Lipochitooligosaccharides

  • Published: Oct 23, 2013
  • Earliest Priority: Apr 07 2006
  • Family: 20
  • Cited Works: 1
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  • Cites: 1
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EP   2   348   027   B1
(19) Europäisches Patentamt
European Patent Office
Office européen des brevets
(11)EP   2   348   027   B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
23.10.2013   Bulletin   2013/43

(21)Application number: 11002963.4

(22)Date of filing:   05.04.2007
(51)Int. Cl. : 
C07H 13/06  (2006.01)

(54)

Lipochitooligosaccharides

Lipochitooligosaccharide

Lipochitooligosaccharides


(84)Designated Contracting States:
DE  FR  GB  IT  NL 

(30)Priority: 07.04.2006  US  790429 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
27.07.2011   Bulletin   2011/30

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
07754836.0  /  2010552

(73)Proprietor: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
Wilmington, DE 19898 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • Sabesan, Subramaniam
    Wilmington Delaware 19810 (US)

(74)Representative: Matthews, Derek Peter 
Dehns St Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A-91/15496
WO-A2-2010/049817
WO-A-2006/102717
DE-A1- 19 633 502
  
  • K. C. NICOLAOU, ET AL.: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 114, 1992, pages 8701-8702, XP002453158,
  • M. O. RASMUSSEN, ET AL.: ORGANIC AND BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY, vol. 2, 2004, pages 1908-1910, XP002453159,
  • S. IKESHITA, ET AL.: TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 35, no. 19, 1994, pages 3123-3126, XP002453160,
  • LAI-XI WANG, ET AL.: TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 34, no. 48, 1993, pages 7763-7766, XP002453161,
  • P. GROVES, ET AL.: ORGANIC AND BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY, vol. 3, 2005, pages 1381-1386, XP002453162,
  • T. J. W. STOKKERMANS, ET AL.: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 108, 1995, pages 1587-1595, XP002453163,
  • Fabienne Maillet ET AL: "Fungal lipochitooligosaccharide symbiotic signals in arbuscular mycorrhiza", Nature, vol. 469, no. 7328, 6 January 2011 (2011-01-06), pages 58-63, XP055048756, ISSN: 0028-0836, DOI: 10.1038/nature09622
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001]  The present invention is directed to processes for chemical synthesis of lipochitooligosaccharides, and the resulting chemically synthesized lipochitooligosaccharides. The processes disclosed herein allow the stepwise synthesis of low molecular weight N-acylglucosamine oligomers having a fatty acid condensed on the non-reducing end. The processes can be performed on a commercial scale.

BACKGROUND



[0002]  Lipochitooligosaccharides are naturally made in rhizobial bacteria and function as nodulation factors. The nodulation factors secreted from the bacteria elicit a response in the root cells of legumes that leads to symbiotic nodule formation in the roots. In these nodules nitrogen is fixed. and is provided as a nutrient to the plant. The extent of legume root nodulation is directly linked to plant growth and productivity.

[0003]  The nodulation factor lipochitooligosaccharides have a backbone of four or five β1,4-linked N-acylated glucosamine residues, a structure also found in chitin (poly-[1-4]-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine). This backbone is N-acylated and can carry diverse substitutions at both ends, depending on the rhizobial species in which it is made. In some rhizobia the N-acylation of the terminal unit is with fatty acids of general lipid metabolism such as vaccenic acid (C18:1Δ11Z) and in other rhizobia the N-acylation is with polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C20:3 and C18:2.

[0004]  The modulation factor lipochitooligosaccharides made in any one species of bacteria are a mixture of compounds having different substitutions that are not possible to completely separate. Some nodulation factor lipochitooligosaccharides have been chemically synthesized. There are various reported methods for making small samples of lipochitooligosaccharides, for example as described in Nicolaou et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114: 8701-8702 (1992); Ikeshita et al., Carbohydrate Research C1-C6 (1995); and Wang et al., J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1: 621-628 (1994).

[0005]  There remains a need for a process to make the lipochitooligosaccharide class of N-acylglucosamine oligomers in larger quantities and economically. The present invention is related to these and other ends.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0006]  The present invention utilises a process for synthesizing a compound having the general structure:
[IMAGE]
where individual groups R1, R2 and R3 are independently selected from: H, and C1 to C20 alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, mono, di or polyalkenyl, mono, di or polyalkynyl, groups; R4 is selected from monosaccharides, sulfates and phosphates; and n is from 0 to about 20; comprising:
  1. a) providing a compound of structure D
    [IMAGE]
    wherein R1 is selected from H , and C1 to C20 alkyl, aryl, and aralkyl groups;
  2. b) removing the ester groups and the internal N-phthalimido groups of the compound of structure D;
  3. c) selectively reacting the amino groups on the internal sugar units of the compound of structure D with an acylating reagent to make an N-acyl derivative product;
  4. d) removing the silyl group and the ester and the Nphthalimido group on the terminal sugar unit of the N-acyl derivative product of (c) by reacting the N-acyl derivative product with tetra-N-alkyl ammonium fluoride followed by reacting with amines or diamines under refluxing conditions to produce a de-silylated and de-N-phthalimidated product;
  5. e) acylating the terminal amino group of the de-N-phthalimidated product of (d) with fatty acids activated with carbodiimide and N-hydroxylbenztriazole, or an acid halide of the formula R1COX, in the presence of a base catalyst,
where X is a halide, and R1 is selected from H and C1 to C20 alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, mono, di or polyalkenyl, mono, di or polyalkynyl groups; to form a lipochitooligosaccharide; and

f) isolating the lipochitooligosaccharide.



[0007]  The process yields a composition comprising a chemically synthesized lipochitooligosaccharide represented by the structure:
[IMAGE]
or represented by the structure:
[IMAGE]

DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0008]  The present invention makes use of processes for synthesizing multigram to kilogram quantities of low molecular weight N-acylglucosamine polymers (oligo N-acylglucosamines) having a fatty acid condensed on the non-reducing end, called lipochitooligosaccharides, that are scalable for commercial use. The processes allow the use of simple purification procedures and do not require cost prohibitive chromatographic separation procedures. The oligo N-acylglucosamine portion of a precursor lipochitooligosaccharide is made by efficient coupling of monomers that are stable to storage. Stepwise addition of a specific type of monomer, described herein below, to a growing polymer chain results in the synthesis of a defined chain length polymer, to which a fatty acid is joined. The glucosamine monomer units are added to each other one at a time, giving the opportunity to select each glucosamine unit in an oligomer and allowing the incorporation of a desired acyl group, including that of a fatty acid, to a glucosamine unit of choice, thus enabling the synthesis of a large array of analogs for biological evaluation.

[0009]  When an amount, concentration, or other value or parameter is recited herein as either a range, preferred range or a list of upper preferable values and lower preferable values, the recited amount, concentration, or other value or parameter is intended to include all ranges formed from any pair of any upper range limit or preferred value and any lower range limit or preferred value, regardless of whether such ranges are separately disclosed. Where a range of numerical values is recited herein, unless otherwise stated, the range is intended to include the endpoints thereof, and all integers and fractions within the range. It is not intended that the scope of the invention be limited to the specific values recited when defining a range.

[0010]  Unless otherwise stated, the following terms, as used herein, have the following meanings.

[0011]  The term "shelf stable," as used herein, means that the compound remains intact with storage at room temperature and when exposed to moisture and air of laboratory storage conditions.

[0012]  The term "large scale" refers to tens of grams to kilogram quantities of material.

[0013]  The term "low molecular weight polymer" refers to a chain of monomer units that is greater than one unit and up to about 50 units in length. Oligomers are polymers with two to about 22 units. Therefore an oligo-N-acylglucosamine, for example, is a type of low molecular weight polymer.

[0014]  The term " linkage position" means the position of the carbon that is a part of the glycosyl bond. In 1,4-, linkages, the linkage position is 1on one glycoside and 4 on the linked glycoside.

[0015]  The term "non-linkage position" means the position of a carbon which is not a part of the glycosyl bond. For example, in a 1,4 linkage, the 2, 3 and 6 positions are non-linkage positions.

[0016]  The term "thioglycoside donor" means the glycosyl molecule that participates at the C-1 position in the glycosyl bond.

[0017]  The term "glycosyl acceptor" means the glycosyl molecule that has a hydroxyl group at the position that will participate in the glycosyl bond, and that connects through its oxygen to the C-1 glycosyl residue from the donor. In a β1,4- linkage the glycosyl acceptor has a hydroxyl group at the 4 position. The glycosyl acceptor may be a single unit or a multiple unit chain that is a low molecular weight polymer.

[0018]  The term "suitably protected thioglycoside donor" means a thioglycoside that has protecting groups at the positions that become non-linkage positions following formation of the glycosidic linkage. Protecting groups are used to prevent reaction at those sites.

[0019]  The term "suitably protected glycoside acceptor" means a glycoside that has protecting groups at the positions that become non-linkage positions following formation of the glycosidic linkage. Protecting groups are used to prevent reaction at those sites.

[0020]  The process for making a compound having a free amino group on the terminal sugar unit, while all other nitrogens are acylated, may be carried out starting with a compound of structure D:
[IMAGE]
wherein R1 is selected from H and C1 to C20 alkyl, aryl, and aralkyl groups.

[0021]  The compound represented by structure D can be synthesized according to the process described in the Examples herein for synthesizing Product 13. The ester groups are removed under transesterification conditions using metal alkoxides in alcohols under refluxing conditions. The internal N-phthalimido groups are removed by reacting with ethylenediamine resins. Acylation of internal amino groups are carried out by methods well known to one skilled in the art, followed by removing the silyl group and the ester and the N-phthalimido group on the terminal sugar unit by reacting with tetra-N-alkyl ammonium fluoride, followed by reacting with amines or diamines under refluxing conditions to produce a de-silylated and de-N-phthalimideted product containing a free amino group on the terminal sugar unit.

[0022]  The free amino group is selectively reacted with an acid or acid halide of the formula R1COX:

where X = OH or a halide, for acids and acid halides, respectively, and R1 is selected from H, C1 to C20 alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, alkenyl, dienyl, and trienyl groups.



[0023]  Typically the acid halide is a chloride reagent, but bromides and iodides may also be used.

[0024]  Lipochitooligosaccharides include natural nod factors that are signaling factors involved in nodulation of legume roots by nitrogen fixing bacteria. Through increasing nodulation, thereby increasing the nitrogen supply to the plant, lipochitooligosaccharide nod factors enhance plant growth and yield. Lipochitooligosaccharides may be used to treat the roots, leaves, or seeds of plants. The compounds may be applied in the soil, to plant foliage, or as a seed coating. Both legume and non-legume plants may benefit from these treatments.

[0025]  Individual lipochitooligosaccharides prepared using processes disclosed herein may be readily tested for effects on legume root nodulation by one skilled in the art, for example as described in Demont-Caulet et al. (Plant Physiology 120:83-92 (1999)). Also the effectiveness of individual lipochitooligosaccharides, prepared using processes disclosed herein, in promoting plant growth enhancement and yield improvement of legume and non-legume plants may be readily tested, as is well known to one skilled in the art. Thus compounds of Structure A which do not correspond to known natural nodulation factors, but which have nodulation stimulating activity, plant growth enhancing activity, or yield enhancing activity, such as the compounds:
[IMAGE]
or
[IMAGE]
may be prepared using processes disclosed herein and readily identified by testing for these applications.

EXAMPLES


GENERAL METHODS AND MATERIALS



[0026]  Unless specified, all the reagents were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co (St. Louis, MO). Thin layer chromatography was performed on pre-coated plates of Silica Gel 60 F254 (EM Science) and the spots were visualized with a spray containing 5% sulfuric acid in ethanol, followed by heating. Column chromatography was done on silica gel 60 (230 - 400 mesh, EM Science). 1H NMR spectra were recorded at 500 MHz. The hydrogen chemical shifts in organic solvents are expressed relative to deuterated methylenechloride, with a reference chemical shift of 5.36 ppm. For solutions of compounds in deuterium oxide or deuterated methanol, the hydrogen chemical shift values are expressed relative to the HOD signal (4.75 ppm at 296 °K).

EXAMPLE 1


Synthesis of 2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-phthalimido-D-glucopyranose



[0027] 
[IMAGE]


[0028]  D-Glucosamine hydrochloride (compound 1, 1.0 Kg) was suspended in methanol (5.0 L) and vigorously stirred. NaOH (184.8 g) was dissolved in minimum deionized water and added to the D-Glucosamine/Methanol suspension. The suspension was stirred for 15 min and the insoluble material (sodium chloride) was filtered off by vacuum filtration. The theoretical amount of NaCl formed should be about 270 g.

[0029]  To the filtrate, phthalic anhydride (342 g) was added and the solution was stirred until most of the solid dissolved (about 30 min). This was then followed by the addition of triethylamine (468 g) and stirred for 10 to 15 min. To the resulting clear solution, another portion of phthalic anhydride (342 g) was added and the mixture was allowed to stir overnight at room temperature. Product usually began to precipitate out after two hours.

[0030]  The precipitated product was filtered and the residue was washed with minimum ice cold methanol so as to remove the yellow color from the product. The residue was then washed three times with acetonitrile, with enough solvent added to the filter to completely immerse the solid, and dried at room temperature under high vacuum. The weight of the white solid, product 2, was 954 g. 1H-NMR (D2O): 7.74-7.56 (phthalimido hydrogens), 5.42 (H-1α), 4.94 (H-1β), 4.17 and 4.01 (H-6), 3.27 (CH2 of N-ethyl group), 1.35 (CH3 of N-ethyl group).

[0031]  The product 2 from above (1.01 Kg, made from two batches) was placed in a 10 litter 3 neck round bottom flask set up with an overhead electric stirrer, an N2 inlet and an addition funnel. Acetic anhydride (3 L) and N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (1.0 g) were added to the flask and stirred vigorously. Pyridine (2.8 L) was added slowly and the reaction mixture was stirred for 2 days at room temperature. The reaction mixture was quenched with ice-water (4 L) and the product was extracted with methylenechloride. The organic layer was repeatedly washed with aqueous hydrochloric acid solution, and then with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. The product was recrystallized from hot ethanol. Weight of the recrystallized product 3 was 701 g. 1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ: 7.91-7.80 (phthalimido hydrogens), 6.62 (H-1), 5.59 (H-3), 5.21 (H-4), 4.47 (H-2), 4.36 and 4.16 (H-6), 4.06 (H-5), 2,12, 2.06, 2.02, 1.88 (acetyl methyl groups). Thus the above NMR chemical shift data verified the structure of product 3, 2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-phthalimido-D-glucopyranose, which is shown below in Example 2.

EXAMPLE 2


Synthesis of Monomer (I)


Preparation of intermediate product 4:



[0032] 
[IMAGE]


[0033]  Product 3 (464 g) was dissolved in toluene and the solvent was evaporated. This was repeated and the remaining solid was placed on a high vacuum line overnight.

[0034]  The dried solid was dissolved in minimum methylenechloride (ca. 600 ml), and stirred well. To this, 4-methylbenzenethiol (181 g, 1.45 mol, 1.5 eq.) was added followed by the dropwise addition of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3-etherate; 165 g, 1,16 mol, 1.2 equivalent, over 180 min). The reaction mixture was stirred overnight. White crystals formed in the morning when stirring was stopped. The crystals were filtered, giving product 4A. The filtrate was diluted with methylenechloride, washed sequentially with saturated NaHCO3 solution, water, then bicarbonate solution, and dried giving product 4B. Both 4A and 4B products were extensively washed with anhydrous methanol and dried under vacuum. Since the NMR spectrums of 4A and 4B products were identical, these two were combined (Product 4, 426.3 g).

[0035]  1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ: 7.96-7.80 (phthalimido hydrogens), 7.36 & 7.13 (S-aromatic hydrogens), 5.78 (H-3), 5.69 (H-1), 5.13 (H-4), 4.33 (H-2), 4.30 & 4.12 (H-6), 3.93 (H-5), 2.36 (S-Ph-Me group), 2.13, 2.04, 1.85 (methyls of acetyl groups). Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of product 4, as shown above.

Preparation of intermediate Product 5



[0036] 
[IMAGE]


[0037]  Product 4 (350 g) was suspended in nearly 4 L of dry methanol. To this, 35 ml of 0.5 M sodium methoxide solution was added and the solution immediately turned basic. The suspension was left stirring at room temperature overnight. The solid deposited was filtered and washed with dichloromethane, giving pure Product 5 (232 g). The filtrate was neutralized with sulfonic acid resin and concentrated to dryness. The dry solid was washed with methylenechloride and dried, giving impure compound 5 (43.8 g). 1H-NMR (CD3OD) of pure 5 δ: 7.87-7.76 (phthalimido hydrogens), 7.22 & 6.99 (S-aromatic hydrogens), 5.46 (H-1), 4.18 (H-2), 4.03 (H-3), 3.89 & 3.70 (H-6), 3.39 (H-5), 3.37 (H-4), 2.22 (S-Ph-Me group). Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of product 5, as shown above.

Preparation of intermediate Product 6



[0038] 
[IMAGE]


[0039]  Product 5 (295 g; 638; mmol) was suspended in dry toluene (1 L) and evaporated under vacuum. This procedure was repeated once more to ensure the removal of methanol contaminant that is detrimental to the reaction. 265 grams total was recovered. The residue after toluene evaporation was suspended in methylenechloride (3 L) in a 3-neck flask fitted with an overhead stirrer and the suspendion was stirred under dry nitrogen atmosphere. The flask was cooled in an ice bath and the following reagents were added: Pyridine = 126 g, N,N-Dimethylaminopyridine = 500 mg; and Benzoyl Chloride: 171 g (added by means of an addition funnel slowly in drops over 60 min). The reaction mixture was milky white, but began to clear when all benzoyl chloride was added. The reaction was allowed to stir for 18 h at room temperature. The reaction was diluted with methylenechloride and was washed with water (2 x), 1 M aqueous HCl (2 x), then saturated NaHCO3 and dried with MgSO4.

[0040]  The crude product was recrystallized in 8 liters of hot EtOH, crystals were filtered, and washed in EtOH giving Crop 6A (225 g). The filtrate was concentrated to dryness giving Crop 6B (131 g). A second recrystallization of Crop 6A was done to give pure product 6 (172g). The residue (40 g) from the filtrate of the second recrystallization had product 6 of purity greater than 95%, as determined by NMR. Crop 6B was not further processed as NMR analysis showed that it had a significant amount of undesired products and was therefore recycled back to compound 5.

[0041]  1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ: 8.14, 7.88, 7.69, 7.57, 7.41 (benzoate hydrogens), 7.80-7.72 (phthalimido hydrogens), 7.34 & 7.00 (S-aromatic hydrogens), 5.93 (H-3), 5.79 (H-1), 4.77 & 3.99 (H-6), 4.47 (H-2), 4.03-3.99 (H-5), 3.91 (H-4), 3.25 (OH), 2.31 (S-Ph-Me group). Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of product 6, as shown above.

Preparation of Monomer (I)



[0042] 
[IMAGE]


[0043]  Product 6 (171.9 g; 275.6 mmol) was dissolved in minimum methylenechloride (350 mL) containing collidine (41.7 g; 344.5 mmol; 1.25 eq.). t-BDMS-Triflate (80.0g; 303.1 mmol; 1.1 eq.) was added drop-wise by addition funnel (over 50 minutes). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir overnight. The reaction mixture was diluted with methylenechloride and washed sequentially with ice-cold water, 0.5 M aqueous HCL (ice cold), then aqueous saturated NaHCO3. It was then dried with MgSO4. filtered and concentrated to give monomer (I) as a white solid (207 g). The product was dissolved in dry toluene and concentrated to dryness before use in a glycosylation reaction. The 207 g of monomer (I) product recovered was essentially equal to the theoretical yield, calculated to be 203.4 g.

[0044]  1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ: 8.16 - 7.41 (benzoate hydrogens, phthalimido hydrogens), 7.30 & 6.95 (S-aromatic hydrogens), 5.97 (H-3), 5.82 (H-1), 4.89 & 4.49 (H-6), 4.40 (H-2), 4.14 (H-4), 4.01 (H-5), 2.30 (S-Ph-Me group), 0.80 (t-butyl group on silicon), 0.09& -0.16 (methyl groups of silicon). Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of Monomer (I), as shown above.

EXAMPLE 3


Synthesis of Monomer (II)


Preparation of intermediate compound 7



[0045] 
[IMAGE]


[0046]  To ensure that the starting glycoside was free of EtOH traces, compound 3 (60.0 g; 126 mmol) was dissolved in toluene and evaporated. It was then dissolved in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (500 ml) containing MeOH (6.5 g; 202 mmol; 1.6 eq.). Tin tetrachloride (SnCl4; 18.4 g; 70.5 mmol; 0.56 eq.) was diluted with CH2Cl2 (25 ml) and added drop-wise. The reaction mixture was poured over ice water and shaken well. This was repeated once more and then the organic layer was washed twice with aqueous saturated NaHCO3, dried with MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was recrystallized from hot EtOH, giving crystals of product 7(43.1 g). The crude yield of 49.8 g of product 7 was 88% of the theoretical yield, calculated to be 56.6 g, while the recrystallized product 7 yield of 43.1 g was 76%.

[0047]  1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ: 7.86-7.74 (phthalimido hydrogens), 5.78 (H-3), 5.31 (H-1), 5.18 (H-4), 4.31 (H-2), 4.34 & 4.20 (H-6), 3.88 (H-5), 2.20, 2.03, 1.86 (methyls of acetyl groups). Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of product 7, as shown above.

Preparation of intermediate product 8



[0048] 
[IMAGE]


[0049]  Product 7 (141.0 g; 314 mmol) was suspended in MeOH (1000 ml), and NaOMe (0.5 M, 10 ml) was added. The methyl glycoside product 7 did not readily dissolve in MeOH. The solution was tested to ensure basicity. The reaction was stirred overnight. The solution became clear. Examination of the reaction mixture by TLC (EtOAc=Hexane-EtOH = 10:20:1) indicated the disappearance of the starting material and the formation of a polar product (near the origin). The solution was neutralized with sulfonic acid resin, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. Weight of the residue, called product 8, was 105.3 g, which probably includes some methanol.

[0050]  The crude yield of 105.3 g of product 8 was essentially equal to the theoretical yield, calculated to be 101.3 g. 1H-NMR (CD3OD) δ: 7.85-7.80 (phthalimido hydrogens), 5.07 (H-1), 4.21 (H-2), 3.94 (H-3), 3.92 & 3.74 (H-6), 3.40 (H-5), 3.40 (OCH3), 3.38 (H-4). Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of product 8, as shown above.

Preparation of Monomer (II)



[0051] 
[IMAGE]


[0052]  Product 8 (crude; 105.3), after being evaporated with toluene-DMF, was suspended in CH2Cl2 (500 ml). Pyridine (61.8 g; 782 mmol; 2.5 eq.) was added first, followed by the drop-wise addition of benzoyl chloride (88 g; 626 mmol; 2.0 eq.) to the mixture. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 24 h. It was then diluted with CH2Cl2 and washed sequentially with H2O, 1M HCl (2X), then aqueous saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, dried with MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated. The product was purified by chromatography on silica gel, using EtOAc-Hexane = 3:8 as eluant. The weight of the purified product was 116.1 g. The product was about 90% pure as determined by NMR. A portion (21.1 g) of this product was crystallized from dietylether-hexane to obtain pure crystalline material (13.8 g) of monomer (II). 1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ: 8.15, 7.92, 7.67, 7.56, 7.42 (benzoate hydrogens), 7.83-7.74 (phthalimido hydrogens), 5.93 (H-3), 5.40 (H-1), 4.82 & 4.72 (H-6), 4.43 (H-2), 4.03-3.92 (H-5, H-4), 3.50 (OCH3), 3.33 (OH). Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of monomer (II), as shown above.

EXAMPLE 4


Synthesis of Derivatized Glucosamine Disaccharide


Structural characterization of oligoglucosamine derivatives:



[0053]  The structures of the coupled products described below were confirmed by proton NMR and mass spectrometry as follows. The chemical shifts of hydrogens H-3 and H-1 of the phthalimido glucosamine unit appeared in proton NMR spectrum at chemical shifts between 5 and 6.5 ppm. The hydrogen H-3 appeared as a doublet of a doublet with a coupling constant of about 8-10 Hz. By counting the number of these hydrogen signals, the length of the oligoglucosamine can easily be determined, for the disaccharide to the pentasaccharide. For oligoglucosamine derivatives of 6 and above, the signals for these hydrogens started to overlap. However, a sufficient number of these signals could be identified to confirm the structure. A similar observation was seen for the anomeric hydrogens, which appeared as a doublet with a coupling constant of about 8-8.5 Hz, thereby confirming the β-glycosidic configuration. Furthermore, the chemical shift of H-4 in the terminal glucosamine unit appeared around 3.5 ppm, when the corresponding carbon carried a hydroxyl group. This was shifted to 3.7 ppm upon glycosylation at this site. Thus, H-4 could be used as a reporter group for establishing the success of the glycosylation reaction. Further proof of structure was obtained by MALDI and electrospray mass spectral data of the product, which are indicated for each compound.

Synthesis of Dimer Product 9



[0054] 
[IMAGE]


[0055]  Monomer (II) (80.6 g, 109.3 mmol, 1.2 eq.) and monomer (II) (48.4 g, 91.1 mmol), both previously evaporated with toluene once, were dissolved in CH2Cl2 (150 mL) in a 3-necked, 500 ml flask. 4A Molecular sieve was added (5 g). The mixture was cooled to -60° C under nitrogen atmosphere with vigorous stirring. After 10 min, N-Iodosuccinimide (NIS; 44.3 g; 196.7 mmol; 2.2 eq.) was added as a dry powder, followed by the drop-wise addition of a solution of triflic acid (TfOH; 13.7 g, 91.1 mmol, 1.0 eq.) and methyltriflate (14.9 g, 54.8 mmol, 1.0 eq.) in methylenechloride. The reaction mixture was left at -55° C for an additional 4 hr. An additional 100 ml of the triflic acid/lmethyltriflate solution was added to the reaction mixture dropwise to reduce of the viscosity. The reaction mixture was filtered cold over a celite pad into a filter flask containing 1:1 saturated sodium thiosulfate-sodium bicarbonate solution that was stirred thoroughly during the filtration. The flask and the residue on the filter were rinsed with methylenechloride and the combined filtrate was worked up as follows. The filtrate was poured into a separatory funnel. The contents were thoroughly mixed, the aqueous solution separated, and the organic layer washed one more time with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution, followed by water, and aqueous saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The solution was then dried with magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated. Weight of the crude product was 111.1 g. Analytically pure sample was prepared by subjecting the crude product to separation by silica gel chromatography, using ethyl acetate - hexane as eluant. 1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ: 8.17 - 7.19 (phthalimido and benzoate hydrogens), 6.11 and 5.76 (2 x H-3), 5.74 and 5.31 (2 x H-1), 4.36 and 4.32 (2 x H-2), 4.32 and 3.93 (2 x H-4), 3.90 and 3.53 (2 x H-5), 4.65, 4.38, 4.12, and 3.63 (4 x H-6), 3.38 (OCH3), 0.68 (t-butyl), -0.12, -0.40 (2 x CH3). Mass spec.: M. wt. Calc. 1144.37; Obs. M+Na = 1167.5. Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of product 9, as shown above. The crude product as such was used in the next step, where complete removal of the tBDMS was accomplished.

EXAMPLE 5


Removal of the silicon group from Disaccharide Product 9 for chain extension


Preparation of intermediate product 10



[0056] 
[IMAGE]


[0057]  Product 9 (111.1 g) was dissolved in THF (350 ml). To this solution, a 1 M solution of acetic acid (110 ml) and a 1 M solution of ntetrabutylammonium fluoride in THF (110 ml) were added and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 days. Completion of the reaction was ascertained by TLC using EtOAC:Hex:EtOH = 4:8:1 as a solvent, which indicated that the reaction was complete. The solvent of the reaction was evaporated on high vacuum (without heat) and the residue was dissolved in CH2Cl2, washed sequentially with water, 1M aqueous HCl, 10% sodium thiosulfate aqueous solution, and finally, with saturated aqueous NaHCO3. The solution was then dried with MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The resulting soild was treated with diethylether which resulted in a gluey material. The supematent was filtered and the gluey material was repeatedly washed with diethylether. To the filtrate, hexane was added to precipitate any ether soluble product and this was filtered (Fraction B, 5.9 g). The final filtrate from ether-hexane was concentrated to dryness (Fraction C).

[0058]  The NMR spectrum indicated that Fraction B product had about 5% silicon impurity (peak around 0 ppm) along with the major desired disaccharide. Fraction A was contaminated about 10% with tBDMS impurities and a tetrabutylammonium derivative. Therefore, Fraction A was resuspended in 600 ml of ether, mixed for about 10 minutes, filtered and the process was repeated once more (weight of the solid recovered was 77.3 g). This solid was purified once more by dissolving the product in ethyl acetate and precipitating the product with the aid of hexane (weight of the product recovered was 71.7 g). The filtrates were combined, hexane was added to precipitate the remaining product and additional 10.8 g of the product was recovered. 1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ: 8.12 - 7.14 (phthalimido and benzoate hydrogens), 6.14 and 5.73 (2 x H-3), 5.72 and 5.34 (2 x H-1), 4.37 and 4.34 (2 x H-2), 4.10 and 3.69 (2 x H-4), 3.97 and 3.44 (2 x H-5), 4.66, 4.18, 4.12- 4.06 (4 x H-6), 3.38 (OCH3), 3.35 (OH). Mass spec.: M. wt. Calc. 1030.98 ; Obs. M+Na = 1053.1. Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of product 10, as shown above.

EXAMPLE 6


Synthesis of Derivatized Glucosamine Trisaccharide


Synthesis of Trimer product 11



[0059] 
[IMAGE]


[0060]  Monomer (I) (88.6 g; 120 mmol; 1.5 eq.) and product 10 (82.5 G; 80.0 mmol) were dissolved in CH2Cl2 (100 ml) in a flask. Molecular sleve (4A, 5.0 g) was added. The flask was placed in a -55 °C water bath and stirred for 15 min. NIS (48.6 g; 216 mmol) was added as a powder to the cold solution, while maintaining vigorous stirring. A solution of methyl triflate (13.1 g; 80 mmol; 1.0 eq.) and TfOH (12 g; 80 mmol; 1.9 eq.), both dissolved together in CH2Cl2 (5 ml), was added to the cold solution in drops by means of an addition funnel (over 60 min). After 6 h at -60°C to - 50°C, the reaction mixture was poured over saturated sodium bicarbonate and saturated sodium thiosulfate aqueous solution (1:1, 400 ml) contained in an Erlenmeyer flask and thoroughly stirred. Additional methylenechloride (200 ml) was added and the contents were thoroughly mixed for 10 min, the aqueous solution separated, and the organic layer washed with 0.6% aqueous bleach solution, de-ionized water, and aqueous saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The solution was then dried with MgSO4, filtered and concentrated.

[0061]  To remove the excess monomer impurity from the trisaccharide, the crude product was suspended in diethylether (600 ml), the solid thoroughly mixed and the supematent filtered. This process was repeated three times and the residue finally dissolved in methylenechloride, then concentrated to dryness giving 93.5 g of product 11. To the filtrate, about 40% volume of hexane was added and the precipitated material filtered, redissolved in methylenechloride and concentrated to dryness under vacuum to obtain an additional amount of compound 11 (26.0 g). 1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ (only select hydrogen chemical shifts are reported): 8.13-7.12 (phthalimido and benzoate hydrogens), 6.03, 5.88, and 5.62 (3 x H-3), 5.64, 5.48, and 5.29 (3 x H-1), 3.77 (H-4 of the terminal glucosamine unit), 3.90 (H-5 of the terminal glucosamine unit), 4.63 (H-6 of the terminal glucosamine unit), 3.35 (OCH3), 0.64 (t-butyl), -0.18, -0.33 (2 x CH3 of the silicon unit). Mass spec.: Exact m. wt. Calc. 1643.49 ; Obs. M+Na = 1666.3. Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of product 11, as shown above.

EXAMPLE 7


Removal of the silicon group from Trisaccharide Product 11 for Further Chain Extension


Preparation of intermediate 12



[0062] 
[IMAGE]


[0063]  Product 11 was dissolved in minimum THF (500 ml). To this solution, 1 M solution of acetic acid (150 ml) and a 1 M solution of n-tetrabutylammonium fluoride In THF (150 ml) were added and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 days. The reaction mixture was evaporated to dryness, the residue redissolved in methylenechloride, washed sequentially with deionized water, 1 M HCl, 1% aqueous bleach solution (to remove the dark brown color), and saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, then concentrated to dryness.

[0064]  In order to remove the nonpolar silicon and other impurities, the solid was dissolved in minimum ethyl acetate. Hexane was added in drops (the final solvent ratio EtOAc-Hexane was 17:14). This resulted in a gluey material. The liquid was filtered and the gluey material redissolved in EtOAc (200 ml) and precipitated with hexane (100 ml) as described above. Finally, diethylether was added to solidify the gluey material and the solid was filtered. The solid was redissolved in methylenechloride and concentrated to dryness giving 81.4 g of product 12.

[0065]  The filtrate EtOAc-Hexane-ether was concentrated to dryness. The residue was suspended in diethylether, shaken well and filtered. This process was repeated twice. Finally, the precipitate was dissolved in methylenechloride and concentrated to dryness to obtain additional product 12 (16.5 g).). 1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ (only select hydrogen chemical shifts are reported): 8.08 - 7.16 (phthalimido and benzoate hydrogens), 6.03, 5.92, and 5.59 (3 x H-3), 5.67, 5.48, and 5.29 (3 x H-1), 3.56 (H-4 of the terminal glucosamine unit), 3.91 (H-5 of the terminal glucosamine unit), 4.63 (H-6 of the terminal glucosamine unit), 3.35 (OCH3), 3.01 (OH), 0.64. Mass spec: Exact m. wt. Calc. 1529.41 ; Obs. M+Na = 1553.4. Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of product 12, as shown above.

EXAMPLE 8


Synthesis of Derivatized Glucosamine Tetrasaccharide


Synthesis of the tetramer product 13



[0066] 
[IMAGE]


[0067]  Thioglycoside monomer (I) (37.4 g; 50.7 mmol) and trisaccharide product 12 (45.6 g; 29.8 mmol) were dissolved in CH2Cl2 (150 ml) in a flask. Molecular sieve (4A, 10.0 g) was added. The flask was placed in a -55 °C bath and stirred for 15 min. NIS (20.5 g; 91.25 mmol) was added as a powder to the cold solution, while maintaining vigorous stirring. A solution of methyl triflate (4.9 g; 29.8 mmol) and TfOH (4.5 g; 29.8 mmol), both dissolved together in CH2Cl2 (20 ml), was added to the cold solution in drops by means of an addition funnel (over 60 min). After 6 h, at -60° C, the reaction mixture was poured over saturated sodium bicarbonate and saturated sodium thiosulfate aqueous solution (1:1, 400 mL) contained in an Erlenmeyer flask and thoroughly stirred. Additional methylenechloride (200 ml) was added and the contents were thoroughly mixed for 10 min, the aqueous solution separated, and the organic layer washed sequentially with 10% aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution, 1% aqueous bleach solution,and aqueous saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The solution was then dried with MgSO4, fittered and concentrated (75.1 g).

[0068]  To remove the excess monomer impurity from the tetrasaccharide, the crude product was suspended in diethylether (600 ml), the solid thoroughly mixed and the supematent filtered. This process was repeated three times, and the residue finally dissolved in mehtylenechloride and concentrated to dryness (13 A, 54.2 g).

[0069]  To the filtrate, about 40% volume of hexane was added and the precipitated material filtered, redissolved in methylenechloride and concentrated to dryness giving 5.8 g of product 13 B. NMR analysis of 13 A and 13 B indicated that these were nearly the same and they were combined. 1H-NMR (CD2Cl2) δ (only select hydrogen chemical shifts are reported): 8.09 - 7.03 (phthalimido and benzoate hydrogens), 6.00, 5.83, 5.76, and 5.62 (4 x H-3), 5.62, 5.42, 5.41, and 5.27 (4 x H-1), 3.74 (H-4 of the terminal glucosamine unit), 3.88 (H-5 of the terminal glucosamine unit), 4.60 (H-6 of the terminal glucosamine unit), 3.33 (OCH3), 0.63 (t-butyl), -0.19, -0.34 (2 x CH3 of the silicon unit). Mass spec.: Exact m. wt. Calc. 2142.62 ; Obs. M+Na = 2166.4. Thus the NMR spectrum verified the structure of product 13, as shown above.

EXAMPLE 9


Synthesis of a Lipochitooligosaccharide tetramer



[0070] 
[IMAGE]


[0071]  Product tetrasaccharide 13 of Example 8 (25 g) was suspended in anhydrous methanol (900 ml). Sodium methoxide solution (0.5 M, 20 ml) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 day, forming a thick white precipitate. The reaction mixture was then heated to reflux causing all of the solid to dissolve. After 72 h at reflux, lots of precipitate was again formed in the reaction flask. The heating was stopped, the flask was cooled, and the precipitated material was filtered and washed with methanol. Weight of the precipitated product was 11.2 g. This was identified as product 20 by proton NMR.

[0072]  Product 20 (11.2 g) was refluxed in methanol (1 L) containing ethylenediamine Merrifield resin (152 g) for 5 days. The warm reaction mixture was then filtered and washed with methanol. Unreacted starting material remained as solid, whereas the methanolic filtrate contained product. This was concentrated to dryness and the solid was suspended in methanol (175 ml) containing acetic anhydride (6 ml) and triethylamine (6 ml), and stirred at room temperature for 2 h. A white precipitate formed in the flask, which was filtered. The filtrate was treated with H+ resin (10 g), filtered, and concentrated to dryness to get product 21 (6.7 g). This was identified as product 21 by proton NMR.

[0073]  Product 21 was suspended in tetrahydrofuran (100 ml), and 1M solutions of acetic acid and tetrabutylammonium fluoride (5 ml each) were added. After 24 h of stirring at room temperature the mixture remained cloudy. N,N-dimethylformamide (10 ml) was added to assist in dissolving the product, and the reaction was stirred at 65 °C for 3 days and then concentrated to dryness. The resulting product was then suspended in methanol (100 ml) and ethylenediamine Merrifield resin (25 g) was added. The reaction was heated to 75 °C and stirred for 44 h. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature and filtered. The filtrate which contained product 22 was concentrated to dryness (2.2 g). This was identified as product 22 by proton NMR.

[0074]  A solution of the fatty acid C18:1 or C16:1 (.37 g) in N,N-dimethylformamide (10 ml) containing EDC (.28 g) and HOBt-H2O (.20 g) was added to a suspension of product 16 (1.0 g) in DMF. Additional N,N-dimethylformamide (10 ml) was added to completely dissolve the oligomer. The reaction mixture was stirred for 18 h at room temperature and then heated to 80°C for 2 h, resulting in the formation of a thick gel. The gel was diluted with methanol and the gelatinous material containing the product (product 23 from C18:1 and product 24 from C16:1) was filtered. The residue was repeatedly washed with methanol, followed by washing with water. The residue on the filter paper was collected and dried to obtain product 23 (520 mg) or product 24 (552 mg). This was identified as product 23 and 24 by proton NMR.


Claims

1. A composition comprising a chemically synthesized lipochitooligosaccharide represented by the structure:
[IMAGE]
or represented by the structure:
[IMAGE]



Ansprüche

1. Zusammensetzung umfassend ein chemisch synthetisiertes Lipochitooligosaccharid, das durch die folgende Struktur dargestellt wird:
[IMAGE]
oder durch die folgende Struktur dargestellt wird:
[IMAGE]



Revendications

1. Composition comprenant un lipochitooligosaccharide chimiquement synthétisé représenté par la structure:
[IMAGE]
ou représenté par la structure:
[IMAGE]





REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Non-patent literature cited in the description



  • NICOLAOU et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1992, vol. 114, 8701- 8702  [0004]
  • IKESHITA et al. Carbohydrate Research, 1995, C1- C6  [0004]
  • WANG et al. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans., 1994, vol. 1, 621- 628  [0004]
  • DEMONT-CAULET et al. Plant Physiology, 1999, vol. 120, 83- 92  [0025]

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