkyl group or a physiologically hydrolysable ester of the hydroxyl or hydroxy(C1-C3)alkyl group. In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z has the formula —OC(O)R10z, —(O)COR10z, —CH2OC(O)R10z, —CH2(O)COR10z, —CH2CH2OC(O)R10z, CH2CH2(O)COR10z, —CH(CH3)(O)COR10z), —CH(CH3)(O)COR10z. In embodiments of formula Iz, R10z is substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R10z is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycloalkenyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R10z is substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R10z is methyl, ethyl, propyl, or trifluoromethyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R10z is a substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3) hydrocarbyl selected from the group consisting of alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycloalkenyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, mz is 0 and nz is 0, 1, 2; mz is 1 and nz is 0, 1, or 2; or mz is 2 and nz is 0, 1, or 2.
[0214] In embodiments of formula Iz, in the case where R1z is a carboxy group or physiologically hydrolysable ester thereof, R1z is —CO2H, or —CO2R10z wherein R10z is substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl, optionally, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, or cycloalkenyl and still further optionally, substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, trifluoromethyl) or a substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3) hydrocarbyl selected from alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycloalkenyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, mz is 0 and nz is 0, 1, 2; mz is 1 and nz is 0, 1, or 2; or mz is 2 and nz is 0, 1, or 2.
[0215] In embodiments of formula Iz, R2z and R3z are hydrogen. In embodiments of formula Iz, mz is 0 and nz is 0, 1, or 2; mz is 1 and nz is 0, 1, or 2; or mz is 2 and nz is 0, 1, or 2. In embodiments of formula Iz, mz is 0 and nz is 0, 1, 2; mz is 1 and nz is 0, 1, or 2; or mz is 2 and nz is 0, 1, or 2.
[0216] In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is hydroxy and at least one of R2z and R3z is hydrogen. In embodiments of formula Iz, both of R2z and R3z are hydrogen. In embodiments of formula Iz, in which R1z is hydroxy, R2z and R3z are independently selected from substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl), and H. In embodiments of formula Iz, mz is 0 and nz is 0, 1, 2; mz is 1 and nz is 0, 1, 2; or mz is 2 and nz is 0, 1, 2.
[0217] In embodiments of formula Iz, R6z is substituted or unsubstituted cyclohexyl. Substituents for the cyclohexyl include alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl), halo (F, Cl, I, Br and optionally F or Cl), and trifluoromethyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, mz is 0 and nz is 0, 1, 2; mz is 1 and nz is 0, 1, 2; or mz is 2 and nz is 0, 1, 2.
[0218] In embodiments of formula Iz, R1z is hydroxy or hydroxy (C1-C3)alkyl or a physiologically hydrolyzable ester thereof in which the hydrolysis releases the corresponding compound wherein R1z is hydroxyl or hydroxy(C1-C3)alkyl, R6z is unsubstituted cyclohexyl, mz is 0 and nz is 0, 1, or 2; or mz is 1 and nz is 0, 1, or 2, or mz is 2 and nz is 0, 1, or 2. In embodiments of formula Iz, R2z and R3z are each H. In embodiments of formula Iz, the ester is of the formula —OC(O)R10z wherein R10z is substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl, optionally, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycloalkenyl and still further optionally, substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, trifluoromethyl) or a substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3) hydrocarbyl selected from alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycoalkenyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R10z is unsubstituted hydrocarbyl, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted alkenyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkenyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkenyl, or unsubstituted cycloalkenyl; or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, trifluoromethyl) or unsubstituted (C1-C3) hydrocarbyl selected from alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycloalkenyl.
[0219] In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is independently hydrogen, halogen, hydroxy or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof, carboxy or the physiologically hydrolysable esters thereof, hydroxyl-(C1-C3)alkyl or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof, —(C1-C3)alkoxy, or NR20zR21z; and R20z and R21z are independently hydrogen or (C1-C3)alkyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is independently hydrogen or halogen. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is independently hydrogen, halogen, or hydroxy or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is independently hydroxy or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof, carboxy or the physiologically hydrolysable esters thereof, hydroxyl-(C1-C3)alkyl or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof, or —(C1-C3)alkoxy. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is hydroxy or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is carboxy or the physiologically hydrolysable esters thereof. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is hydroxyl-(C1-C3)alkyl or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is —(C1-C3)alkoxy. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is NR20zR21z and R20z and R21z are independently hydrogen or (C1-C3)alkyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is NR20zR21z and R20z and R21z are hydrogen. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is as described herein and mz is 1.
[0220] In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is independently —(C1-C3)alkoxy or —NR20zR21z; and R20z and R21z are independently hydrogen or (C1-C3)alkyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is independently hydrogen, halogen, hydroxy or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof, or carboxy or the physiologically hydrolysable esters thereof. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is independently hydrogen, hydroxy or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof, carboxy or the physiologically hydrolysable esters thereof, or hydroxyl-(C1-C3)alkyl or the physiologically hydrolyzable esters thereof.
[0221] In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is hydroxyl. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is hydroxyl and mz is 1. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is COOH. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is COOH and mz is 1. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is CH2OH. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is CH2OH and mz is 1. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is OCH3. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is OCH3 and mz is 1. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is CH3. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is CH3 and mz is 1. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is F. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is F and mz is 1. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is NH2. In embodiments of formula Iz, R5z is NH2 and mz is 1.
[0222] In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is one of:
[0223]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is a compound immediately above provided as a physiologically hydrolysable ester as described herein.
[0224] In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0225]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0226]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0227]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0228]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0229]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0230]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0231]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0232]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0233]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0234]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0235]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0236]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0237]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0238]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0239]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0240]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0241]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0242]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0243]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0244]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is
[0245]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0246]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0247]  [see pdf for image]
In embodiments of formula Iz, the compound is:
[0248]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R1z, R2z, R3z, and R4z are hydrogen, R5z is —OH, mz is 1, and nz is 0. In embodiments, the compound is not a compound of an embodiment of the compound of formula Iz. In embodiments, the compound is not a compound of an embodiment of the compound of formula Iz, as described herein.
[0249] As used to describe compounds of formula Iy or Iz, the term “hydrocarbyl” refers to a (C1-C8 hydrocarbon radical that is a (C1-C8)alkyl, (C1-C8)alkenyl, (C3-C8)cycloalkyl, (C3-C8)cycloalkenyl, (C1-C8)heteroalkyl, (C1-C8)heteroalkenyl, (C3-C8)heterocycloalkyl, or (C3-C8)heterocycloalkenyl radical. More preferably, the hydrocarbyl in each instance is a substituted or unsubstituted (C1 to C6), (C1 to C3), or (C1 to C2)hydrocarbyl, and more preferably still an unsubstituted (C1 to C3)alkyl. Still more preferably the hydrocarbyl in each instance is methyl or ethyl or trifluoromethyl. The term “hydrocarbyl” also includes those groups having up to 1, 2, or 3 atoms of a hydrocarbyl group as set forth above replaced by a heteroatom with the proviso that the heteroatoms of the hydrocarbyl are not contiguous to each other and the hydrocarbyl is not attached to the remainder of the compound by a heteroatom of the hydrocarbyl.
[0250] As used to describe compounds of formula Iy or Iz, a physiologically cleavable ester is one which is a substrate for carboxyesterases in vivo. Physiologically cleavable esters are typically rapidly hydrolyzed such that the concentration of the corresponding alcohol comes to exceed that of the ester in blood or plasma. For instance, a physiologically cleavable ester is one which is rapidly hydrolyzed to the corresponding alcohol and acid in vivo with a half time of less than ½, 1, 2 or 3 hours at a therapeutically relevant dosages.
[0251] In embodiments, the compound is not a compound having the formula:
[0252]  [see pdf for image]
or the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. In Formula Iy, R1y is a polar group. In embodiments of formula Iy, R1y is hydroxy or the physiologically hydrolysable esters thereof, —SH, —O-carboxamido, —OC(O)R7y, —O—CO—N8yR9y or —NR8yR9y. In Formula Iy, R7y is substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl and R8y and R9y are independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl. In Formula Iy, R2y and R3y are independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl. In Formula Iy, each R4y is independently halogen or substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl and ny is an integer from 0 to 4. In Formula Iy, each R5y is independently halo or substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl and my is an integer from 0 to 3. In Formula Iy, R6y is substituted or unsubstituted cyclohexyl.
[0253] In embodiments of formula Iy, each of R2y, R3y, R7y, R8y, and R9y are independently selected from hydrogen and unsubstituted hydrocarbyl. In embodiments of formula Iy, each of R2y, R3y, R7y, R8y, and R9y are independently hydrogen or unsubstituted C1 to C3 hydrocarbyl. In embodiments of formula Iy, each R4y and R5y member are independently halogen or C1 to C3 hydrocarbyl. In embodiments of formula Iy, the compounds having formula Iy, and embodiments thereof, are peripherally restricted.
[0254] In embodiments of formula Iy, my is 0 and ny is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. In embodiments of formula Iy, my is 1 and ny is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. In embodiments of formula Iy, my is 2 and ny is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. In embodiments of formula Iy, my is 3, and ny is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. In embodiments of formula Iy, the sum of my and ny is 0, 1, 2, or 3. In embodiments of formula Iy, each hydrocarbyl member is unsubstituted.
[0255] In embodiments of formula Iy, R1y is hydroxy or a physiologically hydrolysable ester of the hydroxy. In embodiments of formula Iy, these esters include those of the formula —OC(O)R7y wherein R7y is substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl, optionally, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, or cycloalkenyl and further optionally, substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, trifluoromethyl) or a substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3) hydrocarbyl selected from alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycloalkenyl. In embodiments of formula Iy, my is 0 and ny is 0, 1, 2; my is 1 and ny is 0, 1, or 2; or my is 2 and ny is 0, 1, or 2.
[0256] In embodiments of formula Iy, R2y and R3y are hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)hydrocarbyl selected from alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycoalkenyl. In embodiments of formula Iy, my is 0 and ny is 0, 1, or 2; my is 1 and ny is 0, 1, or 2; or my is 2 and Ny is 0, 1, or 2. In embodiments of formula Iy, at least one or both of R2y and R3y is hydrogen. In embodiments of formula Iy, my is 0 and ny is 0, 1, 2; My is 1 and ny is 0, 1, or 2; or my is 2 and ny is 0, 1, or 2. In embodiments of formula Iy, the R2 and/or R2y hydrocarbyl member is unsubstituted.
[0257] In embodiments of formula Iy, R1y is hydroxy and at least one of R2y and R3y is hydrogen. In embodiments of formula Iy, both of R2y and R3y are hydrogen. In embodiments of formula Iy, in which R1y is hydroxy, R2y and R3y are independently substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl), or H. In embodiments of formula Iy, my is 0 and ny is 0, 1, 2; my is 1 and ny is 0, 1, 2; or my is 2 and ny is 0, 1, 2.
[0258] In embodiments of formula Iy, R6y is substituted or unsubstituted cyclohexyl. In embodiments of formula Iy, substituents for the cyclohexyl include alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl), halo (F, Cl, I, Br or optionally F or Cl), or trifluoromethyl. In embodiments of formula Iy, my is 0 and ny is 0, 1, 2; my is 1 and ny is 0, 1, 2; or my is 2 and ny is 0, 1, 2.
[0259] In embodiments of formula Iy, R4y is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, or cycloalkenyl and optionally, substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, trifluoromethyl) or a substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3) hydrocarbyl selected from alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycoalkenyl. In embodiments of formula Iy, R4y is selected from (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl), and ny is 0, 1, 2, or 3. In embodiments of formula Iy, each R4y is halogen or haloalkyl (e.g., trifluoromethyl). In embodiments of formula Iy, each R4y is halogen or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl). In embodiments of formula Iy, my is 0 or 1.
[0260] In embodiments of formula Iy, R5y is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, or cycloalkenyl and optionally, substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, trifluoromethyl) or a substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3) hydrocarbyl selected from alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycoalkenyl. In embodiments of formula Iy, R5y is selected from (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl), and my is 1, 2, or 3. In embodiments of formula Iy, each R5y is halogen or haloalkyl (e.g., trifluoromethyl). In embodiments of formula Iy, each R5y is halogen or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl). In embodiments of formula Iy, ny is 0 or 1.
[0261] In embodiments of formula Iy, R1y is hydroxy or a physiologically hydrolyzable ester thereof in which the hydrolysis releases the corresponding compound wherein R1y is hydroxy, R6y is unsubstituted cyclohexyl, my is 0 and ny is 0, 1, or 2; or my is 1 and ny is 0, 1, or 2, or my is 2 and ny is 0, 1, or 2. In embodiments of formula Iy, the ester is of the formula —OC(O)R7y wherein R7y is substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl, more optionally, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, or cycloalkenyl and further optionally, substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, trifluoromethyl) or a substituted or unsubstituted (C1-C3) hydrocarbyl selected from alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycoalkenyl. In embodiments of formula Iy, R7y is unsubstituted hydrocarbyl, unsubstituted alkyl, unsubstituted alkenyl, unsubstituted cycloalkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted heteroalkenyl, unsubstituted heterocycloalkenyl, or unsubstituted cycoalkenyl; or unsubstituted (C1-C3)alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, trifluoromethyl) or unsubstituted (C1-C3) hydrocarbyl selected from alkenyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heterocycloalkenyl, and cycoalkenyl.
[0262] In embodiments of formula Iy, the compound has the formula:
[0263]  [see pdf for image]
3′-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate or is a physiologically hydrolyzable ester thereof in which the hydrolysis releases 3′-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate or the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. In embodiments, the compound is not a compound of an embodiment of the compound of formula Iy. In embodiments, the compound is not a compound of an embodiment of the compound of formula Iy, as described herein.
[0264] Pharmaceutical Compositions
[0265] In another aspect is provided a pharmaceutical composition including a compound described herein (including embodiments thereof).
[0266] The pharmaceutical composition may include a composition made by admixing a compound described herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The pharmaceutical composition may include a composition made by admixing a compound described herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. Such compositions may be (e.g., are) suitable for pharmaceutical use in an animal (e.g., human).
[0267] The pharmaceutical composition may include a compound described herein and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The pharmaceutical composition may include a therapeutically effective amount of one or more compounds described herein (e.g., Formula I (including embodiments thereof)) and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
[0268] The pharmaceutical composition may include a therapeutically effective amount of one or more compounds described herein (e.g., Formula I (including embodiments thereof)) and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.
[0269] In embodiments, the compound can be combined as the active ingredient in intimate admixture with a suitable pharmaceutical carrier and/or excipient according to conventional pharmaceutical compounding techniques.
[0270] Methods of Modulating Levels of a Fatty Acid Ethanolamide
[0271] In another aspect is provided a method for modulating the level of a fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) in a subject including administering an effective amount of a composition described herein (e.g., compound described herein (e.g., including embodiments thereof) or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0272] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in the manufacture of a medicament for modulating (e.g., increasing, increasing relative to control) the level of a fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) a subject.
[0273] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in modulating (e.g., increasing, increasing relative to control) the level of a fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) in a subject. The use may include administering to the subject an effective amount of a composition described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0274] In embodiments, the method or use includes treating a condition associated with an aberrant (e.g, reduced, reduced relative to control) level of AEA and/or OEA and/or PEA. In embodiments, the method or use includes administering an effective (e.g., therapeutically effective) amount of a composition described herein (e.g., compound described herein (e.g., including embodiments thereof) or a pharmaceutical composition described herein). In embodiments, the fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) is anandamide (AEA). In embodiments, the fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) is oleoylethanolamide (OEA). In embodiments, the fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) is palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). In embodiments, the method or use includes modulating (e.g., increasing, increasing relative to control) the level of a fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) in a subject. In embodiments, the method or use includes treating a condition that may benefit (e.g., the subject may benefit from or the disease or symptom may be treated by) an increased level of AEA and/or OEA and/or PEA.
[0275] In an aspect is provided a method of modulating (e.g., reducing, inhibiting) the level of activity of FAAH in a subject, the method including administering an effective amount of a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein). The method may include administering to the subject an effective amount of a composition described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0276] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in the manufacture of a medicament for modulating (e.g., reducing, inhibiting) the level of activity of FAAH in a subject.
[0277] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in modulating (e.g., reducing, inhibiting) the level of activity of FAAH in a subject. The use may include administering to the subject an effective amount of a composition described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0278] Methods of Treatment
[0279] In an aspect is provided a method of treating or preventing a disease in a subject in need of the treatment, the method including administering an effective amount of a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein), wherein the disease is reduced appetite, gastric damage, enteric damage, a nicotine use disorder, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, a cannabis use disorder, a cocaine use disorder, an opioid use disorder, an amphetamine use disorder, a methamphetamine use disorder, an alcohol use disorder, an eating disorder, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, a mood disorder, pain, inflammation, or ocular glaucoma. The method may include administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0280] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in the manufacture of a medicament for treatment of a disease, wherein the disease is reduced appetite, gastric damage, enteric damage, a nicotine use disorder, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, a cannabis use disorder, a cocaine use disorder, an opioid use disorder, an amphetamine use disorder, a methamphetamine use disorder, an alcohol use disorder, an eating disorder, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, a mood disorder, pain, inflammation, or ocular glaucoma.
[0281] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease in a subject, wherein the disease is reduced appetite, gastric damage, enteric damage, a nicotine use disorder, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, a cannabis use disorder, a cocaine use disorder, an opioid use disorder, an amphetamine use disorder, a methamphetamine use disorder, an alcohol use disorder, an eating disorder, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, a mood disorder, pain, inflammation, or ocular glaucoma. The use includes administering to the subject a composition described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein). The use may include administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0282] In embodiments, the disease is reduced appetite.
[0283] In embodiments, the disease is gastric damage. In embodiments, the gastric damage is caused by a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (e.g. aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, or naproxen).
[0284] In embodiments, the disease is enteric damage. In embodiments, the enteric damage is caused by a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (e.g. aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, or naproxen).
[0285] In embodiments, the disease is a nicotine use disorder. In embodiments, the nicotine use disorder is nicotine craving, nicotine addiction, nicotine dependence, or nicotine withdrawal.
[0286] In embodiments, the disease is tobacco smoking.
[0287] In embodiments, the disease is tobacco use.
[0288] In embodiments, the disease is substance abuse.
[0289] In embodiments, the disease is a cannabis use disorder. In embodiments, the cannabis use disorder is cannabis craving, cannabis addiction, cannabis dependence, or cannabis withdrawal.
[0290] In embodiments, the disease is a cocaine use disorder. In embodiments, the cocaine use disorder is cocaine craving, cocaine addiction, cocaine dependence, or cocaine withdrawal.
[0291] In embodiments, the disease is an opioid use disorder. In embodiments, the opioid use disorder is opioid craving, opioid addiction, opioid dependence, or opioid withdrawal.
[0292] In embodiments, the disease is an opiate use disorder. In embodiments, the opiate use disorder is opiate craving, opiate addiction, opiate dependence, or opiate withdrawal.
[0293] In embodiments, the disease is an amphetamine use disorder. In embodiments, the amphetamine use disorder is amphetamine craving, amphetamine addiction, amphetamine dependence, or amphetamine withdrawal.
[0294] In embodiments, the disease is a methamphetamine use disorder. In embodiments, the methamphetamine use disorder is methamphetamine craving, methamphetamine addiction, methamphetamine dependence, or methamphetamine withdrawal.
[0295] In embodiments, the disease is an alcohol use disorder. In embodiments, the alcohol use disorder is alcohol craving, alcohol addiction, alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, or alcohol induced delirium.
[0296] In embodiments, the disease is an eating disorder. In embodiments, the eating disorder is bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, a binge eating disorder, or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). In embodiments, the eating disorder is bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, or a binge eating disorder.
[0297] In embodiments, the disease is post-traumatic stress disorder.
[0298] In embodiments, the disease is schizophrenia.
[0299] In embodiments, the disease is a mood disorder. In embodiments, the mood disorder is bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymia, substance-induced mood disorder, depression, atypical depression, psychotic major depression, post-partum depression, dysthymia, catatonic depression, melancholic depression, or a depressive disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS). In embodiments, the mood disorder is bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymia, substance-induced mood disorder, depression, atypical depression, psychotic major depression, post-partum depression, dysthymia, catatonic depression, or melancholic depression.
[0300] In embodiments, the disease is pain. In embodiments, the pain is nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, non-inflammatory pain, or pain associated with a chronic condition.
[0301] In embodiments, the disease is inflammation. In embodiments, the inflammation is associated with pulmonary edema, kidney stones, minor injuries, wound healing, skin wound healing, vaginitis, candidiasis, lumbar spondylanhrosis, lumbar spondylarthrosis, vascular diseases, migraine headaches, sinus headaches, tension headaches, dental pain, periarteritis nodosa, thyroiditis, aplastic anemia, Hodgkin's disease, sclerodoma, rheumatic fever, type I diabetes, type II diabetes, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, nephrotic syndrome, Behcet's syndrome, polymyositis, gingivitis, hypersensitivity, swelling occurring after injury, or myocardial ischemia, or osteoarthritis.
[0302] In embodiments, the disease is ocular glaucoma.
[0303] In embodiments, the disease is anxiety.
[0304] In an aspect is provided a method of reducing tobacco use by a subject, the method including administering an effective amount of a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein). In embodiments, the tobacco use is tobacco smoking. In embodiments, the method includes effecting smoking cessation in a subject.
[0305] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in the manufacture of a medicament for reducing tobacco smoking by a subject.
[0306] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in reducing tobacco use by a subject. In embodiments, the tobacco use is tobacco smoking. In embodiments, the use includes effecting smoking cessation in a subject.
[0307] In embodiments, the method or use includes preventing or treating pathological behaviour (e.g., compulsive gambling, compulsive shopping, compulsive hoarding, or kleptomania).
[0308] In an aspect is provided a method of preventing or treating pathological behaviour in a subject, the method including administering an effective amount of a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein). In embodiments, the pathological behavior is compulsive gambling, compulsive shopping, compulsive hoarding, or kleptomania.
[0309] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in the manufacture of a medicament for preventing or treating pathological behaviour in a subject. In embodiments, the pathological behavior is compulsive gambling, compulsive shopping, compulsive hoarding, or kleptomania.
[0310] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in preventing or treating pathological behavior in a subject. In embodiments, the pathological behavior is compulsive gambling, compulsive shopping, compulsive hoarding, or kleptomania.
[0311] In embodiments, the method or use includes treating or preventing syndromes associated with the consumption of substances of abuse or addiction related disorders (e.g., tobacco craving and addiction, tobacco dependence, tobacco withdrawal, cannabis craving and addiction; cannabis dependence; cannabis withdrawal; cocaine use disorders, including cocaine craving and addiction, cocaine dependence, or cocaine withdrawal; opioid use disorders, including opioid craving and addiction, opioid dependence, or opioid withdrawal; opiate use disorders, including opiate craving and addiction, opiate dependence, or opiate withdrawal; amphetamine use disorders, including amphetamine craving and addiction, amphetamine dependence, or amphetamine withdrawal; methamphetamine use disorders, including methamphetamine craving and addiction, methamphetamine dependence, or methamphetamine withdrawal; alcohol use disorders, including alcohol craving and addiction, alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, or alcohol induced delirium in a mammal (e.g., human).
[0312] In embodiments, the method or use includes modulating appetite or body weight in a subject (e.g., mammal).
[0313] In embodiments, the method or use includes preventing or treating eating disorders (e.g., bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS); in a mammal (e.g., human)). In embodiments, the method or use includes preventing or treating eating disorders (e.g., bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, or binge eating disorder; in a mammal (e.g., human)).
[0314] In embodiments, the method or use includes treating anxiety in a mammal.
[0315] In embodiments, the method or use includes preventing or treating a mood disorder (e.g., bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymia, substance-induced mood disorder, depression, atypical depression, psychotic major depression, post-partum depression, dysthymia, catatonic depression, melancholic depression, or depressive disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS). In embodiments, the method or use includes preventing or treating a mood disorder (e.g., bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymia, substance-induced mood disorder, depression, atypical depression, psychotic major depression, post-partum depression, dysthymia, catatonic depression, or melancholic depression.
[0316] In embodiments, the method or use includes treating post-traumatic stress disorder in a mammal.
[0317] In embodiments, the method or use includes treating a pain syndrome, disorder, disease or condition characterized by nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, non-inflammatory pain, or pain associated with chronic conditions such as diabetes.
[0318] In embodiments, the method or use includes treating or preventing ocular glaucoma.
[0319] In embodiments, the method or use includes preventing or treating gastric and/or enteric damage caused by various agents, including gastric and/or enteric damage produced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen or naproxen.
[0320] In embodiments, the method or use includes administering a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0321] In embodiments, the method or use includes systemic administration of the composition described herein. In embodiments, the method or use includes parenteral administration of the composition described herein. In embodiments, the method or use includes intravenous administration of the composition described herein. In embodiments, the method or use includes local administration. In embodiments, the method or use includes oral administration.
[0322] In an aspect is provided a method of treating or preventing a disease in a subject in need of the treatment, the method including administering an effective amount of a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein), wherein the disease is a wound (e.g., treating is wound healing), dermatitis, mucositis, or the over reactivity of peripheral sensory neurons, neurodermatitis, overactive bladder, or cough. The method may include administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0323] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in the manufacture of a medicament for treatment of a disease, wherein the disease is a wound (e.g., treating is wound healing), dermatitis, mucositis, or the over reactivity of peripheral sensory neurons, neurodermatitis, overactive bladder, or cough.
[0324] In an aspect is provided a composition as described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein) for use in the treatment or prevention of a disease in a subject, wherein the disease is a wound (e.g., treating is wound healing), dermatitis, mucositis, or the over reactivity of peripheral sensory neurons, neurodermatitis, overactive bladder, or cough. The use includes administering to the subject a composition described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein). The use may include administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a composition described herein (including in an aspect, embodiment, table, figure, claim, sequence listing, or example) (e.g., a compound described herein or a pharmaceutical composition described herein).
[0325] Methods of Preparing a Compound
[0326] In another aspect is provided a method for preparing a compound described herein (including embodiments thereof). In embodiments, the method includes synthetic transformations (e.g., in Michael Smith, Jerry March—March's Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions mechanisms and structure—6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2007, which is herein incorporated by reference). It is well known to one of ordinary skill in the art that transformation of a chemical function into another may require that one or more reactive centres in the compound containing this function be protected in order to avoid undesired side reactions. Protection of such reactive centres, and subsequent de-protection at the end of the synthetic transformations, can be accomplished following standard procedures described, for instance, in Theodora W. Green and Peter G. M. Wuts—Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, Fourth Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2006, which is herein incorporated by reference.
[0327] The synthesis of compound described herein (including embodiments thereof), according to the synthetic processes described below, can be conducted in a stepwise manner, whereby each intermediate is isolated and purified by standard purification techniques such as, for example, column chromatography, before carrying out the subsequent reaction. Alternatively, two or more steps of the synthetic sequence can be carried out in a so-called “one-pot” procedure, as known in the art, whereby only the compound resulting from the two or more steps is isolated and purified.
[0328] Compound described herein (including embodiments thereof) may be synthesized using standard synthetic techniques known to those skilled in the art or using methods known in the art in combination with methods described herein. As a further guide the following synthetic methods may also be utilized to synthesize the compounds provided here or using methodologies analogues to those described below by the use of appropriate alternative starting materials.
[0329] In embodiments, are methods for preparing the compounds of general Formula I
[0330]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R1, R2, R3, and z have the meanings as defined above, are provided, said methods comprising a carbamoylation reaction of compounds of Formula III, as described in Scheme I.
[0331]  [see pdf for image]
[0332] Compounds of Formula I, wherein R1, R2, R3, and z are as defined above, can be prepared, according to Scheme I (Method A), by reaction of an isocyanate of Formula IIa, wherein R1 is as defined in Formula I, with a compound of Formula III, wherein R2, R3, and z are as defined in Formula I, in the presence of a base, such as 4-dimethylaminopyridine or N,N-diisopropylethylamine, in an organic solvent, such as acetonitrile, at room temperature. Alternatively, compounds of Formula I, wherein R1, R2, R3, and z are as defined above, can be prepared according to Scheme I (Method B) by reaction of compounds of Formula III upon activation as chloroformates using triphosgene in the presence of a base, such as N,N-diisopropylethylamine in an organic solvent, such as dichloromethane, at a temperature from 0° C. to room temperature, as described by Forster et al. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 1987; 26(9): 894-895, and then reaction with amines of Formula IIb, wherein R is as defined in Formula I.
[0333] Alternatively, amines of Formula IIb, wherein R1 is as defined in Formula I, can react with a compound of Formula III, wherein R2, R3, and z are as defined in Formula I, upon activation of the amines of Formula IIb by reaction with triphosgene in the presence of a base, such as 4-dimethylaminopyridine, in dichloromethane, at a temperature from 0° C. to room temperature, to produce compounds of Formula I.
[0334] In accordance with certain embodiments, compounds of Formula III are substituted phenols as those herein represented:
[0335]  [see pdf for image] [see pdf for image]
[0336] According to Scheme II, compounds of Formula III or the corresponding benzyl ethers of Formula III′ wherein, R2, R3, and z are as defined in Formula I, can be prepared by palladium-catalyzed reaction between boronic acids of Formula IV, wherein R3 is as defined in Formula I, or the corresponding boronic esters, and phenolic halides or triflates of Formula V or the corresponding benzyl ethers V′ in which R2 and z are as defined above and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate.
[0337]  [see pdf for image]
[0338] In accordance with certain embodiments, compounds of Formula III′ are substituted phenyl benzyl ethers as those herein represented:
[0339]  [see pdf for image]
[0340] In accordance with certain embodiments, compounds of Formula V or the corresponding benzyl ethers of Formula V′ are phenyl bromides as those herein represented:
[0341]  [see pdf for image]
[0342] Alternatively, compounds of Formula I can be prepared according to Scheme III by palladium-catalyzed reaction between boronic acids of Formula IV wherein R3 is as defined in Formula I, or the corresponding boronic esters and phenyl halides or triflates of Formula VI wherein R1, R2, and z are as defined in Formula I and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate.
[0343]  [see pdf for image]
[0344] Palladium-catalyzed reactions of boronic acids of Formula IV, as described above, or the corresponding boronic esters, with compounds of Formula V, V′, and VI, as described above, are conducted according to or in analogy to literature procedures reported, for instance, in Miyaura, N., Suzuki, A. Chem Rev, 1995; 95: 2457-2483; Kotha et al. Tetrahedron 2002; 58: 9633-9695; Suzuki, A. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2011; 50: 6722-6737, and references cited therein, which are herein incorporated as references.
[0345] In accordance with certain embodiments, compounds of Formula VI are cyclic alkyl carbamates as those herein represented:
[0346]  [see pdf for image]
[0347] Compounds of Formula VI wherein R1, R2, and z are as defined in Formula I and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate can be prepared according to Scheme IV by a carbamoylation reaction of compounds of Formula V wherein R2 and z are as defined above and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate.
[0348]  [see pdf for image]
[0349] Treatment of compounds of Formula V, wherein R2 and z are as defined above and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate, with isocyanates of Formula IIa, wherein R1 is as defined in Formula I, in the presence of a base, such as 4-dimethylaminopyridine in an organic solvent, such as acetonitrile (Method A), at room temperature, results in the formation of compounds of Formula VI, wherein R1, R2, and z are as defined in Formula I and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate. Alternatively, compounds of Formula VI, wherein R1, R2, and z are as defined in Formula I and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate can be prepared according to Scheme IV (Method B) by reaction of compounds of Formula V, wherein R2 and z are as defined above and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate, upon activation as chloroformates using triphosgene in the presence of a base, such as pyridine in an organic solvent, such as dichloromethane, at a temperature from 0° C. to room temperature, and then reaction with amines of Formula IIb, wherein R1 is as defined in Formula I. Alternatively, amines of Formula IIb, wherein R1 is as defined in Formula I, can react with a compound of Formula V, wherein R2 and z are as defined above and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate, upon activation of the amines of Formula IIb, wherein R1 is as defined in Formula I, by reaction with triphosgene in the presence of a base, such as 4-dimethylaminopyridine, in dichloromethane, at a temperature from 0° C. to room temperature, to produce compounds of Formula VI, wherein R1, R2, and z are as defined in Formula I and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate.
[0350] Isocyanates of Formula IIa and amines of Formula IIb, wherein R1 is as defined in Formula I, boronic acids of Formula IV or the corresponding boronic esters, wherein R3 is as defined in Formula I, compounds of Formula V or the corresponding benzyl ethers of Formula V′, wherein R2 and z are as defined above and Y is bromine, chlorine, iodine or triflate, are either commercially available or can be prepared from commercially available compounds according to general synthetic procedures described for instance in Michael Smith, Jerry March—March's Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions mechanisms and structure—6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2007, or in Molina P., Tarraga A., Argues A. in Katritzky A. R., Taylor R. J. K., Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations II, Elsevier, 2004, Vol. 5, pag. 949-973, and references cited therein, which are herein incorporated by reference.
[0351] Any combination of the substituents or groups as defined or described above for the various variables is contemplated herein.
[0352] The compounds of Formula I, prepared with the methods described herein above, may be treated or purified by conventional techniques such as, for example, filtration, distillation, chromatography, recrystallization and combinations thereof.

Additional Embodiments Section

[0353] 1. A compound having the formula:
[0354]  [see pdf for image]
wherein, R1 is substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl; R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl; R3 is —SO2R6, —SO2NR4R5, or —C(O)NR4R5. R4, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl; where R4 and R5 are bonded to the same nitrogen atom, they may optionally be joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl; the symbol z is an integer from 1 to 4; and the symbol X is —F, —Cl, —Br, or —I; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
[0355] 2 The compound of embodiment 1, having the formula:
[0356]  [see pdf for image]
[0357] 3 The compound of embodiment 1, having the formula:
[0358]  [see pdf for image]
[0359] 4 The compound of embodiment 1, having the formula:
[0360]  [see pdf for image]
[0361] 5 The compound of embodiment 1, having the formula:
[0362]  [see pdf for image]
[0363] 6 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 5, wherein R1 is substituted or unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C6-C10 aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl.
[0364] 7 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 6, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl, unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl, unsubstituted C6-C10 aryl, or unsubstituted 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl.
[0365] 8 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 7, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl or unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0366] 9 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 8, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl.
[0367] 10 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 9, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C4-C8 cycloalkyl.
[0368] 11 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 10, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C4-C6 cycloalkyl (e.g., cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl).
[0369] 12 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 11, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C6 cycloalkyl.
[0370] 13 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 12, wherein R1 is unsubstituted cyclohexyl.
[0371] 14 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 13, wherein R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl.
[0372] 15 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 14, wherein R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0373] 16 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 15, wherein R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, or —OCHX2.
[0374] 17 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 16, wherein R2 is independently halogen or —OCHX2.
[0375] 18 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 17, wherein R2 is independently —OCHX2.
[0376] 19 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 17, wherein R2 is independently halogen.
[0377] 20 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 18, wherein X is —F.
[0378] 21 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 17 and 19, wherein R2 is —F.
[0379] 22 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 21, wherein R3 is —C(O)NR4R5.
[0380] 23 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 21, wherein R3 is —SO2NR4R5.
[0381] 24 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl.
[0382] 25 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0383] 26 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 is hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0384] 27 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 is hydrogen or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl.
[0385] 28 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 is hydrogen.
[0386] 29 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 is unsubstituted methyl.
[0387] 30 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 30, wherein R5 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl.
[0388] 31 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 30, wherein R5 is hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0389] 32 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 30, wherein R5 is hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0390] 33 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 30, wherein R5 is hydrogen or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl.
[0391] 34 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 30, wherein R5 is hydrogen.
[0392] 35 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 30, wherein R5 is unsubstituted methyl.
[0393] 36 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 21, wherein R3 is —SO2R6.
[0394] 37 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 21 and 36, wherein R6 is substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl.
[0395] 38 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 21 and 36, wherein R6 is substituted or unsubstituted C1-C6 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 6 membered heteroalkyl.
[0396] 39 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 21 and 36, wherein R6 is substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0397] 40 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 21 and 36, wherein R6 is unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0398] 41 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 21 and 36, wherein R6 is unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl.
[0399] 42 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 21 and 36, wherein R6 is unsubstituted methyl.
[0400] 43 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 and R5 are joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0401] 44 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 and R5 are joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0402] 45 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 and R5 are joined to form an unsubstituted 4 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0403] 46 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 and R5 are joined to form an unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0404] 47 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 23, wherein R4 and R5 are joined to form an unsubstituted 6 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0405] 48 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 47, wherein the symbol z is 1.
[0406] 49 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 47, wherein the symbol z is 2.
[0407] 50 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 47, wherein the symbol z is 3.
[0408] 51 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 47, wherein the symbol z is 4.
[0409] 52 The compound of one of embodiments, 1 to 5, wherein R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl; R2 is —F or —OCHF2; R3 is —SO2NH2, —SO2NHMe, —SO2NMe2, —CONH2, —CONHMe, —CONMe2, or —SO2Me; and z is 1.
[0410] 53 The compound of embodiment 2, wherein R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl; R2 is —F or —OCHF2; and R3 is —SO2NH2, —SO2NHMe, —SO2NMe2, —CONH2, —CONHMe, —CONMe2, or —SO2Me.
[0411] 54 The compound of one of embodiments, 1 to 53, wherein the compound is not
[0412]  [see pdf for image]
[0413] 55 The compound of one of embodiments, 1 to 53, wherein the compound is not
[0414]  [see pdf for image]
[0415] 56 The compound of one of embodiments, 1 to 53, wherein the compound is not
[0416]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl.
[0417] 57 The compound of one of embodiments, 1 to 53, wherein the compound is not
[0418]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0419] 58 The compound of one of embodiments, 1 to 53, wherein the compound is not
[0420]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, or —OCHX2.
[0421] 59 The compound of one of embodiments, 1 to 53, wherein the compound is not
[0422]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is halogen or —OCHX2.
[0423] 60 The compound of one of embodiments, 1 to 53, wherein the compound is not
[0424]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is —OCHX2.
[0425] 61 The compound of one of embodiments, 1 to 53, wherein the compound is not
[0426]  [see pdf for image]
wherein R2 is halogen.
[0427] 62 The compound of embodiment 1, wherein the compound is
[0428]  [see pdf for image] [see pdf for image] [see pdf for image]
[0429] 63 A pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and a compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, of any one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0430] 64 A method of reducing tobacco smoking by a patient, said method comprising administering an effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0431] 65 A method of reducing tobacco use by a patient, said method comprising administering an effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0432] 66 A method of treating a nicotine use disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0433] 67 The method of embodiment 66, wherein said nicotine use disorder is nicotine craving, nicotine addiction, nicotine dependence, or nicotine withdrawal.
[0434] 68 A method of treating substance abuse in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0435] 69 A method of treating a cannabis use disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0436] 70 The method of embodiment 69, wherein said cannabis use disorder is cannabis craving, cannabis addiction, cannabis dependence, or cannabis withdrawal.
[0437] 71 A method of treating a cocaine use disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0438] 72 The method of embodiment 71, wherein said cocaine use disorder is cocaine craving, cocaine addiction, cocaine dependence, or cocaine withdrawal.
[0439] 73 A method of treating an opioid use disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0440] 74 The method of embodiment 73, wherein said opioid use disorder is opioid craving, opioid addiction, opioid dependence, or opioid withdrawal.
[0441] 75 A method of treating an opiate use disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0442] 76 The method of embodiment 75, wherein said opiate use disorder is opiate craving, opiate addiction, opiate dependence, or opiate withdrawal.
[0443] 77 A method of treating an amphetamine use disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0444] 78 The method of embodiment 77, wherein said amphetamine use disorder is amphetamine craving, amphetamine addiction, amphetamine dependence, or amphetamine withdrawal.
[0445] 79 A method of treating a methamphetamine use disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0446] 80 The method of embodiment 79, wherein said methamphetamine use disorder is methamphetamine craving, methamphetamine addiction, methamphetamine dependence, or methamphetamine withdrawal.
[0447] 81 A method of treating an alcohol use disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0448] 82 The method of embodiment 81, wherein said alcohol use disorder is alcohol craving, alcohol addiction, alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, or alcohol induced delirium.
[0449] 83 A method of treating an eating disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0450] 84 The method of embodiment 83, wherein said eating disorder is bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, a binge eating disorder, or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS).
[0451] 85 A method of treating anxiety in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0452] 86 A method of treating post-traumatic stress disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0453] 87 A method of treating schizophrenia in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0454] 88 A method of treating a mood disorder in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0455] 89 The method of embodiment 88, wherein said mood disorder is bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymia, substance-induced mood disorder, depression, atypical depression, psychotic major depression, post-partum depression, dysthymia, catatonic depression, melancholic depression, or a depressive disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS).
[0456] 90 A method of treating pain in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0457] 91 The method of embodiment 90, wherein said pain is nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, non-inflammatory pain, or pain associated with a chronic condition.
[0458] 92 A method of treating ocular glaucoma in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0459] 93 A method of treating reduced appetite in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0460] 94 A method of modulating the level of a fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) in a subject comprising administering an effective amount of a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62 to said subject.
[0461] 95 The method of embodiment 94, wherein the FAE is anandamide.
[0462] 96 The method of embodiment 94, wherein the FAE is oleoylethanolamide.
[0463] 97 The method of embodiment 94, wherein the FAE is palmitoylethanolamide.
[0464] 98 A method of modulating the level of activity of FAAH in a subject comprising administering an effective amount of a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62 to said subject.
[0465] 99 A method of treating gastric or enteric damage in a patient in need of such treatment, said method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound to said patient, wherein said compound is a compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62.
[0466] 100 The method of embodiment 99, wherein said gastric or enteric damage is caused by a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (e.g. aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, or naproxen).
[0467] 101 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 35% in a subject.
[0468] 102 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 45% in a subject.
[0469] 103 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 55% in a subject.
[0470] 104 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 65% in a subject.
[0471] 105 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 75% in a subject.
[0472] 106 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 85% in a subject.
[0473] 107 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 95% in a subject.
[0474] 108 The compound of one of embodiments 1 to 62 and 101 to 107, wherein each alkyl is a saturated alkyl.
[0475] 109 The method of one of embodiments 64 to 100 comprising administering an effective amount of a compound of one of embodiments 101 to 108 to said subject.
[0476] 110 The method of one of embodiments 64 to 100 and 109, wherein said compound is in a pharmaceutical composition of claim 63.
[0477] 1p. A compound of Formula I
[0478]  [see pdf for image]
wherein: R is cycloalkyl; R1 is SO2NR′R″, CONR′R″, or SO2R′″; R′ and R″ are independently hydrogen or alkyl; or R′ and R″ together with the N atom to which they are connected may form a 4- to 6-membered ring, and R′″ is alkyl; n is an integer selected from 1 or 2; X is F or OCHF2; with the proviso that when R is cyclohexyl, R1 is CONH2, n is 1 and X is F, then X is not attached in position para to the carbamate.
[0479] 2p. A compound according to embodiment 1p, wherein: R is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl; R1 is SO2NH2, SO2NHMe, SO2NMe2, CONH2, CONHMe, CONMe2, or SO2Me; n is 1; X is F or OCHF2, with the proviso that when R is cyclohexyl, R1 is CONH2 and X is F, then X is not attached in position para to the carbamate.
[0480] 3p. A compound according to embodiment 2p, wherein: R is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl or cyclohexyl; R1 is SO2NH2, SO2NHMe, SO2NMe2, CONH2, CONHMe, CONMe2, or SO2Me; n is 1; X is F or OCHF2 and is attached in position para to the carbamate, with the proviso that when R is cyclohexyl and R1 is CONH2, X is not F.
[0481] 4p. A compound selected from the group consisting of: [4-fluoro-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate, [4-fluoro-3-(3-sulfamoylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate, [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclobutylcarbamate, [4-fluoro-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl] phenyl] N-cyclopentylcarbamate, [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclopentylcarbamate, [4-fluoro-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl] phenyl] N-cyclobutylcarbamate, [4-fluoro-3-(3-methylsulfonylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate, [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate, [4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate, [4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-(3-sulfamoylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate, [4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-(3-methylsulfonylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate, [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-5-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate, and [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-2-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate.
[0482] 5p. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.
[0483] 6p. The compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use as a medicament.
[0484] 7p. The compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use in a method for modulating the level of a fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) in a subject.
[0485] 8p. The compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use in a method of effecting smoking cessation or for reducing tobacco use in a mammal, or for use in a method for the treatment or prevention of nicotine use disorders in a mammal, including nicotine craving and addiction, nicotine dependence, and nicotine withdrawal.
[0486] 9p. The compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use in a method of treating or preventing a substance abuse disorder in a mammal.
[0487] 10p. The compound or pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 9p, wherein the substance abuse disorder is selected from cannabis use disorders, including cannabis craving and addiction, cannabis dependence, or cannabis withdrawal; cocaine use disorders, including cocaine craving and addiction, cocaine dependence, or cocaine withdrawal; opioid use disorders, including opioid craving and addiction, opioid dependence, or opioid withdrawal; opiate use disorders, including opiate craving and addiction, opiate dependence, or opiate withdrawal; amphetamine use disorders, including amphetamine craving and addiction, amphetamine dependence, or amphetamine withdrawal; methamphetamine use disorders, including methamphetamine craving and addiction, methamphetamine dependence, or methamphetamine withdrawal; or alcohol use disorders, including alcohol craving and addiction, alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, or alcohol induced delirium.
[0488] 11p. The compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use in a method of preventing or treating an eating disorder in a mammal.
[0489] 12p. The compound or pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 11p, wherein the eating disorder is selected from bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa, a binge eating disorder or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS).
[0490] 13p. The compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use in modulating appetite in a mammal.
[0491] 14p. The compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use in a method of preventing or treating anxiety, a post-traumatic stress disorder or schizophrenia in a mammal.
[0492] 15p. A compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use in a method of treating or preventing a mood disorder in a mammal.
[0493] 16p. The compound or pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 15p, wherein the mood disorder is selected from bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymia, substance-induced mood disorder, depression, atypical depression, psychotic major depression, post-partum depression, dysthymia, catatonic depression, melancholic depression, or a depressive disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS).
[0494] 17p. A compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use in a method of treating a pain syndrome, disorder, disease or condition in a mammal.
[0495] 18p. The compound or pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 17p, wherein the pain syndrome, disorder, disease or condition is characterized by nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, non-inflammatory pain, or pain associated with a chronic condition.
[0496] 19p. A compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use in a method of treating ocular glaucoma in a mammal.
[0497] 20p. A compound of one of embodiments 1p to 4p or a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 5, for use in preventing or treating gastric or enteric damage caused by an agent.
[0498] 21p. The compound or pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 20p, wherein the gastric or enteric damage is caused by a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
[0499] 22p. The compound or pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 20p, wherein the gastric or enteric damage is caused by aspirin.
[0500] 1w. A compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, having the formula:
[0501]  [see pdf for image]
wherein, R1 is substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl; R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, or —OCHX2; R3 is —SO2R6, —SO2NR4R5, or —C(O)NR4R5; R4, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl; where R4 and R5 are optionally joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl; the symbol z is an integer from 1 to 4; and X is —F, —Cl, —Br, or —I; with the proviso that the compound is not
[0502]  [see pdf for image]
[0503] 2w. The compound of embodiment 1w, having the formula:
[0504]  [see pdf for image]
[0505] 3w. The compound of embodiment 1w, having the formula:
[0506]  [see pdf for image]
[0507] 4w. The compound of embodiment 1w, having the formula:
[0508]  [see pdf for image]
[0509] 5w. The compound of embodiment 1w, having the formula:
[0510]  [see pdf for image]
[0511] 6w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 5w, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl or unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0512] 7w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 5w, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C6 cycloalkyl.
[0513] 8w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 7w, wherein R2 is independently halogen, —OCX3, or —OCHX2.
[0514] 9w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 7w, wherein R2 is independently halogen or —OCHX2.
[0515] 10w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 9w, wherein R3 is —C(O)NR4R5.
[0516] 11w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 9w, wherein R3 is —SO2NR4R5.
[0517] 12w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 11w, wherein R4 is hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0518] 13w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 11w, wherein R4 is hydrogen or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl.
[0519] 14w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 13w, wherein R5 is hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0520] 15w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 13w, wherein R5 is hydrogen or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl.
[0521] 16w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 9w, wherein R3 is —SO2R6.
[0522] 17w. The compound of embodiment 16w, wherein R6 is unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0523] 18w. The compound of embodiment 16w, wherein R6 is unsubstituted methyl.
[0524] 19w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 11w, wherein R4 and R5 are joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0525] 20w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 19w, wherein the symbol z is 2 to 4.
[0526] 21w. The compound of embodiment 1w, wherein R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl; R2 is —F or —OCHF2; R3 is —SO2NH2, —SO2NHMe, —SO2NMe2, —CONH2, —CONHMe, —CONMe2, or —SO2Me; and z is 1.
[0527] 22w. The compound of embodiment 1w, wherein R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl; R2 is —F or —OCHF2; and R3 is —SO2NH2, —SO2NHMe, —SO2NMe2, —CONH2, —CONHMe, —CONMe2, or —SO2Me.
[0528] 23w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 22w, wherein the compound is not
[0529]  [see pdf for image]
[0530] 24w. The compound of embodiment 1w, wherein the compound is
[0531]  [see pdf for image] [see pdf for image] [see pdf for image]
[0532] 25w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 24w, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 35% in a subject.
[0533] 26w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 24w, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 85% in a subject.
[0534] 27w. The compound of one of embodiments 1w to 24w, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 95% in a subject.
[0535] 28w. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and a compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, of one of embodiments 1w to 27w.
[0536] 29w. A compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in treating or preventing reduced appetite, gastric damage, enteric damage, a nicotine use disorder, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, a cannabis use disorder, a cocaine use disorder, an opioid use disorder, an amphetamine use disorder, a methamphetamine use disorder, an alcohol use disorder, an eating disorder, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, a mood disorder, pain, inflammation, or ocular glaucoma, wherein the compound has the formula:
[0537]  [see pdf for image]
wherein, R1 is substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl; R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl; R3 is —SO2R6, —SO2NR4R5, or —C(O)NR4R5; R4, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl; where R4 and R5 are optionally joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl; the symbol z is an integer from 1 to 4; and X is —F, —Cl, —Br, or —I.
[0538] 30w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said cannabis use disorder is cannabis craving, cannabis addiction, cannabis dependence, or cannabis withdrawal.
[0539] 31w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said cocaine use disorder is cocaine craving, cocaine addiction, cocaine dependence, or cocaine withdrawal.
[0540] 32w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said opioid use disorder is opioid craving, opioid addiction, opioid dependence, or opioid withdrawal.
[0541] 33w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said opiate use disorder is opiate craving, opiate addiction, opiate dependence, or opiate withdrawal.
[0542] 34w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said amphetamine use disorder is amphetamine craving, amphetamine addiction, amphetamine dependence, or amphetamine withdrawal.
[0543] 35w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said methamphetamine use disorder is methamphetamine craving, methamphetamine addiction, methamphetamine dependence, or methamphetamine withdrawal.
[0544] 36w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said alcohol use disorder is alcohol craving, alcohol addiction, alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal, or alcohol induced delirium.
[0545] 37w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said eating disorder is bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, a binge eating disorder, or an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS).
[0546] 38w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said mood disorder is bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymia, substance-induced mood disorder, depression, atypical depression, psychotic major depression, post-partum depression, dysthymia, catatonic depression, melancholic depression, or a depressive disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS).
[0547] 39w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said pain is nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, non-inflammatory pain, or pain associated with a chronic condition.
[0548] 40w. The compound of embodiment 29w, wherein said gastric or enteric damage is caused by a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
[0549] 41w. A compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in modulating the level of a fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) in a subject, wherein the compound has the formula:
[0550]  [see pdf for image]
wherein, R1 is substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl; R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl; R3 is —SO2R6, —SO2NR4R5, or —C(O)NR4R5; R4, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl; where R4 and R5 are optionally joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl; the symbol z is an integer from 1 to 4; and X is —F, —Cl, —Br, or —I.
[0551] 42w. The compound of embodiment 41w, wherein the FAE is anandamide.
[0552] 43w. The compound of embodiment 41w, wherein the FAE is oleoylethanolamide.
[0553] 44w. The compound of embodiment 41w, wherein the FAE is palmitoylethanolamide.
[0554] 45w. A compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in modulating the level of activity of FAAH in a subject, wherein the compound has the formula:
[0555]  [see pdf for image]
wherein, R1 is substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl; R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl; R3 is —SO2R6, —SO2NR4R5, or —C(O)NR4R5; R4, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl; where R4 and R5 are optionally joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl; the symbol z is an integer from 1 to 4; and X is —F, —Cl, —Br, or —I.
[0556] 46w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 45w, having the formula:
[0557]  [see pdf for image]
[0558] 47w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 45w, having the formula:
[0559]  [see pdf for image]
[0560] 48w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 45w, having the formula:
[0561]  [see pdf for image]
[0562] 49w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 45w, having the formula:
[0563]  [see pdf for image]
[0564] 50w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 49w, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl or unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0565] 51w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 49w, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C6 cycloalkyl.
[0566] 52w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 51w, wherein R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3, —OCHX2, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0567] 53w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 51w, wherein R2 is independently halogen or —OCHX2.
[0568] 54w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 53w, wherein R3 is —C(O)NR4R5.
[0569] 55w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 53w, wherein R3 is —SO2NR4R5.
[0570] 56w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 55w, wherein R4 is hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0571] 57w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 55w, wherein R4 is hydrogen or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl.
[0572] 58w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 57w, wherein R5 is hydrogen, unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0573] 59w. The compound of one of embodiments 29 to 57w, wherein R5 is hydrogen or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl.
[0574] 60w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 53w, wherein R3 is —SO2R6.
[0575] 61w. The compound of embodiment 60w, wherein R6 is unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl or unsubstituted 2 to 4 membered heteroalkyl.
[0576] 62w. The compound of embodiment 60w, wherein R6 is unsubstituted methyl.
[0577] 63w. The compound of one of embodiments 29 to 59w, wherein R4 and R5 are joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl.
[0578] 64w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 63w, wherein the symbol z is 1.
[0579] 65w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 45w, wherein R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl; R2 is —F or —OCHF2; R3 is —SO2NH2, —SO2NHMe, —SO2NMe2, —CONH2, —CONHMe, —CONMe2, or —SO2Me; and z is 1.
[0580] 66w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 45w, wherein R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl; R2 is —F or —OCHF2; and R3 is —SO2NH2, —SO2NHMe, —SO2NMe2, —CONH2, —CONHMe, —CONMe2, or —SO2Me.
[0581] 67w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 66w, wherein the compound is not
[0582]  [see pdf for image]
[0583] 68w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 66w, wherein the compound is not
[0584]  [see pdf for image]
[0585] 69w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 45w, wherein the compound is
[0586]  [see pdf for image] [see pdf for image] [see pdf for image]
[0587] 70w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 69w, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 35% in a subject.
[0588] 71w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 69w, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 85% in a subject.
[0589] 72w. The compound of one of embodiments 29w to 69w, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 95% in a subject.

EXAMPLES

Preparative Examples

[0590] The compounds reported in Table 1 were synthesized as described below. Abbreviations used in the description of the synthesis of the compounds reported in Table 1 are as follows: acetonitrile (MeCN), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), cesium acetate (CsOAc), chloroform (CHCl3), cyclohexane (Cy), deuterated chloroform (chloroform-d), diatomaceous earth (Celite), deuterated dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO-d6), dichloromethane (DCM), 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2′,6′-dimethoxybiphenyl (Sphos), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), ethanol (EtOH), electrospray (ES), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), hydrochloric acid (HCl), mass spectrometry (MS), potassium hydroxide (KOH), nitrogen (N2), methanol (MeOH), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II) (PdCl2(dppf)), palladium acetate (Pd(OAc)2), palladium on carbon (Pd/C), pyridine (Py), potassium carbonate (K2CO3), room temperature (RT), Rt (retention time), silica gel (SiO2), sodium sulphate (Na2SO4), tetrahydrofuran (THF), thin layer chromatography (TLC), triethylamine (Et3N).
[0591] General Purification and Analytical Methods
[0592] Automated column chromatography purifications were done using a Teledyne ISCO apparatus (CombiFlash® Rf) with pre-packed silica gel columns of different sizes (from 4 g until 120 g). Mixtures of increasing polarity of cyclohexane and ethyl acetate or dichloromethane and methanol were used as eluents. Preparative TLCs were performed using Macherey-Nagel pre-coated 0.05 mm TLC plates (SIL G-50 UV254). Microwave heating was performed using Explorer®-48 positions instrument (CEM). NMR experiments were run on a Bruker Avance III 400 system (400.13 MHz for 1H), equipped with a BBI probe and Z-gradients. Spectra were acquired at 300 K, using deuterated dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO-d6) or deuterated chloroform (chloroform-d) as solvents. Chemical shifts for 1H were recorded in parts per million using the residual non-deuterated solvent as the internal standard (for chloroform-d: 7.26 ppm; for DMSO-d6: 2.50 ppm, 1H). UPLC-MS analyses were run on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC-MS system consisting of a SQD (Single Quadrupole Detector) Mass Spectrometer equipped with an Electrospray Ionization interface and a Photodiode Array Detector. The PDA range was 210-400 nm. The analyses were run on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (50×2.1 mmID, particle size 1.7 μm) with a Vanguard BEH C18 pre column (5×2.1 mmID, particle size 1.7 μm). The mobile phase was: (A) 10 mM NH4OAc in H2O at pH 5 adjusted with AcOH; (B) 10 mM NH4OAc in MeCN/H2O (95:5) at pH 5. Analyses were performed using the following method: gradient 5 to 95% B over 3 min; flow rate 0.5 mL/min; temperature 40° C. Electrospray ionization in positive and negative mode was applied in the mass scan range 100-500 Da.

Synthesis of 3-(2-fluoro-5-hydroxy-phenyl)-N-methyl-benzamide (IIIa)

[0593] A teflon capped vial was charged with Va (191 mg, 1.00 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (11.2 mg, 0.05 mmol), S-Phos (41.1 mg, 0.10 mmol), K3PO4 (425 mg, 2.00 mmol) and N-methyl-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzamide (392 mg, 1.50 mmol). The vial was sealed, then evacuated and backfilled with N2 (×3 times). To the solids was added THF/H2O (5 mL, 10:1). The reaction was heated at 50° C. for 2 h, then cooled to RT, diluted with EtOAc and washed with a saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution (10 mL). The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (3×20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 50% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as an off-white powder, 216 mg (88%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d, 300K) δ 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.68 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 6.97 (t, J=9.5 Hz, 1H), 6.90-6.86 (m, 1H), 6.85-6.78 (m, 1H), 6.65-6.59 (m, 1H), 3.01 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 3H). UPLC-MS: Rt 1.78 min; MS (ES): m/z 246 [M+H]+.

Synthesis of 3-(2-fluoro-5-hydroxy-phenyl)benzenesulfonamide

[0594] A teflon capped vial was charged with Va (191 mg, 1.00 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (11.2 mg, 0.05 mmol), S-Phos (41.1 mg, 0.10 mmol), K3PO4 (425 mg, 2.00 mmol) and 3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (425 mg, 1.50 mmol). The vial was sealed, then evacuated and backfilled with N2 (×3 times). To the solids was added THF/H2O (5 mL, 10:1). The reaction was heated at 50° C. for 2 h, then cooled to RT, diluted with EtOAc and washed with a saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution (5 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 30% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as an off-white powder, 194 mg (73%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, 300K) δ 9.61 (s, 1H), 7.99-7.94 (m, 1H), 7.87-7.82 (m, 1H), 7.77-7.71 (m, 1H), 7.67 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.43 (s, 2H), 7.16 (dd, J=10.5, 8.9 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (dd, J=6.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 6.86-6.81 (m, 1H). UPLC-MS: Rt 1.74 min; MS (ES): m/z 266 [M−H].

Synthesis of 4-fluoro-3-(3-methylsulfonylphenyl)phenol (IIIc)

[0595] A teflon capped vial was charged with Va (95 mg, 0.5 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (1.1 mg, 0.005 mmol), K3PO4 (171.9 mg, 1.24 mmol) and (3-methylsulfonylphenyl)boronic acid (149.2 mg, 0.75 mmol). The vial was sealed, then evacuated and backfilled with N2 (×3 times). To the solids was added EGME/H2O (4 mL, 3:1). The reaction mixture was stirred 10 min at RT, then quenched with 2N HCl (5 mL). The aqueous solution was extracted with DCM (10 mL), dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 8% MeOH in DCM to afford the title compound as colourless powder (82 mg, 62%). UPLC-MS: Rt 1.91 min; MS (ES): m/z 265 [M−H].

Synthesis of 3-[5-benzyloxy-2-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]benzamide (IIId′)

[0596] To a solution of Vb′ (200 mg, 0.61 mmol) in EGME (2.5 mL), H2O (0.6 mL) was added drop wise, followed by the addition of K2CO3 (168 mg, 1.22 mmol), 3-carbamoylbenzeneboronic acid (150.5 mg, 0.9 mmol) and Pd(OAc)2 (0.7 mg, 0.003 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 20 min. H2O (7 mL) and DCM (7 mL) were then added and the mixture was vigorously stirred for 20 min then the two phases were separated. The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 50 to 100% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as a colorless oil (214 mg, 0.58 mmol, 95%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.02 (bs, 1H), 8.00-7.95 (m, 1H), 7.93-7.85 (m, 1H), 7.67-7.61 (m, 1H), 7.53 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.50-7.31 (m, 7H), 7.26 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.17-7.13 (m, 1H), 7.13-7.08 (m, 1H), 6.98 (t, J=74.3 Hz, 1H), 5.18 (s, 2H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.60 min; MS (ES) m/z 370 [M+H]+.

Synthesis of 3-[5-benzyloxy-2-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]-N-methyl-benzamide (IIIe′)

[0597] To a solution of Vb′ (147 mg, 0.45 mmol) in THF (3.0 mL), H2O (0.6 mL) was added drop wise, followed by the addition of K3PO4 (118 mg, 1.12 mmol), N-methyl-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzamide (161 mg, 0.63 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (3 mg, 0.011 mmol) and SPhos (11 mg, 0.027 mmol). The mixture was heated at 65° C. for 2 h. After cooling to RT, H2O (5 mL) and DCM (10 mL) were then added and the mixture was vigorously stirred for 20 min then the two phases were separated. The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 20 to 80% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as a colorless oil (153 mg, 0.40 mmol, 89%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) δ 8.55-8.43 (m, 1H), 7.93-7.90 (m, 1H), 7.88-7.81 (m, 1H), 7.67-7.59 (m, 1H), 7.53 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.50-7.31 (m, 5H), 7.26 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.16-7.07 (m, 2H), 6.98 (t, J=74.2 Hz, 1H), 5.17 (s, 2H), 2.80 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 3H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.71 min; MS (ES) m/z 384 [M+H]+.

Synthesis of 3-[5-benzyloxy-2-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]benzenesulfonamide (IIIf′)

[0598] To a solution of Vb′ (182 mg, 0.55 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (7.5 mL), H2O (1.5 mL) was added drop wise, followed by the addition of K3PO4 (294 mg, 1.38 mmol), 3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (170 mg, 0.72 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (3.7 mg, 0.017 mmol) and SPhos (14 mg, 0.033 mmol). The mixture was heated at 65° C. for 2 h. After cooling to RT, H2O (5 mL) and DCM (10 mL) were then added and the mixture was vigorously stirred for 20 min then the two phases were separated. The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 40% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as a colorless oil (106 mg, 0.28 mmol, 46%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.91 (t, J=1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.84 (dt, J=7.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.75-7.61 (m, 2H), 7.51-7.22 (m, 8H), 7.17-7.07 (m, 2H), 7.00 (t, J=74.0 Hz, 1H), 5.16 (s, 2H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.61 min; MS (ES) m/z 370 [M+H]+.

Synthesis of 4-benzyloxy-1-(difluoromethoxy)-2-(3-methylsulfonylphenyl)benzene (IIIg′)

[0599] To a solution of Vb′ (105 mg, 0.32 mmol) in EGME (3.0 mL), H2O (0.7 ml) was added drop wise, followed by the addition of K2CO3 (88.2 mg, 0.64 mmol), (3-methylsulfonylphenyl)boronic acid (76.6 mg, 0.38 mmol) and Pd(OAc)2 (0.9 mg, 0.004 mmol). The mixture was heated at 65° C. for 1 h. After cooling to RT, H2O (5 mL) and DCM (10 mL) were then added and the mixture was vigorously stirred for 20 min then the two phases were separated. The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 50x % EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as a colorless oil (129.3 mg, 0.31 mmol, 99%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.02-7.99 (m, 1H), 7.98-7.92 (m, 1H), 7.89-7.83 (m, 1H), 7.75 (t, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.54-7.19 (m, 7H), 7.15 (dd, J=9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 7.04 (t, J=74.0 Hz, 1H), 5.19 (s, 2H), 3.26 (s, 3H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.84 min; MS (ES) m/z 422 [M+NH4]+.

Synthesis of 3-(3-benzyloxy-5-fluoro-phenyl)benzamide (IIIh′)

[0600] A teflon capped vial was charged with Vc′ (124 mg, 0.44 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (1 mg, 0.0044 mmol), K3PO4 (152.5 mg, 1.10 mmol) and (3-carbamoylphenyl)boronic acid (109.2 mg, 0.66 mmol). The vial was sealed, then evacuated and backfilled with N2 (×3 times). To the solids was added EGME/H2O (4 mL, 3:1). The reaction mixture was stirred 10 min at RT, and then quenched with 2N HCl. The aqueous solution was extracted with DCM (10 mL), dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to afford the title compound as a white powder, which was used in the next step without further purification. 1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d) δ 8.03 (t, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.83-7.79 (m, 1H), 7.76-7.70 (m, 1H), 7.55 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.49-7.45 (m, 2H), 7.44-7.41 (m, 2H), 7.41-7.36 (m, 1H), 7.05 (t, J=1.6 Hz, 1H), 6.98-6.93 (m, 1H), 6.74 (dt, J=10.4, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 5.92 (d, J=159.6 Hz, 2H), 5.14 (s, 2H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.63 min; MS (ES): m/z 322 [M+H]+.

Synthesis of 3-(3-Fluoro-5-hydroxy-phenyl)benzamide (IIIh)

[0601] A teflon capped vial was charged with IIIh′ (70 mg, 0.22 mmol), and 10% Pd/C (70 mg). The vial was sealed, then evacuated and backfilled with N2 (×3 times). To the solids was added 1,4-dioxane/EtOH (6 mL) and cyclohexene (2.2 mL) and the reaction was stirred 3 h at 80° C. The reaction mixture was then cooled to RT and the catalyst was filtered off and the solution was concentrated. The residue was used in the next step without further purification. UPLC-MS: Rt 1.73 min; MS (ES): m/z 232 [M+H]+.

Synthesis of 3-(2-fluoro-3-hydroxy-phenyl)benzamide

[0602] A teflon capped vial was charged with Vd (200 mg, 1.05 mmol), PdCl2dppf (38 mg, 0.05 mmol, 5 mol %), K3PO4 (445 mg, 2.09 mmol) and (3-carbamoylphenyl)boronic acid (259 mg, 1.57 mmol). The vial was sealed, then evacuated and backfilled with N2 (×3 times). To the solids was added 1,4-dioxane/EtOH (6 mL, 2:1). The mixture was heated under microwave irradiation at 100° C. for 1 h. then cooled to RT, diluted with EtOAc (20 mL) and washed with H2O (20 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (20 mL) and with DCM (20 mL). The combined organic phases were dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with 0 to 5% MeOH in DCM. The title compound was obtained as a light yellow powder, 70 mg (29%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 9.95 (s, 1H), 8.06 (s, 1H), 8.02 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.89 (dt, J=7.7, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.67 (dq, J=7.6, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.55 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (s, 1H), 7.09 (td, J=8.0, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.00 (td, J=8.1, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 6.94 (ddd, J=7.7, 6.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H). UPLC-MS: Rt 1.62 min, MS (ES): m/z 230.1 [M−H].

Synthesis of 4-benzyloxy-2-bromo-1-(difluoromethoxy)benzene (Vb′)

[0603] To a cooled (−10° C.) solution of 4-benzyloxy-2-bromo-phenol (1.3 g, 4.6 mmol) in MeCN/H2O (50 mL, 1:1) KOH (5.1 g, 91.8 mmol) was added. After 20 min diethyl(bromodifluoromethyl)phosphonate (1.2 ml, 6.9 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at −10° C. for 20 min, then at RT for 2 h. DCM (100 mL) and H2O (50 ml) were then added and the mixture was vigorously stirred for 20 min then the two phases were separated. The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was used in the next step without further purification; colorless oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d) δ 7.50-7.33 (m, 5H), 7.26 (d, J=2.9 Hz, 1H), 7.17 (d, J=9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (dd, J=9.0, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 6.46 (t, J=74.0 Hz, 1H), 5.06 (s, 2H). UPLC-MS: Rt 3.08 min; MS (ES) m/z 327, 329 [M−H].

Synthesis of (3-bromo-4-fluoro-phenyl)N-cyclopentylcarbamate (VIb)

[0604] A teflon capped vial was charged with Va (1 g; 5.265 mmol) and triphosgene (516 mg; 1.737 mmol). The vial was sealed, then evacuated and backfilled with N2 (×3 times). To the solids was added dry DCM (5.0 mL), and the reaction was cooled to 0° C. Then Py (416 mg; 5.265 mmol) in dry DCM (7 mL) was slowly added and the reaction was stirred at RT for 1 h. Cyclopentylamine (148 mg; 1.739; 1 eq) and Py (138 mg; 1.739; 1 eq) in dry DCM (6 mL) were then added and the reaction stirred at RT for 3 h and then quenched with 1N HCl. The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (20 mL), dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 10% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as a white powder (307 mg, 58%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d) δ 7.39 (dd, J=5.8, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.16-7.04 (m, 2H), 4.97 (s, 1H), 4.07 (h, J=6.9 Hz, 1H), 2.14-1.96 (m, 2H), 1.88-1.61 (m, 4H), 1.56-1.40 (m, 2H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.71 min; MS (ES): m/z 302 [M+H]+.

Synthesis of (3-bromo-4-fluoro-phenyl)N-cyclobutylcarbamate (VIc)

[0605] A teflon capped vial was charged with Va (1 g; 5.265 mmol) and triphosgene (516 mg; 1.737 mmol). The vial was sealed, then evacuated and backfilled with N2 (×3 times). To the solids was added dry DCM (5.0 mL), and the reaction was cooled to 0° C. Then Py (416 mg; 5.265 mmol) in dry DCM (7 mL), was slowly added and the reaction was stirred at RT for 1 h. Cyclobutylamine (124 mg; 1.739) and Py (138 mg; 1.739) in dry DCM (6 mL), were then added and the reaction stirred at RT for 3 h, then quenched with 1N HCl. The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (10 mL), dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 10% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as a white powder (292 mg, 58%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d) δ 7.38 (dd, J=5.8, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 7.17-6.97 (m, 2H), 5.17 (s, 1H), 4.32-4.13 (m, 1H), 2.41 (qt, J=7.6, 2.8 Hz, 2H), 2.06-1.90 (m, 2H), 1.85-1.65 (m, 2H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.57 min; MS (ES): m/z 290 [M+H]+.

Example 1

[4-fluoro-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]phenyl]N-cyclohexylcarbamate

[0606] To a solution of Ma (245.3 mg, 1.00 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) cyclohexyl isocyanate (0.14 mL, 1.10 mmol) was added followed by the addition of DMAP (6.1 mg, 0.04 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at RT for 16 h. Then the reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 30% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as colourless powder, 268 mg (72%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, 300K) δ 8.56 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 1H), 8.00 (s, 1H), 7.88 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.39-7.29 (m, 2H), 7.22-7.13 (m, 1H), 3.37-3.31 (m, 1H), 2.82 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 3H), 1.88-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.75-1.68 (m, 2H), 1.60-1.52 (m, 1H), 1.34-1.07 (m, 5H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.51 min; MS (ES): m/z 371 [M+H]+.

Example 2

[4-fluoro-3-(3-sulfamoylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate

[0607] To a solution of Mb (48.1 mg, 0.18 mmol) in MeCN (3 mL) cyclohexyl isocyanate (0.02 mL, 0.20 mmol) was added followed by the addition of DMAP (1.1 mg, 0.01 mmol), and the reaction was stirred at RT for 16 h. Then the reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 30% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as colourless powder, 40 mg (57%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, 300K) δ 8.01 (s, 1H), 7.88 (d, J=7.83 Hz, 1H), 7.84-7.75 (m, 2H), 7.70 (t, J=7.78 Hz, 1H), 7.43 (s, 2H), 7.41-7.35 (m, 1H), 7.31 (dd, J=2.86, 6.60 Hz, 1H), 7.26-7.18 (m, 1H), 3.36-3.30 (m, 1H), 1.87-1.80 (m, 2H), 1.75-1.68 (m, 2H), 1.61-1.52 (m, 1H), 1.32-1.21 (m, 4H), 1.17-1.08 (m, 1H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.49 min; MS (ES): m/z 393 [M+H]+.

Example 3

[3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclobutylcarbamate

[0608] To a solution of (3-carbamoylphenyl)boronic acid (83 mg; 0.502 mmol) in anhydrous 1,4-dioxane (3 mL) ethylene glycol (38 mg; 0.613 mmol) was added under N2 atmosphere. The mixture was heated at 60° C. for 1 h under stirring and then transferred to a solution of VIc (80 mg; 0.279 mmol), Pd(dppf)Cl2 (10 mg; 0.014 mmol), CsOAc (134 mg; 0.697 mmol) in dry 1,4-dioxane (5 mL). The reaction was stirred at 60° C. for 1 h, then quenched with saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution (5 mL). The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (3×10 mL); the organic phase was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 2% MeOH in DCM, to afford the title compound as a off-white powder (35 mg, 38%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.18-8.05 (m, 2H), 8.03 (s, 1H), 7.90 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (d, J=7.4 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.43 (s, 1H), 7.37-7.29 (m, 2H), 7.17 (dd, J=7.7, 4.3 Hz, 1H), 4.01 (hept, J=7.9, 7.4 Hz, 1H), 2.18 (q, J=7.7 Hz, 2H), 1.99 (p, J=9.6 Hz, 2H), 1.73-1.49 (m, 2H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.13, MS (ES): m/z 329 [M+H]+.

Example 4

[4-fluoro-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]phenyl] N-cyclopentylcarbamate

[0609] A teflon capped vial was charged with Ma (98.1 mg, 0.40 mmol) and triphosgene (42.7 mg, 0.14 mmol). The vial was sealed, then evacuated and backfilled with N2 (×3 times). To the solids was added dry DCM (3.0 mL), and the reaction was cooled to 0° C. Then DIPEA (0.07 mL, 0.40 mmol) was slowly added and the reaction was stirred at RT for 1 h. Cyclopentylamine (0.04 mL, 0.40 mmol) and DIPEA (0.07 mL, 0.40 mmol) were then added and the reaction stirred at RT for 16 h, then quenched with 2N HCl (5 mL). The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (10 mL), dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 2% MeOH in DCM to afford the title compound as colourless powder, 60 mg (42%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, 300K) 8.55 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 1H), 8.00 (s, 1H), 7.88 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.84 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (d, J=7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.58 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.39-7.30 (m, 2H), 7.22-7.14 (m, 1H), 3.91-3.81 (m, 1H), 2.82 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 3H), 1.90-1.79 (m, 2H), 1.69-1.64 (m, 2H), 1.56-1.45 (m, 4H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.37 min; MS (ES): m/z 357 [M+H]+.

Example 5

[3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclopentylcarbamate

[0610] To a solution of (3-carbamoylphenyl)boronic acid (59 mg; 0.359 mmol) in anhydrous 1,4-dioxane (1.5 mL) ethylene glycol (27 mg; 0.439 mmol) was added under N2 atmosphere. The mixture was heated at 60° C. for 1 h and then transferred to a solution of VIb (60 mg; 0.199 mmol), Pd(dppf)Cl2 (10 mg; 0.014 mmol), CsOAc (134 mg; 0.697 mmol) in dry 1,4-dioxane (5 mL). The reaction was stirred at 60° C. for 1 h, and then quenched with saturated aqueous NH4Cl solution (5 mL). The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (3×10 mL); the organic phase was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 2% MeOH in DCM, to afford the title compound as an off-white powder (32 mg, 47%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.18-8.05 (m, 2H), 8.03 (s, 1H), 7.90 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (d, J=7.4 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.43 (s, 1H), 7.37-7.29 (m, 2H), 7.17 (dd, J=7.7, 4.3 Hz, 1H), 4.01 (hept, J=7.9, 7.4 Hz, 1H), 2.18 (q, J=7.7 Hz, 2H), 1.99 (p, J=9.6 Hz, 2H), 1.73-1.49 (m, 2H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.13; MS (ES): m/z 329 [M+H]+.

Example 6

[4-fluoro-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]phenyl] N-cyclobutylcarbamate

[0611] A teflon capped vial was charged with Ma (98.1 mg, 0.40 mmol) and triphosgene (42.7 mg, 0.14 mmol). The vial was sealed, then evacuated and backfilled with N2 (×3 times). To the solids was added DCM (3.0 mL), and the reaction was cooled to 0° C. Then DIPEA (0.07 mL, 0.40 mmol) was slowly added and the reaction was stirred at RT for 1 h. Cyclobutylamine (0.03 mL, 0.40 mmol) and DIPEA (0.07 mL, 0.40 mmol) were added and the reaction stirred at RT for 16 h, then quenched with 2N HCl. The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (10 mL), dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 2% MeOH in DCM to afford the title compound as colourless solid, 50 mg (37%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, 300K) δ 8.55 (d, J=4.3 Hz, 1H), 8.13 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 1H), 8.00 (s, 1H), 7.88 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.71 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.39-7.29 (m, 2H), 7.22-7.14 (m, 1H), 4.09-3.98 (m, 1H), 2.82 (d, J=4.3 Hz, 3H), 2.25-2.14 (m, 2H), 2.05-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.68-1.56 (m, 2H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.25 min; MS (ES): m/z 343 [M+H]+.

Example 7

[4-Fluoro-3-(3-methylsulfonylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate

[0612] To a solution of IIIc (41 mg, 0.15 mmol) in MeCN (1 mL) cyclohexyl isocyanate (0.0216 mL, 0.17 mmol) was added followed by the addition of DMAP (6.1 mg, 0.04 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at RT for 16 h. Then the reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 4% MeOH in DCM to afford the title compound as a white powder (55 mg, 91%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.07 (m, 1H), 8.01-7.96 (m, 1H), 7.96-7.91 (m, 1H), 7.81-7.75 (m, 2H), 7.45-7.34 (m, 2H), 7.27-7.19 (m, 1H), 3.36-3.34 (m, 1H), 3.29 (s, 3H), 1.89-1.80 (m, 2H), 1.77-1.66 (m, 2H), 1.61-1.50 (m, 1H), 1.34-1.18 (m, 4H), 1.18-1.07 (m, 1H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.63 min MS (ES): m/z 392 [M+H]+.

Example 8

[3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate

[0613] To a solution of IIId′ (150 mg, 0.41 mmol) in 2-MeTHF (20 mL) cyclohexene (5 mL) was added followed by a careful addition of 10% Pd/C (50 mg). The mixture was heated at reflux for 2 h. The mixture was cooled to RT then filtered through a small pad of Celite. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue of IIIf was dissolved in MeCN (10 mL) followed by the addition of Et3N (31 μL, 0.23 mmol) and cyclohexylisocyanate (58 μL, 0.45 mmol). The mixture was stirred overnight at RT. EtOAc (50 mL) was added followed by the addition of 0.1 M HCl (20 mL). The mixture was vigorously stirred for 10 min and then the two phases were separated. The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 40 to 80% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as white powder (117 mg, 71%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.04 (bs, 1H), 7.99-7.94 (m, 1H), 7.92-7.85 (m, 1H), 7.78 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.68-7.62 (m, 1H), 7.54 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (bs, 1H), 7.37-7.18 (m, 3H), 7.11 (t, J=73.6 Hz, 1H), 3.42-3.23 (m, 1H), 2.05-1.50 (m, 5H), 1.38-1.05 (m, 5H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.49 min; MS (ES) m/z 405 [M+H]+.

Example 9

[4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-[3-(methylcarbamoyl) phenyl] phenyl] N-cyclohexyl carbamate

[0614] To a solution of IIIe′ (157 mg, 0.41 mmol) in 2-MeTHF (20 mL) cyclohexene (5 mL) was added followed by a careful addition of 10% Pd/C (50 mg). The mixture was heated at reflux for 2 h. The mixture was cooled to RT then filtered through a small pad of Celite. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue of IIIe was dissolved in EtOH/MeCN (4 mL, 1:1). Et3N (35 μL, 0.23 mmol) was added followed by cyclohexylisocyanate (58 μL, 0.45 mmol). The mixture was stirred overnight at RT. EtOAc (50 mL) was added followed by the addition of 0.1 M HCl (20 mL). The mixture was vigorously stirred for 10 min and then the two phases were separated. The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 20 to 90% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as white powder (70 mg, 0.17 mmol, 41%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.50 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.94-7.88 (m, 1H), 7.89-7.82 (m, 1H), 7.78 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 2H), 7.68-7.60 (m, 1H), 7.54 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.38-7.15 (m, 2H), 7.11 (t, J=73.9 Hz, 1H), 3.43-3.19 (m, 1H), 2.80 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 3H), 1.93-1.46 (m, 5H), 1.36-0.98 (m, 5H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.59 min; MS (ES) m/z 419 [M+H]+.

Example 10

[4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-(3-sulfamoylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate

[0615] To a solution of IIIf′ (106 mg, 0.26 mmol) in EtOH (20 mL) cyclohexene (5 mL) was added followed by a careful addition of 10% Pd/C (50 mg). The mixture was heated at reflux for 1 h. The mixture was cooled to RT then filtered through a small pad of Celite. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue of IIIf was dissolved in EtOH/MeCN (4 mL, 1:1). Et3N (35 μL, 0.23 mmol) was added followed by cyclohexylisocyanate (53 μL, 0.41 mmol). The mixture was stirred overnight at RT. EtOAc (50 mL) was added followed by the addition of 0.1 M HCl (20 mL). The mixture was vigorously stirred for 10 min and then the two phases were separated. The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 50% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as a white powder (56 mg, 0.13 mmol, 49%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.93-7.90 (m, 1H), 7.88-7.83 (m, 1H), 7.80 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.76-7.62 (m, 2H), 7.40 (bs, 2H), 7.35 (d, J=8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.28-7.20 (m, 2H), 7.15 (t, J=74.1 Hz, 1H), 3.46-3.19 (m, 1H), 1.94-1.48 (m, 5H), 1.36-0.99 (m, 5H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.54 min; MS (ES) m/z 441 [M+H]+.

Example 11

[4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-(3-methylsulfonylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate

[0616] To a solution of IIIg′ (145 mg, 0.32 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (20 mL) cyclohexene (1 mL) was added followed by a careful addition of 10% Pd/C (20 mg). The mixture was heated at reflux for 1 h. The mixture was cooled to RT then filtered through a small pad of Celite. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue of IIIg was dissolved in EtOH/MeCN (8 mL, 1:1). Et3N (27 μL, 0.19 mmol) was added followed by cyclohexylisocyanate (41 μL, 0.32 mmol). The mixture was stirred overnight at RT. EtOAc (50 mL) was added followed by the addition of 0.1 M HCl (20 mL). The mixture was vigorously stirred for 10 min and then the two phases were separated. The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 50% EtOAc in Cy to afford the title compound as white powder (54 mg, 0.12 mmol, 38%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.03-7.99 (m, 1H), 7.99-7.93 (m, 1H), 7.90-7.70 (m, 3H), 7.34 (dd, J=8.0, 2.1 Hz, 2H), 7.25 (dd, J=8.8, 2.9 Hz, 1H), 7.17 (t, J=73.8 Hz, 1H) 3.32 (s, 1H), 3.27 (s, 3H), 2.00-1.46 (m, 5H), 1.38-1.03 (m, 5H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.72 min; MS (ES) m/z 440 [M+H]+.

Example 12

[3-(3-Carbamoylphenyl)-5-fluoro-phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate

[0617] To a solution of IIIh (45 mg, 0.19 mmol) in MeCN (3 mL) and dry DMF (0.3 mL) cyclohexyl isocyanate (25 μL, 0.19 mmol) was added followed by the addition of DMAP (3.0 mg, 0.02 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at RT for 3 h. Then the reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 2% MeOH in DCM, to afford the title compound as a white powder (45 mg, 65%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.20-8.16 (m, 1H), 8.13 (bs, 1H), 7.93-7.82 (m, 3H), 7.57 (t, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (dt, J=10.2, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (bs, 1H), 7.39-7.36 (m, 1H), 7.08 (dt, J=9.7, 2.2 Hz, 1H), 3.37-3.35 (m, 1H), 1.85 (dd, J=9.5, 4.5 Hz, 2H), 1.72 (dd, J=9.3, 4.3 Hz, 2H), 1.57 (d, J=12.5 Hz, 1H), 1.35-1.19 (m, 4H), 1.12 (d, J=11.9 Hz, 1H). UPLC-MS: Rt 2.51 min; MS (ES): m/z 357 [M+H]+.

Example 13

[3-(3-Carbamoylphenyl)-2-Fluoro-Phenyl] N-Cyclohexylcarbamate

[0618] To a solution of IIIi (70 mg, 0.30 mmol) in MeCN (3 mL) and dry DMF (0.3 mL) cyclohexyl isocyanate (46 μL, 0.36 mmol) was added followed by the addition of DMAP (2 mg, 0.02 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at RT for 2 h. Then the reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) eluting with a gradient of 0 to 5% MeOH in DCM, to afford the title compound as white powder, 84 mg (79%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.08 (s, 1H), 8.05 (d, J=0.7 Hz, 1H), 7.92 (ddd, J=7.9, 3.4, 1.9 Hz, 2H), 7.70 (dd, J=8.0, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.58 (t, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.47-7.39 (m, 2H), 7.35-7.28 (m, 2H), 3.34 (s, 1H), 1.97-1.78 (m, 2H), 1.78-1.63 (m, 2H), 1.62-1.51 (m, 1H), 1.35-1.03 (m, 5H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 167.98, 152.99, 151.95 (d, J=248.7 Hz), 139.52 (d, J=12.9 Hz), 135.22, 134.91, 131.97 (d, J=2.7 Hz), 129.36 (d, J=11.2 Hz), 129.12, 128.09 (d, J=1.8 Hz), 128.32 (d, J=1.8 Hz), 127.63, 127.57, 125.07 (d, J=4.3 Hz), 124.45, 50.48, 32.92, 25.56, 24.98. UPLC-MS: Rt 2.41 min, MS (ES): m/z 357.1 [M+H]+.
[0619] Methods for Testing the Compounds

In Vitro Rat FAAH Radiometric Assay

[0620] Rat FAAH was prepared from male Sprague Dawley rat brains, homogenized in a potter in 20 mM of Tris HCl pH 7.4, 0.32 M sucrose.
[0621] The radiometric assay used to measure FAAH activity was performed in Eppendorf tubes: 50 μg of total rat brain homogenate were pre-incubated in 445.5 μL of assay buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 0.05% Fatty acid-free-bovine serum albumin (BSA)) with 4.5 μL of inhibitor (at appropriate concentration in DMSO) or DMSO alone (to measure FAAH total activity) for 10 min at 37° C. The blank (no activity control) was prepared using 445.5 μL of assay buffer and 4.5 μL of DMSO without the 50 μg of total rat brain homogenate.
[0622] After 10 min of pre-incubation with test compounds, the reaction was started by adding of 50 μL of substrate and incubating for 30 min at 37° C. The substrate was prepared in assay buffer in order to achieve the final concentration of 1 μM arachidonoyl ethanolamide (Cayman Chemical N. 90050) and 0.6 nM anandamide [ethanolamine-1-3H] (American Radiolabeled Chemicals Inc, ART. 0626, Conc. 1 mCi/mL, S.A. 60 Ci/mmol). The reaction was stopped by adding cold 1:1 CHCl3/MeOH. After 10 min of centrifugation (845×g at 4° C.) 600 μL of aqueous phase were transferred into scintillation vials previously filled with 3 mL of scintillation fluid (Ultima Gold™, Perkin Elmer Inc., Cat. 6013329). Radioactivity was measured by liquid scintillation counting (MicroBeta2 LumiJET Perkin Elmer Inc.). The IC50 values of the compounds described in the Examples are reported in the following Table 2.

In Vitro Human FAAH Fluorescent Assay

[0623] Human recombinant FAAH was obtained from a HEK-293 cell line stably overexpressing human FAAH-1 enzyme. Cells were grown in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) medium containing 10% FBS, 1% pen/strep, 1% glutamine and 500 μg/mL G418. To obtain membrane preparation cells were scraped off with cold PBS and collected by centrifugation (500×g, 10 min, 4° C.); the cell pellet was re-suspended in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 0.32M sucrose, disrupted by sonication (10 pulses, 5 times) and centrifuged (800×g, 15 min, 4° C.); the collected supernatant was centrifuged at 105,000×g for 1 h at 4° C. and the pellet was re-suspended in PBS.
[0624] The fluorescent assay to measure FAAH activity was performed in 96 wells black plates: 2.5 μg of human FAAH-1 membrane preparation were pre-incubated for 50 min at 37° C., in 180 L of assay buffer (50 mM TrisHCl pH 7.4, 0.05% Fatty acid-free-BSA) with 10 μL of inhibitor (at appropriate concentration in DMSO) or 10 μL DMSO to measure FAAH total activity. The background (no activity) samples were prepared using 180 μL of assay buffer without human FAAH-1 and 10 μL of DMSO. The reaction was then started by the addition of 10 μL of a 40 μM substrate solution (N. 10005098, Cayman Chemical) dissolved in ethanol, and used at a final concentration of 2 μM. The reaction was carried out for 30 min at 37° C. and fluorescence was measured with a Tecan Infinite M200 nanoquant plate reader (excitation wavelength 350 nm/emission wavelength 460 nm).
[0625] Concentrations causing half-maximal inhibition of FAAH, IC50 values, were determined by non-linear regression analysis of the Log [concentration]/response curves generated with mean replicate values using a four parameter Hill equation curve fitting with GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Software Inc., CA—USA). The IC50 values of the compounds described in the Examples are reported in the following Table 2.

Aqueous Kinetic Solubility Assay

[0626] The aqueous kinetic solubility was determined from a 10 mM DMSO stock solution of test compound in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) at pH 7.4.
[0627] The study was performed by incubation of an aliquot of 10 mM DMSO stock solution in PBS (pH 7.4) at a target concentration of 250 μM resulting in a final concentration of 2.5% DMSO. The incubation was carried out under shaking at 25° C. for 24 h followed by centrifugation. The supernatant was analyzed by UPLC/MS for the quantification of dissolved compound by UV at a specific wavelength (215 nm).
[0628] The aqueous kinetic solubility (in μM) was calculated by dividing the peak area of the supernatant by the peak area of the test compound reference and further multiplied by the concentration of the test compound reference and dilution factor.
[0629] The UPLC/MS analyses were performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC/MS system consisting of a SQD (Single Quadrupole Detector) Mass Spectrometer equipped with an Electrospray Ionization interface and a Photodiode Array Detector. The PDA range was 210-400 nm. The analyses were run on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (50×2.1 mmID, particle size 1.7 m) with a VanGuard BEH C18 pre-column (5×2.1 mmID, particle size 1.7 μm). The mobile phase was 10 mM NH4OAc in H2O at pH 5 adjusted with AcOH (A) and 10 mM NH4OAc in MeCN—H2O (95:5) at pH 5 (B). Electrospray ionization in positive and negative mode was applied in the mass scan range 100-500 Da.
[0630] The aqueous kinetic solubility data of selected compounds described in the Examples are reported in Table 3.
[0631] Pharmacokinetic Experiment and Analysis

Administration

[0632] Compounds were administered orally (PO) and intravenously (IV) to cannulated Sprague-Dawley rats at 10 and 3 mg/kg, respectively. Vehicle was: PEG400/Tween 80/Saline solution at 10/10/80 (% in volume), respectively. Three animals per dose were treated. Blood samples at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 and 1440 min after administration were collected for PO arm. Blood samples at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min after administration were collected for IV arm. Plasma was separated from blood by centrifugation for 15 min at 3500 rpm a 4° C., collected in a Eppendorf tube and frozen (−80° C.). Control animals treated with vehicle only were also included in the experimental protocol.

Preparation of Samples, Standard Curve and QC Samples for UPLC-MS Analysis

[0633] Samples were thawed in an ice bath and after a short centrifugation transferred (50 μL) into a 96-deepwell plate and added with 150 μL of acetonitrile spiked with 200 nM Warfarin (the Internal Standard, I.S.). After agitation (3 min) the plate was centrifuged at 3000 g for 10 min at 4° C. 80 μL of supernatant was then transferred in a 96-well plate and added with 80 μL of water. Standard compound was spiked in neat solvent (PBS pH 7.4 added with 10% acetonitrile) to prepare a calibration curve over the 1 nM-10 μM range. Three quality controls (QCs) samples were also prepared spiking the compound in blank rat plasma to final 20, 200 and 2000 nM concentrations. Calibrators and QCs were crashed with acetonitrile spiked with the I.S. as described for the plasma samples. Dosing solutions, previously diluted 2000 fold in the neat solvent were also included in the samples and tested.

UPLC-MS/MS Analysis

[0634] Compounds plasma levels were monitored on a Xevo TQ UPLC-MS/MS system (Waters, Milford USA), using the calibration curve and the internal standard (Warfarin). Chromatography was carried out on a Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1×50 mmID, 1.7 m particle size, Waters, Milford USA). Flow rate was 0.5 mL/min. The mobile phase was (A) H2O/0.1% formic acid; (B) MeCN/0.1% formic acid. A linear gradient was applied from 5 to 100% B in 2 min. 3 μL of each sample were loaded on column. MS parameters and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were carefully tuned for each compound. Plasma levels data were analyzed using PKSolutions excel application (Summit Research Service, USA) to derive the most important pharmacokinetic parameters.
[0635] The oral bioavailability (F %) data, and the Area Under the Curve (AUC) data (ng×min/mL) corresponding to the IV (3 mg/kg) and PO (10 mg/kg) dose of selected compounds described in the Examples are reported in Table 3. Their F % data are in the range from 35 to 87. Closely related compounds of the known art, generically or specifically claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 7,176,201 and tested side by side for comparison showed oral bioavailability (F %) data in the range from 5 to 30 (see Table 3).
[0636] Selected Compounds
[0637] With the aim of better illustrating the present invention, without limiting it, examples of compounds according to Formula I of the invention are provided in Table 1 herein.
[0638] 
[00001] [TABLE-US-00001]
  TABLE 1
 
  Examples of compounds of the invention
      Molecular    
  Example   Molecular Structure   Formula   MW   Chemical Name
 
  1 [see pdf for image]   C21 H23 F N2 O3   370.42   [4-fluoro-3-[3- (methylcarbamoyl)phenyl] phenyl]N- cyclohexylcarbamate
 
  2 [see pdf for image]   C19 H21 F N2 O4 S   392.44   [4-fluoro-3-(3- sulfamoylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate
 
  3 [see pdf for image]   C18 H17 F N2 O3   328.34   [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4- fluoro-phenyl]N- cyclobutylcarbamate
 
  4 [see pdf for image]   C20 H21 F N2 O3   356.39   [4-fluoro-3-[3- (methylcarbamoyl)phenyl] phenyl]N- cyclopentylcarbamate
 
  5 [see pdf for image]   C19 H19 F N2 O3   342.36   [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4- fluoro-phenyl]N- cyclopentylcarbamate
 
  6 [see pdf for image]   C19 H19 F N2 O3   342.36   [4-fluoro-3-[3- (methylcarbamoyl)phenyl] phenyl]N- cyclobutylcarbamate
 
  7 [see pdf for image]   C20 H22 F N O4 S   391.46   [4-fluoro-3-(3- methylsulfonylphenyl) phenyl]N- cyclohexylcarbamate
 
  8 [see pdf for image]   C21 H22 F2 N2 O4   404.41   [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4- (difluoromethoxy)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate
 
  9 [see pdf for image]   C22 H24 F2 N2 O4   418.43   [4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-[3- (methylcarbamoyl)phenyl] phenyl]N- cyclohexylcarbamate
 
  10 [see pdf for image]   C20 H22 F2 N2 O5 S   440.46   [4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-(3- sulfamoylphenyl)phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate
 
  11 [see pdf for image]   C21 H23 F2 N O5 S   439.47   [4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-(3- methylsulfonylphenyl) phenyl]N- cyclohexylcarbamate
 
  12 [see pdf for image]   C20 H21 F N2 O3   356.39   [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-5- fluoro-phenyl]N- cyclohexylcarbamate
 
  13 [see pdf for image]   C20 H21 F N2 O3   356.39   [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-2- fluoro-phenyl]N- cyclohexylcarbamate
 
[0639] Biological Data of Selected Compounds
[0640] 
[00002] [TABLE-US-00002]
  TABLE 2
 
IC50 values of selected compounds of the invention
  on rat (r-FAAH) and human FAAH (h-FAAH)
    r-FAAH   h-FAAH
  ExampleIC50 (nM)IC50 (nM)
 
  1   1.4   12
  2   0.7   11
  3   0.9   1.8
  4   3.9   2.9
  5   2.9   0.84
  6   5.1   6.6
  7   8.9   4.9
  8   1.4   8.2
  9   3.5   12
  10   8.2   9.2
  11   2.9   6.5
  12   0.23   0.87
  13   1.9   0.89
 
[0641] 
[00003] [TABLE-US-00003]
  TABLE 3
 
  Comparison of kinetic solubility and oral bioavailability (F %) data of selected
  compounds described in the Examples side by side to closest analogues from the known art
    Kinetic   AUC   AUC   Oral
  Structure/   solubility (μM)   (ng • min/mL)   (ng • min/mL)   bioavailability
  Example   PBS pH 7.4   IV (3 mg/kg)   PO (10 mg/kg)   (F %)
 
[see pdf for image]   1   28   76692   221757   87
 
[see pdf for image]   9   8   83553   148545   53
 
[see pdf for image]   comparison compound   18   91360   90205   30
 
[see pdf for image]   2   28   44755   52031   35
 
[see pdf for image]   comparison compound   7   43512   30126   21
 
[see pdf for image]   3   33   29893   78686   79
 
[see pdf for image]   comparison compound   6   53476   69576   39
 
[see pdf for image]   4   96   nd   nd   nd
 
[see pdf for image]   6   183   nd   nd   nd
 
[see pdf for image]   8   44   126463   145726   35
 
[see pdf for image]   comparison compound   1   153810   26752   5
 
[see pdf for image]   11   12   nd   nd   nd
 
  nd = not determined
[0642] It is understood that the examples and embodiments described herein are for illustrative purposes only and that various modifications or changes in light thereof will be suggested to persons skilled in the art and are to be included within the spirit and purview of this application and scope of the appended claims. All publications, patents, and patent applications cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety for all purposes.
(57)

Claims

1. A compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, of formula:
[see pdf for image]
wherein,
R1 is substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted heterocycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl;
R2 is independently halogen, —CX3, —OCX3,or —OCHX2;
R3 is —SO2R6, —SO2NR4R5, or —C(O)NR4R5;
R4, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C8 alkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 2 to 8 membered heteroalkyl; where R4 and R5 are optionally joined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl or substituted or unsubstituted 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl;
the symbol z is an integer from 1 to 4; and
X is —F, —Cl, —Br, or —I;
with the proviso that the compound is not
[see pdf for image]
2. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is of formula:
[see pdf for image]
3. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is of formula:
[see pdf for image]
4. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is of formula:
[see pdf for image]
5. The compound of claim 1, wherein R1 is unsubstituted C3-C8 cycloalkyl or unsubstituted 3 to 8 membered heterocycloalkyl.
6. The compound of claim 1, wherein R2 is independently halogen or —OCHX2.
7. The compound of claim 1, wherein R3 is —C(O)NR4R5.
8. The compound of claim 1, wherein R3 is —SO2NR4R5.
9. The compound of claim 1, wherein R4 is hydrogen or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl.
10. The compound of claim 1, wherein R5 is hydrogen or unsubstituted C1-C4 alkyl.
11. The compound of claim 1, wherein R3 is —SO2R6.
12. The compound of claim 11, wherein R6 is unsubstituted methyl.
13. The compound of claim 1, wherein R1 is cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl;
R2 is —F or —OCHF2;
R3 is —SO2NH2, —SO2NHMe, —SO2NMe2, —CONH2, —CONHMe, —CONMe2, or —SO2Me; and
z is 1.
14. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is not
[see pdf for image]
15. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is
[see pdf for image] [see pdf for image] [see pdf for image]
16. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound has an oral bioavailability of greater than 35% in a subject.
17. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and a compound, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, of claim 1.
18. A method of treating reduced appetite, gastric damage, enteric damage, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, pain, inflammation, or ocular glaucoma, in a subject comprising administering to the subject a compound of claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
19. A method of increasing the level of a fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) in a subject, comprising administering to the subject a compound of claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
20. A method of inhibiting the level of activity of FAAH in a subject, comprising administering to the subject a compound of claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
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