Compositions And Methods For Dehydration And Cyclization Of Peptides, Synthetic Compounds, And Lantibiotics

  *US07785825B2*
  US007785825B2                                 
(12)United States Patent(10)Patent No.: US 7,785,825 B2
 van der Donk et al. (45) Date of Patent:Aug.  31, 2010

(54)Compositions and methods for dehydration and cyclization of peptides, synthetic compounds, and lantibiotics 
    
(75)Inventors: Willem A. van der Donk,  Champaign, IL (US); 
  Lili Xie,  Brookline, MA (US); 
  Champak Chatterjee,  Urbana, IL (US); 
  Moushumi Paul,  Urbana, IL (US) 
(73)Assignee:The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois,  Urbana, IL (US), Type: US Company 
(*)Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 389 days. 
(21)Appl. No.: 11/034,275 
(22)Filed: Jan.  12, 2005 
(65)Prior Publication Data 
 US 2005/0164339 A1 Jul.  28, 2005 
 Related U.S. Patent Documents 
(60)Provisional application No. 60/536,140, filed on Jan.  12, 2004.
 
(51)Int. Cl. C12P 021/06 (20060101); C12N 009/00 (20060101); C12N 009/14 (20060101)
(52)U.S. Cl. 435/68.1; 435/183; 435/195
(58)Field of Search  None

 
(56)References Cited

 
 FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 
 
       BE       0890259       A                3/1982      
       WO       WO 01/90035                         11/2001      

 OTHER PUBLICATIONS
  
  Guo et al., Protein tolerance to random amino acid change, (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 9205-9210. *
  Lazar et al., Trnasforming Growth Factor alpha: Mutation of aspartic Acid 47 and Leucine 48 Results in Different Biological Activities, (1988) Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:1247-1252. *
  Hill et al., Functional Analysis of Conserved Histidines in ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli, (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 244:573-577. *
  Lamla et al., The cell-free protein biosynthesis-applications and analysis of the system, Acta Biochimica Polonica, 2001, vol. 48, pp. 453-465. *
  Aso et al., Characterization of a gene cluster of Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1 encoding the biosynthesis of and immunity to the lantibiotic, nukacin ISK-1, Biosci Biotechnol biochem, 2004, vol. 68, pp. 1663-1671. *
  Bundgaard, H. (1985) “Formation of Prodrugs of Amines, Amides, Ureides, and Imides,” Methods in Enzymol. 112:347-359.
  Cane, D. E. (1995) “Isoprenoid Antibiotics” Biotechnol. 28:633-655.
  Chatterjee, C. et al. (2005) “Biosynthesis and Mode of Action of Lantibiotics,” Chem. Rev. 105:633-683.
  Nielsen, N. M. et al. (1988) “Glycolamide Esters as Biolabile Prodrugs of Carboxylic Acid Agents: Synthesis, Stability, Bioconversion, and Physicochemical Properties,” J. Pharm. Sci. 77(4):285-298.
  Altena et al. (2000) “Biosynthesis of the Lantibiotic Mersacidin: Organization of Type B Lantibiotic Gene Cluster,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66(6):2565-2571.
  Arnone et al. (1996) “New Versatile Fluorinated Chiral Building Blocks: Synthesis and Reactivity of Optically Pure a-(fluoroalkyl)-b-sulfinylenamines,” J. Org. Chem. 61:3375-3387.
  Aso et al. “Characterization of the Gene Cluster of Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1 Encoding Biosynthesis and Immunity of the Lantibiotic, Nukacin ISK-1,” Pubmed, 2004.
  Ayers et al. (1999) “Introduction of Unnatural Amino Acids into Proteins Using Expressed Protein Ligation,” Biopolymers 51:343-354.
  Ayi et al. (1995) “Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,3-difluoro-2-amino Esters. Synthesis of D- and L-3,3-difluoro-2-Amino Acids and their Derivatives,” J. Fluor. Chem. 73:165-169.
  Baldwin et al. (1987) “Penicillin Biosynthesis: Active Site Mapping with L-a-Aminoadipoyl-C-methyl-L-cysteinyl)-D-valine Variants” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1664-1667.
  Banerjee et al. (1988) “Structure and Expression of a Gene Encoding the Precursor of Subtilin, a Small Protein Antibiotic” J. Biol. Chem. 262:9508-9514.
  Barber et al. (1988). “Confirmation of the Structure of Nisin and its Major Degradation Product by FAB-MS and FAB-MS/MS” Experientia 44:266-70.
  Baron et al. (1994). “Eukaryotic Selenocysteine Inserting tRNA Species Support Selenoprotein Synthesis in Escherichia coli,” Nucleic Acids Res. 22:2228-2233.
  Bauer et al. (2000) “Characterization of p40/GPR69A as a Peripheral Membrane Protein Related to the Lantibiotic Synthetase Component C,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 275:69-74.
  Belokon et al. (1990) “General Method for the Asymmetric Synthesis of Anti-Diastereomers of b-substituted L-2-aminobutanoic Acids via Chiral Nickel(II) Schiff's Base Complexes of Dehydroaminobutanoic Acid. X-ray Crystal and Molecular Structure of the Nickel(II) Complex of the Schiff's Base from [(benzylprolyl)amino]benzophenone and dehydroaminobutanoic acid,” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1:2301-2310.
  Berry et al. (2002) “An Engineered Azurin Variant Containing a Selenocysteine Copper Ligand,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124:2084-2085.
  Besse et al. (1997) “The Redox Potential of Selenocystine in Unconstrained Cyclic Peptides” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36:883-885.
  Bertini et al. (1990) “pKa of Zinc-Bound Water and Nucleophilicity of Hydroxo-Containing Species. Ab initio Calculations on Models for Zinc Enzymes,” Inorg. Chem. 29:1460-1463.
  Bertini et al. (1984) “High Spin Cobalt(II) as a Probe for the Investigation of Metalloproteins,” Adv. Inorg. Biochem. 6:71-111.
  Bierbaum (1994) “Construction of an Expression System for Engineering of the Lantibiotic Pep5,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:4332-4338.
  Bierbaum et al. (1995) “Cloning, Sequencing and Production of the Lantibiotic Mersacidin,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 127:121-126.
  Böck et al. (1991). “Selenoprotein Synthesis: An Expansion of the Genetic Code,” Trends Biochem. Sci. 16:463-467.
  Breukink et al. (1999) “Use of Cell Wall Precursor Lipid II by a Pore-Forming Peptide Antibiotic,” Science 286:2361-2364.
  Breukink et al. (1999) “The Lantibiotic Nisin, a Special Case or Not,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1462:223-234.
  Brik et al. (2000) “Protein Synthesis by Solid-Phase Chemical Ligation Using a Safety Catch Linker,” J. Org. Chem. 65:3829-3835.
  Brötz et al. (1998) “Role of Lipid-Bound Peptidoglycan Precursors in the Formation of Pores by Nisin, Epidermin and other Lantibiotics,” Mol. Microbiol. 30:317-327.
  Bundgaard et al. (1988) “Glycoamide Esters as Biolabile Prodrugs of Carboxylic Acid Agents: Synthesis, Stability, Bioconversion, and Physiochemical Properites,” J. Pharm. Sci. 77:285-298.
  Bundgaard, H. (1992) “Means to Enhace Pentation: Prodrugs as a Means to Improve The Delivery of Peptide Drugs,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 8:1-38.
  Bundgaard, H. (1991) A Textbook of Drug Design and Development, Krosgaard-Larsen et al. eds., Ch. 5, “Design and Application of Prodrugs,” pp. 113-191.
  Burkoth et al. (2003) “Incorporation of Unprotected Heterocyclic Side Chains into Peptoid Oligomers via Solid-Phase Submonomer Synthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125:8841-8845.
  Canne et al. (1999) “Chemical Protein Synthesis by Solid Phase Ligation of Unprotected Peptide Segments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121:8720-8727.
  Caperelli et al. (1978) “Isotope-Tapping Experiments with Rabbit Liver Fructose Bisphosphatase,” Biochemistry 17:1699-1704.
  Carbon,C. (2000) “MRSA and MRSE: Is There an Answer,” Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 6:supp2 17-22.
  Casey et al. (1996) “Protein Prenyltransferases,” J. Biol. Chem. 271:5289-5292.
  Chan et al. (1996) “Structure-Activity Relationships in the Peptide Antibiotic Nisin: Role of Dehydroalanine 5,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:2966-2969.
  Chakicherla et al. (1995) “Role of the Leader and Structural Regions of Prelantibiotic Peptides as Assessed by Expressing Nisin-Subtilin Chimeras in Bacillus subtilis 168, and Characterization of their Physical, Chemical, and Antimicrobial Properties,” J. Biol. Chem. 270:23533-23539.
  Chatterjee et al. (1992) “Mersacidin, A New Antibiotic from Bacillus. In vitro and in vivo Antibacterial Activity,” J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 45:839-845.
  Chen et al. (1999) “The Specific Genes for Lantibiotic Mutacin II Biosynthesis in Streptococcus mutans T8 are Clustered and Can be Transferred en bloc,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1356-60.
  Chen et al. (1998) “Structure-Activity Study of the Lantibiotic Mutacin II from Streptococcus mutans T8 by a Gene Replacement Strategy,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:2335-2340.
  Chen et al. (2001) “Effect of Amino Acid Substitutions in Conserved Residues in the Leader Peptide on Biosynthesis of the Lantibiotic Mutacin II,” FEMS Microbiol Lett 195:139-144.
  Chikindas et al. (1995) “Mutacin II, a Bactericidal Antibiotic from Streptococcus mutans,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 39:2656-2660.
  Cleveland et al. (2001) “Bactriocins: Safe, Natural, Antimicrobials for Food Preservation,” Int. J. Food Microbiol. 71:1-20.
  Commans et al. (1999) “Selenocysteine Inserting tRNAs: an Overview,” FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 23:335-351.
  Cramer et al. (1985) “Arsenite-Inhibited Xanthine Oxidase—Determination of the Molybdenum-Sulfur-Arsenic Geometry by EXAFS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107:8164-8169.
  Datta et al. (2002) “A Designed Phenylalanyl-tRNA Synthetase Variant Allows Efficient in vivo Incorporation of Aryl Ketone Functionality into Proteins,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124:5652-5653.
  Dawson et al. (1994) “Synthesis of Proteins by Native Chemical Ligation,” Science 266:776-779.
  Dawson et al. (2000) “Synthesis of Native Proteins by Chemical Ligation,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 69:923-960.
  Delves-Broughton et al. (1996) “Applications of the Bacteriocin, Nisin,” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69:193-202.
  Demel et al. (1996) “Nisin Z, Mutant Nisin Z and Lacticin 481 Interactions with Anionic Lipids Correlate with Antimicrobial Activity. A Monolayer Study,” Eur. J. Biochem. 235:267-274.
  Dougherty et al. (1998) “Sequence and Analysis of the 60kb Conjugative, Bacteriocin-Producing Plasmid pMRC01 from Lactococcus lactis DPC3147,” Mol. Microbiol. 29(4):1029-1038.
  Driessen et al. (1995) “Mechanistic Studies of Lantibiotic-Induced Permeabilization of Phospholipid Vesicles,” Biochemistry 34:1606-1614.
  Dufour et al. (1991) “Plasmid-Encoded Determinants for Bacteriocin Production and Immunity in a Lactococcus lactis Strain and Purification of the Inhibitory Peptide,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 137(10):2423-2429.
  Duthaler, R.O. (1994) “Recent Developments in the Stereoselective Synthesis of a-Amino Acids,” Tetrahedron 50:1539-1650.
  Engelke et al. (1992) “Biosynthesis of the Lanbiotic Nisin: Genomic Organization and Membrane Localization of the NisB Protein,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:3730-3743.
  Ennahar et al. (2000) “Clazss IIa Bacteriocins: Biosynthesis, Structure and Activity,” FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 224:85-106.
  Enserink, M. (1999) “Promising Antibiotic Candidate Identified,” Science 286:2245-2247.
  Entian et al. (1996) “Genetics of Subtilin and Nisin Biosyntheses: Biosynthesis of Lantibiotics,” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69:109-117.
  Epand et al. (1999) “Diversity of Antimicrobial Peptides and Their Mechanisms of Action,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1462:11-28.
  Evans et al. (1998) “Semisynthesis of Cytotoxic Proteins Using a Modified Protein Splicing Element,” Protein Sci. 7:2256-2264.
  Fiori et al. (2000) “Synthesis and Conformational Analysis of Apamin Analogues with Natural and Non-Natural Cystine/Selenosystine Connectivities,” Biopolymers 53:550-564.
  Fredenhagen et al. (1990) “Duramycins B and C, Two New Lanthionine Containing Antibiotics as Inhibitors of Phospholipase A2. Structural Revision of Duramycin and Cinnamycin,” J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 43:1403-1412.
  Fu et al. (1996) “Identification of a Cysteine Residue Essential for Activity of Protein Farnesyltransferase. Cys299 is Exposed Only Upon Removal of Zinc from the Enzyme,” J. Biol. Chem. 271:28541-28548.
  Fu et al. (1998) “Kinetic Analysis of Zinc Ligand Mutants of Mammalian Protein Farnesyltransferase,” Biochemistry 37:4465-72.
  Galonic et al. (2003) “Oligosaccharide-Peptide Ligation of Glycosyl Thiolates with Dehydropeptides. Synthesis of S-Linked Mucin Glycopeptide Conjugates,” Chem. Eur. J. 24:5997-6006.
  Giedroc et al. (1986) “Gene 32 Protein, the Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein from Bacteriophage T4, is a Zinc Metalloprotein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83:8452-8456.
  Gieselman et al. (2002) “Selenocysteine Drivatives for Chemoselective Ligations,” ChemBioChem. 3:709-716.
  Gieselman et al. (2001) “Synthesis of a Selenocystene-Containing Peptide by Native Chemical Ligation,” Org. Lett. 3:1331-1334.
  Gomez et al. (2002) “Trypsin Mediates Growth Phase-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation of Genes Involved in Biosynthesis of Ruminococcin A, A Lantibiotic Produced by a Ruminococcus gnavis Strain from a Human Intestinal Microbiota,” J. Bacteriol. 184(1):18-28.
  Gonzalez et al. (1996) “Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase from Escherichia coli: A Zinc Metalloenzyme,” Biochemistry 35:12228-12234.
  Goulding et al. (1997) “Cobalamin-Dependent Methionine Synthase from Escherichia coli: Involvement of Zinc in Homocysteine Activation,” Biochemistry 36:15749-15757.
  Guder et al. (2000) “Posttranslationally Modified Bacteriocins—The Lantibiotics,” Biopolymers 55:62-73.
  Guo et al. (1997) “Zinc Site Redesign in T4 Gene 32 Protein: Structure and Stability of Co(II) Complexes Formed by Wild-Type and Metal Ligand Substitution Mutants,” Biochemistry 36:730-742.
  Gutowski-Eckel et al. (1994) “Growth Phase-Dependent Regulation and Membrane Localization of SpaB, A Protein Involved in Biosynthesis of the Lanbiotic Subtilin,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1-11.
  Håvarstein et al. (1994) “The Leader Peptide of Colicin V Shares Consensus Sequences with Leader Peptides that are Common Among Peptide Bacteriocins Produced by Gram-Positive Bacteria,” Microbiology 140(9):2383-2389.
  Håvarstein et al. (1995) “A Family of Bacteriocin ABC Transporters Carry out Proteolytic Processing of their Substrates Concomitant with Export,” Mol. Microbiol. 16:229-240.
  Hechard et al. (2002) “Mode of Action of Modified and Unmodified Bacteriocins from Gram-Positive Bacteria,” Biochimie 84:545-57.
  Heider et al. (1993) “Selenium Metabolism in Micro-Organisms,” Adv. Microb. Physiol. 35:71-109.
  Herrera et al. (2000) “A Tyrosine-to-Threonine Mutation Converts Cycloartenol Synthase to an Oxidosqualene Cyclase that Forms Lanosterol as its Major Product,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122:6765-6766.
  Hightower et al. (1999) “Zinc-Catalyzed Sulfur Alkylation: Insights from Protein Farnesyltransferase,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 3:176-181.
  Hightower et al. (1998) “H-Ras Peptide and Protein Substrates Bind Protein Farnesyltransferase as an Ionized Thiolate,” Biochemistry 37:15555-15562.
  Hirsch, A. (1950) “The Assay of the Antibiotic Nisin,” J. Gen. Microbiol. 4:70-83.
  Horton et al. (1990) “Thio Sugars and Derivatives,” In Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry (W. W. Pigman and D. Horton, Ed.), pp. 799-842, Academic Press, New York.
  Höss et al. (1993) “Peptide Modification by Incorporation of A-trifluoromethyl A-amino Acids Via Trifluoromethyl-Substituted Acylimines,” J. Fluor. Chem. 61:163-170.
  Houghten et al. (1991) “Generation and Use of Synthetic Peptide Combinatorial Libraries for Basic Research and Drug Discovery,” Nature 354:84-86.
  Huang et al. (1997) “Evidence for a Catalytic Role of Zinc in Protein Farnesyltransferase. Spectroscopy of Co2+-Farnesyltransferase Indicates Metal Coordination of the Substrate Thiolate,” J. Biol. Chem. 272:20-23.
  Hunt et al. (1984) “Mercurial-Promoted Zn2+ release from Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase,” J. Biol. Chem. 259:14793-147803.
  Hunt et al. (1985) “The Use of 4-(2-pyridylazo) Resorcinol in Studies of Zinc Release from Escherichia coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase,” Anal. Biochem. 146:150-157.
  Hurst, A. (1981) “Nisin,” Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 27:85-123.
  Hynes et al. (1994) “Duplication of the Lantibiotic Structural Gene in M-type 49 Group A Streptococcus Strains Producing Streptococcin A-M49,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:4207-4209.
  Hynes et al. (1993) “Cloning of the Gene Encoding Streptococcin A-FF22, a Novel Lantibiotic Produced by Streptococcus Pyogenes, and Determination of its Nucleotide Sequence,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:1969-1971.
  Imperiali, B. (1988) “Synthetic Fluoropeptides as Pharmacologically Useful Compounds,” Adv. Biotechnol. Processes 10:97-129.
  Ingram, L.C. (1969) “Synthesis of the Antibiotic Nisin: Formation of Lanthionine and Beta-methyl-lanthionine,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 184:216-219.
  Jack et al. (2000) “Lantibiotics and Microcins: Polypeptides with Unusual Chemical Diversity,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 4:310-317.
  Jack et al. (1995) “The Genetics of Lantibiotic Biosynthesis,” BioEssays 17:793-802.
  Jameson et al. (1995) “Fluorescence Anisotropy Applied to Biomolecular Interactions,” Methods Enzymol. 246:283.
  Jarrett et al. (1997) “Changes in Protonation Associated with Substrate Binding and Cob(I)alamin Formation in Cobalamin-Dependent Methionine Synthase,” Biochemistry 36:15739-15748.
  Jung, G. (1991) “Lantibiotics-Ribosomally Synthesized Biologically Active Polypeptides Containing Sulfide Bridges and a,b-dehydroamino Acids,” Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed. Engl. 30:1051-1068.
  Kalmokoff et al. (1999) “Evidence for Production of a New Lantibiotic (butyrivibriocin OR79A) by the Ruminal Anaerobe Butyrivibrio Fibrisolvens OR79: Characterization of the Structural Gene Encoding Butyrivibriocin OR79A,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:2128-2135.
  Kelleher et al. (1998) “Regioselectivity and Chemoselectivity Analysis of Oxazole and Thiazole Ring Formation by the Peptide-Heterocyclizing Microcin B17 Synthetase Using High-Resolution MS/MS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120:9716-9717.
  Kelleher et al. (1999) “Posttranslational Heterocyclization of Cysteine and Serine Residues in the Antibiotic Microcin B17: Distributivity and Directionality,” Biochemistry 38:15623-15630.
  Kelleher, N.L. (2000) “From Primary Structure to Function: Biological Insights from Large-Molecule Mass Spectra,” Chem. Biol. 7:R37-R45.
  Kenyon et al. (1977) “Novel Sulfhydryl Reagents,” Methods Enzymol. 47:407-430.
  Kido et al. (1983) “Isolation and Characterization of Ancovenin, a New Inhibitor of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme, Produced by Actinomycetes,” J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 36:1295129-9.
  Kiesau et al. (1997) “Evidence for a Multimeric Subtilin Synthetase Complex,” J. Bacteriol. 179:1475-1481.
  Kitazume et al. (1991) “Stereocontrolled Synthesis of 4,4,4-trifluorothreonine,” Tetrahedron Asym. 2:235-238.
  Klaenhammer, T.R. (1993) “Genetics of Bacteriocins Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria,” FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 12:39-85.
  Kleinnijenhuis et al. (2003) “Localization of Intramolecular Monosulfide Bridges in Lantibiotics Determined with Electron Capture Induced Dissociation,” Anal. Chem. 75:3219-3225.
  Koide et al. (1993) “Synthetic Study on Selenocystine-Containing Peptides,” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 41:502-506.
  Koide et al. (1993) “Syntheses and Biological Activities of Selenium Analogs of .Alpha.-Rat Atrial Natriuretic Peptide,” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 41:1596-1600.
  Koksch et al. (1996) “Synthesis and Incorporation of A-trifluoromethyl-Substituted Amino Acids into Peptides,” ACS Symp. Ser. 639:42-58.
  Koksch et al. (1997) “Proteolytically Stable Peptides by Incorporation of Alpha-Tfm Amino Acids,” J. Pept. Sci. 3:157-167.
  Kollonitsch et al. (1978) “Selective Inhibitors of Biosynthesis of aminergic neurotransmitters,” Nature 274:906-908.
  Koponen et al. (2002) “NisB is Required for the Dehydration and NisC for the Lanthionine Formation in the Post-Translational Modification of Nisin,” Microbiol. 148:3561-3568.
  Krull et al. (2000) “Biochemical Structural Analysis of the Lantibiotic Mutacin II,” J. Biol. Chem. 275:15845-15850.
  Kuipers et al. (1996) “Protein Engineering of Lantibiotics,” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69:161-169.
  Kuipers et al. (1992) “Engineering Dehydrated Amino Acid Residues in the Antimicrobial Peptide Nisin,” J. Biol. Chem. 267:24340-12346.
  Kuipers et al. (1995) “Autoregulation of Nisin Biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis by Signal Transduction,” J. Biol. Chem. 270:27299-27304.
  Kuipers et al. (1993) “Biosynthesis and Secretion of a Precursor of Nisin Z by Lactococcus lactis, Directed by the Leader Peptide of the Homologous Lantibiotic Subtilin from Bacillus subtilis,” FEMS Lett. 330:23-27.
  Kukhar, V. (1994) “Fluorine-Containing Amino Acids,” J. Fluor. Chem. 69, 199-205.
  Kupke et al. (1996) “Expression, Purification, and Characterization of EpiC, an Enzyme Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Lantibiotic Epiderm, and Sequence Analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis epiC Mutants,” J. Bacteriol. 178:1335-1340.
  Kupke et al. (1996) “Post-Translational Modifications of Lantibiotics,” Antonie van Leeuwenhuek 69:139-150.
  Lam et al. (1991) “A New Type of Synthetic Peptide Library for Identifying Ligand-Binding Activity,” Nature 354:82-84.
  Lane et al. (1977) “Synthetic Analogues of the Active Sites of Iron-Sulfur Proteins. 14. Synthesis, Properties, and Structures of bis(o-xyly1-.alpha.,.alpha.′-dithiolato)ferrate(II,III) Anions, Analogs of Oxidized and Reduced Rubredoxin Sites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99:84-98.
  Lemieux et al. (1998) “Chemoselective Ligation Reactions with Proteins, Oligosaccharides and Cells,” TIBTECH 16:506-513.
  Levy, S.B. (2000) “The Future of Antibiotics: Facing Antibiotic Resistance,” Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 6 supp 3:101-106.
  Li et al. (1996) “From Peptide Precursors to Oxazole and Thiazole-Containing Peptide Antibiotics: Microcin B17 Synthase,” Science 274:1188-1193.
  Limbert et al. (1991) “Chemotherapeutic Properties of Mersacidin in vitro and in vivo,” In Nisin and Novel Lantibiotics (G. Jung and H.-G. Sahl, Ed.), pp. 448-456, ESCOM, Leiden, The Netherlands.
  Liptak et al. (1994) “Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry of Some Lantibiotics,” Biol Mass Spectrom 23:701-706.
  Liu et al. (1992) “Enhancement of the Chemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Subtilin by Site-Directed Mutagenesis,” J. Biol. Chem. 267:25078-25085.
  Liu et al. (1993) “The Antimicrobial Effect of a Structural Variant of Subtilin Against Outgrowing Bacillus cereus T Spores and Vegetative Cells Occurs by Different Mechanisms,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:648-651.
  Madison et al. (1997) “The Leader Peptide is Essential for the Post-Translational Modification of the DNA-Gyrase Inhibitor Microcin B17,” Mol. Microbiol. 23:161-168.
  Marcille et al. (2002) “Distribution of Genes Encoding the Trypsin-Dependent Lantibiotic Ruminococcin A Among Bacteria Isolated from Human Fecal Microbiota,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:3424-3431.
  Maret et al. (1993) “Cobalt as Probe and Label of Proteins,” Methods Enzymol. 226:52-71.
  Marki et al. (1991) “Mode of Action of the Lanthionine-Containing Peptide Antibiotics Duramycin, Duramycin B and C, and Cinnamycin as Indirect Inhibitors of Phospholipase A2,” Biochem. Pharmacol. 42:2027-2035.
  Matthews et al. (1997) “Enzyme-Catalyzed Methyl Transfers to Thiols: The Role of Zinc,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 1:332-339.
  Mathis et al. (1997) “Pre-Steady-State Study of Recombinant Sesquiterpene Cyclases,” Biochemistry 36:8340-8348.
  May et al. (1978) “Preparation and Properties of Cobalt(II) Rubredoxin,” Biochemistry 17:3333-3338.
  Mayer et al. (2001) “Characterization of Rat LANCL1, a Novel Member of the Lanthionine Synthetase C-like Protein Family, Highly Expressed in Testis and Brain,” Gene 269:73-80.
  Mayer et al. (2001) “Organization and Chromosomal Localization of the Human and Mouse Genes Coding for LanC-like Protein 1 (LANCL1),” Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 93:100-104.
  Mayer et al. (2001) “Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Tissue-Specific Expression of Human LANCL2, a Novel Member of the LanC-like Protein Family,” DNA Seq. 12:161-166.
  McAuliffe et al. (2001) “Lantibiotics: Structure Biosynthesis and Mode of Action,” FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25:285-308.
  McAuliffe et al. (2000) “Each Peptide of the Two-Component Lantibiotic Lacticin 3147 Requires a Separate Modification Enzyme for Activity,” Microbiol. 146:2147-2154.
  McCaskill et al. (1997) “Prospects for the Bioengineering of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 55:107-146.
  McLafferty et al. (1999) “Techview: Biochemistry. Biomolecule Mass Spectrometry,” Science 284:1289-1290.
  McLaughlin et al. (1999) “Nucleotide Sequence of the Streptococcin A-FF22 Lantibiotic Regulation: Model for Production of the Lantibiotic SA-FF22 by Strains of Streptococcus pyogenesmFEMS Microbiol. Lett. 175(2):171-177.
  Meyer et al. (2000) “Oxidosqualene Cyclase Residues that Promote Formation of Cycloartenol, Lanosterol, and Parkeol,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 39:4090-4092.
  Meyer et al. (1994) “Sequence Analysis of Lantibiotics: Chemical Derivatization Procedures Allow a Fast Access to Complete Edman Degradation,” Anal. Biochem. 223:185-190.
  Meyer et al. (1995),“Nucleotide Sequence of the Lantibiotic Pep5 Biosynthetic Gene Cluster and Functional Analysis of PepP and PepC,” Eur. J. Biochem. 232:478-489.
  Milne et al. (1998) “ATP/GTP Hydrolysis is Required for Oxazole and Thiazole Biosynthesis in the Peptide Antibiotic Microcin B17,” Biochemistry 37:13250-13261.
  Mitra et al. (1983) “Synthesis and 19F Spectra of Tetra-L-alanine Analogs Containing Selectively Incorporated 3-fluoro-L-alanine Residues,” Int. J. Peptide Prot. Res. 22:494-501.
  Moll et al. (1999) “Bacteriocins: Mechanism of Membrane Insertion and Pre Formation,” Antonie van Leewenhoek 76:185-198.
  Moll et al. (1996) “Mechanism of Lantibiotic-Induced Pore-Formation,” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69:185-191.
  Moroder et al. (1996) “Oxidative Folding of Cystine-Rich Peptides vs Regioselective Cysteine Pairing Strategies,” Biopolymers 40:207-234.
  Morris et al. (1981) “Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Spore Outgrowth by Covalent Modification of a Sulfhydryl Group by Nitrosothiol and Iodoacetate,” J. Bacteriol. 148:465-471.
  Muir et al. (1998) “Expressed Protein Ligation: A General Method for Protein Engineering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:6705-6710.
  Mullins et al. (1999) “Channeling of Ammonia Through the Intermolecular Tunnel Contained Within Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121:3803-3804.
  Myers et al. (1992) “Zinc Binding by the Methylation Signaling Domain of the Escherichia coli Ada Protein,” Biochemistry 31:4541-4547.
  Myers et al. (1993) “Repair of DNA Methylphosphotriesters Through a Metalloactivated Cysteine Nucleophile,” Science 261:1164-1167.
  Nair et al. (1996) “Unexpected Binding Mode of the Sulfonamide Fluorophore 5-Dimethylamino-1-naphthalene Sulfonamide to Human Carbonic Anhydrase II. Implications for the Development of a Zinc Biosensor,” J. Biol. Chem. 271:1003-1007.
  Nair et al. (1995) “Structural Basis of Inhibitor Affinity to Variants of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II,” Biochemistry 34:3981-3989.
  Nair et al. (1993) “Structural Consequences of Hydrophilic Amino Acid Substitutions in the Hydrophobic Pocket of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II,” Biochemistry 32:4506-4514.
  Nair et al. (1993) “Crystallographic Studies of Azide Binding to Human Carbonic Anhydrase II,” Eur. J. Biochem. 213:507-515.
  Nair et al. (1991) “Structural Properties of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II at pH 9.5,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181:579-584.
  Nair et al. (1991) “Altering the Mouth of a Hydrophobic Pocket. Structure and Kinetics of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II Mutants at Residue Val-121,” J. Biol. Chem. 266:17320-17325.
  Nakajima et al. (1983) “Studies on 2-Aziridinecarboxylic acid. IX. Convenient Synthesis of Optically Active S-alkylcysteine, Threo-S-alkyl-b-methylcysteine, and Lanthionine Derivatives Via the Ring Opening Reaction of Aziridine by Several Thiols,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 56:520-522.
  Navaratna et al. (1999) “Identification of Genes Encoding Two-Component Lantibiotic Production in Staphylococcus aureus C55 and Other Phage Group II S. Aureus Strains and Demonstration of an Association with the Exfoliative Toxin B Gene,” Infect. Immun. 67:4268-4271.
  Neis et al. (1997) “Effect of Leader Peptide Mutations on Biosynthesis of the Lantibiotic Pep5,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 149:249-255.
  Nes et al. (2000) “Class II Antimicrobial Peptides from Lactic Acid Bacteria,” Biopolymers 55:50-61.
  Nes et al. (1996) “Novel Lantibiotics and Their Pre-Peptides,” Antonie van Leewenhoek 69:89-97.
  Nissen-Meyer et al. (1997) “Ribosomally Synthesized Antomicrobial Peptides: Their Function, Structure, Biogenesis, and Mechanism of Action,” Arch. Microbiol. 167:67-77.
  Norgrady (1985) “Pro-drugs and Soft Drugs,” In; Medicinal Chemistry a Biochemical Approach, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 388-392.
  Okeley et al. (2003) “SpaC and NisC, The Cyclases Involved in Subtilin and Nisin Biosythesis, are Zinc Proteins,” Biochem. 42:13613-13624.
  Okeley et al. (2000) “Facile Chemoselective Synthesis of Dehydroalanine-Containing Peptides.” Org. Lett. 2:3603-3606.
  Okeley et al. (2000) “Novel Cofactors via Post-Translational Modifications of Enzyme Active Stress,” Chem. Biol. 7:R159-R171.
  O'Sullivan et al. (2002) “Elevated Enzyme Release from Lactococcal Starter Cultures on Exposure to the Lantibiotic Lacticin 481, Produced by Lactococcus lactis DPC5552,” J. Dairy Sci 85:2130-2140.
  O'Sullivan et al. (2003) “Generation of Food-Grade Lactococcal Starters Which Produce the Lantibiotics Lacticin 3147 and Lacticin 481,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:3681-3685.
  O'Sullivan et al. (2002) “Potential of Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria for Improvements in Food Safety and Quality,” Biochimie. 84:593-604.
  Pansare et al. (1989) “Synthesis and Reactivity of B-lactones Derived from L-Threonine and Related Amino Acids,” Org. Chem. 54:2311-2316.
  Park et al. (2003) “Lanthionine Synthetase Components C-like 2 Increases Cellular Sensitivity to Adriamycin by Decreasing the Expression of P-glycoprotein Through a Transcription-Mediated Mechanism,” Cancer Res 63:723-727.
  Peariso et al. (1998) “Characterization of the Zinc Binding Site in Methionine Synthase Enzymes of Escherichia coli: The Role of Zinc in the Methylation of Homocysteine,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120:8410-8416.
  Peariso et al. (2001) “Characterization of the Zinc Sites in Cobalamin-Independent and Cobalamin-Dependent Methionine Synthase Using Zinc and Selenium X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 40:987-993.
  Peng et al. (2001) “Structural Characterization of a Pentadienyl Radical Intermediate Formed During Catalysis by Prostaglandin Synthase-2,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123:3609-3610.
  Peng et al. (2002) “Synthesis of Isotopically Labeled Arachidonic Acids to Probe the Reaction Mechanism of Prostaglandin H Synthase,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124:10785-10796.
  Peng at al. (2003) “An Unusual Isotope Effect on Substrate Inhibition in the Oxidation of Arachidonic Acid by Lipoxygenase,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. in press.
  Peschel et al. (1996) “Inducible Production and Cellular Location of the Epidermin Biosythetic Enzyme EpiB Using an Improved Staphylococcal Expression System,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 137:279-284.
  Peter et al. (1983) “Use of Endoproteinase Lys-C from Lysobacter Enzymogenes in Protein Sequence Analysis,” Anal. Biochem. 134(2):347-354.
  Piard et al. (1993) “Structure, Organization, and Expression of the Ict Gene for Lacticin 481, a Novel Lantibiotic Produced by Lactococcus lactis,” J. Biol. Chem. 268:16361-16368.
  Piard et al. (1992) “Purification and Partial Characterization of Lacticin 481, a Lanthionine-Containing Bacteriocin Produced by Lactococcus Lactis Subsp. lactis CNRZ 481,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:279-284.
  Piard et al. (1990) “Evidence for a Bacteriocin Produced by Lactococcus lactis CNRZ 481,” Neth. Milk and Dairy J. 44:143-158.
  Piettre et al. (1987) “Synthesis of Fluorinated Vinylsulfides and Selenides,” Tetrahedron 43:4309-4319.
  Pridmore et al. (1996) “Variacin, a New Lanthionine-Containing Bacteriocin Produced by Micrococcus varians: Comparison to Lacticin 481 of Lactococcus lactis,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:1799-1802.
  Purrington et al. (1987) “The Preparation of a-Fluorosulfoxides and Vinyl Fluorides,” Tetrahedron Lett. 28:3901-3904.
  Qiu et al. (1994) “Zinc-free and Reduced T4 Gene 32 Protein Binds Single-Stranded DNA Weakly and Fails to Stimulate UvsX-catalyzed Homologous Pairing,” J. Biol. Chem. 269:2773-2781.
  Radisky et al. (2000) “Squalene Synthase: Steady-State, Pre-Steady-State, and Isotope-Trapping Studies,” Biochemistry 39:1748-1760.
  Raushel et al. (1979) “Determination of Rate-limiting Steps of Escherichia coli Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase. Rapid Quench and Isotope Partitioning Experiments,” Biochemistry 18:3424-3429.
  Rayman et al. (1981) “Nisin: A Possible Alternative or Adjunct to Nitrite in the Preservation of Meats,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:375-380.
  Reis et al. (1994) “Producer Immunity Towards the Lantibiotic Pep5: Identification of the Immunity Gene Pepl and Localization and Functional Analysis of its Gene Product,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:2876-2883.
  Rincé et al. (1997) “Characterization of the Lacticin 481 Operon: The Lactococcus lactis Genes IctF. IctE and IctG Encode a Putative ABC Transporter Ivolved in Bacteriocin Immunity,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:4252-4260.
  Rince et al. (1994) “Cloning, Expression, and Nucleotide Sequence of Genes Involved in Production of Lactococcin DR, a Bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis Subsp. lactis,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1652-1657.
  Roehm et al. (1998) “Selectivity of Methylation of Metal-Bound Cysteinates and Its Consequences,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120:13083-13087.
  Roepstorff et al. (1984) “Proposal for a Common Nomenclature for Sequence Ions in Mass Spectra of Peptides,” Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 11:601.
  Rollema et al. (1995) “Improvement of Solubility and Stability of the Antimicrobial Peptide Nisin by Protein Engineering,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:2873-2878.
  Rose, I.A. (1980) “The Isotope Trapping Method: Desorption Rates of Productive E.S Complexes,” Methods Enzymol. 64:47-59.
  Rose et al. (1974) “Determination of the Rate of Hexokinase-Glucose Dissociation by the Isotope-Trapping Method,” J. Biol. Chem. 249:5163-5168.
  Rozema et al. (1999) “Yeast Protein Farnesyltransferase. pKas of Peptide Substrates Bound as Zinc Thiolates,” Biochemistry 38:13138-13146.
  Ryan et al. (1999) “Extensive Post-Translational Modification, Including Serine to D-Alanine Conversion, in the Two-Component Lantibiotic, Lacticin 3147,” J. Biol. Chem. 274:37544-37550.
  Saderholm et al. (2000) “Role of Metals in the Reaction Catalyzed by Protein Farnesyltransferase,” Biochemistry 39:12398-12405.
  Sahl et al. (1998) “Lantibiotics: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities of Uniquely Modified Peptides from Gram-Positive Bacteria,” Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 52:41-79.
  Sahl et al. (1995) “Biosynthesis and Biological Activities of Lantibiotics with Unique Post-Translational Modifications,” Eur. J. Biochem. 230:827-853.
  Sahl, H.-G. (1991) “Pore Formation in Bacterial Membranes by Cationic Lantibiotics,” In Nisin and novel Lantibiotics (G. Jung and H.-G. Sahl, Ed.), pp. 347-358, ESCOM, Leiden, The Netherlands.
  Sashihara et al. (2000) “A Novel Lantibiotic, Nukacin ISK-1, of Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1: Cloning of the Structural Gene and Identification of the Structure,” Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 64(11):2420-2428.
  Schmidt et al. (2001) “Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: Functional Assignment of Unknown Proteins in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli L-Ala-D/L-Glu Epimerases,” Biochemistry 40:15707-15715.
  Schnell et al. (1988) “Peptide Sequence of Epidermin, A Ribosomally Synthesized Antibiotic with four Sulphide-Rings,” Nature 333:276-278.
  Schnell et al. (1992) “Analysis of Genes Involved in the Biosythesis of the Lantibiotic Epidermin,” Eur. J. Biochem. 204:57-68.
  Sen et al. (1999) “Post-Translational Modification of Nisin. The Involvement of NisB in the Dehydration Process,” Eur. J. Biochem. 137:279-284.
  Senko et al. (1996) “Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance at 9.4 T,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 10:1824-1828.
  Shey et al. (2002) “Mechanistic Investigation of a Novel Vitamin B12-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reaction,” J. Org. Chem. 67:837-846.
  Shey et al. (2000) “Mechanistic Studies on the Vitamin B12-Catalyzed Dechlorination of Chlorinated Alkenes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122:12403-12404.
  Siegers et al. (1996) “Biosynthesis of Lantibiotic Nisin. Posttranslational Modification of its Prepeptide Occurs at a Multimeric Membrane-Associated Lanthionine Synthetase Complex,” J. Biol. Chem. 271:12294-12301.
  Siezen et al. (1996) “Comparison of Lantibiotic Gene Clusters and Encoded Proteins,” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69:171-184.
  Silverman et al. (1977) “Mechanism of Inactivation of Gamma-Cystathionase by Beta,Beta,Beta-Trifluoroalanine,” Biochemistry 16:5515-5520.
  Silverman et al. (1976) “Inactivation of Pyridoxal Phosphate Dependent Enzymes by Mono- and Polyhaloalanines,” Biochemistry 15:4718-4723.
  Skaugen et al. (1997) “Organization and Expression of a Gene Cluster Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Lantibiotic Lactocin S,” Mol. Gen. Genet. 253:674-686.
  Smith et al. (1975) “Simple Alkanethiol Groups for Temporary Blocking of Sulfhydryl Groups of Enzymes,” Biochemistry 14:766-771.
  Soloshonok, V.A. (1996) “Practical Synthesis of Enantiopure Fluoroamino Acids of Biological Interest by Asymmetric Aldol Reactions,” ACS Symp. Ser. 639:26-41.
  Spee, et al. (1993) “Efficient Random Mutagenesis Method with Adjustable Mutation Frequency by use of PCR and dITP,” Nucleic Acids Res. 21:777-778.
  Stadtman, T.C. (1991) “Biosynthesis and Function of Selenocysteine-Containing Enzymes,” J. Biol. Chem. 266:16257-16260.
  Stadtman, T.C. (1996) “Selenocysteine,” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 65:83-100.
  Swartz, M.N. (1994) “Hospital-Aquired Infections: Diseases with Increasingly Limited Therapies,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:2420-2427.
  Szekat et al. (2003) “Construction of an Expression System for Site-Directed Mutogenesis of the Lantibiotic Mersacidin,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:3777-3783.
  Tagg et al. (1971) “Assay System for Bacteriocins,” Appl. Microbiol. 21:943.
  Tellier et al. (1991) “Introduction Stereoselective Du Groupement Trifluoromethyle Dans Des Systemes Insatures,” Tetrahedron Lett. 32:5963-5964.
  Thuault et al. (1991) “Inhibition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum by Bacteriocin-like Substances Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria,” J Dairy Sci 74:1145-1150.
  Tormay et al. (1994) “Genes Coding for the Selenocysteine-Inserting tRNA Species from Desulfomicrobium Baculatum and Clostridium Thermoaceticum: Structural and Evolutionary Implications,” J. Bacteriol. 176:1268-1274.
  Udwary et al. (2002) “A Method for Prediction of the Locations of Linker Regions Within Large Multifunctional Proteins, and Application to a Type I Polyketide Synthase,” J. Mol. Biol. 323:585-598.
  Uguen et al. (2002) “The LcnC Homologue Cannot Replace LctT in Lacticin 481 Export,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 208:99-103.
  Uguen et al. (2000) “Lantibiotic Biosynthesis: Interactions Between Prelacticin 481 and its Putative Modification Enzyme, LctM,” J. Bacteriol. 182:5262-5266.
  Vallee et al. (1990) “Active-Site Zinc Ligands and Activated Water of Zinc Enzymes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87:220-224.
  Vallee et al. (1993) “Zinc: Biological Functions and Coordination Motifs,” Acc. Chem. Res. 26:543-551.
  van Kraaij et al. (1999) “Lantibiotics: Biosynthesis, Mode of Action and Applications,” Nat. Prod. Rep. 16:575-587.
  van der Hooven et al. (1996) “The Structure of the Lantibiotic Lanticin 481 Produced by Lactococcus lactis: Location of the Thioether Bridges,” FEBS Lett. 391:317-322.
  van der Meer et al. (1994) “Influence of Amino Acid Substtutions in the Nisin Leader Peptide on Biosynthesis and Secretion of Nisin by Lactococcus lactis,” J. Biol. Chem. 269:3555-3562.
  Venema et al. (1995) “Functional Analysis of the Pediocin Operon of Pediococcus acidilactici PAC1.0: PedB is the Immunity Protein and PedD is the Precursor Processing Enzyme,” Mol. Microbiol. 17:515-522.
  Vrtis et al. (2001) “Phosphite Dehydrogenase: An Unusual Phosphoryl Transfer Reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123:2672-2673.
  Vrtis et al. (2002) “Phosphite Dehydrogenase, A Versatile Cofactor Regeneration Enzyme,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 41:3257-3259.
  Walsh, C. (1982) “Suicide Substrates: Mechanism Based Enzyme Inactivators,” Tetrahedron 38:871-909.
  Wang et al. (1981) “Characteristics of Beta, Beta-difluoroalanine and Beta, Beta, Beta—trifluoroalanine as Suicide Substrates for Escherichia coli B Alanine Racemase,” Biochemistry 20:7539-7546.
  Wang et al. (1978) “Suicide Substrates for the Alanine Racemase of Escherichia coli B,” Biochemistry 17:1313-1321.
  Wang et al. (1981) “Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Serine Transhydroxymethylases by D- fluoroalanine and Related Amino Acids,” J. Biol. Chem. 256:6917-6926.
  Weil et al. (1990) “Biosynthesis of the Lantibiotic Pep5. Isolation and Characterization of a Prepeptide Containing Dehydroamino Acids,” Eur. J. Biochem. 194:217-223.
  Widdick et al. (2003) “Cloning and Engineering of the Cinnamycin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster from Streptomyces cinnamoneus cinnamoneus DSM 40005,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100(7):4316-4321.
  Wiedemann et al. (2001) “Specific Binding of Nisin to the Peptidoglycan Precursor Lipid II Combines Pore Formation and Inhibition of Cell Wall Biosynthesis for Potent Antibiotic Activity,” J. Biol. Chem. 276:1772-1779.
  Wilkinson et al. (1979) “Isotope Trapping Studies of Yeast Hexokinase During Steady State Catalysis. A Combined Rapid Quench and Isotope Trapping Technique,” J. Biol. Chem. 254:12567-12572.
  Woodruff et al. (1998) “Sequence Analysis of mutA and mutB Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Lantibiotic Mutacin II in Streptococcus mutans,” Gene 206(1):37-43.
  Xie et al. (2002) “Heterologous Expression and Purification of SpaB Involved in Subtilin Biosynthesis,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 295:952-957.
  Xie et al. (2001) “Homemade Cofactors: Self-Processing in Galactose Oxidase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:12863-12865.
  Xie et al. (2004) “Lacticin 481: in Vitro Reconstitution of Lantibiotic Synthase Activity,” Science 303:679-681.
  Yamazaki et al. (1991) “Preparation and Evaluation of Optically Active 4,4-Difluorothreonine as a Potent Novel Antitumor Material,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1:271-276.
  Zhou et al. (2003) “Chemical and Enzymatic Synthesis of Fluorinated Dehydroalanine-Containing Peptides,” ChemBioChem :1206-1215.
  Zhou et al. (2002) “Biomimetic Stereoselective Formulation of Methyllanhionine,” Org. Lett./ 4:1335-1338.
  Zhou et al. (2001) “Synthesis of 2-Amino-3flouro-acrylic Acid Containing Peptides,” Org. Lett. 3:593-596.
  Zhou et al. (1999) “Identification of the Zinc Ligands in Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE) from Escherichia coli,” Biochemistry 38:15915-15926.
  Zhu et al. (2003) “Biomimetic Studies on the Mechanism of Stereoselective Lanthionine Formation,” Org. Biomol. Chem. 1:3304-3315.
  Zhu et al. (2001) “Convergent Synthesis of Peptide Conjugates Using Dehydroalanines for Chemoselective Ligations,” Org. Lett. 3(8):1189-1192.
 
 
     * cited by examiner
 
     Primary Examiner —David J Steadman
     Assistant Examiner —Alexander D Kim
     Art Unit — 1656
     Exemplary claim number — 1
 
(74)Attorney, Agent, or Firm — Greenlee, Winner and Sullivan, P.C.

(57)

Abstract

Lantibiotics are synthesized on ribosomes as prepeptides and post-translationally modified to a mature form. These modifications include dehydrations and cyclizations. Compounds and related methods of generating compounds, modified by dehydration, cyclization, or dehydration and cyclization, are disclosed. The disclosure includes in vitro approaches to effecting dehydration and cyclization leading to production of biologically active compounds such as lantibiotics and variants thereof. Synthetic variants and methods including combinatorial approaches for generating diverse lantibiotics and other compounds are disclosed. The invention has broad potential for applications including food, agricultural, and medical industries.
18 Claims, 80 Drawing Sheets, and 88 Figures


CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/536,140, filed Jan. 12, 2004. Each related application(s) is incorporated herein by reference in entirety.

FEDERAL FUNDING

[0002] This invention was made, at least in part, with government support under Grant NIH GM 58822 awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The government has certain rights in the invention.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Bacteriocins are a large class of genetically encoded antimicrobial peptides in which molecular diversity may be introduced by post-translational modifications. These compounds display diverse and often novel mechanisms of cytotoxicity (2, 3). Ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics are amenable to structural variation via site-directed mutagenesis providing access to analogs for structure-function studies. The biosynthesis of the lantibiotics produced by Gram-positive bacteria has long intrigued microbiologists, biochemists, and chemists (1). As illustrated in FIG. 1 for the lantibiotic, lacticin 481 (4), these compounds contain the unusual cyclic thioether amino acids lanthionine (Ln) and/or methyllanthionine (MeLn) as well as 2,3-didehydroalanine (Dha) and (Z)-2,3-didehydrobutyrine (Dhb). The widespread use of the prototypic lantibiotic nisin as an alternative to chemical reagents in food preservation in more than 80 countries for over 40 years without development of significant resistance (5) has spurred research activities directed at understanding lantibiotic biogenesis.
[0004] Genetic investigations have indicated that lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized as precursor peptides (prepeptides), which subsequently undergo post-translational modifications (1). These modifications can include one or more dehydrations and one or more cyclizations, often forming lanthionine or methyllanthionine rings.
[0005] In vivo genetic engineering studies aimed at producing novel lantibiotics have focused on site directed mutagenesis of the genes for the precursor peptides (6-9). These investigations have uncovered several limitations including loss of lantibiotic production (10) (11-14). In vitro evaluation of the substrate specificity of purified lantibiotic synthetases can overcome these limitations and allow a detailed study of the molecular logic underlying the formation of the fused cyclic structures. However, despite much effort since the first sequencing of lantibiotic gene clusters (15), the complex biosynthetic process has not proven amenable to in vitro reconstitution.
[0006] Many lantibiotics can be grouped as Class I (LanB LanC type as defined herein) or Class II (LanM type as defined herein). Sen et al. disclose that for LanB LanC type lantibiotics such as nisin, no experimental evidence consistent with a dehydration function for LanB proteins has been reported to date (Sen A K et al., 1999, Eur. J. Biochem 261:524-532). Sen et al. further disclose that direct proof for the role of LanB awaits the in vitro dehydration of precursor peptides using the purified enzyme and that problems have been encountered by them and others (Kupke T and Gotz F, 1996, Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 69:139-150) in various attempts.
[0007] In the context of another LanB LanC type lantibiotic, epidermin, Kupke and Gotz disclose that in incubation experiments, EpiC did not react with EpiA (the precursor peptide for epidermin), proepidermin, or with oxidative decarboxylated peptides) despite using various assay conditions (Kupke and Gotz, 1996, J. Bacteriology 178(5):1335-1340). In particular, they disclose that lanthionine formation was not investigated since no dehydrated precursor peptides were available from attempts to examine whether EpiC catalyzes the dehydration of serine and threonine residues of EpiA. In further disclosing the future intention to analyze “whether the catalytic function (dehydration of hydroxy amino acid residues or thioether formation) of EpiB and EpiC depends on (new) cofactors,” the implication is that such a useful catalytic function is not yet achieved.
[0008] Also in the context of epidermin, Peschel et al. disclose that purified and crude versions of EpiB were used in an in vitro assay for modifications of the purified epidermin precursor (Peschel A et al., 1996, FEMS Micribiology Letters 137:279-284). Despite the fact that the assay conditions were extensively varied in the presence of several potential cofactors and trace elements, no modification of the precursor peptide was detected.
[0009] In reviewing the lantibiotic field in the context of LanB LanC proteins, Jack and Jung disclose that “to date, it has not been possible to obtain lantibiotics in vitro using these proteins, and this is clearly one of the great challenges in lantibiotic research” (Jack R W, Jung G, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 2000, 4:310-317). Sahl and Bierbaum disclose that the N-terminus of LanM enzymes does not display any similarity to the LanB proteins and that the role of LanM proteins in fulfilling the function of LanC or in being involved in the dehydration reaction is a hypothesis that remains to be proven experimentally (Sahl H-G, Bierbaum G, 1998, LANTIBIOTICS: Biosynthesis and Biological Activities of Uniquely Modified Peptides from Gram-Positive Bacteria, Annual Review of Microbiology, Vol. 52, pp. 41-79). Similar to the situation for LanB LanC type lantibiotics, apart from the present invention we are unaware of any prior indication of a successful in vitro biosynthesis for LanM type lantibiotics and therefore, for any lantibiotics.
[0010] The ability to successfully develop methods and generate useful compounds, for example any lantibiotics and variants thereof by an in vitro approach, provides an alternative to in vivo approaches. Furthermore, an in vitro approach can lead to different or improved compounds such as lantibiotics. The ability to achieve in vitro dehydration and cyclization of substrates would generally represent a significant advance.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0011] In general the terms and phrases used herein have their art-recognized meaning, which can be found by reference to standard texts, journal references and contexts known to those skilled in the art. The following definitions are provided to clarify their specific use in the context of the invention.
[0012] When used herein, the term “precursor peptide” refers to a peptide that serves as a substrate for a dehydration reaction, cyclization reaction, or both a dehydration reaction and a cyclization reaction. In a preferred embodiment, a precursor peptide can be modified so as to produce a lantibiotic as defined herein. In an embodiment, a precursor peptide is derived from one or more components, where at least one component is a precursor peptide. For example, a first precursor peptide and a second precursor peptide are ligated to generate a third precursor peptide. In an embodiment, a precursor peptide is derived from genetic engineering techniques such as site directed mutagenesis, synthetic techniques, or a combination of techniques.
[0013] When used herein, the term “lantibiotic” refers to a biologically active compound that acts so as to modify the ability of a target organism, as defined herein, to develop, grow, proliferate, or otherwise function. The term can optionally include a compound derived by genetic engineering techniques, synthetic techniques, or a combination of techniques. For example, a lantibiotic can be at least partially synthetic and at least partially recombinant; thus the term can include variants of natural lantibiotics. Non-limiting examples of lantibiotics include lacticin 481, Delta-1 lacticin 481, lacticin 3147, cinnamycin, mersacidin, mutacin, streptococcin A-FF22, ruminococcin A, nisin, subtilin, duramycins, ancovenin, epidermin, and nukacin ISK-1. In a preferred embodiment, the target organism is a bacterium and the compound acts to reduce or control growth or proliferation of the bacterium.
[0014] When used herein, the term “target organism” refers to bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa. Target organisms may also include a mammal, particularly a human. In the case of a multicellular organism such as a human, the term is meant to broadly convey a cell, tissue, organ, or fluid of the organism, whether in vivo, ex vivo, or in vitro.
[0015] When used herein, the term “LanB LanC type lantibiotic” refers to a lantibiotic of Class I, made in connection with LanB and LanC enzymes. In an analogous manner, the term “LanM type lantibiotic” refers to a lantibiotic of Class II, made in connection with a LanM enzyme.
[0016] When used herein, the term “LanM enzyme” refers to a polypeptide or fragment thereof capable of acting upon a precursor peptide so as to effect both at least one dehydration reaction and at least one cyclization reaction, only at least one dehydration reaction, or only at least one cyclization reaction. In a preferred embodiment, a LanM enzyme is LctM (SEQ ID NO:40) and is capable of effecting a plurality of dehydration reactions and a plurality of cyclization reactions. In another example, a LanM enzyme is a mutant fragment capable of effecting only a dehydration reaction upon a precursor peptide. In an embodiment, a LanM enzyme can have a protein homology to native LctM of at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, at least about 90%, or at least about 95%.
[0017] When used herein, the term “Lan protease” refers to a polypeptide or fragment thereof capable of acting upon a precursor peptide so as to effect cleavage of a leader portion of a precursor peptide. In other conventional contexts which will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art, the term may refer to a component of a biosynthetic operon. In an embodiment, the precursor peptide is a lantibiotic precursor peptide. In lantibiotics, a LanT protein can be present wherein the “T” can designate a common transporter function. A subset of LanT enzymes have a LanT enzyme with a protease domain and a protease function. In an embodiment, a Lan protease is LctT (SEQ ID NO:29). In a preferred embodiment, a Lan protease is an LctT fragment comprising a protease domain. In a particular embodiment, LctT is used in connection with lacticin 481 or Delta-1 lacticin 481. In instances where a given LanT protein lacks a protease domain, a protease generally designated LanP can be present. In an embodiment, a Lan protease is a LanP protease. In another preferred embodiment, a Lan protease is Lys-C. In an embodiment, a LctT protease can have a protein homology to native LctT of at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, or at least about 90%. LysC is also known as a commercially available protease that can have applications apart from lantibiotics.
[0018] When used herein, the term “synthase” (also referred to as “synthetase”) refers to an enzyme involved in synthesis or conversion of a substrate. For example, LctM synthase indicates an enzyme that is capable of acting on a precursor peptide to synthesize a modified peptide product such as a lantibiotic. In embodiments, a synthase (synthetase) is capable of effecting at least one dehydration reaction and at least one cyclization reaction, only at least one dehydration reaction, or only at least one cyclization reaction.
[0019] When used herein, the term “derivatized amino acid” refers to any amino acid that is derivatized chemically or biosynthetically. An example of a derivatized amino acid is selenocysteine.
[0020] When used herein, the term “non-proteinogenic amino acid” refers to an amino acid that is not incorporated by ribosomal in vivo biosynthesis into a protein.
[0021] When used herein, the term “unnatural amino acid” refers to a synthetic amino acid or refers to an amino acid that is typically foreign to a particular organism. Unnatural amino acids can optionally be a subset of non-proteinogenic amino acids.
[0022] When used herein, the term “leader portion” refers to a part of a protein molecule. In an embodiment, a leader portion can be longer, shorter, or mutated from a native sequence. For example, in an embodiment wherein His6-LctA(10-51) (SEQ ID NO:6) is used, a truncated leader portion is a sufficient substrate for reaction with LctM; this embodiment also illustrates that a tag, such as a histidine tag useful in affinity purification, can be added to a leader portion.
[0023] When used herein, the term “biologically active” refers to an ability to exhibit a biological function. For example, in an embodiment a lantibiotic is biologically active so as to affect a target organism by preventing growth. Although a properly dehydrated precursor peptide of a lantibiotic may serve as a substrate for a chemical reaction (as opposed to a biosynthetic reaction) to induce cyclization, undesirable ring formation can lead to a partial or complete lack of biological activity.
[0024] When used herein, the term “vector” refers to a molecular biology tool for use in a recombinant expression system. In a particular embodiment, a vector comprises a deoxynucleotide gene sequence and is adapted for expression in a given host cell such as a Gram positive bacterium or a Gram negative bacterium.
[0025] When used herein, the term “insert” refers to a sequence that can be used in connection with a vector. In an embodiment, a vector with an insert is used in a recombinant expression system.
[0026] When used herein, the term “effective amount” refers to an amount capable of achieving at least a partial result. For example, an effective amount of a cation allows a reaction to proceed either partially, substantially, or to completion. In a particular example, an effective amount of a LanM enzyme effects dehydration and cyclization of a precursor peptide.
[0027] The following abbreviations are applicable: U or Sec, selenocysteine.
[0028] The invention provides a composition comprising a purified enzyme capable of effecting dehydration and cyclization of a precursor peptide. In an embodiment, the enzyme is a LanM enzyme. In a particular embodiment, the enzyme is selected from the group consisting of: CinM (SEQ ID NO:22, cinnamycin LanM), MrsM (SEQ ID NO:20, mersacidin LanM), MutM (SEQ ID NO:21, mutacin II LanM), ScnM (SEQ ID NO:23, streptococcin A-FF22 LanM), RumM (SEQ ID NO:24, ruminococcin A LanM), LtnM1 and LtnM2 (SEQ ID NO:25 and SEQ ID NO: 26, lacticin 3147 LanM), LctM (SEQ ID NO:40, lacticin 481 LanM), and NukM (SEQ ID NO:27). In a particularly preferred embodiment, the enzyme is LctM.
[0029] The invention provides a method of generating a biologically active compound, comprising reacting a precursor peptide in a reaction mixture comprising said precursor peptide and an effective amount of a purified enzyme capable of effecting dehydration and cyclization of the precursor peptide; and cleaving a leader portion of the precursor peptide; thereby generating a biologically active compound. In an embodiment, the method can achieve dehydration, cyclization, or dehydration and cyclization. In an embodiment, the method can occur in vitro.
[0030] In an embodiment, a leader peptide is attached to a protein to allow installation of one or more dehydroalanines into that protein for subsequent modification with a nucleophile or for cyclization, e.g. to stabilize the protein.
[0031] In some embodiments of this method, the precursor peptide comprises up to about 70 amino acids. In some embodiments of this method, the precursor peptide has a molecular weight of up to about 10 kiloDaltons. In preferred embodiments, said biologically active compound is a lantibiotic. In an embodiment, said precursor peptide is derived by genetic engineering techniques such as site-directed mutagenesis of a naturally occurring lantibiotic. Other techniques are contemplated such as the use of an expanded genetic code; for example, advances in adapting the machinery for ribosomal protein biosynthesis in an expression system can allow integration of what would otherwise be non-proteinogenic amino acids.
[0032] In embodiments of the invention, the precursor peptide comprises at least one non-proteinogenic amino acid, unnatural amino acid, peptoid, beta amino acid, or derivatized amino acid. In a particular embodiment, the precursor peptide comprises selenocysteine. In an embodiment, the derivatized amino acid is a halogenated amino acid. In a particular embodiment, the halogenated amino acid is a fluorinated amino acid.
[0033] The invention provides a method of generating a synthetic biologically active compound, wherein said compound comprises at least one non-proteinogenic amino acid, unnatural amino acid, peptoid, beta amino acid, or derivatized amino acid, said method comprising
[0034] (a) generating a first precursor peptide;
[0035] (b) generating a second precursor peptide; wherein said second precursor peptide comprises at least one unnatural amino acid, peptoid, or derivatized amino acid;
[0036] (c) combining said first and second precursor peptides so as to produce a third precursor peptide;
[0037] (d) reacting said third precursor peptide in a reaction mixture comprising said third precursor peptide and an effective amount of a purified enzyme capable of effecting dehydration and cyclization of the third precursor peptide; and
[0038] (e) cleaving a leader portion of the precursor peptide; thereby generating a synthetic biologically active compound.
[0039] In an embodiment, a second peptide is supplied in trans. In an embodiment, the leader and a synthetic peptide corresponding to the structural peptide contact each other in a reaction mixture in trans (not covalently bound together). In the mixture, the two molecules can bind in or form an active site to effect or affect one or more post-translational modifications. In an embodiment, a post-translational modification can include dehydration, cyclization, or dehydration and cyclization. In a particular embodiment, the trans approach is useful for incorporation of one or more non-proteinogenic amino acids.
[0040] In an embodiment of the above method, said combining step comprises ligation, conjugation, or other connection of said first precursor peptide to said second precursor peptide. In an embodiment, said enzyme is selected from the group consisting of CinM (SEQ ID NO:22, cinnamycin LanM), MrsM (SEQ ID NO:20, mersacidin LanM), MutM (SEQ ID NO:21, mutacin II LanM), ScnM (SEQ ID NO:23, streptococcin A-FF22 LanM), RumM (SEQ ID NO:24, rum inococcin A LanM), LtnM1 and LtnM2 (SEQ ID NO:25 and SEQ ID NO: 26, lacticin 3147 LanM) and LctM (SEQ ID NO:40, lacticin 481 LanM). In a particular embodiment, said enzyme is LctM. In an embodiment, said synthetic biologically active compound is a synthetic lantibiotic.
[0041] In an embodiment, said synthetic biologically active compound is a synthetic lantibiotic. In an embodiment, the invention provides a lantibiotic produced by the methods of the invention.
[0042] In embodiments, the invention provides methods also comprising contacting a target organism with an effective amount of said biologically active compound. In particular embodiments, said effective amount reduces or controls an ability of the target organism to remain viable, develop, grow, metabolize, or proliferate.
[0043] In embodiments of methods of the invention, the reaction mixture further comprises an effective amount of a cation. In particular embodiments, the cation is a divalent metal cation. In preferred embodiments, the cation is zinc.
[0044] In embodiments of the invention, the precursor peptide is a LanA peptide. In particular embodiments, the precursor peptide is LctA (SEQ ID NO:3).
[0045] The invention provides a method of dehydrating a precursor peptide, comprising contacting a precursor peptide with an effective amount of a purified enzyme capable of effecting dehydration and cyclization of the precursor peptide. In an embodiment, the method can occur in vitro.
[0046] The invention provides a method of cyclizing a dehydrated precursor peptide, comprising reacting a dehydrated precursor peptide in a reaction mixture comprising said dehydrated precursor peptide and an effective amount of a purified enzyme capable of effecting cyclization of the precursor peptide. In an embodiment, the method can occur in vitro.
[0047] The invention provides a method of dehydrating a precursor peptide, comprising reacting a precursor peptide in a reaction mixture comprising said precursor peptide and an effective amount of a purified enzyme capable of effecting dehydration of the precursor peptide. In an embodiment, the method can occur in vitro.
[0048] The invention provides a composition comprising a purified Lan protease or fragment thereof. In an embodiment, the fragment can be any fragment of about at least 15 continuos amino acids. In an embodiment, the purified Lan protease can be a mutant Lan protease using mutagenesis techniques known to the art. In an embodiment, mutagenesis is performed and a mutated Lan protease is screened regarding activity, thus achieving mutant Lan proteases with functional activity that is at least partial to or greater than that of a reference Lan protease.
[0049] In an embodiment, the invention provides a composition of a purified Lan protease and a precursor peptide. In an embodiment, the precursor peptide has been modified by dehydration, cyclization, or dehydration and cyclization.
[0050] In an embodiment, the invention provides a composition comprising a Lan protease domain fragment capable of encoding a Lan protease domain that recognizes a recognition sequence. In an embodiment, the recognition sequence is BBGG-X (SEQ ID NO:1) or BBGA-X (SEQ ID NO:2), wherein B=isoleucine or leucine and X is any amino acid. In an embodiment, the invention provides a composition comprising a protease recognition sequence of BBGG-X (SEQ ID NO:1) or BBGA-X (SEQ ID NO:2), wherein B=isoleucine or leucine and X is any amino acid.
[0051] In a particular embodiment, the Lan protease is LctT/Lpd (SEQ ID NO:29) or a fragment thereof. In another embodiment, the Lan protease is Lys-C.
[0052] The invention provides a method of purification of a cleavage product of a peptide capable of being cleaved by a Lan protease, comprising:
[0053] (a) providing a vector or insert comprising a sequence capable of encoding a Lan protease recognition sequence;
[0054] (b) expressing the protease recognition sequence in a peptide;
[0055] (c) connecting an end of the peptide to a solid phase support;
[0056] (d) contacting the peptide with said Lan protease, thereby cleaving the peptide to form at least one cleavage product; and
[0057] (e) recovering a cleavage product, thereby achieving purification of a product cleaved by said Lan protease.
[0058] In an embodiment, the precursor peptide comprises selenocysteine.
[0059] In an embodiment of this purification method, said Lan protease is LctT (SEQ ID NO:29) and said Lan protease recognition sequence is an LctT recognition sequence.
[0060] In an embodiment, the invention provides one or more kits for dehydration, cyclization, or dehydration and cyclization of a precursor peptide, comprising a LanM enzyme and a LanM enzyme reaction buffer. The invention provides kits for dehydration and cyclization of a precursor peptide, comprising a LanM enzyme and a LanM enzyme reaction buffer. In a particular embodiment, a kit further comprises a precursor peptide. In a particular embodiment, a kit further comprises a Lan protease. In a particular embodiment of a kit, said LanM enzyme is selected from the group consisting of LctM (SEQ ID NO:40), MrsM (SEQ ID NO:20), CinM (SEQ ID NO:22), MutM (SEQ ID NO:21), ScnM (SEQ ID NO:23), RumM (SEQ ID NO:24), LtnM1 (SEQ ID NO:25), and LtnM2 (SEQ ID NO:26). In a preferred embodiment, said Lan protease is LctT (SEQ ID NO:29) or Lys-C. In a preferred embodiment of a kit, said LanM enzyme is LctM.
[0061] In embodiments of the invention, lantibiotics and methods are useful for pharmaceutical applications, agricultural applications, and food industry applications.
[0062] In embodiments, a lantibiotic produced by a method of the invention has one or more altered or improved attributes of activity, stability, solubility, or toxicity. For example, a lantibiotic may have altered or improved activity and stability. Regarding an example of the attribute of toxicity, in a pharmaceutical application the toxicity towards the patient is reduced. In an agricultural or food industrial application, the toxicity towards a subject ingesting an agricultural or food product is decreased, or the toxicity towards a desirable microorganism is reduced.
[0063] The invention provides a method of screening for a lantibiotic compound, comprising: providing a candidate lantibiotic compound made by a method of this invention; conducting a bioassay for lantibiotic activity; and selecting a lantibiotic compound having lantibiotic activity in said bioassay; thereby screening for a lantibiotic compound. In an embodiment, the invention provides a lantibiotic compound identified by the method of screening.
[0064] In an embodiment, the screening method further comprises contacting a target organism with said lantibiotic compound, wherein said target organism is at least partially susceptible to lantibiotic activity. In an embodiment, the method comprises contacting a food or a food precursor with said lantibiotic compound. In an embodiment, the method comprises contacting a patient with said lantibiotic compound. In an embodiment, the method comprises contacting an agricultural product with said lantibiotic compound.
[0065] In an embodiment, the invention provides a method of screening for a mutant LanM, comprising (a) providing a mutant LanM via mutagenesis; (b) performing an in vitro dehydration or cyclization assay and optionally an in vivo assay with a precursor peptide; and (c) selecting a mutant LanM that is capable of effecting at least one dehydration reaction and at least one cyclization, only at least one dehydration reaction, or only at least one cyclization reaction; thereby screening for a mutant LanM. In an embodiment, the invention provides a mutant LanM identified by the method. In an embodiment, said LanM is selected from the group consisting of CinM (SEQ ID NO:22, cinnamycin LanM), MrsM (SEQ ID NO:20, mersacidin LanM), MutM (SEQ ID NO:21, mutacin LanM), ScnM (SEQ ID NO:23, streptococcin A-FF22 LanM), RumM (SEQ ID NO:24, ruminococcin A LanM), LtnM1 and LtnM2 (SEQ ID NO:25 and SEQ ID NO: 26, lacticin 3147 LanM), LctM (SEQ ID NO:40, lacticin 481 LanM), and NukM (SEQ ID NO:27). In an embodiment, said LanM is LctM. In an embodiment, a modifying enzyme such as said mutant LanM has a substrate specificity with tolerance for an at least partially synthetic precursor peptide.
[0066] In an embodiment, the invention provides a method of producing a lantibiotic in vitro, comprising (a) providing a precursor peptide, (b) reacting the precursor peptide in a reaction mixture in vitro comprising said precursor peptide and an effective amount of an enzyme capable of effecting dehydration and cyclization of the precursor peptide; and (c) cleaving a leader portion of the precursor peptide; thereby producing a lantibiotic in vitro. In an embodiment, the invention provides a lantibiotic produced by the method.
[0067] In an embodiment, the invention provides a method of dehydrating and cyclizing a precursor peptide, comprising (a) providing said precursor peptide; (b) providing a purified enzyme capable of effecting dehydration and cyclization of the precursor peptide; and (c) reacting a reaction mixture comprising said precursor peptide and an effective amount of said enzyme; thereby dehydrating and cyclizing said precursor peptide. In an embodiment, the method further comprises the step of cleaving a leader portion of said precursor peptide.
[0068] In an embodiment, the invention provides in vitro reconstitution of lantibiotic biosynthesis. In an embodiment, post-translational modification machinery can have low substrate specificity. In an embodiment, an intact leader or structural peptide is not essential. In an embodiment, cyclases contain Zn with two Cys ligands. In an embodiment, peptides have inherent propensity for observed stereochemistry, but regioselectivity is controlled enzymatically. In an embodiment, a peptide does not necessarily drive a desired cyclization when attempted chemically. In an embodiment, one or more alternate rings can form which may be desirable or undesirable.
[0069] It is recognized that regardless of the ultimate correctness of any mechanistic explanation or hypothesis, an embodiment of the invention can nonetheless be operative and useful.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0070] The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.
[0071] FIG. 1. Representative example of the post-translational maturation process of lantibiotics. The prepeptide LctA (SEQ ID NO:3) is synthesized on ribosomes, followed by LctM (SEQ ID NO:40) catalyzed dehydration of Ser (red) and Thr (blue) residues in the propeptide region of LctA to give the product of SEQ ID NO:110. LctM also catalyzes the conjugate addition of three Cys residues in a regio- and stereospecific manner to three of the Dha (red) and Dhb (blue) residues to generate three cyclic thioethers; one methyllanthionine (purple) and two lanthionines (green) to give the cyclized derivative of SEQ ID NO:110. The leader peptide is proteolytically removed by the N-terminal protease domain of the LctT ABC-type transporter that excretes the final product. Abu refers to 2-aminobutyric acid.
[0072] FIG. 2. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the His6-LctA substrate (blue) and the products obtained after incubation for 2 h with 0.5 microM LctM, 0.5 mM ATP, 5 mM Mg2+, 0.36 microM ZnCl2, and 5 mM DTT, pH 7.5 (red).
[0073] FIG. 3. FT-MS/MS spectra of the substrate His6-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4) (FIG. 3A, 100 scans) and the M-72 product peptide of mass 7636 Da (FIG. 3B, 200 scans). Residues of SEQ ID NO:4 that are dehydrated in lacticin are indicated in red and were assigned on the basis of the y-ion formed upon cleavage between Ile31 and His32. The fragment ions were generated by irradiation with infrared photons and those observed are indicated in blue. The mass difference (in units of 1.0024 Da) between the most abundant isotopic peak and the monoisotopic peak is denoted after the hyphen in italics after each relative molecular weight value (Mr). For example, for an Mr value of 7708.59-4, the mass difference is 4 such units.
[0074] FIG. 4. Sequences of mutants in which either the leader peptide (highlighted in yellow) or propeptide region (highlighted in blue) has been truncated or in which residues that are post-translationally modified have been mutated (yellow font). U=selenocysteine. See SEQ ID NO:4 (His6-LctA); SEQ ID NO:5, (His6-LctA(5-51)); SEQ ID NO:6 (His6-LctA)(10-51); SEQ ID NO:7 (His6-LctA(25-51)); SEQ ID NO:8 (His6-LctA (1-37)); SEQ ID NO:9 (His6-LctA (1-38)); SEQ ID NO:10 (His6-LctA (1-38) C38U); SEQ ID NO:11 (His6-LctA-T48S); and SEQ ID NO:12 (His6-LctA-C49S).
[0075] FIG. 5 illustrates a bioassay for lantibiotic activity.
[0076] FIG. 6 illustrates results of Tandem MS on His6-LctA(1-38) (SEQ ID NO:9) and the product obtained after LctM-catalyzed modification (SEQ ID NO:111).
[0077] FIG. 7 illustrates results of Tandem MS on His6-LctA(1-38)C38U (SEQ ID NO:10) and the product obtained after LctM-catalyzed modification (SEQ ID NO:112).
[0078] FIG. 8 illustrates Tandem MS on His6-LctA-C49A (SEQ ID NO:13) and the product obtained after LctM-catalyzed modification (SEQ ID NO:113).
[0079] FIG. 9 illustrates Tandem MS on His6-LctA-C49S (SEQ ID NO:12) and the product obtained after LctM-catalyzed modification (SEQ ID NO:114).
[0080] FIG. 10 illustrates the cyclic thioether amino acids lanthionines (Ln) and/or methyllanthionines (MeLn).
[0081] FIG. 11 is a schematic representation of the proposed biosynthesis of subtilin (prepeptide, SpaS, SEQ ID NO:67; product, SEQ ID NO:115) by the dehydratase SpaB and the cyclase SpaC. A similar scheme can be drawn for nisin and a similar scheme is presented for lacticin 481.
[0082] FIG. 12 illustrates portions of LanC proteins, SpaC (amino acids 230-237, amino acids 302-307 of SEQ ID NO:68, and SEQ ID NO:121), Nis C (amino acids 210-218, amino acids 283-288 and amino acids 329-333 of SEQ ID NO:69), PepC amino acids 20-27, amino acids 81-86 and amino acids 130-134 of SEQ ID NO:120), and EpiC (amino acids 247-254 and amino acids 312-317 of SEQ ID NO:71 and SEQ ID NO:122).
[0083] FIG. 13 illustrates partial sequence alignment of a number of LanC proteins with the C-termini of LctM (SEQ ID NO:40, amino acids 704-852) and CylM (SEQ ID NO:72, amino acids 810-931) involved in production of lacticin 481 and cytolysin, respectively. Portions of SpaC, SEQ ID NO:68, amino acids 189-361; NiscC, SEQ ID NO:69, amino acids 174-339; and EpiC, SEQ ID NO:71, amino acids 213-376, are also shown in the alignment. The fully conserved residues are highlighted in color. In addition to the conserved putative metal ligands (yellow, see also FIG. 12), a number of conserved glycine residues are present.
[0084] FIG. 14 illustrates steps to the mature lacticin 481 product (SEQ ID NO:110) from LctA (SEQ ID NO:3).
[0085] FIG. 15 illustrates MALDI-MS and HPLC data from analysis of His-LctA substrate (SEQ ID NO:4) and products.
[0086] FIG. 16 illustrates FT-MS/MS of the substrate His-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4) (left/top) and the peptide of m/z 7636 (right/bottom). Residues that are dehydrated in lacticin (SEQ ID NO:110) are indicated in red. The fragments observed are indicated in blue. Roepstorff notation is used (b & y-ions) (154).
[0087] FIG. 17 illustrates sequence alignment of several Type A1 lantibiotic prepeptides. Ser/Thr that are dehydrated in lacticin are shown in red font, fully conserved residues are highlighted in yellow, strongly conserved in magenta. LctA (SEQ ID NO:3) VarA, variacin (59) (SEQ ID NO:73), RumA, ruminococcin A (157) (SEQ ID NO:118), ScnA, streptococcin A-M49 (158) (SEQ ID NO:76), ScnA″, streptococcin A-FF22 (159) (SEQ ID NO:75); MutA, mutacin II (114) (SEQ ID NO:51, amino acids 23-75). A BLAST search shows at least 5 other lantibiotic prepeptides with similar homology.
[0088] FIG. 18 illustrates alignment of the N-termini of ABC-transporters involved in bacteriocin leader sequence processing. The ATP-binding domain and internal transmembrane segments are omitted. LctT, lacticin 481 transporter (SEQ ID NO:29); ComA, putative Streptococcus pneumoniae competence factor transporter (SEQ ID NO:77, amino acids 1-164); LcnC, lactococcin A transporter (SEQ ID NO:78, amino acids 1-164); PedD, pediocin PA-1 transporter (SEQ ID NO:79, amino acids 1-166); CvaB, E. coli colicin V transporter (SEQ ID NO:80, amino acids 1-1-172). The LagD sequence can be found in (172).
[0089] FIG. 19 illustrates examples of enzyme catalysis.
[0090] FIG. 20 illustrates structures of antibiotic compounds: penicillin, erythromycin, vancomycin, microcin, and nisin (SEQ ID NO:81).
[0091] FIG. 21 illustrates subtilin (SEQ ID NO:82) produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and structurally closely related to nisin (about 63% sequence identity).
[0092] FIG. 22 illustrates post-translational modifications in lantibiotics such as nisin (precursor sequence in SEQ ID NO:81).
[0093] FIG. 23 illustrates steps in subtilin biosynthesis, with dehydration of SEQ ID NO:67 to give intermediate product SEQ ID NO:82.
[0094] FIG. 24 illustrates examples of gene clusters of biosynthetic enzymes.
[0095] FIG. 25 illustrates aspects of expression and purification of proteins involved in subtilin biosynthesis.
[0096] FIG. 26 illustrates the organization of a multi-enzyme complex.
[0097] FIG. 27 denotes attributes of enzymes involved in post translational modifications.
[0098] FIG. 28 illustrates lacticin 481 produced by Lactococcus lactis CNRZ 481. The molecule has a globular C-terminus and linear N-terminus. This compound has potential uses including use in cheese starter cultures.
[0099] FIG. 29 illustrates the biosynthesis of Lacticin 481, starting from prepeptide LctA (SEQ ID NO:3). The dehydratase intermediate product has the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:110.
[0100] FIG. 30 illustrates purification of LctM, about 106 kDa, cloned and overexpressed as a His-tagged protein.
[0101] FIG. 31 illustrates permutations of His-tagged LctA (LctA, SEQ ID NO:3; His-LctA, SEQ ID NO:4). The material was expressed as inclusion bodies, resolubilized under denaturing conditions, and HPLC purified. The C-terminal His tag has the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:116 and the N-terminal sequence has the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:117. The doubly His tagged LctA has the N-terminal His tag sequence of SEQ ID NO:117 and the C-terminal His tag of SEQ ID NO:116.
[0102] FIG. 32 illustrates an example of an LctA-LctM assay. The conditions involve 5 mM MgCl2, 5 mM DTT, 0.5 mM ATP, pH 7.5, 0.7 μM Zn2+ for the assay. His6-LctA-His, SEQ ID NO:4. The results of analysis by mass spectrometry are shown.
[0103] FIG. 33 illustrates testing for identification of required cofactors, indicating that Mg2+ and ATP are required cofactors.
[0104] FIG. 34 illustrates results of assays with ATP analogs.
[0105] FIG. 35 illustrates results of HPLC analysis (SEQ ID NO:4). Note that the amino acid sequence and chemical structure are given in the carboxyl- to amino-terminal direction.
[0106] FIG. 36 illustrates a peptide molecule for mass spectrometry analysis, indicating an N-terminus and C-terminus.
[0107] FIG. 37 illustrates data from FT-MS/MS analysis of an assay starting peptide and the product for His-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4).
[0108] FIG. 38 illustrates MS/MS analysis of an His-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4) LctM assay. LctM is a bifunctional enzyme, performing both dehydration and cyclization reactions.
[0109] FIG. 39 illustrates MS/MS analysis of an assay product with His-LctA-C49A (SEQ ID NO:13).
[0110] FIG. 40 illustrates sequence alignments of various precursor peptides, including LctA (SEQ ID NO:3), RumA (SEQ ID NO:118), VarA (SEQ ID NO:73), ScnA″ (SEQ ID NO:75), ScnA (SEQ ID NO:76), and MutA (SEQ ID NO:51, amino acids 23-75).
[0111] FIG. 41 illustrates the generation of Delta1-lacticin 481 from LctA (SEQ ID NO:4, with amino acids 1-443 shown in the C-terminal to N-terminal direction.
[0112] FIG. 42 illustrates a bioassay of Delta1-lacticin 481 against L. lactis 117.
[0113] FIG. 43 illustrates a protease involved in lacticin biosynthesis. LctT comprises 691 amino acids and is about 79.8 kDa.
[0114] FIG. 44 illustrates LctT sequence analysis of ComA (SEQ ID NO:77, amino acids 1-164), LcnC (SEQ ID NO:78, amino acids 1-164), PedD (SEQ ID NO:79, amino acids 1-166), CvaB (SEQ ID NO:80, amino acids 1-172), and LctT (SEQ ID NO:29).
[0115] FIG. 45 illustrates an example of lacticin protease activity starting from LctA (SEQ ID NO:3) with a His-tag (SEQ ID NO:4). Products include amino acids 1-43 and amino acids 44-70 and amino acids 1-42 and 43-70, all of SEQ ID NO:4.
[0116] FIG. 46 illustrates His-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4) and a truncated LctA mutant (His-LctA(10-51); SEQ ID NO:6) with N-terminal deletions.
[0117] FIG. 47 illustrates expressed protein ligation.
[0118] FIG. 48 illustrates a truncated LctA with C-terminal deletions. His-LctA, SEQ ID NO:4; His-LctA(1-37), SEQ ID NO:8; Hist-LctA(1-38), SEQ ID NO:9.
[0119] FIGS. 49 to 51 illustrate MS/MS characterization of His-LctA(1-38) (SEQ ID NO:9) product.
[0120] FIG. 49 illustrates an overview of His-LctA (1-38) (SEQ ID NO:9) modified by LctM.
[0121] FIG. 50 illustrates fragments for His-LctA (1-38) (SEQ ID NO:9) and LctM-modified His-LctA (1-38) (SEQ ID NO:114).
[0122] FIG. 51 illustrates MS/MS data relating to SEQ ID NO:9.
[0123] FIG. 52 illustrates a truncated LctA with C-terminal deletions. His-LctA, SEQ ID NO:4; His-LctA(1-38)C38U, SEQ ID NO:10.
[0124] FIG. 53 illustrates characterization of the His-LctA(1-38)C38U, SEQ ID NO:10) product upon modification by LctM.
[0125] FIG. 54 illustrates a lacticin analog, mutant His-LctA-T48S (SEQ ID NO:11).
[0126] FIG. 55 illustrates a lacticin analog, mutant His-LctA-C49S (SEQ ID NO:12).
[0127] FIG. 56 illustrates a lacticin analog, mutant His-LctA-C49A (SEQ ID NO:13). The LctM-modified product (third line) corresponds to SEQ ID NO:113.
[0128] FIG. 57 illustrates an example of a cyclase containing stoichiometric zinc.
[0129] FIG. 58 illustrates a sequence alignment of SpaC (amino acids 211-384 of SEQ ID NO:68), EpiC (amino acids 258-395 of SEQ ID NO:71), NisC (amino acids 192-368 of SEQ ID NO:69), PepC (SEQ ID NONO:120), and LctM (amino acids 705-865 of SEQ ID NO:40) relating to four conserved putative metal ligands.
[0130] FIG. 59 illustrates a potential role for zinc, Zn, relating to enzyme function.
[0131] FIG. 60 illustrates data from zinc-edge EXAFS, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy on protein SpaC.
[0132] FIG. 61 illustrates proposed substrate activation by zinc.
[0133] FIG. 62 illustrates synthesis of dehydroamino acid containing peptides. SpaS, SEQ ID NO:67.
[0134] FIG. 63 illustrates examples of biomimetic lanthionine synthesis.
[0135] FIG. 64 illustrates an example of attempted biomimetic synthesis of Nisin A and B rings.
[0136] FIG. 65 illustrates an example of attempted biomimetic synthesis of Nisin A and B rings, indicating an alternative linkage.
[0137] FIG. 66 illustrates mass spectrometry data for a lacticin analog, His-LctA-C49A (SEQ ID NO:13).
[0138] FIG. 67 illustrates examples of chemoselective oxidative elimination. See also SEQ ID NOs:123-134.
[0139] FIG. 68 illustrates preparation of Z- and E-dehydrobutyrines.
[0140] FIG. 69 illustrates examples of kinetic or thermodynamic control.
[0141] FIG. 70 illustrates a protein sequence for MutM, mutacin II (SEQ ID NO:21).
[0142] FIG. 71 illustrates a protein sequence for MrsM, mersacidin (SEQ ID NO:20).
[0143] FIG. 72 illustrates a protein sequence for CinM, cinnamycin (SEQ ID NO:22).
[0144] FIG. 73 illustrates a protein sequence for ScnM, Streptococcin A-FF22 (SEQ ID NO:23).
[0145] FIG. 74 illustrates a protein sequence for RumM, ruminococcin (SEQ ID NO:24).
[0146] FIG. 75 illustrates a protein sequence for NukM, nukacin (SEQ ID NO:27).
[0147] FIG. 76 illustrates a protein sequence for LtnM1 (SEQ ID NO:25).
[0148] FIG. 77 illustrates a protein sequence for LtnM2 (SEQ ID NO:26).
[0149] FIG. 78A illustrates a protein sequence for LctM (SEQ ID NO:40) used in Examples 1 to 3. FIG. 78B illustrates an additional amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:42) at the N-terminus for the His-tagged protein.
[0150] FIG. 79A illustrates a nucleotide sequence including the vector portion coding for the His tag at the N-terminus (bases from pET28 in His-LctM protein) (SEQ ID NO:41). FIG. 79B illustrates a nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:28) and FIG. 79C illustrates an amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:29, amino acids 1-150) for an LctT protease domain.
[0151] FIG. 80A illustrates a nucleotide sequence of bases from pET15b in His-LctA relating to the His-tag (SEQ ID NO:43). FIG. 80B illustrates an LctA gene nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:44).
[0152] FIG. 81 illustrates a nucleotide sequence for the LctM gene with a gtg start codon (SEQ ID NO:38).
[0153] FIG. 82 illustrates a nucleotide sequence for the LctM gene with an atg start codon (SEQ ID NO:39).
[0154] FIG. 83 illustrates LctT as a bifunctional protein along with mass spectrometry data related to proteolysis.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Example 1

LctM, Lacticin 481, and Delta-1 lacticin 481

[0155] Reported herein is an active purified lantibiotic synthetase, the LctM enzyme (SEQ ID NO:40) that executes post-translational modifications in the biosynthesis of lacticin 481.
[0156] Lacticin 481 is produced by several strains of Lactococcus lactis. Its putative biosynthetic pathway is shown in FIG. 1. The biosynthetic operon has been characterized by genetic studies and encompasses six genes, lctAMTFEG (reference 16). The lctA gene encodes the 51-amino acid prepeptide LctA (17) (SEQ ID NO:3). For many lantibiotics the dehydration and cyclization reactions (FIG. 1) are believed to be carried out by two proteins, generically designated LanB and LanC, respectively (1, 18). In the case of lacticin 481, a single enzyme LctM (19) has low levels of sequence homology at its C-terminus to LanC proteins but no similarity to LanB enzymes.
[0157] We cloned lctA (SEQ ID NO:44) and lctM (SEQ ID NO:38 for gtg start codon, SEQ ID NO:39 for atg start codon) from L. lactis CNRZ 481 and developed high level heterologous expression systems in E. coli (20). LctA was expressed with a linker and hexa-histidine tag to its N-terminus (His6-LctA) (21) (SEQ ID NO:4). The peptide was produced in inclusion bodies that were isolated by centrifugation and resolubilized in 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride. The peptide was subsequently purified to homogeneity by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and reverse phase HPLC. LctM (106.7 kDa) was expressed with an N-terminal His6-tag and purified by IMAC followed by cation exchange chromatography resulting in protein of >95 purity.
[0158] Incubation of His6-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4) with LctM (SEQ ID NO:40) produced a series of new peaks in the MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of the reaction mixture only when ATP and Mg2+ were included in the assay (FIG. 2). EDTA abolished the reaction, consistent with a previous study showing the presence of Zn2+ in the putative cyclases involved in the biosynthesis of subtilin and nisin and the presence of four strictly conserved Cys and H is residues in LanC and LanM proteins (22). The new peaks in the mass spectrum correspond to losses of 18, 36, 54, and 72 Da, suggesting the elimination of one to four water molecules, respectively. Isotopic resolution of the starting peptide and the product was achieved by using electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FTMS) as depicted in FIG. 3 (insets), verifying the molecular formula of the major dehydration product within 0.07 Da. The process was less efficient with ATP-gamma-S and was completely abolished with the non-hydrolyzable analogs AMP-PCP and AMP-PNP, suggesting that ATP hydrolysis is essential for processing. Analysis of the products revealed the formation of ADP and inorganic phosphate. Due to the very poor solubility of the peptide substrate, we have been unable to determine kinetic parameters.
[0159] The experiments described thus far do not establish that thioether formation has occurred since the conjugate addition of Cys residues to Dha/Dhb does not produce a change in mass. Several experiments were performed to demonstrate that the M-72 Da product corresponds to lacticin 481 linked to its leader peptide. Amino acid analysis of the product mixture indicated the presence of lanthionine/methyllanthionine in quantities consistent with the extent to which the M-72 product was formed. The product is generated from a precursor that contains six Ser and three Thr residues in the prepeptide in addition to five Ser residues in the His6-tag linker (21).
[0160] To localize the sites of dehydration, the product was treated with the protease Lys-C resulting in cleavage of the amide bond between Lys25 and Gly26 and removal of the leader sequence and the His6-tag. MALDI-MS analysis of the C-terminal proteolytic fragment confirmed that the dehydrations took place in the propeptide. Lys25 is not conserved in the subclass of lantibiotics that include lacticin 481, and hence its absence was not anticipated to be critical for antimicrobial activity. Indeed, application of the proteolytic fragment to a lacticin 481-sensitive indicator strain (L. lactis CNRZ 117) in an agar diffusion assay resulted in a large zone of inhibition (FIG. 5). This proteolytic fragment was designated Delta-1 lacticin 481 to indicate the absence of Lys25. No antimicrobial activity was detected with either His6-LctA or the post-translationally modified product with the leader peptide still attached.
[0161] Lys-C was obtained from Sigma (P3428 Endoproteinase Lys-C from Lysobacter enzymogenes). References for Lys-C are: Patent: Endoproteinase-lys-C from bacterial fermentation. (Boehringer Mannheim G.m.b.H., Fed. Rep. Ger.). Belg. (1982), 12 pp. CODEN: BEXXAL BE 890259 A1 19820308 Patent. Application: BE 81-205892 19810908. Priority: DE 80-3034045 19800910. CAN 97:2856 AN 1982:402856 CAPLUS. Reference: E., Peter A.; Weijer, Wicher J.; Beinterna, Jaap J. Use of endoproteinase Lys-C from Lysobacter enzymogenes in protein sequence analysis. Analytical Biochemistry (1983), 134(2), 347-54.
[0162] To further establish its structure, the M-72 product was analyzed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ESI-FTMS instrument (23). Upon treatment with LctM for 1 hour, more than 80% of the substrate was converted to a product decreased in mass by 71.98 Da (FIG. 3A versus FIG. 3B), consistent with four dehydration events (9 ppm error).
[0163] In FIG. 3A, FIG. 3B, and selected other Figures, the depiction of a symbol resembling the letter “L” below and to the left of the position of an amino acid residue signifies a beginning location of a particular observed peptide fragment. The depiction of a symbol resembling an inverted and reversed letter “L” above and to the right of the position of an amino acid residue signifies an ending location of a particular observed peptide fragment.
[0164] Inspection of the b- and y-type fragment ions (24) of His6-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4) and the M-72 Da product irradiated with infrared photons shows that the 72 Da is lost from the C-terminal 20 residues consistent with four dehydrations at the expected sites in the propeptide (FIG. 3B). Furthermore, no fragment ions were observed from fragmentation in the C-terminal 20 amino acids in the product, whereas nine such fragments were identified in the corresponding experiment with the substrate. These findings are consistent with three macrocyclic thioethers in this region, which have been shown recently to resist threshold fragmentation methods (25). Collectively, the mass spectrometric studies in conjunction with the biochemical and bioassay results show that the fully processed product consists of lacticin 481 fused to its leader peptide.
[0165] A series of LctA mutants was prepared to assess the substrate specificity of LctM for the use of LctM in lantibiotic engineering. Mutants in which three or eight amino acids of the leader sequence were deleted, His6-LctA(5-51) (SEQ ID NO:5) and His6-LctA(10-51) (SEQ ID NO:6) (FIG. 4), were fully processed by LctM. In contrast, His6-LctA(25-51) (SEQ ID NO:7), which represents just the propeptide region, was not processed to dehydrated products. Accordingly, the amino acids at positions 10-24 of the leader peptide are important for the post-translational modification machinery.
[0166] In addition to truncation of the leader sequence, LctA analogs were prepared to evaluate the importance of a full length propeptide (FIG. 4). His6-LctA (1-37) (SEQ ID NO:8) was expressed attached to a intein-chitin binding domain (CBD) fusion. After purification using chitin affinity chromatography, His6-LctA(1-37) was cleaved from the intein using beta-mercaptoethanol. The resulting peptide, containing two of the residues that are dehydrated in wild type, was incubated with LctM to provide a product in which two dehydrations had occurred (MALDI-MS).

Example 2

Synthetic Variants of Lantibiotics

[0167] To probe cyclization activity for truncated substrates, His6-LctA(1-38) (SEQ ID NO:9) and His6-LctA(1-38)Cys38Sec (SEQ ID NO:10) were produced by expressed protein ligation (EPL) (27) of the His6-LctA(1-37) (SEQ ID NO:8)-intein-CBD fusion with cysteine and selenocysteine (Sec), respectively. His6-LctA(1-38) (SEQ ID NO:9) was converted quantitatively by LctM into a product that was 36.02 Da lower in mass than the starting peptide (ESI-FTMS, FIG. 6). MS/MS analysis using collisionally activated dissociation confirmed that the dehydrations took place from Thr33 and Ser35 and indicated that Cys38 had cyclized (FIG. 6). Hence, these experiments demonstrate that C-terminal truncation of the LctA substrate impairs neither the dehydration nor the cyclization activity of LctM. Similarly, His6-LctA(1-38)Cys38Sec (SEQ ID NO:10) was converted by LctM leading to dehydration of Thr33 and Ser35 and cyclization to produce a selenoether (FIG. 7). This finding illustrates the successful demonstration of combining semisynthetic substrates generated by EPL with the substrate promiscuity of LctM for lantibiotic engineering.

Example 3

Site-Directed Mutagenesis of LctA

[0168] A series of LctA point mutants were prepared in which the post-translationally modified residues were replaced by site-directed mutagenesis. As predicted, incubation of His6-LctA-T48A (SEQ ID NO:83) with LctM resulted in only three dehydrations. Unexpectedly, His6-LctA-C49S (SEQ ID NO:12) led to a product with five dehydrations (M-90 Da) in addition to the product with four dehydrations (FIG. 9). Thus, replacement of Cys49 with Ser not only precluded the formation of the B-ring, but also lead to dehydration of the new Ser residue. This dehydration appears to interfere with formation of the C-ring as MS/MS analysis indicates it is not present in the product with five dehydrations (20).
[0169] The formation of another lacticin analog lacking the B-ring was investigated in more detail with His6-LctA-C49A (SEQ ID NO:13). MS/MS analysis of the M-72 peptide product indicated the formation of ions resulting from fragmentation of the product peptide between Asn39 and Met40 and between Asn41 and the lanthionine of ring C (20). Such fragmentation is not observed with the product from wt His6-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4) providing an independent confirmation that the B-ring is present in the wt product. Interestingly, assays of LctM with oxidized His6-LctA-C49A (SEQ ID NO:13) in which the two remaining Cys residues (Cys38 & Cys50) were present as a disulfide, resulted in the near quantitative production of a peptide that was 36.09 Da lower in mass than the starting material. MS/MS analysis revealed two dehydrations at Thr33 and Ser35. Upon reduction of the disulfide with DTT and resubmission to LctM, the intermediate peptide was converted to products with three and four dehydrations (data not shown), indicating that LctM can utilize partially dehydrated products as substrates for further processing.
[0170] In summary, this work presents the first in vitro reconstitution of the complex series of post-translational modifications carried out by lantibiotic synthetases. The process requires ATP and Mg2+. Lacticin 481 synthase shows low specificity with regards to its substrate and provides an excellent system for engineering of lacticin analogs with at least partially synthetic substrates.

Supporting Information for Example 1 to Example 3

Materials and Methods

[0171] E. coli DH5alpha and BL21(DE3) were used as hosts for cloning and expression, respectively. Transformants were selected by plating on LB agar plates containing 100 micro-g/mL ampicillin (FisherBiotech) and/or 50 micro-g/mL kanamycin (Sigma). pET-15b and pET-28b were obtained from Novagen. pTXB1 was purchased from New England Biolabs (NEB). E. coli strains were grown in LB or TB (terrific broth) medium. Lacticin 481 producing strain Lactococcus lactis CNRZ 481 was obtained from the Centre National Recherches Zootechniques (CNRZ) culture collection (INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France) and was cultured in GM17 broth (4% M17 and 0.5 glucose) at 30° C. without aeration for isolating chromosomal DNA.
[0172] Restriction enzymes were obtained from either GibcoBRL or NEB. Calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIP) was purchased from Promega. IPTG was purchased from CalBiochem. T4 DNA ligase was obtained from NEB. Primers were purchased from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Biotechnology Center. dNTPs were obtained from GibcoBRL. DNA polymerases were purchased from GibcoBRL or Stratagene. Chelating Sepharose Fast Flow resin and SP Sepharose Fast Flow resin were purchased from Amersham Pharmacia Biotech. Chitin resin and amylose resin were purchased from NEB. The metal chelating column for the BioCad FPLC system was self-packed using POROS 20 MC resin (metal chelate affinity packing) obtained from PerSeptive Biosystem.
[0173] RP-HPLC was performed on either a Rainin system (Dynamax model SD-200 pump and model UV-1 detector), a Beckman Gold system (Model 125 solvent module and model 166 detector), or a Waters system (Model 600 controller, Delta 600 pump, and 2487 dual wavelength absorbance detector) with a Vydac C4 analytical (0.46 cm×25 cm), semi-preparative (1.0 cm×25 cm), or preparative column (2.2 cm×25 cm), or a Waters PrepLCTM 25 mm Module preparative C18 column, monitoring at 220 nm. Solvents for RP-HPLC were solvent A (0.1% TFA in water) and solvent B (0.1% TFA in acetonitrile). MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was carried out on a Voyager-DE-STR (Applied Biosystem) in the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, School of Chemical Sciences, UIUC. The instrument has an accuracy of about 0.05% for small to medium sized peptides and proteins when external calibration is used.
[0174] Genomic DNA from L. lactis CNRZ 481 strain was isolated by the DNAzol method (Molecular Research Center, Inc). Plasmid DNA was isolated using QIAGEN Plasmid Purification Kits (QIAGEN). DNA purification after restriction digestions was performed using QIAquick PCR or gel purification kit (QIAGEN). DNA sequencing was performed using the appropriate primers on an ABI PRISM automated sequence model vision 2.1.1 at the Biotechnology Center of UIUC.
[0175] Cloning of LctM
[0176] The lctM gene was PCR amplified using the primers 5′-CGACTAGCTAGC-ATGAAAAAAAAGACTTAC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:14) and 5′-CCGCTCGAGTTAATCAACATATGGCAT-3′ (SEQ ID NO:15). For the lctM gene, see SEQ ID NO:38 (gtg start codon) and SEQ ID NO:39 (atg start codon). For the LctM protein, see SEQ ID NO:40. The PCR product was digested with NheI and XhoI restriction enzymes and ligated into pET28b to generate a His6-tagged (SEQ ID NO:42) LctM construct (pET28b-LctM(NB)H2). The sequence of LctM insert was checked by DNA sequencing.
[0177] There are two different bacterial strains that produce lacticin 481 (Lactococcus lactis CNRZ 481 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ADRIA 85LO30. Lacticin 481 was originally called lactococcin DR for the latter strain. Upon recognition that lactococcin DR had the same structure as the product of the former strain, the name lacticin 481 was used. The sequence for LctM (SEQ ID NO:40) has been published for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ADRIA 85LO30. The LctM herein was cloned from Lactococcus lactis CNRZ 481. An LctM sequence was reported by A. Rince, A. Dufour, S. Le Pogam, D. Thuault, C. M. Bourgeois, and J.-P. Le Pennec, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1652-1657, 1994; NCBI Accession number U91581.
[0178] Expression and Purification of His6-LctM
[0179] BL21(DE3) cells transformed with pET28b-LctM(NB)H2 were grown in TB medium at 37° C. and induced with 0.5 mM IPTG when OD600 nm reached 0.8-0.9. The cells were then continually shaken at 18° C. for 22 h and then harvested. The cell paste was resuspended in start buffer (20 mM Tris, pH 8.3, 1 M NaCl, 10% glycerol) and stored at −80° C. until use. All purification steps were performed at 4° C. Cell paste (11 g) in 50 mL of start buffer was sonicated on ice for 20 min. After centrifugation, the supernatant (48 mL) was loaded onto a POROS20 MC 7.8 mL column at 2 mL/min. The column was washed with 150 mL of start buffer at 2 mL/min. Then the flow rate was increased to 4 mL/min and the column was washed with an additional 100 mL of start buffer, followed by 40 mL of 30 mM imidazole buffer (20 mM Tris, pH 7.2, 100 mM NaCl, 30 mM imidazole), and eluted with 100 mL of a 30 mM to 500 mM imidazole gradient in 20 mM MOPS, pH 7.2, 100 mM NaCl buffer.
[0180] The His6-LctM (SEQ ID NO:42, SEQ ID NO:40) containing fractions were combined and directly loaded onto a SP cation exchange column (27 mL, 15 mm diameter) pre-equilibrated with MOPS buffer (20 mM MOPS, pH 7.1, 100 mM NaCl). After the protein samples were loaded, the column was washed with MOPS buffer (˜200 mL) at ˜2 mL/min until no absorbance was detected at 220 nm in the flow through. His6-LctM protein was then eluted with 20 mM MOPS, pH 7.1, 1 M NaCl. About 20 mg of His6-LctM was obtained (1.16 mg/mL, 19 mL) based on Bradford assay. Mass spectrometric analysis (MALDI) revealed a mass of 109,094±120 (3 determinations) (calcd 109,161). For the His-tagged protein, there is a short additional stretch of amino acids at the N-terminus: MGSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMAS. See SEQ ID NO:41 (nucleotide sequence with portion for His tag at the N-terminus) and SEQ ID NO:42 (amino acid sequence with His tag at N-terminus).
[0181] Cloning of His6-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4)
[0182] The lctA gene was amplified using the primers 5′-GGGAATTCCATATG-AAAGAACAAAACTCTTTTAA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:16) and 5′-CGCGGATCCTTAAGAGCAGCAAGTA (SEQ ID NO:17). The PCR product was digested with NdeI and BamHI restriction enzymes and ligated into the pET15b vector. The resulting pET15b-LctA#4 plasmid was used for the overexpression of His6-LctA. DNA sequencing revealed a nucleotide change (A33G) leading to a silent mutation (Q11Q).\
[0183] Expression and Purification of His6-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4)
[0184] BL21(DE3) cells carrying the plasmid pET15b-LctA were induced with 1 mM IPTG at 37° C. at OD600 nm=0.5-0.7, and grown for an additional 3 h. Cells were harvested by centrifugation, and the cell pellet (11g) was resuspended in 40 mL of start buffer2 (20 mM Na2HPO4, pH 7.5, 500 mM NaCl, 0.5 mM imidazole) and lysed by sonication. After centrifugation, the supernatant was discarded and the pellet was washed twice with start buffer2 to remove trapped proteins. The resulting pellet was resuspended in 10 mL of denaturing buffer (start buffer2 containing 6 M guanidine hydrochloride). The mixture was incubated at rt for 1 h to completely redissolve the protein. The remaining insoluble material was removed by centrifugation and the supernatant was mixed with Ni2+-charged chelating resin (˜10 mL) at rt for 30 min by rotation in a 50 mL centrifuge tube. The resin mixture was then transferred into a column. The column was drained, washed with denaturing buffer, and 30 mM imidazole buffer containing 6 M guanidine. His6-LctA was eluted with denaturing buffer containing 100 mM EDTA. Fractions containing His6-LctA were concentrated by Amicon ultrafiltration using a YM1 membrane (Millipore). His6-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4) was further purified by RP-HPLC using a C18 preparative column (Waters). The retention time (tR) was 15.5 min using a gradient of 2-100% B over 20 min (B=100% MeCN/0.1% TFA) on a C4 Vydac analytical column. About 32 mg of HPLC purified peptide was obtained (˜6.5 mg per liter of culture). MALDI-TOF MS for His6-LctA calcd. 7710 (M+H), found 7710. ESI-FT-MS mass calcd. 7708.59-4, found 7708.60-4 (1 ppm error, external calibration with bovine ubiquitin, 8564.64-5). For all FT-ESI data reported herein, the mass difference (in units of 1.0024 Da) between the most abundant isotopic peak and the monoisotopic peak is denoted as the number following the hyphen after each Mr value.
[0185] Activity Assay
[0186] The HPLC purified His6-LctA peptide (SEQ ID NO:4) was redissolved in water and the concentration was determined by UV-vis according to the estimated extinction coefficient (Epsilon280 nm=5690) from the ExPASy ProtParam tool. About 10 microL of His6-LctA was mixed with 1 microL of 10× assay buffer (final concentration: 25 mM Tris, 5 mM MgCl2, 5 mM DTT, 0.5 mM ATP, 12.5 microg/mL BSA, pH 7.5) and ˜1 microL of ZnCl2 (final conc. 0.36 microM). Peptide precipitation was observed upon addition of the buffer if the peptide concentration was too high. His6-LctM was added (1 microM) and the reaction mixture was incubated at rt for 28 h. Subsequent data (not shown) indicated that an incubation time of 10 minutes achieved substantial reaction progress.
[0187] For MALDI MS analysis, 1 microL of the assay sample was mixed with 9 microL of sinapinic acid pre-dissolved in MeCN:H2O (2:1) in 0.1% TFA and 1 microL of the mixture was applied on the MALDI target. MALDI MS calcd. 7710 (M+H), 7638 (M-72+H), found 7638 (M-72+H) as the major peak. Small amounts of species corresponding to 7656 (M-54+H), 7674 (M-36+H), 7692 (M-18+H) and 7710 (M+H) were also observed in MALDI MS. ESI-FT-MS for the major product: mass calcd. 7636.55-4, found 7636.62-4 (9 ppm error, external calibration with bovine ubiquitin, 8564.64-5).
[0188] Bioassay for Lantibiotic Activity
[0189] The lyophilized assay product (˜0.1 microg) was redissolved in 6 microL of Millipore water. To the solution, 4 microL of a solution of Lys-C in 100 mM Tris, pH 8.5 (0.4 ng/microL) was added and the mixture was incubated at 37° C. for 3 h. The resulting mixture was checked by MALDI-TOF MS. Three fragments were expected and two were observed: calcd, 2310 ([1-21]), 2591 ([22-44]), 2773 ([45-70]); found, 2593 ([22-44]), 2775 ([45-70]).
[0190] Inhibitory activity was assayed by the solid agar medium test. A GM17 agar plate was seeded with the test strain by mixing 100 mL of liquid GM17 agar at 50° C. with 1.5 mL of an overnight culture. After agar solidification, wells were created in the medium and the samples were added to the wells. The activity of the starting peptide, LctM-product, and the product and starting peptide treated with Lys-C were determined using a solid agar diffusion bioassay with indicator strain L. lactis CNRZ 117 (See FIG. 5).
[0191] FT-MS/MS Conditions
[0192] Samples for MS/MS analysis were resuspended in 78% acetonitrile, 20% water, 2% acetic acid and introduced via electrospray ionization into a custom built 8.5 Tesla Q-FTMS. Data acquisition was performed with the MIDAS datastation and then stored as 512 K data sets. Isopro v3.0 was used to generate theoretical isotopic distributions which were fit to experimental data by least squares to assign the most abundant peak. Instrument specifics have been described previously (S1-Senko et al.). For all FT-ESI data reported herein, the mass difference (in units of 1.0024 Da) between the most abundant isotopic peak and the monoisotopic peak is denoted, following the hyphen and in italics, after each Mr value.
[0193] IRMPD: In the FTMS cell the ions of interest were isolated using a stored waveform inverse Fourier transform (SWIFT). After isolation, the selected ions were irradiated with a 75 W CO2 laser which induced fragmentation along the peptide backbone.
[0194] Multipole Dissociation For multipole dissociation, ions of interested were first selectively filtered in the quadrupole and then fragmented by lowering the axial offset on the accumulation multipole. The fragment ions were then directed down to the cell via multiple ion guides where they were excited and detected.
[0195] Generation of LctA Mutants
[0196] His6-LctA(5-51) (SEQ ID NO:5). The partial lctA gene (13-156) was amplified using the primers 5′-GGGAATTCCATATGAACTCTTTTAATCTTC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:85) and 5′-CGCGGATCCTTAAGAG-CAGCAAGTA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:86) with the plasmid pET15b-LctA as the template. The PCR product was gel purified, digested with NdeI and BamHI, and ligated into a pET15b vector. The resulting pET15b-LctA-N5#1 plasmid was used for the overexpression of His6-LctA(5-51). DNA sequencing revealed a nucleotide change (A33G) leading to a silent mutation (Q11Q).
[0197] His6-LctA(10-51) (SEQ ID NO:6). The partial lctA gene (28-156) was amplified using the primers 5′-GGGAATTCCATATGCTTCAAGAAGTGACA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:87) and 5′-CGCGGATCCTTAA-GAGCAGCAAGTA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:88) with genomic DNA as the template. The PCR product was digested with NdeI and BamHI, and ligated into a pET15b vector. The resulting pET15b-LctA-L10#3 plasmid was used for the overexpression of His6-LctA(10-51). DNA sequencing confirmed the desired sequence.
[0198] His6-LctA(25-51) (SEQ ID NO:7). The partial lctA gene (73-156) was amplified using the primers 5′-GGGAATTCCATATGAAAGGCGGCAGTGGA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:89) and T7 terminator: 5′-GCTAGTTATTGCTCAGCGG-3′ (SEQ ID NO:90) with the plasmid pTXB1-LctA as the template. The PCR product was digested with NdeI and BamHI restriction enzymes, and ligated into a pET15b vector. The resulting plasmid was called pET15b-LctA-K25-intein-CBD#2 which was used to obtain the truncated peptide His6-LctA(25-51). DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of the desired sequence.
[0199] His6-LctA(1-37) (SEQ ID NO:8). The partial lctA gene (1-111) was amplified using the primers 5′-GGGAATTCCATATGAAAGAACAAAACTCTTTTAA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:91) and 5′-ATATGCTCTTC-CGCATTCATGAGAAATTGT-3′ (SEQ ID NO:92) with genomic DNA as the template. The PCR product was digested with NdeI and SapI restriction enzymes, and ligated into a pTXB1 vector. The DNA fragment LctA-37E-intein-CBD was cut out of the resulting pTXB1-LctA-37E plasmid using NdeI and BamHI, and this fragment was ligated into the pET-15b vector. This resulted in the plasmid pET15b-LctA-37E-intein-CBD#2 which was used to obtain the truncated peptide His6-LctA(1-37). The same construct was used to generate the truncated peptides His6-LctA(1-38) and His6-LctA(1-38)C38U by EPL. DNA sequencing revealed a nucleotide change (T48C) leading to a silent mutation (S16S).
[0200] His6-LctA-T48S (SEQ ID NO:11). The lctA gene was amplified using the primers 5′-GGGAATTCCATATGAAAGAACAAAACTCTTTTAA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:93) and 5′-CGCGGATCC-TTAAGAGCAGCAAGAA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:94) with pET15b-LctA as the template. The PCR product was digested with NdeI and BamHI restriction enzymes and ligated into a pET15b vector. The resulting pET15b-LctA-T48S#2 plasmid was used for the overexpression of His6-LctA-T48S. DNA sequencing revealed a nucleotide change (A33G) leading to a silent mutation (Q11Q) in addition to the desired mutation.
[0201] His6-LctA-T48A. The lctA gene was amplified using the primers 5′-GGGAATTCCATATGAAAGAACAAAACTCTTTTAA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:95) and 5′-CGCGGATCC-TTAAGAGCAGCATGCA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:96) with pET15b-LctA as the template. The PCR product was digested with NdeI and BamHI restriction enzymes and ligated into a pET15b vector. The resulting pET15b-LctA-T48A#6 plasmid was used for the overexpression of His6-LctA-T48A. DNA sequencing revealed a nucleotide change (A33G) leading to a silent mutation (Q11Q) in addition to the desired mutation.
[0202] His6-LctA-C49A (SEQ ID NO:13). The lctA gene was amplified using the primers 5′-GGGAATTCCATATGAAAGAACAAAACTCTTTTAA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:97) and 5′-CGCGGATCC-TTAAGAGCATGCAGTA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:98) with pET15b-LctA as the template. The PCR product was digested with NdeI and BamHI restriction enzymes and ligated into pET15b. The resulting pET15b-LctA-C49A#1 plasmid was used for the overexpression of His6-LctA-C49A. DNA sequencing revealed a nucleotide change (A33G) leading to a silent mutation (Q11Q) in addition to the desired mutation.
[0203] His6-LctA-C49S (SEQ ID NO:12). The lctA gene was amplified using the primers 5′-GGGAATTCCATATGAAAGAACAAAACTCTTTTAA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:99) and 5′-CGCGGATCC-TTAAGAGCAGCTAGTA-3′ (SEQ ID NO:100) with genomic DNA as the template. The PCR product was digested with NdeI and BamHI restriction enzymes and ligated into the pET15b vector. The resulting pET15b-LctA-C49S#4 plasmid was used for the overexpression of His6-LctA-C49S. DNA sequencing matched the published sequence and showed the desired mutation.
[0204] General Procedure for Overexpression and Purification of His6-LctA Mutants.
[0205] BL21(DE3) cells carrying the corresponding plasmid were induced with 1 mM IPTG at 37° C. at OD600 nm=0.5-0.7, and grown for an additional 3 h. Cells were harvested by centrifugation, and the cell pellet (11 g) was resuspended in 40 mL of the start buffer2 (20 mM Na2HPO4, pH 7.5, 500 mM NaCl, 0.5 mM imidazole) and lysed by sonication. After centrifugation, the supernatant was discarded and the pellet was washed twice with the start buffer2 to remove trapped proteins. The resulting pellet was resuspended in 10 mL of the denaturing buffer (the start buffer2 containing 6 M guanidine hydrochloride). The mixture was incubated at 25° C. for 1 h to completely dissolve the protein. The remaining insoluble material was removed by centrifugation and the supernatant was mixed with Ni2+-charged chelating resin at 25° C. for 30 min by rotation in a 50 mL centrifuge tube (Corning). The resin mixture was then transferred into a column. The column was drained, washed with the denaturing buffer, and 30 mM imidazole buffer containing 4 M guanidine. The peptide was eluted with the buffer containing 50 mM EDTA, 20 mM Tris, pH 6.5, 4 M guanidine. Fractions containing the peptide were collected and purified by RP-HPLC using a C18 preparative column (Waters).
[0206] General Procedure for Overexpression and Purification of the Truncated LctA from the Intein System.
[0207] BL21(DE3) cells carrying the pET15b-LctA-37E-intein-CBD#2 plasmid were induced with 0.5 mM IPTG at 25° C. at OD600 nm=0.5-0.7, and grown for an additional 6 h. Cells were harvested by centrifugation, and the cell pellet was resuspended in cell lysis buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 1 M NaCl, 1 mM EDTA) and lysed by sonication. After centrifugation, the supernatant containing the truncated peptide was purified by chitin affinity chromatography and subsequent intein mediated cleavage with beta-mercaptoethanol (100 mM) at 25° C. The fractions containing His6-LctA(1-37) were combined, lyophilized, redissolved in minimum solvent and purified further by RP-HPLC. For expressed protein ligation (EPL), the peptide-intein-CBD containing resin was incubated with MESNA (50 mM) and Cys (1 mM) at 25° C. for 15 h before elution. Elution fractions containing the peptide were further purified by RP-HPLC using a C4 Vydac analytical column. The HPLC fractions were lyophilized and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS.
[0208] Overexpression, Preparation and Purification of LctA(1-38)C38U (SEQ ID NO:10).
[0209] BL21(DE3) cells carrying the pET15b-LctA-37E-intein-CBD#2 plasmid were induced with 0.5 mM IPTG at 25° C. at OD600=0.6-0.7 and grown for an additional 6 h. Cells were harvested by centrifugation and the cell pellet was resuspended in cell lysis buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 500 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1% Tween-20) and lysed by sonication. After centrifugation, the supernatant containing the LctA(1-37)-intein-CBD fusion protein was bound to chitin affinity resin with gentle shaking at 4° C. for 2 h. The resin was then washed with wash buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 500 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA) until no absorbance was detected at 220 nm in the flow-through. Expressed protein ligation was performed by incubating the resin with bound peptide-intein-CBD with L-selenocysteine, generated in situ by the reduction of L-selenocystine (4 mM) with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) (8 mM), and MESNA (100 mM) for 18 h at 25° C. under argon. Eluted fractions containing the desired peptide were further purified by RP-HPLC using a C4 Vydac analytical column and product fractions were lyophilized and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS.
[0210] Assays with Mutant LctA Peptides.
[0211] The assays with the mutant peptides were carried out essentially the same as described above for the wt His6-LctA peptide. Mass spectrometry data is listed below.
[0212] His6-LctM assay with His6-LctA(5-51) (SEQ ID NO:5). MALDI-TOF MS calcd. 7324 (M), 7252 (M-72), found 7325 (M+H+), 7252 (M-72), 7270 (M-54), 7288 (M-36).
[0213] His6-LctM assay with His6-LctA(10-51) (SEQ ID NO:6). MALDI-TOF MS calcd. 6749 (M), 6677 (M-72), found 6769 (M), 6677 (M-72), 6695 (M-54), 6712 (M-36).
[0214] His6-LctM assay with His6-LctA(25-51) (SEQ ID NO:7). MALDI-TOF MS calcd. 5137 (M), 5065 (M-72), found 5134 (M), 5116 (M-18), 5098 (M-36), 5080 (M-54).
[0215] His6-LctM assay with His6-LctA(1-38) (SEQ ID NO:9). MALDI-TOF MS calcd. 6161 (M), 6125 (M-36), found 6125 (M-36). ESI-FTMS monoisotopic mass calcd. 6156.98-0 (M), 6120.96-0 (M-36), found 6156.96-0 (M), 6120.94-0 (M-36).
[0216] His6-LctM assay with His6-LctA(1-37) (SEQ ID NO:8). MALDI-TOF MS calcd. 6208 (M), 6172 (M-36), found 6210 (M), 6174 (M-36), 6192 (M-18).
[0217] His6-LctM assay with His6-LctA-T48S (SEQ ID NO:11). MALDI-TOF MS calcd. 7696 (M), 7624 (M-72), found 7624 (M-72), 7642 (M-54), 7660 (M-36). ESI-FTMS monoisotopic mass calcd. 7690.56-0 (M), 7618.56-0 (M-72), found 7690.50-0 (M+H), 7618.53-0 (M-72).
[0218] His6-LctM assay with His6-LctA-T48A (SEQ ID NO:83). MALDI-TOF MS calcd. 7680 (M), 7626 (M-54), found 7624 (M-54), 7680 (M).
[0219] His6-LctM assay with His6-LctA-C49A (SEQ ID NO:13). MALDI-TOF MS calcd. 7678 (M), 7606 (M-72), found 7606 (M-72), 7624 (M-54), 7642 (M-36), 7760 (M-72+DTT). ESI-FTMS monoisotopic mass calcd. 7672.61-0 (M), 7600.57-0 (M-72), found 7670.59-0 (M-2; disulfide between Cys38 & Cys50), 7600.59-0 (M-72).
[0220] His6-LctM assay with His6-LctA-C49S (SEQ ID NO:12). MALDI-TOF MS calcd. 7694 (M), 7622 (M-72), found 7622 (M-72), 7640 (M-54), 7658 (M-36), 7604 (M-90), 7694 (M), 7758 (M-90+DTT), 7776 (M-72+DTT). ESI-FTMS monoisotopic mass calcd. 7688.60-0 (M), 7616.56-0 (M-72), found 7688.65-0 (M), 7616.50-0 (M-72), 7598.60-0 (M-90).
[0221] His6-LctM assay with His6-LctA(1-38)C38U (SEQ ID NO:10). ESI-FTMS monoisotopic mass calcd. 6204.88-0 (M), 6168.86-0 (M-36), found 6204.91-0 (M), 6168.86-0 (M-36).
[0222] FIG. 5 illustrates a bioassay for lantibiotic activity. Small aliquots of the following samples were added in the wells: (1) His6-LctA (SEQ ID NO:4), (2) His6-LctA treated with Lys-C, (3) His6-LctA modified by LctM, (4) His6-LctA modified by LctM and treated with Lys-C, (5) cell free broth of L. lactis CNRZ 117, (6) cell free broth of L. lactis CNRZ 481 containing lacticin 481, (7) 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.5, (8) Lys-C in 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.5.
[0223] FIG. 6 illustrates results of Tandem MS on His6-LctA(1-38) (SEQ ID NO:9) and the product obtained after LctM-catalyzed modification.
[0224] Top panel: Sequence of His-LctA(1-38) (SEQ ID NO:9) and its product with key fragments highlighted. The fragmentation pattern of the starting peptide and product is almost identical with exception of the fragments in the C-terminus that are observed for the starting peptide but not in the product as a result of cyclization of the A-ring. The y-ion resulting from fragmentation between Ile31 and His32 localizes the dehydrations to the last 7 residues. Bottom panel (A) Key fragment ions. (B) Fragmentation spectra of His-LctA(1-38) starting material and enzymatic product (−36.02 Da). Formation of the b55 (blue) and b56 (red) ions should be inhibited in the product by the presence of a ring between Dhb33/Dha35 and Cys38. Both the b55 and b56 ions are present with >20 S/N ratio in the starting material. (C) Both of these fragment ions are not observed in key portions of the CAD fragmentation spectrum for the product. If the b55 and b56 ions were observed in the product, they would appear with a −36.02 Da mass shift due to two dehydrations. Overall, panels B and C provide convincing evidence that a thioether ring has been formed. All masses are reported as monoisotopic masses.
[0225] FIG. 7 illustrates tandem MS on His6-LctA(1-38)C38U (SEQ ID NO:10) and the product after LctM-catalyzed modification. Top panel: The fragmentation pattern is similar for both the starting peptide and the product with the exception of fragmentation between Glu37 and Sec38 that is absent in the product. This is a result of cyclizaton by LctM catalyzed addition of the selenol side chain of Sec38 to a dehydrated residue. The two dehydrations observed in the product can be localized to the last 6 residues by the y-ion arising from fragmentation between His32 and Thr33. Bottom panel: (A) Key fragment ion. (B) Fragmentation spectrum of the His6-LctA(1-38)C38U starting material showing the b56 ion fragment. (C) Formation of the b56 ion would be inhibited in the product spectrum due to ring formation between Dhb33/Dha35 and Sec38. Indeed the b56 ion fragment is absent in the spectrum of the enzymatic product (−36.02 Da). The red arrow indicates the expected position at Delta-m=−36.02 Da of the b56 ion as a consequence of two dehydrations in the product. The absence of the b56 ion is convincing evidence for thioether ring formation catalyzed by LctM. All masses are reported as monoisotopic masses. Ions corresponding to non-diagnostic fragments are labeled in black.
[0226] FIG. 8 illustrates Tandem MS on His6-LctA-C49A (SEQ ID NO:13) and the product obtained after LctM-catalyzed modification. Major differences are seen in the fragmentation pattern of the starting peptide and product in the region of the A- and B-ring. That is fragmentations are observed between His32, Thr33, Ile34, Ser35, and His36 in the starting peptide but not the product as a result of formation of the A-ring. Similarly, fragmentations are observed between Ser42, Trp43, Gln44, Phe45, Val46, Phe47, and Thr48 in the starting peptide but not in the product as a result of formation of the C-ring. However, the fragmentations between Asn39 and Met40 and between Asn41 and Ser42 are observed in both peptides clearly showing the absence of the B-ring.
[0227] FIG. 9 illustrates Tandem MS on His6-LctA-C49S (SEQ ID NO:12) and the product obtained after LctM-catalyzed modification. In addition to the M-72 product, a product was formed resulting of loss of 90 Da. MS/MS on this product showed that the newly introduced Ser in the mutant substrate is dehydrated in this peptide. Specifically, the b-ions resulting from fragmentation between Cys50 and residue 49 and between residues 49 and 48 showed unambiguously that residue 49 has lost 18 Da compared to the Ser precursor. Similar inspection of other b-ions in the C-terminal region once more verify dehydration of Thr33, Ser35, Ser42, and Thr48. Of note is that many fragments are generated in the C-terminal 10 amino acids in the product suggesting that the dehydration of Ser49 interferes with formation of the C-ring.

References for Example 1 to Example 3

[0228] 1. H. G. Sahl, G. Bierbaum, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 52, 41-79 (1998).
[0229] 2. E. Breukink et al., Science 286, 2361-2364 (1999).
[0230] 3. T. R. Klaenhammer, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 12, 39-85 (1993).
[0231] 4. H. W. van den Hooven et al., FEBS Lett. 391, 317-22. (1996).
[0232] 5. J. Delves-Broughton, P. Blackburn, R. J. Evans, J. Hugenholtz, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 193-202 (1996).
[0233] 6. W. Liu, J. N. Hansen, J. Biol. Chem. 267, 25078-85 (1992).
[0234] 7. O. P. Kuipers et al., Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 161-169 (1996).
[0235] 8. P. Chen et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 2335-40 (1998).
[0236] 9. C. Szekat, R. W. Jack, D. Skutlarek, H. Farber, G. Bierbaum, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69, 3777-83 (2003).
[0237] 10. Lack of lantibiotic production may be due to disruption of the post-translational modification process, degradation of the non-native peptide product or intermediates, breakdown of self-immunity resulting in shutdown of production, or perturbation of signaling pathways in cases where the bacteriocin acts as a quorum sensor controlling its own expression. See references 11-14.
[0238] 11. J. R. van der Meer et al., J. Biol. Chem. 269, 3555-62 (1994).
[0239] 12. O. P. Kuipers, M. M. Beerthuyzen, P. G. de Ruyter, E. J. Luesink, W. M. de Vos, J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27299-27304 (1995).
[0240] 13. M. Reis, M. Eschbach-Bludau, M. I. Iglesias-Wind, T. Kupke, H. G. Sahl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 2876-83 (1994).
[0241] 14. G. Bierbaum, M. Reis, C. Szekat, H. G. Sahl, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 4332-8 (1994).
[0242] 15. N. Schnell et al., Nature 333, 276-278 (1988).
[0243] 16. A. Rincé, A. Dufour, P. Uguen, J. P. Le Pennec, D. Haras, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 4252-60. (1997).
[0244] 17. J. C. Piard, O. P. Kuipers, H. S. Rollema, M. J. Desmazeaud, W. M. de Vos, J. Biol. Chem. 268, 16361-8 (1993).
[0245] 18. O. Koponen et al., Microbiology 148, 3561-3568 (2002).
[0246] 19. R. J. Siezen, O. P. Kuipers, W. M. de Vos, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 171-84. (1996).
[0247] 20. Materials and methods are available as supporting material on Science Online
[0248] 21. The sequence of the His6-tag linker is GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSH. The DNA sequences of all constructs were verified and the masses of the expressed gene products were determined by mass spectrometry.
[0249] 22. N. M. Okeley, M. Paul, J. P. Stasser, N. Blackburn, W. A. van der Donk, Biochemistry 42, 13613-13624 (2003).
[0250] 23. F. W. McLafferty, E. K. Fridriksson, D. M. Horn, M. A. Lewis, R. A. Zubarev, Science 284, 1289-90. (1999).
[0251] 24. P. Roepstorff, J. Fohlman, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 11, 601 (1984).
[0252] 25. A. J. Kleinnijenhuis, M. C. Duursma, E. Breuking, R. M. A. Heeren, A. J. R. Heck, Anal. Chem. 75, 3219-3225 (2003).
[0253] 26. Y. M. Li, J. C. Milne, L. L. Madison, R. Kolter, C. T. Walsh, Science 274, 1188-93 (1996).
[0254] 27. T. W. Muir, D. Sondhi, P. A. Cole, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95, 6705-10 (1998).
[0255] 51. M. W. Senko et al., Rapid. Comm. Mass Spectrom. 10, 1824-1828 (1996).

Example 4

Mutants of LctM

[0256] An active mutant of LctM was generated. The mutant was a triple mutant with nucleotide changes A458G/A556G/A815G (SEQ ID NO:18), i.e. at each of positions 458, 556, and 815, adenine was changed to guanine. The amino acid changes introduced by A458G/A556G/A815G changes at the nucleotide level are: Lys153Arg, Ser186Gly, and Asp272Gly (SEQ ID NO:19).
[0257] Further mutants of LctM are obtained by genetic engineering techniques such as site-directed mutagenesis or random mutagensis. Mutants are evaluated for attributes such as substrate specificity, ability to catalyze dehydration, and ability to catalyze cyclization.

Example 5

Use of LctM to Produce Other Lantibiotics

[0258] LctM is used in vitro in the biosynthesis of lantibiotics other than lacticin 481 or variants thereof. For example, according to methods of this invention LctM is used to generate LanM lantibiotics such as mutacin II and variants thereof. LctM is reacted with a precursor peptide of mutacin or a variant thereof and acts to achieve dehydration and cyclization. LctM is similarly used to produce other LanM lantibiotics and variants thereof. LctM is used to generate LanB LanC type lantibiotics by acting upon suitable precursor peptides. For example, LctM is used to generate a nisin lantibiotic by reacting the nisin precursor peptide with LctM to make a modified product. Cleavage of a leader portion of the modified product thus generates an active lantibiotic. In another example, the leader of lacticin 481 is attached to the structural peptide of mutacin II or another lantibiotic; the resulting chimeric substrate is modified by a modifying enzyme such as LctM.

Example 6

Use of LanM Enzymes Other than LctM to Produce Lantibiotics

[0259] As an alternative to or in addition to Example 5, a given LanM enzyme is used in vitro in the biosynthesis of a lantibiotic or variant thereof in connection with a precursor peptide corresponding to the organism giving rise to the LanM enzyme. For example, the LanM enzyme CinM is used to act on a corresponding CinA precursor peptide or variant thereof according to the methods herein to generate a cinnamycin lantibiotic or variant thereof. The LanM enzyme MrsM is used to act on a corresponding MrsA precursor peptide or variant thereof according to the methods herein to generate a mersacidin lantibiotic or variant thereof.
[0260] In an analogous manner to methods herein employing LctM, other LanM enzymes are manipulated using techniques as known in the art. The nucleotide sequence of a LanM enzyme gene is used to generate an expressed LanM enzyme. Accession numbers of published sequences are retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). A LanM enzyme is selected and used in vitro on its corresponding natural substrate or variant thereof.
[0261] Sequence Sources for LanM Enzymes.
[0262] The gene cluster including mrsM (SEQ ID NO:101): AJ250862 (Accession number). See Altena, K., Guder, A., Cramer, C. and Bierbaum, G., Biosynthesis of the lantibiotic mersacidin: organization of a type B lantibiotic gene cluster, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (6), 2565-2571 (2000). See SEQ ID NO:20.
[0263] The gene cluster including mutM (SEQ ID NO:102): U40620. See Woodruff, W. A., Novak, J. and Caufield, P. W., Sequence analysis of mutA and mutM genes involved in the biosynthesis of the lantibiotic mutacin II in Streptococcus mutans, Gene 206 (1), 37-43 (1998). See SEQ ID NO:21.
[0264] The gene cluster including cinM (SEQ ID NO:103): AJ536588. See Widdick, D. A., Dodd, H. M., Barraille, P., White, J., Stein, T. H., Chater, K. F., Gasson, M. J. and Bibb, M. J., Cloning and engineering of the cinnamycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces cinnamoneus cinnamoneus DSM 40005, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (7), 4316-4321 (2003). See SEQ ID NO:22.
[0265] The gene cluster including scnM (SEQ ID NO:104): AF026542. See McLaughlin, R. E., Ferretti, J. J. and Hynes, W. L., Nucleotide sequence of the streptococcin A-FF22 lantibiotic regulon: model for production of the lantibiotic SA-FF22 by strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 175 (2), 171-177 (1999). See SEQ ID NO:23.
[0266] The gene cluster including rumM (SEQ ID NO:105):NC005207, AB121757. See Sashihara, T., Kimura, H., Higuchi, T., Adachi, A., Matsusaki, H., Sonomoto, K. and Ishizaki, A., A novel lantibiotic, nukacin ISK-1, of Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1: cloning of the structural gene and identification of the structure, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 64 (11), 2420-2428 (2000). See SEQ ID NO:24.
[0267] The sequences of gene cluster including lctnM1 and lctnM2 (SEQ ID NO:106) (ltnM1 and ltnM2): NC001949, AE001272. See Dougherty, B. A., Hill, C., Weidman, J. F., Richardson, D. R., Venter, J. C., and Ross, R. P., Sequence and analysis of the 60 kb conjugative, bacteriocin-producing plasmid pMRC01 from Lactococcus lactis DPC3147, Mol. Microbiol. 29 (4), 1029-1038 (1998). See SEQ ID NO:25 and SEQ ID NO:26.
[0268] For NukM, see SEQ ID NO:27.

Example 7

Use of a LanM Enzyme to Make a LanB LanC Type Antibiotic

[0269] A LanM enzyme is used according to methods of this invention to act upon a precursor peptide or variant thereof that is derived from an organism capable of making a LanB LanC type lantibiotic. In an example, the LanM enzyme is LctM (SEQ ID NO:40).

Example 8

Electrophilic Substrates for Nucleophile Addition

[0270] A dehydrated precursor peptide is generated. First, a precursor peptide is prepared using recombinant or synthetic techniques or a combination of techniques. For example, a precursor peptide having a reduced ability to cyclize is made by designing a recombinant or synthetic peptide so as to lack one or more cysteine residues. Such a peptide is then reacted with a LanM enzyme, particularly LctM, to generate the dehydrated precursor peptide. A dehydrated residue such as dehydroalanine is electrophilic and serves as a target for nucleophilic attack. Thus an electrophilic handle is installed in what otherwise may be an intermediate in an in vitro biosynthesis of a lantibiotic precursor peptide. A nucleophile is then added to the electrophilic substrate. Examples of a nucleophile include a monosaccharide, oligosaccharide, a prenyl group such as farnesyl or geranyl, a fluorescent tag, a spin label, or a radiolabel. As understood in the art, it may be necessary to install or utilize a thiol modification. A nucleophile such as a monosaccharide or oligosaccharide is selected to react with the electrophile substrate, thereby generating a glycoprotein. A glycoprotein serves as a vaccine adjuvant in a tumor therapy. See Convergent Synthesis of Peptide Conjugates Using Dehydroalanines for Chemoselective Ligations Yantao Zhu and Wilfred A. van der Donk, 2001, ORGANIC LETTERS Vol. 3, No. 8 (1189-1192).

Example 9

Identification of a Lan Protease, a Protease Domain of LctT (Lpd)

[0271] A Lan protease was identified. The protease domain of LctT (SEQ ID NO:29) was identified by sequence alignment with LanT proteins from other lantibiotic producing organisms. The alignment was used to identify a region of low homology between the proteolytic and transmembrane domains of LctT. This corresponded to 150 amino acids from the N-terminus of LctT. The amino acid sequence is: MKIVLQNNEQDCLLACYSMILGYFGRDVAIHELYSGEMIPPDGLSVSYLKNINMKHQVS MHVYKTDKKNSPNKIFYPKMLPVIIQWNDNHFWVTKIYRKNVTLIDPAIGKVKYNYNDF MKKFSGYIITLSPNSSFTKKKRISEIIFPLK (SEQ ID NO:29). The molecular weight of the protein is 17,460 Da. See SEQ ID NO:28 and SEQ ID NO:29.
[0272] Cloning of Lpd. The gene corresponding to the N-terminal proteolytic domain of LctT (here forth designated as Lpd) (SEQ ID NO:28) was obtained by PCR with genomic DNA of Lactococcus lactis CNRZ 481 employing the forward primer 5′-ATTCGCGGATCCATGAAAATAGTTTTACAAAATAAT-3′ (SEQ ID NO:30) and reverse primer 5′-AAACCGCTCGAGTTATTTTAGTGGAAAGATAATTTC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:31) incorporating BamHI and XhoI sites, respectively. The PCR product was double digested with BamHI and XhoI and cloned into the pGEX-6P-1 vector (Amersham) that had been similarly reacted to obtain the plasmid pLpd. The correct construct was verified by PCR, restriction digest and sequencing.
[0273] Overexpression and purification of GST-Lpd. The Lpd protein (SEQ ID NO:29) was expressed from pGEX-6P-1 vector in BL1(DE3) cells as an N-terminal fusion with the Glutathione S-transferase protein (GST). Purification of the GST-Lpd protein (Mol. wt. ˜44 kDa) was achieved by means of affinity chromatography with a reduced glutathione sepharose column (Amersham). After extensive washing with >10 column volumes of binding buffer (1.8 mM KH2PO4, 10 mM Na2HPO4, 500 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl, pH 7.3), the protein was eluted from the column in a buffer consisting of 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0 and 10 mM reduced L-glutathione. The fractions containing eluted protein were concentrated by Amicon YM-10 ultrafiltration membrane (Millipore) and buffer was exchanged to 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 500 mM NaCl. This yielded GST-Lpd protein at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL.
[0274] Cleavage of His-LctA and His-pro-Lacticin. The unmodified His-LctA substrate was either directly incubated with GST-Lpd or first modified by LctM prior to incubation with the protease. Assay mixtures typically contained substrate (50-500 μg), GST-Lpd (35-70 μg) and a buffer consisting of 200 mM NaPi, pH 7.5, 200 mM Na2SO4 and 5 mM DTT. Assays were incubated at 37° C. for 12 h and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Both unmodified and modified His-LctA were substrates for GST-Lpd as determined by MALDI-TOF MS and sensitivity of indicator strain Lactococcus lactis 117 towards the modified substrate after cleavage. See FIG. 83 which illustrates LctT as a bifunctional protein including the proteolytic domain.
[0275] Recognition sequence of LctT protease domain. Some proteases are called double glycine proteases since they recognize a recognition sequence ending in GG-X (i.e. the protein cleaves at the C-terminal side of the second glycine residue). For the precursor peptide LctA, the relevant sequence is GA-X. Therefore, a Lan protease may cleave both GG-X and GA-X sequences. From alignments, certain lantibiotic precursor peptide sequences have two bulky hydrophobic amino acids before the GG and GA (see Table 1). Thus a recognition sequence for a Lan protease that is a protease domain of LctT is BBGG-X (SEQ ID NO:1) or BBGA-X (SEQ ID NO:2), wherein B=isoleucine or leucine and X is any amino acid.
[0276] 
[00001] [TABLE-US-00001]
  TABLE 1
 
  Sequence alignment of protease recognition sequences.
    Precursor Peptide   Amino Acid Sequence
   
    LctA   ILGA-K (SEQ ID NO:32)
    RumA   ILGG-G (SEQ ID NO:33)
    VarA   ILGG-G (SEQ ID NO:34)
    ScnA   IIGA-G (SEQ ID NO:35)
    ScnA   IIGA-G (SEQ ID NO:36)
    MutA   ILGG-N (SEQ ID NO:37)
   

Example 10

Lantibiotics for Applications in Mammals

[0277] Lantibiotics of the invention are used for compositions and methods in applications in mammals, particularly in humans. In a first category, lantibiotics are administered to a human wherein the target organism is actually a bacterium. Thus the first category is comparable to the pharmaceutical compositions and methods in connection with a traditional antibiotic such as erythromycin.
[0278] In a second category, lantibiotics of the invention are used wherein the target organism is actually the mammal. For example, lantibiotics duramycin and cinamycin act as phospholipase A2 inhibitors. Therefore the present invention is used to generate lantibiotics and methods for treatment of a human inflammatory condition (see references 43 and 44 of Example 11). In another example, the lantibiotic ancovenin is an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (see reference 45 of Example 11). Therefore the present invention is used to generate lantibiotics and methods relating to human disorders in connection with angiotensin converting enzyme.

Example 11

Biosynthetic Enzymes Involved in Lanthionine Formation; Including Combinatorial Synthesis of Precursor Peptides

[0279] Significant progress regarding in vitro lantibiotic synthesis has been obtained. As described in the preliminary results section, we have been able to achieve in vitro dehydration and cyclization to produce the lantibiotic lacticin 481. This is the first such example, which has been pursued on four continents since the sequencing of the first complete lantibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters in 1988. The lacticin biosynthetic system is a superior choice for our goals because of the postulate that it contains dehydratase and cyclase activity in one protein (LctM, SEQ ID NO:40). We show here that this is indeed the case. We have expressed and purified the LctM protein and incubation with the LctA substrate resulted in full processing of the peptide to the post-translationally modified product. Also, we have established by extensive mass spectrometric experiments in collaboration with the Kelleher lab, that the structure of the product contains all the lanthionine and methyllanthionine rings found in native lacticin 481. We explore the mechanism of lantibiotic biosynthesis, investigate the properties of active protein, and use the active system for in vitro engineering of the structure of lacticin and other compounds.
[0280] Lacticin 3147 is a two-component antibiotic comprised of two lantibiotic peptides that are both required for activity. Disruption of either of the structural genes coding for the two prepeptides (ltnA1 or ltnA2) results in mutant strains that are incapable of producing active lacticin 3147. Earlier it was erroneously asserted that “when a synthetic LtnA1 (or LntA2) peptide was added to cell free extracts of these mutants, antibiotic activity was restored.” We initially interpreted an experiment (reported in McAuliffe et al (2000) Microbiology 146, 2147-54) to indicate that the substrates were added, but upon closer inspection the authors use the designation LtnA1 and LtnA2 for the final, post-translationally modified peptides. Hence, not the substrates but the fully processed products were added restoring the two-component lantibiotic. We want to specifically point this out, because it emphasizes that no other reports of in vitro lantibiotic production have been published despite extensive investigations in many laboratories (1-9). Our efforts break open this exciting area for many laboratories.
[0281] In disclosing the lacticin 481 system, we provide a blueprint for that and other lantibiotic systems of the LanM and LanB LanC types, including subtilin and nisin systems.
[0282] Lantibiotics are a class of ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are post-translationally modified to their mature structures. These post-translational modifications include dehydration of serine and threonine residues, and subsequent polycyclization through intramolecular Michael additions of cysteine residues to the alpha, beta-unsaturated dehydroalanine (Dha) and dehydrobutyrine (Dhb) residues. Several members of the lantibiotic family have interesting pharmacological properties including binding to lipid II, the target of vancomycin. This report describes the combined use of molecular biology, biochemistry, and organic synthesis to explore the post-translational modifications during the biosynthesis of lacticin 481.
[0283] I. Assessment of the Substrate Requirements for Lantibiotic Biosynthesis. In vitro dehydration of lantibiotic prepeptides by the LanB proteins has proven troublesome in six laboratories including our own. Lacticin 481 is a member of the recently described type All lantibiotics. The producer strains contain only one biosynthetic polypeptide (LanM) that is believed to carry out both dehydration and cyclization reactions. We have expressed and purified the LctM protein involved in the biosynthesis of lacticin 481 and have demonstrated that the protein carries out the posttranslational modifications. No other laboratory has reported in vitro lantibiotic production. This puts us in a prime position to investigate the mechanism of the maturation process. Specific questions asked include (1) does dehydration of all Ser and Thr residues precede the cyclizations or are both reactions tightly coupled, (2) are intermediates that we have observed by mass spectrometry true intermediates or dead-end by-products (3) what is the role of the leader peptide, and (4) what is the substrate specificity in the structural region of the peptides. These issues are addressed with a variety of techniques including mutagenesis, truncation of substrates, and extensive Fourier Transform mass spectrometry.
[0284] II. Characterization of the Proteins Involved in Lacticin 481 Maturation. With a functional dehydratase and cyclase in hand, we address a number of important questions. An obvious priority involves structural characterization of LctM using X-ray crystallography. Another important effort focuses on separation of the dehydration and cyclization reactions, either by dissecting the protein by domains or by obtaining site directed mutants that will inactivate the cyclization activity. A third sub-aim focuses on obtaining the protease that removes the leader peptide after post-translational modifications are complete.
[0285] III. Investigation of Substrate Binding to LctM. How one protein dehydrates four Ser/Thr residues that are in different sequence contexts and then catalyzes the regio- and stereospecific addition of cysteines to the resulting dehydroamino acids has been an open question in lantibiotic biosynthesis. Obviously, an important clue lies in substrate recognition, which is probed by a variety of methods including X-ray crystallography, EXAFS studies on binding to the Zn site, and determination of binding constants for substrate and substrate/enzyme mutants using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.
[0286] IV. Protein Engineering to Generate Novel Lacticin Variants. The knowledge obtained in Sections I-III serves as the basis for the second phase of this research program, which uses the biosynthetic enzyme for the preparation of novel lantibiotics. First the steric and electronic tolerance of the enzymes is assessed. This is followed by the incorporation of amino acids designed to answer specific questions about the post-translational modification process including mutants that incorporate peptide fragments from other lantibiotic prepeptides. The structural diversity accessible by these studies is greatly increased by using semi-synthetic substrates prepared by combinatorial parallel synthesis. In addition to the fundamental scientific knowledge that comes forth from these studies, they allow access to molecules with interesting properties that are not easily prepared by either chemical or biological techniques.
[0287] B. Background and Significance
[0288] B.1 Peptide Antibiotics. Numerous reports of multi-drug resistant bacterial strains have appeared in recent years, with several strains posing the threat of becoming immune against all commercially available antibiotics (10-12). It is evident that in order to prevent potential epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases, a renewed focus on antibiotic research is highly desired, including the search for new drugs with alternative cellular targets, the investigation of the mechanisms of cytotoxicity and resistance, and the understanding of their biosynthetic pathways. The recent threat of bioterrorism further emphasizes the importance of research in this area.
[0289] Gene encoded antimicrobial peptides are a rapidly expanding class of antibiotics with a high level of molecular diversity that is frequently introduced by post-translational modifications (6, 13-19). In addition to their structural divergence, these compounds also display many different and often novel mechanisms of cytotoxicity. As such they are promising as supplements for the rapidly declining arsenal of therapeutic antibiotics, which target only a limited number of cellular processes. An advantage that is unique to ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics is that they are amenable to structural variation via site-directed mutagenesis. This potentially allows facile entry into a large number of accessible structures via combinatorial techniques that can be used for structure-function studies or rational drug design. A number of reports have appeared of in vivo production of such novel variants using genetically engineered organisms. However, several disadvantages of this approach have become clear. First, unlike the products of the extensively studied polyketide synthases (20) or the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway (21-24), peptide antibiotics are generally highly susceptible to proteolytic degradation in the cell, particularly when their structures are non-native. Therefore, a large number of compounds varying in degree of degradation are often produced requiring a tedious purification process to obtain novel structures. Furthermore, the structural variation is limited to the physiologically accessible amino acids. Finally, several reports have indicated that variations in the nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding for the antibiotic precursor (prepeptide) can perturb other processes including transcriptional and/or translational regulation and signaling pathways for post-translational modification (25-28). This proposal describes our current and future efforts using a different strategy for the generation of variants of peptide antibiotics that can be used for structure-function studies. In this approach, purified biosynthetic enzymes obtained using recombinant techniques are used in combination with semisynthetic, unnatural prepeptides. Since the experiments in this approach are carried out in vitro, proteolytic or other degradation during the various cellular processes leading to the mature antibiotic is not an issue. Moreover, the number of accessible structures is not limited by the physiological amino acids, while the power of combinatorial techniques can still be applied. As described below, the so-called lantibiotics are a group of peptide antibiotics with interesting chemical and biological properties that are particularly suitable for this approach. Clearly, in addition to exploring the possibility of producing novel structures, the in vitro approach also allows detailed investigation of the mechanism of biosynthesis of lantibiotics, which to date has not been possible. We present in our preliminary results the first in vitro reconstitution of lantibiotic biosynthesis.
[0290] B.2 LANTIBIOTICS. The name lantibiotics was introduced in 1988 as an abbreviation for lanthionine-containing antibiotic peptides (29). These compounds all contain the cyclic thioether amino acids lanthionines (Ln) and/or methyllanthionines (MeLn) (FIG. 10).
[0291] In addition, lantibiotics often contain the unsaturated amino acids 2,3-didehydroalanine (Dha) and (Z)-2,3-didehydrobutyrine (Dhb) (7-9, 30, 31). The widespread application of the prototype lantibiotic nisin as a safe alternative for chemical reagents in food preservation (>50 countries for over 35 years) (32-34) spurred a rapid expansion of research activities directed at understanding their biogenesis. These studies have indicated that lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized as precursor peptides (prepeptides), which subsequently undergo post-translational modifications (7, 9, 30, 35, 36). The biosynthesis of lantibiotics distinguishes them from “classical” non-gene encoded peptide antibiotics like gramicidin, which are produced by modular peptide synthetases. Genetic studies have demonstrated that the unsaturated moieties Dha and Dhb are produced by dehydration of serine and threonine residues, respectively, and that the cyclic structures Ln and MeLn are generated by enzyme mediated addition of cysteine residues to a subset of the Dha and Dhb residues (29, 37-39). These cyclizations occur both regio- and stereospecifically in which the original Ser/Thr fragment of the product thioether has the D-configuration and the Cys fragment the L-configuration (FIG. 10). The thioether rings impose important conformational restrictions on the cyclic peptides. In general the lantibiotics can be divided into two types. Type A comprises positively charged, amphiphatic molecules with a screw-like conformation that exert their bactericidal activity by depolarization of energized cytoplasmic membranes via pore formation (18, 40-42). On the other hand, type B lantibiotics are globular in shape and are thought to inhibit specific cellular processes. While much is known about their structures and genetics of biosynthesis, the molecular (chemical) mechanisms of their biosynthesis are poorly understood. The type A compounds nisin and the structurally closely related subtilin have been most extensively studied. In addition, a number of recently isolated type B lantibiotics have attracted considerable attention because of their biological activities. Amongst these are duramycin, which acts as a phospholipase A2 inhibitor (43, 44), ancovenin, a potent inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (45), and mersacidin which exhibits comparable cytotoxic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as vancomycin without showing cross-resistance (46-48). While the proposed research in principle could be applied to any of the lantibiotics, we will focus our studies on lacticin 481 as we have achieved the first in vitro lantibiotic biosynthetic system for this family member (vide infra). Since most studies in other laboratories have focused on subtilin and nisin, we use these lantibiotics to illustrate the current knowledge in the field.
[0292] B.2.a. Proteins Involved in Biosynthesis of Subtilin and Nisin
[0293] Nisin is produced by certain strains of Lactococcus lactis (34) and subtilin is produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 (49). The two compounds are structurally closely related, showing 63% sequence identity including 1 Ln and 4 MeLn rings of identical size and position along the peptide chain (FIG. 10). In addition, both contain Dha residues in position 5 and as their penultimate amino acid. Nisin has received much attention recently with the discovery that it binds to lipid II (50-53), a key intermediate in cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria and the target of vancomycin. This finding explained why nisin, which was long considered to be a relatively simple voltage-dependent pore former (18), is three orders of magnitude more potent against biological membranes than against liposomes. Moreover, it also accounts for the high antimicrobial activity of nisin at concentrations (MIC 3.3 nM) where other known pore formers are not active (eg MIC of magainin=0.4 nM) (53, 54). It is now generally believed that nisin acts as a double action antimicrobial that docks onto lipid II prior to assembly to form pores in the cell membrane, and that blocks proper assembly of peptidoglycan (53). Because of its high efficacy at low concentrations, nisin has also received attention as an agent that may enhance the bioavailability of other drugs. Perhaps the most promising aspect of nisin's utility is the fact that there are only very rare reports of nisin resistance despite the fact that it has been used in >50 countries for >35 years as a safe and effective food preservative (32, 34, 51). Binding to lipid II is not restricted to nisin as several other less investigated lantibiotics such as mersacidin and epidermin have recently also been reported to bind to the peptidoglycan biosynthetic intermediate (55). Lacticin 481 is also produced by several strains of the lactic acid bacterium L. lactis including a proprietary strain from Nestlé Corp (56-60). L. lactis has been declared safe for food applications, and both strains producing nisin and lacticin 481 are used as starter cultures in cheese manufacturing. As such isolated lacticin has been investigated for use in food preservation, enhancer of cheese ripening, and for its activity against Clostridium tyrobutyricum (60-64).
[0294] Many of the Ian genes involved in the biosynthesis of lantibiotics have been sequenced (7, 9). These studies have demonstrated a high level of similarity in the gene organization for production of the various compounds. The biosynthetic genes (lanBCP), as well as those encoding accessory proteins with functions involving regulation (lanQRK), self-immunity (lanEFGI), and translocation (lanT), are clustered around the gene for the prepeptide (lanA). All prepeptides contain a relatively long N-terminal leader sequence with a net negative charge, which does not undergo post-translational modifications (eg FIG. 11).
[0295] It is important to note that the Ser and Thr residues in the structural region are dehydrated without any noticeable consensus sequence. The Ser and Thr residues can be flanked by acidic, basic, and hydrophobic residues. The leader sequence contains Ser and Thr residues but no cysteines, and is proteolytically removed. The role of this leader sequence is at present unclear. Possible functions that have been suggested include signaling for export, protection of the producing strain by keeping the peptides inactive, and providing scaffolds for the post-translational modification machinery (29, 30). Precedent for all three functions can be found in the literature on export proteins, hormones, and microcin biosynthesis, respectively. A number of intriguing but confusing in vivo studies have been conducted with chimeras from the nisin and subtilin leader and structural regions. While expression of the nisin gene in a subtilin producing Bacillus strain did not lead to nisin-related modified peptides, a chimera consisting of the subtilin leader and nisin structural gene sequences produced a fully processed product (65). This result suggested that the post-translational modification machinery of the host specifically recognizes the leader sequence. However, when a similar chimera containing a subtilin leader and nisin structural region was expressed in a nisin producing Lactococcus strain the structural region was also processed (66). Furthermore, the leader sequences of several other lantibiotics including lacticin 481 have similarity to the leader peptides of bacteriocins that are not post-translationally modified (13, 67). These observations argue against a role of providing a recognition motif for binding of the modifying enzymes. Thus, at present it is unclear whether the leader peptide is required for post-translational modification. We will address this fundamental question in our proposed studies.
[0296] It is believed that all essential genes involved in lanthionine biosynthesis have been identified (68, 69). In our laboratory we are predominantly interested in the proteins that catalyze the dehydration and cyclization reactions. The homologous proteins NisB (SEQ ID NO:81) and SpaB (SEQ ID NO:82), and NisC (SEQ ID NO:69) and SpaC (SEQ ID NO:68) are thought to be responsible for these processes during the synthesis of nisin and subtilin, respectively, but a clear assignment of their functions and mode of action is lacking. Recent searches of several sequence databases indicate that neither NisB (SpaB) nor NisC (SpaC) has homology with any known dehydratases, nor with any other proteins. Genetic studies with a producer of the related lantibiotic Pep5 using PepC (SEQ ID NO:70) deletion mutants revealed the production of partially dehydrated peptides but no cyclization products (70, 71). Similar studies have been reported recently for NisC mutants (72). Thus, these observations imply a role for LanC proteins in the cyclization reaction. Aside from our work described in section C, EpiC (SEQ ID NO:71) is the only LanC protein that has been overproduced in E. coli (5). It is a soluble protein of 47.9 kDa that did not show any activity with the prepeptide EpiA consistent with this enzyme being involved in cyclization rather than dehydration. From their nucleotide sequences NisB and SpaB are deduced to be hydrophilic proteins of 116 kDa and 115 kDa (1), respectively. Despite their hydrophilic character, the absence of typical trans-membrane segments, and the lack of recognition sites for membrane attachment, immunoblot analysis of SpaB has demonstrated that this protein co-sediments with the membrane fraction of Bacillus vesicles (1). Thus, localization at or near the membrane is suggested. EpiB has been expressed in Staphylococcus carnosus, and was detected in both the cytosolic and membrane fraction (3). The protein has been partially purified, but no activity has been reported to date (3). Several reports have produced support for the existence of multi-enzyme lantibiotic synthetase complexes using yeast two-hybrid methods or co-immunoprecipitation. For subtilin, these studies have shown that SpaT, SpaB, and SpaC probably are associated in a multimeric complex (73). Similarly, NisB, NisC and NisT have been implicated as part of a larger complex (74). The LanT proteins are homologous with typical dimeric ABC-type transporters.
[0297] Genetic Engineering
[0298] The cloning of the gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of many lantibiotics (69) has laid the foundation for genetic protein engineering aimed at in vivo production of novel compounds with potentially interesting properties. Many studies have indicated the feasibility of changing the molecular structures of lantibiotics by mutagenesis of the prepeptide genes (75). So far, engineering of the nisin structure has been most extensively investigated. For instance, replacement of serines by threonines in the structural region of the nisA gene led to the production of Dhb instead of Dha in the mature lantibiotic (76). Even more interesting is the production of a nisin mutant with a Dhb residue in place of Gly after replacement by a Thr codon (75). These studies clearly indicate low substrate specificity for the dehydratase. Removal of the Dha at position 5 by replacement with Ala eliminated nisin's activity against outgrowing spores (75, 77). This result supports a postulate that some of the Dha and/or Dhb structures may be in part responsible for the biological activity of lantibiotics, since they constitute possible sites of covalent modification of their molecular targets (78, 79). In this model, the (Me)Ln structures provide the lantibiotics with their high degree of resistance to proteolytic cleavage, and may help induce the required conformation for molecular recognition by the cellular target(s). Alterations in the Ln and MeLn structures have also been accomplished. Substitution of a Ser with Thr gave MeLn instead of Ln, and replacement of a Thr with Cys produced a disulfide in place of MeLn (75). In addition to changes of the modified residues, several mutants have been reported in which other amino acids in the polypeptide have been replaced (75, 80). Two nisin variants with higher solubility than the parent compound have been reported (81). Despite these important advancements that have contributed to a better understanding of lantibiotic biosynthesis and cytotoxicity, very few mutant lantibiotics have been generated with improved anti-microbial activities. A number of potential explanations could account for this. First of all, it might not come as a surprise that Nature has already optimized the biological activity of these compounds using the same tools, i.e. mutagenesis with 20 amino acids. Furthermore, the structural and functional space that can be sampled using genetic engineering of ribosomally synthesized proteins is currently limited. Another contributing factor to the absence of more potent compounds produced by genetically engineered lantibiotic producers may lie in the breakdown of self-immunity in cases where more active compounds are actually generated. This might lead to either degradation of the intermediates or shutdown of antibiotic production. Indeed, degradation products or incompletely modified peptides are often observed (82). Finally, it has been shown for several lantibiotics that the prepeptide and/or the final product fulfills a regulatory role in lantibiotic production (25-28). Structural variants, however, may lack the ability to induce in vivo synthesis resulting in reduced or abolished production.
[0299] The methodology used and proposed in this project is based on purified enzymes and has several conceptual advantages over genetic protein engineering of lantibiotics. 1). The structures of the prepeptides are not limited by the physiological amino acids, only by the ability to design and synthesize the amino acids and incorporate them into peptides using well-developed techniques. In addition, peptide synthesis is particularly amenable to combinatorial techniques thereby dramatically increasing the number and structure of rapidly accessible substrate candidates. 2) Because of the in vitro nature of the approach, degradation of products is not a problem, nor are cytotoxic or regulatory properties of the products a concern. 3) The structural and functional tolerance of the biosynthetic enzymes are explored in much greater detail when unnatural amino acids are utilized in addition to the natural amino acids. 4) Finally, non-peptide structures (peptidomimetics) in part of the substrates can be used in order to produce molecules with higher biological activity.
[0300] It should be noted that some advantages of genetic engineering may be lost using the strategy we have adopted. One of the biggest assets of molecular biology is that it produces readily and rapidly renewable sources of manipulated genes and organisms, which is not true for chemically synthesized molecules and purified enzymes. However, the in vivo use of unnatural peptide substrates is at present still largely an unattainable goal, mostly because this suffers to an even higher degree from the same drawbacks as those described above. Therefore, the strategy described herein is used to extend the tools of lantibiotic engineering beyond their present boundaries.
[0301] C. Preliminary Studies and Progress Report
[0302] 1a. Synthetic methodology for site-specific introduction of dehydroamino acids into peptides.
[0303] Facile Chemoselective Synthesis of Dehydroalanine-Containing Peptides. Okeley, N. M.; Zhu, Y.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2000, 2, 3603-3606.
[0304] Biomimetic Stereoselective Formation of Methyllanthionine. Zhou, H.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 1335-1338
[0305] Selenocysteine Derivatives for Chemoselective Ligations. Gieselman, M. D.; Zhu, Y.; Zhou, H.; Galonic, D.; van der Donk, W. A. ChemBioChem 2002, 3, 709-716
[0306] At the outset of our program on the in vitro reconstitution of lantibiotic biosynthesis we realized that the entire project would hinge on the activity of the putatively membrane-bound dehydratases SpaB and NisB. To reduce this risk, we develop new synthetic methodology to introduce dehydroamino acids into peptides in parallel with our studies on the dehydratase. This methodology is very efficient (83). It involves the use of the selenium containing amino acids 1-4.
[0307]  [see pdf for image]
[0308] We have demonstrated that these Fmoc or Boc protected monomers can be conveniently incorporated into peptides using automated Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS). A series of peptides were prepared to evaluate the compatibility of the oxidative elimination of the selenocysteine derivatives with unprotected side chains of the 20 physiological amino acids. These studies showed that with the exception of cysteine, all functionalities were unaffected by the conditions employed (NaIO4 or H2O2 as the oxidant) (83). The phenylselenide moieties could also be oxidized chemoselectively in peptides containing methionine and tryptophan as long as the stoichiometry of the oxidant was controlled. Cysteines were also fully compatible when protected with either the bulky trityl group or as the tert-butyldisulfide. The latter group is readily removed with reductants whereas the trityl group can be conveniently converted into disulfides upon treatment with I2. Furthermore, because of the stereospecific syn elimination of selenoxides, compounds 3 and 4 resulted exclusively in formation of the desired Z-Dhb (84). A route to compounds 1-4 is performed on a 25 g scale (85), thus compounds are prepared for precursors for our work on (antibiotics. Thus, our methodology to introduce Dha and Dhb residues into unprotected peptides is developed.
[0309] 1b. Synthesis of Fluorinated Dehydropeptides
[0310] Synthesis of 2-Amino-3-fluoro-acrylic Acid Containing Peptides. Zhou, H.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 593-596.
[0311] Chemical and Enzymatic Synthesis of Fluorinated Dehydroalanine-Containing Peptides. Zhou, H.; Schmidt, D. M.; Gerlt, J. A.; van der Donk, W. A. ChemBioChem 2003, 1206-1215.
[0312] The Dha at position 5 of subtilin and nisin has been shown to be indispensable for the inhibition of spore outgrowth in Bacillus strains whereas it is not important for cytotoxicity towards stationary and exponential phase cultures, suggesting two different modes of biological activity (77, 78). We note that, although not the focus of our efforts, this inhibition of spore development may be valuable to prevent outgrowth of spores of Bacillus anthracis, the infective form of anthrax in past bioterrorist plots. Based on a series of experimental observations it has been suggested that during inhibition of spore development, subtilin becomes covalently linked to a Cys on its target(s) via nucleophilic addition to Dha5 (78, 79). We hypothesized that a fluorinated dehydroalanine at this position renders the lantibiotic more potent for two reasons. First, the dehydroalanine becomes more electrophilic and second, unlike nucleophilic addition to dehydroalanine, which is a reversible process, addition to a fluorinated dehydroalanine results in an irreversible vinyl linkage to the nucleophilic target following fluoride elimination from the enolate intermediate (Scheme 1).
[0313]  [see pdf for image]
[0314] The route to fluorinated dehydroalanines in peptides constitutes a convenient means for preparation of these previously unknown structures (86). We have also shown that interaction of dehydrofluoroalanines with nucleophiles indeed leads to the anticipated rapid elimination of fluoride (86). In addition to this chemical route to fluorinated dehydroalanines, we also devised an enzymatic strategy (87). The protein YcjG catalyzes the epimerization at the alpha-carbon of the C-terminal amino acid in dipeptides (88). Since this process presumably involves an enolate intermediate, we prepared dipeptides containing a difluoroalanine at the C-terminus. Incubation of this peptide with YcjG resulted in the rapid elimination of fluoride as detected by 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy as well as a fluoride electrode. The resulting fluorodehydroalanine containing dipeptide proved stable in aqueous solution and can be used as a building block for larger peptides. With two complementary routes to dehydrofluoroalanines, we install this functionality within lantibiotics.
[0315] 2a. Overexpression and Purification of SpaC and NisC
[0316] SpaC and NisC, the Cyclases Involved in Subtilin and Nisin Biosynthesis, are Zinc Proteins. Okeley, N. M.; Paul, M.; Stasser J. P.; Blackburn, N.; van der Donk, W. A., Biochemistry, 2003, 42, 13613-13624
[0317] The spaC and nisC genes were amplified from genomic DNA of B. subtilis and L. lactis, respectively. SpaC was overexpressed in E. coli as the wild type enzyme, whereas NisC was expressed with an N-terminal His6-tag. SpaC was purified using a three-step protocol and NisC was purified by Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography. Purified SpaC was used to produce both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for in vivo localization studies (vide infra). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) analysis for the presence of metal ions revealed one equivalent of zinc bound to both SpaC and NisC (89). These findings were corroborated by titration with the metallochromic indicator PAR, which confirmed the presence of 1 equiv. of a divalent metal ion. The metal is released from the protein under denaturing conditions in the presence of DTNB. Alternatively, treatment with methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) or p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid (HMBA) can release the metal under native conditions. In this case, the protein could be reconstituted with 1 equiv. of zinc. These findings suggest that the metal may be coordinated by cysteine(s). Although the homolog EpiC has been expressed and purified in a previous report (5), no metal analysis was performed. A limited sequence alignment of several LanC proteins obtained from a BLAST search shows only three regions of high homology. These regions include four potential metal ligands, Cys284, Cys330, His212, and His331 (FIG. 12).
[0318] If these residues are coordinating the zinc, then its coordination sphere is reminiscent of the zinc sites found in methionine synthase (90, 91) and farnesyl transferase (92-95). These proteins are members of a growing class of metalloproteins that contain a zinc ion surrounded by 3-4 negatively charged ligands, usually including at least two cysteines (96-99). This results in a net negatively charged zinc site that activates a thiol towards alkylation (100). Inspection of the reaction catalyzed by the LanC enzymes reveals a similar possible role for Zn. In farnesyl transferase and methionine synthase the thiol substrate (a cysteine in a peptide and homocysteine, respectively) has been shown to bind to the zinc reducing the pKa of the thiol (91, 95, 101-103). Similarly, the cysteine residues in the structural region of the lantibiotic prepeptides may coordinate to the metal for activation towards Michael addition. We proposed that both conserved cysteine residues as well as one of the two conserved histidine residues serve as zinc ligands and that the second conserved His functions as a general acid/base that deprotonates the thiol of the substrate or stereospecifically protonates the enolate formed during catalysis (Scheme 2).
[0319]  [see pdf for image]
[0320] It should be noted that the His cannot function as both the active site acid and base since the observed stereochemistry of the Michael addition precludes this. Water would provide the fourth metal ligand in the resting state of the enzyme as is found in the vast majority of metalloproteins in which the zinc fulfills a catalytic role (104, 105). In collaboration with Dr. Ninian Blackburn at the Oregon Graduate Institute, EXAFS studies on SpaC and SpaC mutants in which the putative Cys ligands were replaced by Ala unambiguously corroborated that two sulfurs and two nitrogen/oxygen ligands were bound to the Zn-site. Note that EXAFS typically cannot distinguish between N/O donors (89). Our characterization of SpaC and NisC as zinc metalloproteins thus provides the first experimentally testable clues as to how the dehydrated substrate is activated towards intramolecular nucleophilic addition.
[0321] Interestingly, in the past four years, several reports have shown that mammalian erythrocytes from human and mouse contain proteins with high homology to the LanC proteins (106-109). These proteins, the function of which is currently unknown, have been designated the generic name LANCL for LanC-like proteins (110). LANCL1 (a P40 seven-transmembrane-domain protein) and LANCL2 (testes-specific adriamycin sensitivity protein) are thought to be peptide-modifying enzymes and are expressed in large quantities in the brain and testes where they may have a role in the immune surveillance of these organs. Given the conserved putative metal binding residues, these proteins can be involved in alkylation of thiol substrates.
[0322] 2b. Biomimetic Cyclization to Form Lanthionines and Methyllanthionines
[0323] Facile Chemoselective Synthesis of Dehydroalanine-Containing Peptides. Okeley, N. M.; Zhu, Y.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2000, 2, 3603-3606
[0324] Biomimetic Stereoselective Formation of Methyllanthionine. Zhou, H.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 1335-1338
[0325] Biomimetic studies on the mechanism of stereoselective lanthionine formation. Zhu, Y.; Gieselman, M.; Zhou, H.; Averin, O.; van der Donk, W. A. 2003, Org. Biomol. Chem. 2003, 1, 3304-3315.
[0326] Our methodology to introduce dehydroalanines into peptides described above provided the opportunity to investigate the intrinsic stereoselectivity of lanthionine and methyllanthionine formation. These studies focused on the formation of the B- and E-rings of nisin and subtilin. We showed that these biomimetic cyclizations exclusively produce the D-configuration at the newly formed stereogenic centers of both lanthionine and methyllanthionine, i.e. the same diastereomers are formed as found in the natural products (83, 84). Furthermore, these reactions also exclusively gave the correct stereochemistry at the β-carbon of methyllanthionine (84) (Scheme 3B).
[0327]  [see pdf for image]
[0328] The LanC enzymes do not need to significantly restrict the conformational freedom of the peptide as it already has a natural propensity for the observed product. This is an important point since the LanC proteins have to catalyze the formation of rings of widely different sizes ranging from 4 amino acids (lanthionines B & E, FIG. 10) to a 7 amino acid ring C. It is unlikely that one active site would be able to assure the correct orientation of the peptide backbone for such diverse rings, especially since the backbone changes dramatically with every new ring formed.
[0329] Thus, our working model invokes a zinc site that activates the thiol for alkylation and that the intrinsic conformational preference of the peptides together with general acid catalysis by one of the conserved active site histidines assures specific formation of the observed stereocenters. Importantly, a synthetic dehydropeptide precursor to both the A- and B-rings of nisin did not produce the structure found in nisin when subjected to biomimetic cyclization (111). Instead of one Ln and one MeLn, two Ln rings were formed, showing the importance of the biosynthetic enzymes to control the regiochemistry of cyclization.
[0330] 2c. Overexpression and Purification of SpaB
[0331] Heterologous expression and purification of SpaB (SEQ ID NO:82) involved in subtilin biosynthesis. Xie, L.; Chatterjee, C.; Balsara, R.; Okeley, N. M.; van der Donk, W. A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002, 295, 952-7. (Appendix)
[0332] The spaB (SEQ ID NO:107) and nisB (SEQ ID NO:108) genes were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA. Initial attempts to heterologously overexpress these 120 kDa proteins in E. coli resulted in the recovery of the enzymes in inclusion bodies regardless of the growth conditions and induction protocol. These problems were overcome by the co-expression of the GroEL/ES molecular chaperones, which effected an enormous improvement in the solubility of the SpaB protein (112). His6-SpaB was partially purified (˜85% purity) by NTA-Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Antibodies generated against the purified protein recognized the wild-type protein in Western blot analysis of subtilin producing B. subtilis cells. Localization experiments using Western blot analysis of B. subtilis ATCC 6633 showed that the native protein co-localizes with the membrane fraction albeit only loosely (112). This is consistent with the absence of trans-membrane segments in the amino acid sequence and with the proposed structure of a membrane associated lantibiotic synthetase complex. Interaction of SpaB and SpaC was observed in co-immunoprecipitation experiments in which purified His6-SpaB was added to cell extracts of subtilin producing cells and precipitated with anti-His-tag antibodies. Western blot analysis with anti-SpaC antibodies revealed coprecipitation of SpaC showing that the heterologously expressed SpaB binds to endogenous SpaC.
[0333] Overexpression and Purification of SpaS and Activity Assays with SpaB/SpaC
[0334] To assess the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes for subtilin, the 56-amino acid prepeptide SpaS was expressed as a C-terminal intein-chitin binding domain (CBD) fusion. Cleavage from the intein followed by HPLC purification gave the pure peptide. Unfortunately, despite great effort, to date we have been unable to detect any dehydratase activity in a series of assays with SpaB and SpaC. Similar observations have been reported by other laboratories investigating NisB, SpaB, EpiB, and EpiC (1-5). In these studies, both heterologous and homologous expression was performed but in all cases no dehydration activity could be reconstituted. Similarly, cell free extracts of a variety of lantibiotic-producing strains have failed to provide any detectable dehydration activity. It is therefore of great significance that we have been able to achieve in vitro activity in a different system as described in the following section.
[0335] 3. First In Vitro Reconstitution of Lantibiotic Biosynthesis.
[0336] In some lantibiotic producing organisms, the lanBC genes are absent (113-120) and a single different gene, lanM, is present instead (9, 121, 122). The LanM proteins have been postulated to carry out both dehydration and cyclization steps. The gene clusters of some of these lantibiotics have been sequenced in recent years. They include mersacidin (120), mutacin II (114, 123), lacticin 481 (58, 67, 113), and the two component antibiotic lacticin 3147 (124). At present, these lantibiotics, designated class All, have not received the same type of attention as the class AI compounds (including nisin & subtilin). Given our disappointing results with the LanB and LanC enzymes, we proposed in the first submission of this grant renewal that we would change our focus to this class of enzymes. The LanM proteins represent a much better target for in vitro reconstitution of the lantibiotic biosynthetic activity since any complications of protein-protein interactions are simplified. With both post-translational modification reactions combined in one protein, the potential instability of a multi-enzyme complex is eliminated. Hence we obtained a L. lactis strain that produces lacticin 481. A BLAST search and subsequent alignment of the LanM proteins showed that they do not share any homology with the LanB proteins nor with any other known proteins. However, at their C-termini they display sequence homology with the LanC proteins including the three putative zinc ligands and the putative active site acid/base histidine (see FIG. 13 for a partial alignment). Analysis of the amino acid sequences indicates that the proteins are overall hydrophilic and that no motifs are present that are found in the Conserved Domain Database at the NCBI. Their average molecular weight is about 105 kDa. The mature lacticin 481 product contains 1 methyllanthionine, 2 lanthionines, and 1 Dhb (FIG. 14). Interestingly, several serines in the structural region are not dehydrated resulting in just four dehydrations and three cyclic thioethers. We cloned lctM and lctA and placed the genes in pET expression vectors. Two variants of LctA were designed, one with an N-terminal His-tag (His6-LctA) and one with a His-tag at the C-terminus (LctA-His6). The constructs also introduce short linkers between the His-tag and the termini of LctA. LctA and LctM were expressed and purified to homogeneity in high yield by IMAC. LctM was incubated with His6-LctA under a variety of conditions producing a new peptide that showed a loss of 72 amu. In other words, four water molecules were eliminated from the parent peptide (FIG. 15). The activity absolutely required exogenous ATP, and Mg2+. In addition to the peptide exhibiting loss of 4 water molecules, three other small product peaks are observed that correspond to M-18, M-36, and M-54 (FIG. 15). Incubation of LctM with LctA-His6 also resulted in partial formation of the product of M-72 amu in addition to a larger fraction of incompletely dehydrated peptides (not shown). The observation of intermediates is a very exciting development as it may aid in deducing the processivity of lantibiotic formation (see Experimental Design Section).
[0337] The loss of just 4 water molecules from a precursor that contains 6 Ser and 3 Thr in the prepeptide in addition to 5 more serines introduced by the His-tag linker strongly indicates that the product structure is the native lacticin.
[0338] The complete dehydration product was separated from the substrate peptide by HPLC (eg FIG. 15) and both peptides were analyzed by FT-MS to establish the structure of the final product in collaboration with Neil Kelleher's group at UIUC. The observed pattern of fragmentation in MS-MS experiments for the substrate and product is shown in FIG. 16.
[0339] The fragments observed present an independent confirmation of the correct sequence of the substrate. Importantly, fragmentation occurs in the substrate in the region of Glu37, Cys38, Asn39, Met40, Asn41 (see also FIG. 14). However, the M-72 product does not show any fragmentation in this region because it is involved in cyclic structures. The reason for this is two-fold. First, it is well known that fragmentation in cyclic peptides is less efficient (125, 126), and second when fragmentation does occur in a cyclic structure, the ring opens, but the overall mass of the fragmentation product will be identical to the parent ion and hence the fragmentation will not be detectable. The observed fragmentation pattern therefore provides very strong support for the product having the ring structures of lacticin 481. Furthermore, amino acid analysis showed the presence of 2 Ln and 1 MeLn. This work presents the very first in vitro biosynthetic system of any lantibiotic. Given the extensive efforts that have been expended towards this goal in numerous laboratories across the globe (see reviews: (6-9)) this is an important achievement. As described in more detail in the experimental design section, we show that lacticin analogs are obtained by mutagenesis of the peptide substrate.
[0340] 4a. Using Selenocysteines for Chemoselective Ligations
[0341] Synthesis of a Selenocysteine-Containing Peptide by Native Chemical Ligation. Gieselman, M. D.; Xie, L.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 1331-1334
[0342] An Engineered Azurin Variant Containing a Selenocysteine Copper Ligand. Berry, S.; Gieselman, M.; Nilges, M. J.; van der Donk, W. A.; Lu, Y. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 2084-2085
[0343] Two uses of the lantibiotic biosynthetic machinery feature the ability to create lantibiotic analogs with unnatural amino acids or to use the dehydratase to introduce dehydroalanines into proteins fused to the lantibiotic leader sequence. The following specific tests probe the feasibility of these approaches: (1) synthetically introduce selenocysteine into the prepeptides and investigate whether the biosynthetic enzymes would generate selenolanthionines in which the thioether bridge(s) are replaced by selenoether bridges, and (2) to evaluate adding external nucleophiles to dehydroalanines. In order to achieve the first goal, we first developed a new route to FmocSec(PMB)-OH (5). This compound is compatible with SPPS and the PMB group can be removed oxidatively or with acid to give unprotected selenopeptides (127-131). The existing route to 5 involved 9 steps (127) that were difficult to scale up to the gram-scale quantities needed for SPPS. Our new route to this compound is shown in Scheme 4 (85).
[0344]  [see pdf for image]
[0345] The route is significantly shorter, higher yielding, and can be carried out in large scale. A second obstacle to introducing Sec into the lantibiotic prepeptides involves their length of >50 amino acids (FIG. 11 and FIG. 14). Synthesis of lengthy peptides has been significantly improved in recent years by the native chemical ligation technique developed by Kent and coworkers (132, 133). We reported the first example of incorporation of selenocysteine into peptides using native chemical ligation by placing Sec at the point of ligation in peptides prepared with monomer 5 (85, 134). We then extended this methodology to expressed protein ligation (EPL) (135, 136) and replaced the key cysteine copper ligand in the blue copper protein azurin with selenocysteine (137). This study generated the first selenoprotein produced by EPL that behaved significantly different than the wild type enzyme. Having established the synthetic methodology to synthesize Sec-containing peptides and use them for EPL, we generated overexpression constructs in which a truncated prepeptide for lacticin (residues 1-48) is fused to an intein-CBD. This allowed us to overproduce the peptide in E. coli and then ligate it to a synthetic tripeptide corresponding to the last three amino acids (Cys49Cys50Ser51). One of the Cys residues can be replaced with Sec to create selenolanthionines. Consequently, we have developed the methodology required to prepare Sec-containing prepeptides that are used. Other ligations that are used herein are performed with intein constructs; these include appending a biotinylated synthetic peptide to the C-terminus of expressed lantibiotic prepeptides.
[0346] 4b. Using Dehydroalanines for Chemoselective Ligations
[0347] Zhu, Y.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 1189-1192. “Convergent Synthesis of Peptide Conjugates Using Dehydroalanines for Chemoselective Ligations”.
[0348] Galonic, D.; van der Donk, W. A.; Gin, D. Y. Chem.-Eur. J. 2003, 24, 5997-6006. “Oligosaccharide-Peptide Ligation of Glycosyl Thiolates with Dehydropeptides. Synthesis of S-Linked Mucin Glycopeptide Conjugates”.
[0349] We establish the use of dehydroalanines as electrophilic handles to introduce various functionalities into peptides, and proteins using the dehydratases to generate dehydroalanines in proteins fused to the lantibiotic leader sequence. A few examples of such a chemoselective ligation strategy are shown in Scheme 5 (138).
[0350]  [see pdf for image]
[0351] Farnesyl- and geranylgeranylthiol could be conveniently linked to peptides prepared by SPPS. Despite the disadvantage that two diastereomeric products are formed, the overall yield of the route is higher than reported methodologies and perhaps more importantly, the route is significantly simplified as it does not involve complicated protecting group manipulations. The advantage of the chemoselective ligation strategy is even more evident in the addition of thioglycosides to the dehydroalanines. The synthesis of O-linked glycopeptides is an important goal and one of the greatest challenges involves the control of alpha/beta-selectivity of the linkage to Ser/Thr. Since anomeric thioglycosides are configurationally stable and retain their stereochemical integrity during the Michael addition, the route in Scheme 5 provides rapid entry to either alpha-S-linked N-acetylgalactosamine or beta-S-linked N-acetylglucosamine glycopeptides. These are the two stereochemical linkages that are almost exclusively found as the core structure of O-linked glycoproteins. A joint student between the Gin and van der Donk laboratories has recently extended the methodology to several tumor associated antigens such as 6 and 7 (Scheme 5). This approach to the preparation of glycopeptides by chemoselective ligation is particularly attractive because (1) S-linked glycopeptides are closer structural analogs of O-linked peptides than other mimics that have been used for chemoselective ligation strategies (139), and (2) S-linked glycopeptides have been demonstrated to have higher acid and base stability than the corresponding O-linked structures (140). Perhaps the most useful aspect of the strategy involves the capability to perform all steps (SPPS, oxidative elimination and ligation) on the solid support facilitating the use of this technology for combinatorial purposes (111, 138).
[0352] We developed the synthetic methodology to introduce Dha and Dhb residues into unprotected peptides and to prepare fluorinated derivatives thereof. Furthermore, our biomimetic studies demonstrated that lanthionine and methyllanthionine formation has an intrinsic propensity to give the stereochemistry observed in the final products. We also showed that we can introduce selenocysteine into proteins, and that we can use ligations to obtain lantibiotic prepeptides in which the leader sequence is overexpressed and the structural region is prepared chemically containing unnatural residues. We cloned, overexpressed and purified the dehydratase and cyclase enzymes for subtilin and nisin biosynthesis, and characterized the cyclases as zinc metalloproteins. And most importantly, we have been able to achieve the first in vitro lantibiotic biosynthetic system. The experimental design describes a multi-faceted approach that uses our knowledge to elucidate the mechanism of lantibiotic biosynthesis as well as to engineer new variants.
[0353] D. Experimental Design & Methods.
[0354] Our approach towards harnessing the enormous potential of in vitro reconstitution of lantibiotic biosynthesis focuses on lacticin 481. The lessons learned from the work on lacticin are used in parallel to attempt in vitro reconstitution of the subtilin biosynthetic system. These experiments are similar as those described for lacticin. Our studies in Section 1 focus on the substrate requirements for lanthionine formation as well as the kinetics of maturation. Section 2 deals with characterization of the dehydratase/cyclase as well as the protease that removes the leader peptide. Section 3 addresses substrate binding and recognition. Aim 4 explores the use of non-natural substrates and assesses the biological activity of the resulting variants.
[0355] Section I. Determine the Substrate Requirements for Lantibiotic Biosynthesis.
[0356] I.1 ATP Dependence of Lantibiotic Biosynthesis: Kinetic Assay Development.
[0357] The observed activity of the LctM enzyme absolutely requires ATP. We have determined that the products are inorganic phosphate and ADP using known phosphate detection assays (Molecular Probes) as well as ion exchange HPLC to detect ADP. A number of different roles can be envisioned for ATP. It can activate the hydroxyl groups of the Ser and Thr residues by phosphorylation to facilitate dehydration and it can be used as an energy source as found for instance in motor proteins and also for the maturation of microcin B17 (141), another post-translationally modified peptide. In the latter case, decoupling of the ATPase activity is observed. To date we have focused all our efforts on obtaining active protein and characterizing the product. We first determine the stoichiometry of ATP hydrolysis and dehydration and cyclization. ATP hydrolysis is quantitated initially with endpoint assays for both Pi and ADP. In these experiments the peptide substrate is completely processed. The stoichiometry having been determined, and hence it being known whether ATP hydrolysis rates can be used to monitor the kinetics of post-translational modification, we focus on kinetic assays to determine the kcat and Km for ATP and peptide substrates. GTP, ATP-gammaS, AMP-PCP, AMP-PNP, and ADP-CP are examined for use as substrates and/or inhibitors, the latter being useful for crystallization studies (Section 2). We use continuous assays by using a coupled enzyme approach when the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis are sufficiently fast. In that case, ADP is phosphorylated by pyruvate kinase using phosphoenol pyruvate as phosphoryl donor (Scheme 6).
[0358]  [see pdf for image]
[0359] This produces pyruvate, which is reduced with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leading to the conversion of NADH to NAD+. This last transformation is conveniently monitored at 340 nm. This strategy for detection of ADP requires identifying the conditions in which the enzymes in the coupled assay are not rate limiting. A complementary fluorescence based phosphate assay (Molecular Probes) is used to corroborate the results of the coupled enzyme assay. If the kinetics are slow, as in other antibiotic biosynthetic enzymes that catalyze complex chemical reactions, coupled enzyme assays do not work well. Hence, discontinuous assays are used. For ADP and phosphate this involves determining their concentrations at set timepoints using the same techniques as described before (HPLC & fluorescence assay); for the peptide it requires quantitative MS analysis since the presence of different intermediates precludes their separation and quantitation by HPLC (eg see FIG. 15). A quantitative MS assay was developed for microcin B17 maturation (141).
[0360] I.2 Processivity of Lanthionine Formation: Structural Characterization of Intermediates
[0361] Mechanism of Cyclization: the Order of Ring Formation
[0362] The order of ring formation in lantibiotics is investigated. A number of possible scenarios are investigated. These include the generally accepted scheme of global dehydration followed by regioselective cyclization (e.g. FIG. 11 and FIG. 14). However, dehydration of only one specific Ser/Thr residue at a time, followed by ring formation when only that one Dha or Dhb is available for cyclization cannot be ruled out (eg Scheme 7 for lacticin; starting material, “structural region” is given in amino acids 25-51 of SEQ ID NO:3; the Dha-containing structural region is given in SEQ ID NO:110, amino acids; and the sequence of the dehydratase product is given in SEQ ID NO:119).
[0363]  [see pdf for image]
[0364] A nice feature of this picture is that it avoids the problem of regioselectivity for the cyclizations. An indirect argument against this mechanism includes the observed accumulation of dehydrated peptides when the LanC genes are disrupted (142). Moreover, in this scenario every cyclization would significantly change the structure of the peptide complicating the task of the dehydratase in each subsequent dehydration. A second question involves the coupling of the dehydration and cyclization activities of LctM, i.e. does the dehydrated substrate produced at the dehydration active site dissociate from the enzyme prior to rebinding at the cyclase active site? If not, one observes either unmodified substrate or completely cyclized product in the steady state phase, but no partially processed dehydropeptides that have not undergone cyclization. With the available activity of the lacticin system both of these questions are experimentally tested for the first time.
[0365] The observed peptides with masses of M-18, M-36, and M-54 suggest that intermediates are generated. However, prior to commencing with structural characterization of these intermediates, we first assess whether these structures are true intermediates and not dead-end products that arose for instance from incorrect cyclization and hence termination of the post-translational modification process. As mentioned in the preliminary results section, the LctA substrate with the C-terminal His-tag produces a large amount of partially dehydrated peptides (M-18, M-36, M-54). Using reverse phase and/or anion exchange HPLC, we partially purify the mixture and resubmit the incompletely processed peptides to LctM. When this leads to processing to mature lacticin 481 at a rate similar to the formation of the product with LctA-His, the partially dehydrated peptides are shown to be true intermediates that dissociate from the enzyme. Structural characterization as to whether lanthionines are present in these partially processed peptides answers the question whether the dehydrated peptides dissociate before cyclization. Other experiments that address this issue involve classic pulse-chase or isotope trapping experiments. We first focus on MS structural characterization as described below, and do not describe here these other methodologies (eg see (143-150)).
[0366] Another question involves whether the cyclization reactions are carried out in a particular order (eg N-to-C terminus). A non-ordered distributive mechanism on the other hand would feature LctM latching onto the substrate to cyclize one or more thioether rings randomly, then dissociating, before randomly binding again and in a stepwise fashion completing the formation of all five rings. In this case, a distribution of peptides with anywhere between 1-3 rings at various positions is expected at a given time point. Structural characterization of the partially dehydrated peptides discussed above sheds light onto these questions. Hence we determine if lanthionine rings are formed in the partially dehydrated peptides and if so whether they show the expected features of a directional process. These experiments are conducted using mass spectrometry. The maturation process of the antibiotic microcin B17 has similarities with lantibiotic biosynthesis in that a prepeptide containing a leader sequence and a structural region is ribosomally synthesized. The post-translational modifications of microcin B17 involve cyclizations of 4 serines and 4 cysteines onto the carbonyls of the immediately preceding residues in the peptide giving 4 oxazolines and 4 thiazolines. A flavin dependent enzyme subsequently oxidizes these structures to generate the final product containing 4 oxazoles and 4 thiazoles (151). High resolution and tandem-MS was utilized by Dr. Kelleher in the Walsh laboratory to show that the in vitro post-translational modification for microcin B17 proceeds by a distributive yet directional process from N-terminal to C-terminal sites (152, 153). The Kelleher laboratory has the required equipment including an FT-MS instrument to carry out similar studies for lantibiotic maturation.
[0367] One important technical difference between the studies on microcin and the investigations described here for lantibiotic formation involves the manner in which the process is monitored. Each modification in microcin leads to a reduction in mass of 20 amu whereas a Michael addition of a cysteine to a Dha residue does not change the mass of the peptide. Three independent approaches are evaluated to render these experiments amenable to MS analysis. The first involves performing the reactions in D2O. After cyclization, this leads to the stoichiometric incorporation of one deuterium at the alpha-position of the former Dha or Dhb residue (Scheme 8).
[0368]  [see pdf for image]
[0369] High resolution MS is then utilized to determine the number of rings formed at a given timepoint during the assay by determining the number of deuterium labels. Alternatively, the number of rings formed is determined by modification of unreacted cysteine residues. We have shown previously that the SpaS peptide can be reacted with either iodoacetamide or methane methylthiosulfonate to trap cysteine residues by alkylation or disulfide bond formation. Thus, samples taken from the LctM catalyzed cyclization reaction are treated with one of these reagents and the LctA peptide substrate is analyzed by MS to probe the number of free cysteines and hence the number of rings that have been formed (Scheme 8). Furthermore, tandem MS is used to determine the sites of cysteine modification, and hence also the sites of cyclization. Obviously, a number of controls are carried out in the absence of LctM to verify that the modification of the cysteines with excess reagent is faster than non-enzymatic cyclization. However, our findings have shown that non-enzymatic cyclization is very slow in aqueous solution at pH 7.
[0370] We can take advantage of another characteristic of lanthionine rings. Our tandem MS analysis of synthetic peptides containing lanthionine and methyllanthionines rings using a departmental quadrupole-hexapole-quadrupole (QHQ) mass spectrometer showed a typical pattern with an increased intensity of fragment ions generated from cleavage just outside the ring. Hence, it is possible to determine the sites of cyclization simply by inspection of the fragment ions in MS-MS experiments. To further corroborate this useful mass spectrometric technique to assign lanthionine structures, we perform triple MS-MS experiments. Given that the major fragment ions are y- and b-ions (Roepstorff notation (154)), we perform MS on these ions using ESI-ion trap MS. The basic idea is shown in Scheme 9 concentrating in this case on the y-ions but the same arguments also apply for the b-ions.
[0371]  [see pdf for image]
[0372] For instance, suppose we want to distinguish between formation of either of the two rings in Scheme 9. First, we anticipate that the y3-ion is the major y-type fragment ion for cyclization via path a, whereas the y5-ion would be the major y-type fragment ion for cyclization via pathway b. This is observed for all synthetic cyclic thioether containing peptides that we have prepared. One complicating factor is that y5 ions can be formed for both cyclic peptides and they have identical masses. So, in addition to relying on the intensity of the y5-ion, we also perform MS-MS on this ion. In the case of pathway a, this results in a typical series of y3 and y4-ions (155). On the other hand, it is clear that fragmentation of the y5-ion in the bottom scenario will not generate the y4- and y3-ions by virtue of the covalent thioether linkage between residues 3 and 6, permitting distinction between pathways a and b. The same logic is applied when one determines where in the peptide cyclic thioethers are formed. The 5-6 kDa peptides are readily analyzed in this way using the ESI-Fourier Transform mass spectrometer in Prof. Kelleher's laboratory. With the methodology for efficient localization of lanthionine rings established, time dependent studies are performed to monitor the formation of the various rings. We note that a study currently in press (156) showed promising results using electron capture induced dissociation (ECD) to localize thioether rings in lantibiotics.
[0373] I.3 Use of LctA Mutants.
[0374] Interesting studies addressed with the first functional lantibiotic biosynthetic system involves the role of the leader peptide. We first investigate the minimum sequence requirement. Using a molecular biology approach we prepare prepeptides that either contain or lack the leader sequence, or that contain part of the leader sequence. FIG. 17 shows an alignment of the leader and structural regions of lantibiotics with sequence homology to lacticin 481. These prepeptides are members of the so-called GG-group, named after their conserved GG or GA-sequence at the protease cleavage site. Several other conserved regions are present, but the N-terminus shows only weak sequence conservation. Hence we will prepare several truncated prepeptides including Δ1-4, Δ1-9, Δ1-13, Δ1-18, and Δ1-24 (i.e. removal of the entire leader sequence). We have constructed the Δ1-4LctA mutant and found it is fully processed to the corresponding product. This was a first indication that the leader sequence has a different role than that in microcin biosynthesis where the leader was found to be essential for post-translational modification (160). As mentioned in the introduction, other roles for the leader can be envisioned including transport and keeping the peptide inactive until after excretion. The conserved regions in these peptides thus reflect a consensus sequence for the protease or transport system rather than for the dehydratase/cyclase. With the essential region of the leader peptide identified, we turn to truncated peptides that contain the leader sequence but only part of the dehydrated structural region. For instance, fragments 1-38 (precursor to A ring only), 1-49 (A & B rings), and 1-50 (A, B & C rings) are prepared that result in a successively larger number of thioethers formed upon enzyme catalyzed cyclization. The analysis of the products of these enzymatic reactions is carried out using MS as described above. Competitive inhibitory action of LctA1-24 (leader) and LctA 25-51 (structural peptide) is also assessed.
[0375] In addition to probing the prepeptide structure by truncations, site directed mutagenesis studies are utilized. Initial targets that we have characterized are T48S, T48A, and C50A. Incubation of T48S with LctM gave rise to a product in which still 4 dehydrations had occurred, indicating that the Dhb at position 48 is now a Dha. MS analysis confirms its location. T48A gave rise to a product in which only 3 dehydrations had taken place, fully consistent with expectations. Perhaps the most interesting mutant is C50A. This mutant can no longer form the C ring. Unexpectedly, however, this mutation also led to a fifth dehydration of Ser52. Most importantly, these results illustrate the promiscuity of LctM for the peptide substrate and indicate the enzyme can access novel structures. Mutants that are generated include T33A (which prevents formation of the A-ring and leave an uncyclized Cys38), S35A (preventing B-ring formation), and S42A (precluding C-ring formation). The corresponding C38A and C49A mutants are also made. Besides probing the range of structures, these experiments also provide important insights into the mechanism of the maturation process, for instance whether formation of a certain ring is essential for proper processing of other rings. For example for a processive mechanism, incompletely processed products can result if the Ser and/or Cys involved in formation of the initial ring are mutated.
[0376] In addition to mutants that involve one of the modified residues (Ser/Thr/Cys), we also mutate the conserved GG/GA pair at positions −1 and −2 from the site of proteolytic cleavage.
[0377] II. Characterization of the Proteins Involved in Lacticin 481 Maturation
[0378] II.1 X-Ray Crystallography of LctM
[0379] The availability of a crystal structure of LctM provides very important guidance on the mechanism of catalysis and the mode of substrate binding. At present no structural information has been reported for any proteins involved in lanthionine formation and no sequence homology exists between the proteins in the database and the proteins involved in this process (LanB/C/M). Therefore, we have initiated a collaboration with the laboratory of Satish Nair in the Department of Biochemistry at UIUC. Dr. Nair has much experience in X-ray crystallography of zinc proteins through his studies of carbonic anhydrase (162-167). An effort is dedicated to probing the presence of stable domains by limited proteolysis, evaluating crystallization conditions, and also investigating other proteins involved in lantibiotic biosynthesis (vide infra). These studies provide us with detailed structural information, but do not replace the proposed biophysical experiments described below. A crystal structure provides a static picture whereas most of the proposed experiments described elsewhere in this application provide quantitative information regarding dynamic processes such as binding and catalysis. We note that structural information of the C-terminal region of LctM (LanC-like domain) is valuable for the study of the recently discovered mammalian LANCL proteins that display homology with the LanC proteins (106-109), including the putative zinc ligands.
[0380] II.2 Residues Involved in Zinc Binding and ATPase Activity.
[0381] Our studies with SpaC and NisC indicate that two conserved cysteines in LctM as well as one or two conserved His residues are candidates for binding Zn. Mutations in SpaC corroborated these roles for the two Cys residues (89), but since the activity of the mutants could not be tested due to the lack of dehydrated substrate, the functional role in catalysis remained ill defined. With active LctM in hand, we initiate studies designed to address this question. We prepare both Cys-to-Ala and Cys-to-Ser single and double mutants and analyze the effect on dehydration and cyclization activity using our MS structural assay of the products. One very exciting outcome involves decoupling of dehydratase and cyclase activities, that is, disruption of the zinc site leads to loss of cyclase activity but not dehydratase activity. The effect of these mutations on ATPase activity is determined, which localizes ATP hydrolysis to the dehydration or cyclization process. Similarly, mutation of the two conserved His residues will be carried out. In the proposed mechanism in Scheme 2, one of these residues is either the active site base that deprotonates the substrate cysteine or the catalytic acid that protonates the enolate intermediate. Mutation of the His residues to Asn and Phe is used to test these mechanistic possibilities. To provide a more detailed look at catalysis of both wild-type LctM and these mutants, their pH-dependent rate profiles are determined, which are used to identify the pKa of residues that are important in catalysis and substrate binding. In order to simplify the analysis, minimal truncated prepeptide sequences/mutants are used initially in which only one ring structure can be formed (either A-, B-, or C-rings) and the findings with these peptides are used to understand data obtained with full length LctA. As a further improvement aiding these experiments, the dehydrated peptide from the Cys-mutants described above (or using synthesis as described in the Preliminary Results section) is obtained, and dehydropeptides are used as substrates to elucidate the role of the His residues in cyclization in wt and mutant proteins.
[0382] Using the His-mutants, we experimentally address whether one of the His residues functions as the proton acceptor during thiolate binding as proposed in Scheme 2. In methionine synthase, binding of homocysteine to the zinc site results in release of a proton into solution as observed using a pH sensitive dye (168). The mechanism in Scheme 2 indicates that no proton is released into solution upon binding of the cysteine in the lantibiotic prepeptide to the metal center. However, mutation of one of the two conserved His residues does not affect the integrity of the zinc center (probed in section II.4) but removes the active site base that accepts the proton from the incoming cysteine. Consequently, substrate binding results in release of a proton into solution with this mutant, similar to the observation in methionine synthase.
[0383] II.3 Attempts to Separate Dehydration and Cyclization Activity.
[0384] To date, the assignment of dehydratase activity to the LanB enzymes and cyclase activity to the LanC enzymes is largely based on genetic studies as described in the introduction, but proof is still lacking. With an active LctM protein that contains a C-terminal domain that shows homology with the LanC proteins, we attempt to provide unequivocal evidence that this domain in LctM, and hence the LanC proteins, is responsible for the cyclization activity. We use the domain linker analysis tools obtained from Townsend (169) to determine where to separate the cyclization and dehydration domains. Expressing the two domains of the protein independently and demonstrated dehydratase activity for the N-terminal ˜470 amino acids and cyclase activity for the C-terminal ˜400 amino acids, provides extremely useful tools. Other issues are investigated such as substrate recognition with respect to both leader and structural regions, catalytically essential residues, X-ray crystallography, and the mechanism of dehydration and cyclization (eg ATP dependence). Attempts are also made to generate mutants that can only carry out one of the two reactions as already described for the cyclization reaction in the previous section (i.e. mutation of the Zn ligands). Candidate residues that may be essential for the dehydration are a series of conserved residues in the N-terminal domain of LctM: Lys159, Asp242, His244, Asp259, Glu261, Arg399, and Glu446. The ability of the expressed N-terminal domain or one of the mutations to the metal ligands to produce a dehydratase enzyme, is also useful for the preparation of dehydropeptides, both as substrates for cyclization activity and for synthetic use as described in the introduction.
[0385] II.4 Expression and Purification of the Protease that Cleaves the Leader Peptide.
[0386] In order to produce novel lantibiotics with interesting biological activities, we provide an efficient means to remove the leader sequence. We first determine the activity of lacticin 481 containing the leader (Section 4), to determine effect of removal of the leader sequence on cytotoxicity (25, 65, 170). Some lantibiotics have dedicated proteases in their biosynthetic operons whereas others do not. Havarstein et al recognized sequence homology between the leader sequences of a large number of non-lantibiotic bacteriocins and a small group of lantibiotics (171). This group was collectively termed double-glycine leader peptides. Subsequently, two laboratories showed that the N-terminal ˜150-190 amino acids of the ABC-transporters associated with these non-lantibiotic antimicrobial peptides contain the proteolytic activity that removes the leader concomitant with membrane translocation. This proteolytic domain was shown to be located at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane (172, 173). In vivo protease activity was demonstrated by heterologous expression in E. coli of the N-terminal 190 amino acids of PedD involved in pediocin processing (173) and LagD involved in lactococcin G processing. The latter study also overexpressed and purified the N-terminal 150-amino acid domain of LagD in E. coli and it was suggested that this domain constitutes a cysteine protease although no sequence homology with any known proteases was found (172). Surprisingly, no follow-up in vitro studies have been reported on characterization of any bacteriocin proteases. FIG. 18 shows an alignment of the N-terminus of the transporter for lacticin 481 (LctT) with several other transporters that process the double-glycine peptides. We will express this domain from LctT in E. coli with a C-terminal His-tag as was used for LagD. Once the protease domain is purified, we will test its activity on LctA as well as processed LctA to determine whether the protease requires the post-translational modifications in its substrate. Substrates truncated at either the N-terminus or C-terminus will also be probed. We evaluate whether the enzyme is indeed a Cys-protease using both biochemical techniques and mutagenesis of the apparently conserved His, Cys, and Asp residues that may form the catalytic triad (FIG. 18). It should be noted that the His and Cys are not strictly conserved in all members of this family, thus we can provide novel proteases. In addition, we crystallize this domain, which provides important information regarding substrate recognition. Given the importance of proteolysis of the double-glycine leader sequence in lactic acid bacteriocins (174), these studies provide important insights that are valuable to this entire field.
[0387] Section III. Investigation of Substrate Binding to LctM
[0388] III.1 Substrate Binding to the Zinc Site
[0389] A number of experimental approaches are used to test the proposed substrate activation model in Scheme 2. Alternative roles for the zinc would include a structural function or Lewis acid activation of the carbonyl of the dehydrated electrophiles for conjugate addition by cysteine. We focus on substrate binding. Literature reports on farnesyl transferase show that the cysteine of a truncated peptide substrate binds to the zinc with a micromolar Kd (102, 103). Upon binding the pKa of the cysteine is decreased such that a thiolate is bound at pH 7. Formation of a similar Zn-thiolate complex between the cyclases and the lantibiotic prepeptide will be investigated in a number of ways, all of which have their own advantages and disadvantages. We initially use prepeptides in which the Ser/Thr residues that are normally dehydrated are mutated to Ala in order to prevent turnover, which complicate analysis. Alternatively, as discussed above a mutant protein is constructed that disrupts cyclization catalysis in which case binding of the dehydrated peptide substrates is monitored.
[0390] In order to obtain the binding constant and pKa of prepeptide binding, the zinc 15 is replaced by cobalt. This modification is often used (175, 176) since the ligand to metal charge transfer band (300-400 nm, ε900-1300 M−1 cm-1 per Co—S bond (177, 178)) and the d-d visible absorption bands (600-700 nm, ε ˜500-600 M−1 cm−1) are distinctly removed from the absorption envelope of the protein (175, 179). Furthermore, a clear change in the spectrum is induced upon binding of each consecutive thiolate ligand 20 (180), and the intensity of the bands is indicative of the coordination number (175). Hence we directly monitor binding by a change in both the intensity of the absorption bands and their wavelength maxima. We have shown for SpaC that treatment with phydroxymercuribenzoic acid (HMBA) (181-183) or methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) (184-186) released the zinc without the need for denaturation. We also demonstrated 25 that the protein could be stoichiometrically reconstituted with Zn2+. Under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of TCEP to remove the modification groups from the cysteine introduced by HMBA or MMTS, we should be able to reconstitute LctM with Co2+ as has been demonstrated in a number of other Zn proteins. Concentration and pH dependent titrations can then be performed with the prepeptide or truncated versions 30 thereof to determine the Kd of the substrate and the pKa of the cysteine thiol bound to the metal.
[0391] To obtain structural information on the zinc site we have initiated a collaboration with Prof. Ninian Blackburn at OHSU. Our studies with the Blackburn laboratory focus on characterization of the zinc site by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). This project is particularly suited for EXAFS analysis because Zn2+ is not photoreducible, allowing characterization of the proteins at low concentrations without side reactions. The power of EXAFS to monitor the zinc site was demonstrated in studies on two other zinc proteins that catalyze cysteine alkylation, the cobalamin dependent and independent methionine synthases (90, 187-189). Binding of either LctA or the dehydrated LctA substrate (prepared using mutant LctM, the dehydration domain (section D.II.3), or synthetically using our methodology) to the protein are analyzed to corroborate a change to a 3 S+1 N/O environment. This not only provides important information on the binding of thiols to the zinc site of LctM, but also lends support for the role of the zinc. The structural data obtained is complementary to the spectroscopic studies described in the previous section. Since EXAFS data are subject to simulation and interpretation, we confirm the conclusions obtained for the wild-type peptides by incorporating selenocysteine into the peptides by the ligation approach we developed. Combined use of the Zn and Se K-edge data provides important information regarding the geometry around the metal and the Lewis acidity of the zinc site (189, 190).
[0392] III.2 Fluorescence and SPR Analysis of Substrate Binding to LctM and LctM-Cys/His Mutants
[0393] Site directed mutants discussed in II.2 that do not assemble a zinc site are analyzed for their ability to still bind the LctA prepeptide. Our model based on our findings on biomimetic lanthionine formation indicates that the metal center provides a low specificity activation site with binding affinity provided elsewhere, most likely by interaction with the leader sequence. The absence of a sequence specific binding site near the active site for cyclization is consistent with the cyclase forming rings of very different sizes and sequences. Thus, disruption of the metal center results in lack of cyclization catalysis at pH 7, but retention of substrate binding. We test this hypothesis in a number of different experiments. As mentioned briefly in the preliminary results section, we have used the expressed protein ligation technique to obtain a purified SpaS peptide with a biotinylated lysine appended through a C18 PEG-linker to its C-terminus, far away from the leader sequence. We use a similar strategy to prepare a LctA peptide for immobilization on a streptavidin-coated chip for use with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) instrument that is available in the Biotechnology Center at UIUC. We then use this immobilized substrate to test for binding to the wild-type LctM protein as well as the aforementioned mutants. Analysis of the binding curves at different peptide concentrations provides the Kd values. Truncated peptides are also analyzed for substrate binding to further determine the factors governing recognition and to complement the activity assays in Section 1. We can also label the peptide substrate with a fluorescent probe instead of biotin using the intein constructs we have prepared. We then use fluorescent anisotropy binding assays to measure the binding constants as a function of pH to determine the pKa of the Zn-bound thiolate (191). 2′,7′-Difluorofluorescein is used rather than fluorescein since the former has a pKa of 4.7 (rather than 6.7) (192), which extends the useful range two pKa units and assures that no complications arise from the need to deconvolute two acid-base equilibria.
[0394] III.3 Protein-Substrate Complexes
[0395] Structural information on substrate binding provides the most valuable insights into substrate recognition and catalysis. To achieve this, cocrystallization with or diffusion of the prepeptide or truncated versions into LctM crystals are investigated, or, a photoaffinity labeling approach is used to provide insight into the binding site. LctA contains three Phe residues at positions 7, 45, and 47. We have a plasmid construct that fuses LctA1-37 at its C-terminus to intein-CBD, which allows ligation of a synthetic peptide corresponding to LctA38-51 tagged with biotin at the C-terminus, as shown in the preliminary results section. This peptide is synthesized using Fmoc-4-benzoylPhe or Fmoc-4-azidoPhe, well known photoaffinity reagents, to localize the reactive label to positions 45 and/or 47 in the structural region. Alternatively, the label could be located in the leader peptide at position 7 by expressing the intein-construct in an E. coli strain that has been modified with a tRNA-tRNA synthetase pair that will biosynthetically incorporate the Phe-analog at position 7 (193). Prof. Tirrell kindly provided the necessary strain for this strategy. Ligation is then performed with synthetic LctA38-51 containing regular Phe residues. These LctA analogs having been prepared, they are incubated with LctM and irradiated using standard techniques. Substrate that has not reacted with the protein is removed by gel filtration chromatography, and the covalently linked LctA-LctM molecules are pulled out by affinity chromatography using streptavidin beads. Fourier-Transform mass spectrometry will be used to determine the site of modification (“top-down” approach) (194, 195), we use the traditional method of proteolysis followed by HPLC purification and MS-MS analysis to identify the labeled residues (“bottom-up” approach). If needed, a radiolabeled residue is incorporated next to Phe45/47 to improve sensitivity in identification.
[0396] Section IV. Protein Engineering to Generate Novel Lacticin Variants
[0397] IV.1 Bioassays with Lacticin 481 and Analogs.
[0398] The assessment of biological activity of all lacticin analogs prepared in this program (Sections I and IV) is carried out via standard techniques. Activity and antagonism studies are performed using an agar diffusion assay (57, 62, 77, 196, 197) at varying concentrations of the peptides and compared to the activity of freshly purified lacticin 481 (67). L. lactis IL1835, a known lacticin 481-sensitive Gram-positive bacterial strain, has been obtained and is tested. Additional standard Gram-positive and Gram-negative tester strains are also probed (59), including the industrially important food spoilage bacterium Clostridium tyrobactericum. In addition to the agar diffusion assay, growth inhibition are monitored in standard suspension assays (197). Small samples of the analogs are also supplied to the Midwestern Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Disease Research for testing against high biolevel strains. The activity of the lacticin variants is also tested against the producing strain to evaluate loss of self immunity.
[0399] IV.2 Assessment of the Functional and Steric Tolerance of the Biosynthetic Enzymes.
[0400] Genetic protein engineering can be optionally limited to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. With the size of the structural region of the prepeptide of lacticin 481 (27 a.a.) well within the limit of solid phase peptide synthesis, the pool of available amino acids is increased dramatically when combined with our ligation protocol. Even smaller peptides are amenable to processing by LctM. Our studies with LctA mutants indicate the low substrate specificity of the lantibiotic biosynthetic enzymes. Thus, the natural peptide substrates are altered at specific positions by substitution with unnatural amino acids. These “chemical” mutagenesis studies generate useful compounds and address the structural and chemical requirements of the post-translational modifications. Furthermore, this approach potentially generates analogs of Dha and Dhb that provide additional insight into the in vivo function of these unsaturated residues. These analogs provide an important tool to test whether these unsaturated residues function as sites of covalent attachment to the cellular target (78, 79). The mode of action of lacticin 481 is currently poorly understood. The compound has been shown in a preliminary study to interact with synthetic anionic lipids (198), but in bacteria the observed activity was not consistent with simple pore formation (60). Furthermore, the closely related lantibiotic mutacin II (Lan, MeLan and Dhb in same positions, 60% a.a. identity) interferes with the cell's capability to generate metabolic energy (199).
[0401] We determine the substrate tolerance for cyclization and/or dehydration. A number of sterically or electronically diverse amino acids are incorporated into the substrates at the positions of Ser/Thr and Cys using the ligation methodology. Scheme 10 depicts a set of structures that test both the steric and electronic requirements of the LctM catalyzed cyclization.
[0402]  [see pdf for image]
[0403] Amino acids are used that are readily available or synthesized (200, 201). Replacement of cysteine residues with selenocysteines is a conservative substitution evaluated for the cyclization reaction. We use a strategy to incorporate Sec into peptides and proteins using expressed protein ligation, and we use this methodology to generate the enzymatic production of selenolanthionines. Other amino acids that are incorporated into the prepeptide (or truncated versions thereof) include homocysteine and β-methyl cysteines 8 or 9 (200, 201, 209, 210). These residues provide “regioisomers” (10) of the natural MeLn structures in lacticin 481. Given the similarity between mutacin II and lacticin 481, we also evaluate LctM's activity with MutA, the prepeptide of mutacin II and with LctA/MutA chimeras. We evaluate the substitution of His8 in lacticin 481 with Pro. In mutacin II, this residue adjacent to the MeLan ring is disclosed as significant for its interference with generation of metabolic energy at the substrate level (199, 211).
[0404] IV.3. Design and Synthesis of Mechanism Based Inhibitors
[0405] Structure determination of enzyme-substrate complexes constitutes a technique for determining molecular recognition. Due to the reactivity of such complexes, researchers have resorted to enzyme-inhibitor complexes for stability reasons. Suicide inhibitors provide valuable insights into mechanisms of enzymatic reactions. Therefore, several unnatural amino acids that function as potential mechanism based inactivators are incorporated into the peptide substrates for post-translational modification. One class of suicide substrates is those peptides containing amino acids carrying alternative leaving groups at the β-carbon that are incorporated at the positions of Ser/Thr. A number of examples are shown in Scheme 11.
[0406]  [see pdf for image]
[0407] Enzymes that generate enolate intermediates, as in the case for the dehydratase activity of LctM, induce elimination of such leaving groups, generating highly reactive electrophilic species. Fluorine substituents are used in particular because of their small size and high leaving group reactivity that does not require acid catalysis. Fluorine substituted Michael acceptors have been previously shown to react irreversibly with active site nucleophiles such as amines, thiols and carboxylates (212-214).
[0408] Syntheses of compounds 11 (215, 216), 12 (212, 217, 218), 13 (219), and 14 (220-222) have been reported previously. These fluorinated compounds are of interest as potent suicide substrates for a number of pyridoxal dependent enzymes (212, 215, 217, 223-226). Compounds 15 and 16 have not been previously synthesized, and asymmetric routes are outlined in Scheme 12.
[0409]  [see pdf for image]
[0410] A tartrate derived ligand has been used to synthesize compound 18 in 94% ee (227). Using acrolein instead of butyraldehyde this methodology gives access to 15. A potentially rapid entry into 16 involves reaction of 15 with DAST. According to literature precedent, allylic alcohols give the SN2′ fluorinated product upon treatment with DAST (228). Fluorinated amino acids are incorporated into synthetic peptides (229-233). Because of the relatively high strength of the carbon-fluorine bond in comparison with other halogens, they are stable to unwanted side reactions. However, the electron withdrawing nature of the fluorines significantly decreases the nucleophilicity of the amino group (e.g. pKa Ala-NH2=9.87, pKa 11-NH2=7.25, and pKa 12-NH2=5.91 (215)). As a result these residues are often first incorporated into di- or tripeptides using specialized coupling methods (232), and these peptides can then be used for standard solid phase peptide synthesis when controlling or preventing racemization. Several dipeptides containing 11 are prepared (87).
[0411] The amino acids described in this section are designed to inhibit LctM. However, if incubation with LctM leads to lantibiotic products instead of inhibition, they represent novel variants of the natural compounds with biological activity and optionally are also used as tools to investigate the mode of antimicrobial action.
[0412] IV.3 Combinatorial Investigation of Substrate Specificity.
[0413] The previous two sections have focused on the use of unnatural amino acids to replace Ser/Thr/Cys. To generate variant compounds, understand lacticin's mechanism of cytotoxicity or achieve improvement thereof, preparing more than one peptide at a time is efficient, for example for screening assays or to delineate structure-activity relationships. The lantibiotic biosynthetic precursor peptides are used in combinatorial techniques using SPPS (234, 235). The use of synthetic chemistry expands the structural diversity of the accessible lantibiotics. We generate and evaluate variants of the LctA38-51 segment and develop an efficient screening method. This achieves variation of the structure of both the B- and C-rings (Scheme 13).
[0414]  [see pdf for image]
[0415] Libraries of variants of the 13-mer LctA38-51 are prepared via SPPS incorporating two linkers 17 and 18. Linker 17 has been used previously to efficiently link peptides synthesized on conventional resins to a solid support that is compatible with aqueous solid phase native chemical ligations (cellulose, sepharose) (236, 237). Because of the chemoselective oxime formation, the attachment to the latter support here becomes essentially an affinity purification step which means that optionally no purification is necessary after SPPS. The size of the synthetic peptides (13-mer) is such that purified peptides are obtained. The N-terminal cysteine present on all peptides in the library are used for native chemical ligation with recombinant peptide 19 (LctA1-37), which is obtained in large quantities as the MESNA or ethanethiol thioester by intein chemistry (238). Such solid phase native chemical ligation is high yielding when using water-compatible solid supports (236, 237). After ligation, the peptide is cleaved from the support with aqueous base (236). Hence, the substrate library is optionally prepared without any chromatographic separations. A multiple peptide synthesizer is used to prepare ˜1-5 mg of peptides in 96 well format, which translates to 96 LctA analog substrates after ligation and cleavage from the resin. After cleavage from the support we neutralize and redissolve the peptides in the 96-well plate in buffer and add LctM, ATP, Mg2+ and Zn2+. MS analysis is used to assess the composition of the resulting wells. The protease domain is used to remove the leader peptide. Agar diffusion assays are used with crude products to assess biological activity. Further evaluations are done in quantitative assays with purified products. This approach is relatively high throughput. Using unnatural Fmoc-protected amino acids, new compounds are generated, and the essential structural features for lacticin activity are investigated. Furthermore, lacticin's biological activity is optimized by increasing its interaction with its target, enhancing solubility, improving cellular uptake, and decreasing protease susceptibility. With respect to the latter, the use of peptoids is employed (239). The results of one 96-peptide screen are optionally used in designing a subsequent screen.

References for Example 11 et al

[0416] 1. Gutowski-Eckel, Z., Klein, C., Siegers, K., Bohm, K., Hammelmann, M., Entian, K.-D. (1994). Growth phase-dependent regulation and membrane localization of SpaB, a protein involved in biosynthesis of the lantibiotic subtilin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 1-11.
[0417] 2. Engelke, G., Gutowski-Eckel, Z., Hammelmann, M., Entian, K.-D. (1992). Biosynthesis of the lantibiotic nisin: genomic organization and membrane localization of the NisB protein. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 3730-43.
[0418] 3. Peschel, A., Ottenwälder, B., Götz, F. (1996). Inducible production and cellular location of the epidermin biosynthetic enzyme EpiB using an improved staphylococcal expression system. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 137, 279-84.
[0419] 4. Sen, A. K., Narbad, A., Horn, N., Dodd, H. M., Parr, A. J., Colquhoun, I., Gasson, M. J. (1999). Post-translational modification of nisin. The involvement of NisB in the dehydration process. Eur. J. Biochem. 261, 524-32.
[0420] 5. Kupke, T., Götz, T. (1996). Expression, Purification, and Characterization of EpiC, an Enzyme Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Lantibiotic Epidermin, and Sequence Analysis of Staphylococcus epidermidis epiC Mutants. J. Bacteriol. 178, 1335-1340.
[0421] 6. Jack, R. W., Jung, G. (2000). Lantibiotics and microcins: polypeptides with unusual chemical diversity. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 4, 310-7.
[0422] 7. Sahl, H. G., Bierbaum, G. (1998). Lantibiotics: biosynthesis and biological activities of uniquely modified peptides from gram-positive bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 52, 41-79.
[0423] 8. van Kraaij, C., de Vos, W. M., Siezen, R. J., Kuipers, O. P. (1999). Lantibiotics: biosynthesis, mode of action and applications. Nat. Prod. Rep. 16, 575-587.
[0424] 9. McAuliffe, O., Ross, R. P., Hill, C. (2001). Lantibiotics: structure, biosynthesis and mode of action. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25, 285-308.
[0425] 10. Swartz, M. N. (1994). Hospital-Acquired Infections: Diseases with Increasingly Limited Therapies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 2420-2427.
[0426] 11. Carbon, C. (2000). MRSA and MRSE: is there an answer? Clin Microbiol Infect 6 Suppl 2, 17-22.
[0427] 12. Levy, S. B. (2000). The future of antibiotics: facing antibiotic resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 6 Suppl 3, 101-6.
[0428] 13. Klaenhammer, T. R. (1993). Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 12, 39-85.
[0429] 14. Nissen-Meyer, J., Nes, I. F. (1997). Ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides: their function, structure, biogenesis, and mechanism of action. Arch. Microbiol. 167, 67-77.
[0430] 15. Cleveland, J., Montville, T. J., Nes, I. F., Chikindas, M. L. (2001). Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 71, 1-20.
[0431] 16. Nes, I. F., Holo, H. (2000). Class II antimicrobial peptides from lactic acid bacteria. Biopolymers 55, 50-61.
[0432] 17. Ennahar, S., Sashihara, T., Sonomoto, K., Ishizaki, A. (2000). Class IIa bacteriocins: biosynthesis, structure and activity. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 24, 85-106.
[0433] 18. Moll, G. N., Konings, W. N., Driessen, A. J. (1999). Bacteriocins: mechanism of membrane insertion and pore formation. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 76, 185-98.
[0434] 19. Epand, R. M., Vogel, H. J. (1999). Diversity of antimicrobial peptides and their mechanisms of action. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1462, 11-28.
[0435] 20. For an in depth discussion of polyketide synthases see the November 1997 issue of Chem. Rev.
[0436] 21. McCaskill, D., Croteau, R. (1997). Prospects for the bioengineering of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 55, 107-46.
[0437] 22. Herrera, J. B. R., Wilson, W. K., Matsuda, S. P. T. (2000). A tyrosine-to-threonine mutation converts cycloartenol synthase to an oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol as its major product. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 6765-6766.
[0438] 23. Meyer, M. M., Segura, N. J. R., Wilson, W. K., Matsuda, S. P. T. (2000). Oxidosqualene cyclase residues that promote formation of cycloartenol, lanosterol, and parkeol. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 39, 4090-4092.
[0439] 24. Cane, D. E. (1995). Isoprenoid antibiotics. Biotechnology 28, 633-55.
[0440] 25. van der Meer, J. R., Rollema, H. S., Siezen, R. J., Beerthuyzen, M. M., Kuipers, O. P., de Vos, W. M. (1994). Influence of amino acid substitutions in the nisin leader peptide on biosynthesis and secretion of nisin by Lactococcus lactis. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 3555-62.
[0441] 26. Kuipers, O. P., Beerthuyzen, M. M., de Ruyter, P. G., Luesink, E. J., de Vos, W. M. (1995). Autoregulation of nisin biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis by signal transduction. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27299-304.
[0442] 27. Reis, M., Eschbach-Bludau, M., Iglesias-Wind, M. I., Kupke, T., Sahl, H. G. (1994). Producer immunity towards the lantibiotic Pep5: identification of the immunity gene pepl and localization and functional analysis of its gene product. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 2876-83.
[0443] 28. Bierbaum, G., Reis, M., Szekat, C., Sahl, H. G. (1994). Construction of an expression system for engineering of the lantibiotic Pep5. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 4332-8.
[0444] 29. Schnell, N., Entian, K.-D., Schneider, U., Götz, F., Zahner, H., Kellner, R., Jung, G. (1988). Prepeptide sequence of epidermin, a ribosomally synthesized antibiotic with four sulphide-rings. Nature 333, 276-278.
[0445] 30. Sahl, H.-G., Jack, R. W., Bierbaum, G. (1995). Biosynthesis and Biological Activities of Lantibiotics with Unique Post-Translational Modifications. Eur. J. Biochem. 230, 827-853.
[0446] 31. Guder, A., Wiedemann, I., Sahl, H. G. (2000). Posttranslationally modified bacteriocins—the lantibiotics. Biopolymers 55, 62-73.
[0447] 32. Delves-Broughton, J., Blackburn, P., Evans, R. J., Hugenholtz, J. (1996). Applications of the bacteriocin, nisin. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 193-202.
[0448] 33. Rayman, M. K., Aris, B., Hurst, A. (1981). Nisin: a possible alternative or adjunct to nitrite in the preservation of meats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41, 375-80.
[0449] 34. Hurst, A. (1981). Nisin. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 27, 85-123.
[0450] 35. Kupke, T., Götz, F. (1996). Post-Translational Modifications of Lantibiotics. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 139-150.
[0451] 36. Nes, I. F., Tagg, J. R. (1996). Novel lantibiotics and their pre-peptides. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 89-97.
[0452] 37. Ingram, L. C. (1969). Synthesis of the antibiotic nisin: formation of lanthionine and beta-methyl-lanthionine. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 184, 216-9.
[0453] 38. Schnell, N., Engelke, G., Augustin, J., Rosenstein, R., Ungermann, V., Götz, F., Entian, K.-D. (1992). Analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis of the lantibiotic epidermin. Eur. J. Biochem. 204, 57-68.
[0454] 39. Jung, G. (1991). Lantibiotics-Ribosomally synthesized biologically active polypeptides containing sulfide bridges and a,b-dehydroamino acids. Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed. Engl. 30, 1051-1068.
[0455] 40. Sahl, H.-G. (1991). Pore formation in baterial membranes by cationic lantibiotics. In Nisin and novel Lantibiotics. (G. Jung and H.-G. Sahl, Ed.), pp 347-358, ESCOM, Leiden, The Netherlands.
[0456] 41. Driessen, A. J., van den Hooven, H. W., Kuiper, W., van de Kamp, M., Sahl, H. G., Konings, R. N., Konings, W. N. (1995). Mechanistic studies of lantibiotic-induced permeabilization of phospholipid vesicles. Biochemistry 34, 1606-14.
[0457] 42. Moll, G. N., Roberts, G. C., Konings, W. N., Driessen, A. J. (1996). Mechanism of lantibiotic-induced pore-formation. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 185-91.
[0458] 43. Fredenhagen, A., Fendrich, G., Marki, F., Marki, W., Gruner, J., Raschdorf, F., Peter, H. H. (1990). Duramycins B and C, two new lanthionine containing antibiotics as inhibitors of phospholipase A2. Structural revision of duramycin and cinnamycin. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 43, 1403-12.
[0459] 44. Marki, F., Hanni, E., Fredenhagen, A., van Oostrum, J. (1991). Mode of action of the lanthionine-containing peptide antibiotics duramycin, duramycin B and C, and cinnamycin as indirect inhibitors of phospholipase A2. Biochem. Pharmacol. 42, 2027-35.
[0460] 45. Kido, Y., Hamakado, T., Yoshida, T., Anno, M., Motoki, Y., Wakamiya, T., Shiba, T. (1983). Isolation and characterization of ancovenin, a new inhibitor of angiotensin I converting enzyme, produced by actinomycetes. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 36, 1295-9.
[0461] 46. Chatterjee, S., Chatterjee, D. K., Jani, R. H., Blumbach, J., Ganguli, B. N., Klesel, N., Limbert, M., Seibert, G. (1992). Mersacidin, a new antibiotic from Bacillus. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 45, 839-45.
[0462] 47. Limbert, M. D., Isert, D., Klesel, N., Markus, A., Seibert, G., Chatterjee, S., Chatterjee, D. K., Jani, R. H., Ganguli, B. N. (1991). Chemotherapeutic properties of mersacidin in vitro and in vivo. In Nisin and novel Lantibiotics. (G. Jung and H.-G. Sahl, Ed.), pp 448-456, ESCOM, Leiden, The Netherlands.
[0463] 48. Bierbaum, G., Brotz, H., Koller, K. P., Sahl, H. G. (1995). Cloning, sequencing and production of the lantibiotic mersacidin. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 127, 121-6.
[0464] 49. Banerjee, S., Hansen, J. N. (1988). Structure and expression of a gene encoding the precursor of subtilin, a small protein antibiotic. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 9508-9514.
[0465] 50. Breukink, E., Wiedemann, I., van Kraaij, C., Kuipers, O. P., Sahl, H., de Kruijff, B. (1999). Use of the cell wall precursor lipid II by a pore-forming peptide antibiotic. Science 286, 2361-4.
[0466] 51. Enserink, M. (1999). Promising antibiotic candidate identified. Science 286, 2245, 2247.
[0467] 52. Breukink, E., de Kruijff, B. (1999). The lantibiotic nisin, a special case or not? Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1462, 223-34.
[0468] 53. Wiedemann, I., Breukink, E., van Kraaij, C., Kuipers, O. P., Bierbaum, G., de Kruijff, B., Sahl, H. G. (2001). Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis for potent antibiotic activity. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 1772-9.
[0469] 54. Brötz, H., Josten, M., Wiedemann, I., Schneider, U., Gotz, F., Bierbaum, G., Sahl, H.-G. (1998). Role of lipid-bound peptidoglycan precursors in the formation of pores by nisin, epidermin and other lantibiotics. Mol. Microbiol. 30, 317-327.
[0470] 55. Hechard, Y., Sahl, H. G. (2002). Mode of action of modified and unmodified bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria. Biochimie 84, 545-57.
[0471] 56. Dufour, A., Thuault, D., Boulliou, A., Bourgeois, C. M., Le Pennec, J. P. (1991). Plasmid-encoded determinants for bacteriocin production and immunity in a Lactococcus lactis strain and purification of the inhibitory peptide. J Gen Microbiol 137 (Pt 10), 2423-9.
[0472] 57. Piard, J. C., Muriana, P. M., Desmazeaud, M. J., Klaenhammer, T. R. (1992). Purification and partial characterization of lacticin 481, a lanthionine-containing bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CNRZ 481. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 279-84.
[0473] 58. Rince, A., Dufour, A., Le Pogam, S., Thuault, D., Bourgeois, C. M., Le Pennec, J. P. (1994). Cloning, expression, and nucleotide sequence of genes involved in production of lactococcin DR, a bacteriocin from lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 1652-7.
[0474] 59. Pridmore, D., Rekhif, N., Pittet, A. C., Suri, B., Mollet, B. (1996). Variacin, a new lanthionine-containing bacteriocin produced by Micrococcus varians: comparison to lacticin 481 of Lactococcus lactis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 1799-802.
[0475] 60. O'Sullivan, L., Morgan, S. M., Ross, R. P., Hill, C. (2002). Elevated enzyme release from lactococcal starter cultures on exposure to the lantibiotic lacticin 481, produced by Lactococcus lactis DPC5552. J Dairy Sci 85, 2130-40.
[0476] 61. O'Sullivan, L., Ryan, M. P., Ross, R. P., Hill, C. (2003). Generation of food-grade lactococcal starters which produce the lantibiotics lacticin 3147 and lacticin 481. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69, 3681-5.
[0477] 62. Piard, J. C., Delorme, F., Giraffa, G., Commissaire, J., Desmazeaud, M. (1990). Evidence for a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis CNRZ 481. Neth. Milk and Dairy J. 44, 143-58.
[0478] 63. Thuault, D., Beliard, E., Le Guern, J., Bourgeois, C. M. (1991). Inhibition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum by bacteriocin-like substances produced by lactic acid bacteria. J Dairy Sci 74, 1145-50.
[0479] 64. O'Sullivan, L., Ross, R. P., Hill, C. (2002). Potential of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for improvements in food safety and quality. Biochimie 84, 593-604.
[0480] 65. Chakicherla, A., Hansen, J. N. (1995). Role of the leader and structural regions of prelantibiotic peptides as assessed by expressing nisin-subtilin chimeras in Bacillus subtilis 168, and characterization of their physical, chemical, and antimicrobial properties. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 23533-9.
[0481] 66. Kuipers, O. P., Rollema, H. S., de Vos, W. M., Siezen, R. J. (1993). Biosynthesis and secretion of a precursor of nisin Z by Lactococcus lactis, directed by the leader peptide of the homologous lantibiotic subtilin from Bacillus subtilis. FEBS Lett. 330, 23-7.
[0482] 67. Piard, J. C., Kuipers, O. P., Rollema, H. S., Desmazeaud, M. J., de Vos, W. M. (1993). Structure, organization, and expression of the Id gene for lacticin 481, a novel lantibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis. J. Biol. Chem. 268, 16361-8.
[0483] 68. Entian, K.-D., de Vos, W. M. (1996). Genetics of subtilin and nisin biosyntheses: biosynthesis of lantibiotics. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 109-17.
[0484] 69. Jack, R., Bierbaum, G., Heidrich, C., Sahl, H.-G. (1995). The Genetics of Lantibiotic Biosynthesis. BioEssays 17, 793-802.
[0485] 70. Meyer, H. E., Heber, M., Eisermann, B., Korte, H., Metzger, J. W., Jung, G. (1994). Sequence analysis of lantibiotics: chemical derivatization procedures allow a fast access to complete Edman degradation. Anal. Biochem. 223, 185-90.
[0486] 71. Weil, H. P., Beck-Sickinger, A. G., Metzger, J., Stevanovic, S., Jung, G., Josten, M., Sahl, H. G. (1990). Biosynthesis of the lantibiotic Pep5. Isolation and characterization of a prepeptide containing dehydroamino acids. Eur. J. Biochem. 194, 217-23.
[0487] 72. Koponen, O., Tolonen, M., Qiao, M. Q., Wahlstrom, G., Helin, J., Saris, P. E. J. (2002). NisB is required for the dehydration and NisC for the lanthionine formation in the post-translational modification of nisin. Microbiology 148, 3561-3568.
[0488] 73. Kiesau, P., Eikmanns, U., Gutowski-Eckel, Z., Weber, S., Hammelmann, M., Entian, K.-D. (1997). Evidence for a multimeric subtilin synthetase complex. J. Bacteriol. 179, 1475-81.
[0489] 74. Siegers, K., Heinzmann, S., Entian, K.-D. (1996). Biosynthesis of lantibiotic nisin. Posttranslational modification of its prepeptide occurs at a multimeric membrane-associated lanthionine synthetase complex. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12294-12301.
[0490] 75. Kuipers, O. P., Bierbaum, G., Ottenwälder, B., Dodd, H. M., Horn, N., Metzger, J., Kupke, T., Gnau, V., Bongers, R., van den Bogaard, P., Kosters, H., Rollema, H. S., de Vos, W. M., Siezen, R. J., Jung, G., Götz, F., Sahl, H. G., Gasson, M. J. (1996). Protein engineering of lantibiotics. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 161-169.
[0491] 76. Kuipers, O. P., Rollema, H. S., Yap, W. M., Boot, H. J., Siezen, R. J., de Vos, W. M. (1992). Engineering dehydrated amino acid residues in the antimicrobial peptide nisin. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 24340-6.
[0492] 77. Chan, W. C., Dodd, H. M., Horn, N., Maclean, K., Lian, L. Y., Bycroft, B. W., Gasson, M. J., Roberts, G. C. (1996). Structure-activity relationships in the peptide antibiotic nisin: role of dehydroalanine 5. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 2966-9.
[0493] 78. Liu, W., Hansen, J. N. (1993). The antimicrobial effect of a structural variant of subtilin against outgrowing Bacillus cereus T spores and vegetative cells occurs by different mechanisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 648-651.
[0494] 79. Morris, S. L., Hansen, J. N. (1981). Inhibition of Bacillus cereus spore outgrowth by covalent modification of a sulfhydryl group by nitrosothiol and iodoacetate. J. Bacteriol. 148, 465-71.
[0495] 80. Spee, J. H., de Vos, W. M., Kuipers, O. P. (1993). Efficient random mutagenesis method with adjustable mutation frequency by use of PCR and dITP. Nucleic Acids Res. 21, 777-8.
[0496] 81. Rollema, H. S., Kuipers, O. P., Both, P., de Vos, W. M., Siezen, R. J. (1995). Improvement of solubility and stability of the antimicrobial peptide nisin by protein engineering. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 2873-8.
[0497] 82. Liu, W., Hansen, J. N. (1992). Enhancement of the chemical and antimicrobial properties of subtilin by site-directed mutagenesis. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 25078-85.
[0498] 83. Okeley, N. M., Zhu, Y., van der Donk, W. A. (2000). Facile Chemoselective Synthesis of Dehydroalanine-Containing Peptides. Org. Lett. 2, 3603-3606.
[0499] 84. Zhou, H., van der Donk, W. A. (2002). Biomimetic Stereoselective Formation of Methyllanthionine. Org. Lett. 4, 1335-1338.
[0500] 85. Gieselman, M. D., Xie, L., van der Donk, W. A. (2001). Synthesis of a Selenocysteine-Containing Peptide by Native Chemical Ligation. Org. Lett. 3, 1331-1334.
[0501] 86. Zhou, H., van der Donk, W. A. (2001). Synthesis of 2-Amino-3-fluoro-acrylic Acid Containing Peptides. Org. Lett. 3, 593-596.
[0502] 87. Zhou, H., Schmidt, D. M., Gerlt, J. A., van der Donk, W. A. (2003). Chemical and Enzymatic Synthesis of Fluorinated Dehydroalanine-Containing Peptides. Chembiochem in press.
[0503] 88. Schmidt, D. M., Hubbard, B. K., Gerlt, J. A. (2001). Evolution of enzymatic activities in the enolase superfamily: functional assignment of unknown proteins in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli as L-Ala-D/L-Glu epimerases. Biochemistry 40, 15707-15.
[0504] 89. Okeley, N. M., Blackburn, N., van der Donk, W. A. (2003). SpaC and NisC, the Cyclases Involved in Subtilin and Nisin Biosynthesis, are Zinc Proteins. submitted for publication.
[0505] 90. Gonzalez, J. C., Peariso, K., Penner-Hahn, J. E., Matthews, R. G. (1996). Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase from Escherichia coli: A Zinc Metalloenzyme. Biochemistry 35, 12228-12234.
[0506] 91. Goulding, C. W., Matthews, R. G. (1997). Cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase from Escherichia coli: involvement of zinc in homocysteine activation. Biochemistry 36, 15749-57.
[0507] 92. Casey, P. J., Seabra, M. C. (1996). Protein prenyltransferases. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 5289-92.
[0508] 93. Fu, H. W., Moomaw, J. F., Moomaw, C. R., Casey, P. J. (1996). Identification of a cysteine residue essential for activity of protein farnesyltransferase. Cys299 is exposed only upon removal of zinc from the enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 28541-8.
[0509] 94. Fu, H. W., Beese, L. S., Casey, P. J. (1998). Kinetic analysis of zinc ligand mutants of mammalian protein farnesyltransferase. Biochemistry 37, 4465-72.
[0510] 95. Huang, C. C., Casey, P. J., Fierke, C. A. (1997). Evidence for a catalytic role of zinc in protein farnesyltransferase. Spectroscopy of Co2+-farnesyltransferase indicates metal coordination of the substrate thiolate. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 20-3.
[0511] 96. Myers, L. C., Terranova, M. P., Nash, H. M., Markus, M. A., Verdine, G. L. (1992). Zinc binding by the methylation signaling domain of the Escherichia coli Ada protein. Biochemistry 31, 4541-7.
[0512] 97. Myers, L. C., Terranova, M. P., Ferentz, A. E., Wagner, G., Verdine, G. L. (1993). Repair of DNA methylphosphotriesters through a metalloactivated cysteine nucleophile. Science 261, 1164-7.
[0513] 98. Matthews, R. G., Goulding, C. W. (1997). Enzyme-catalyzed methyl transfers to thiols: the role of zinc. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 1, 332-9.
[0514] 99. Hightower, K. E., Fierke, C. A. (1999). Zinc-catalyzed sulfur alkylation: insights from protein farnesyltransferase. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 3, 176-181.
[0515] 100. Bertini, I., Luchinat, C., Rosi, M., Sgamellotti, A., Tarantelli, F. (1990). pKa of zinc-bound water and nucleophilicity of hydroxo-containing species. Ab initio calculations on models for zinc enzymes. Inorg. Chem. 29, 1460-3.
[0516] 101. Saderholm, M. J., Hightower, K. E., Fierke, C. A. (2000). Role of Metals in the Reaction Catalyzed by Protein Farnesyltransferase. Biochemistry 39, 12398-12405.
[0517] 102. Hightower, K. E., Huang, C. C., Casey, P. J., Fierke, C. A. (1998). H-Ras peptide and protein substrates bind protein farnesyltransferase as an ionized thiolate. Biochemistry 37, 15555-62.
[0518] 103. Rozema, D. B., Poulter, C. D. (1999). Yeast protein farnesyltransferase. pKas of peptide substrates bound as zinc thiolates. Biochemistry 38, 13138-13146.
[0519] 104. Vallee, B. L., Auld, D. S. (1990). Active-site zinc ligands and activated water of zinc enzymes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 87, 220-4.
[0520] 105. Vallee, B. L., Auld, D. S. (1993). Zinc: biological functions and coordination motifs. Acc. Chem. Res. 26, 543-51.
[0521] 106. Bauer, H., Mayer, H., Marchler-Bauer, A., Salzer, U., Prohaska, R. (2000). Characterization of p40/GPR69A as a peripheral membrane protein related to the lantibiotic synthetase component C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 275, 69-74.
[0522] 107. Mayer, H., Bauer, H., Breuss, J., Ziegler, S., Prohaska, R. (2001). Characterization of rat LANCL1, a novel member of the lanthionine synthetase C-like protein family, highly expressed in testis and brain. Gene 269, 73-80.
[0523] 108. Mayer, H., Bauer, H., Prohaska, R. (2001). Organization and chromosomal localization of the human and mouse genes coding for LanC-like protein 1 (LANCL1). Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 93, 100-4.
[0524] 109. Mayer, H., Pongratz, M., Prohaska, R. (2001). Molecular cloning, characterization, and tissue-specific expression of human LANCL2, a novel member of the LanC-like protein family. DNA Seq. 12, 161-6.
[0525] 110. Park, S., James, C. D. (2003). Lanthionine synthetase components C-like 2 increases cellular sensitivity to adriamycin by decreasing the expression of P-glycoprotein through a transcription-mediated mechanism. Cancer Res 63, 723-7.
[0526] 111. Zhu, Y., Gieselman, M., Zhou, H., Averin, O., van der Donk, W. A. (2003). Biomimetic studies on the mechanism of stereoselective lanthionine formation. submitted.
[0527] 112. Xie, L., Chatterjee, C., Balsara, R., Okeley, N. M., van der Donk, W. A. (2002). Heterologous expression and purification of SpaB involved in subtilin biosynthesis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 295, 952-7.
[0528] 113. Rince, A., Dufour, A., Uguen, P., Le Pennec, J. P., Haras, D. (1997). Characterization of the lacticin 481 operon: the Lactococcus lactis genes IctF, IctE, and IctG encode a putative ABC transporter involved in bacteriocin immunity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 4252-60.
[0529] 114. Woodruff, W. A., Novak, J., Caufield, P. W. (1998). Sequence analysis of mutA and mutM genes involved in the biosynthesis of the lantibiotic mutacin II in Streptococcus mutans. Gene 206, 37-43.
[0530] 115. Dougherty, B. A., Hill, C., Weidman, J. F., Richardson, D. R., Venter, J. C., Ross, R. P. (1998). Sequence and analysis of the 60 kb conjugative, bacteriocin-producing plasmid pMRC01 from Lactococcus lactis DPC3147. Mol. Microbiol. 29, 1029-38.
[0531] 116. Kalmokoff, M. L., Lu, D., Whitford, M. F., Teather, R. M. (1999). Evidence for production of a new lantibiotic (butyrivibriocin OR79A) by the ruminal anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens OR79: characterization of the structural gene encoding butyrivibriocin OR79A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 2128-35.
[0532] 117. Navaratna, M. A., Sahl, H. G., Tagg, J. R. (1999). Identification of genes encoding two-component lantibiotic production in Staphylococcus aureus C55 and other phage group II S. aureus strains and demonstration of an association with the exfoliative toxin B gene. Infect. Immun. 67, 4268-71.
[0533] 118. McLaughlin, R. E., Ferretti, J. J., Hynes, W. L. (1999). Nucleotide sequence of the streptococcin A-FF22 lantibiotic regulon: model for production of the lantibiotic SA-FF22 by strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 175, 171-7.
[0534] 119. Uguen, P., Le Pennec, J. P., Dufour, A. (2000). Lantibiotic biosynthesis: interactions between prelacticin 481 and its putative modification enzyme, LctM. J. Bacteriol. 182, 5262-6.
[0535] 120. Altena, K., Guder, A., Cramer, C., Bierbaum, G. (2000). Biosynthesis of the lantibiotic mersacidin: organization of a type B lantibiotic gene cluster. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 2565-71.
[0536] 121. Siezen, R. J., Kuipers, O. P., de Vos, W. M. (1996). Comparison of lantibiotic gene clusters and encoded proteins. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 171-84.
[0537] 122. Skaugen, M., Abildgaard, C. I., Nes, I. F. (1997). Organization and expression of a gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of the lantibiotic lactocin S. Mol. Gen. Genet. 253, 674-86.
[0538] 123. Chen, P., Qi, F., Novak, J., Caufield, P. W. (1999). The specific genes for lantibiotic mutacin II biosynthesis in Streptococcus mutans T8 are clustered and can be transferred en bloc. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 1356-60.
[0539] 124. Ryan, M. P., Jack, R. W., Josten, M., Sahl, H. G., Jung, G., Ross, R. P., Hill, C. (1999). Extensive post-translational modification, including serine to D-alanine conversion, in the two-component lantibiotic, lacticin 3147. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 37544-50.
[0540] 125. Barber, M., Elliot, G. J., Bordoli, R. S., Green, B. N., Bycroft, B. W. (1988). Confirmation of the structure of nisin and its major degradation product by FAB-MS and FAB-MS/MS. Experientia 44, 266-70.
[0541] 126. Liptak, M., Vekey, K., van Dongen, W. D., Heerma, W. (1994). Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of some lantibiotics. Biol Mass Spectrom 23, 701-6.
[0542] 127. Koide, T., Itoh, H., Otaka, A., Yasui, H., Kuroda, M., Esaki, N., Soda, K., Fujii, N. (1993). Synthetic Study on Selenocystine-Containing Peptides. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 41, 502-506.
[0543] 128. Koide, T., Itoh, H., Otaka, A., Furuya, M., Kitajima, Y., Fujii, N. (1993). Syntheses and biological activities of selenium analogs of .alpha.-rat atrial natriuretic peptide. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 41, 1596-600.
[0544] 129. Moroder, L., Besse, D., Musiol, H.-J., Rudolph-Bohner, S., Siedler, F. (1996). Oxidative Folding of Cystine-Rich Peptides vs Regioselective Cysteine Pairing Strategies. Biopolymers 40, 207-234.
[0545] 130. Besse, D., Siedler, F., Diercks, T., Kessler, H., Moroder, L. (1997). The Redox Potential of Selenocystine in Unconstrained Cyclic Peptides. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 883-885.
[0546] 131. Fiori, S., Pegoraro, S., Rudolph-Bohner, S., Cramer, J., Moroder, L. (2000). Synthesis and conformational analysis of apamin analogues with natural and non-natural cystine/selenosystine connectivities. Biopolymers 53, 550-564.
[0547] 132. Dawson, P. E., Muir, T. W., Clark-Lewis, I., Kent, S. B. (1994). Synthesis of proteins by native chemical ligation. Science 266, 776-779.
[0548] 133. Dawson, P. E., Kent, S. B. H. (2000). Synthesis of native proteins by chemical ligation. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 69, 923-960.
[0549] 134. Gieselman, M. D., Zhu, Y., Zhou, H., Galonic, D., van der Donk, W. A. (2002). Selenocysteine Derivatives for Chemoselective Ligations. Chembiochem 3, 709-716.
[0550] 135. Muir, T. W., Sondhi, D., Cole, P. A. (1998). Expressed protein ligation: a general method for protein engineering. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95, 6705-10.
[0551] 136. Evans, T. C., Benner, J., Xu, M. Q. (1998). Semisynthesis of Cytotoxic Proteins Using a Modified Protein Splicing Element. Protein Sci. 7, 2256-2264.
[0552] 137. Shey, J., McGinley, C. M., McCauley, K. M., Dearth, A., Young, B., van der Donk, W. A. (2002). Mechanistic Investigation of a Novel Vitamin B12-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Forming Reaction. J. Org. Chem. 67, 837-846.
[0553] 138. Zhu, Y., van der Donk, W. A. (2001). Convergent Synthesis of Peptide Conjugates Using Dehydroalanines for Chemoslective Ligations. Org. Lett. 3, 1189-1192.
[0554] 139. Lemieux, G. A., Bertozzi, C. R. (1998). Chemoselective ligation reactions with proteins, oligosaccharides and cells. TIBTECH 16, 506-513.
[0555] 140. Horton, D., Wander, J. D. (1990). In Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry. (W. W. Pigman and D. Horton, Ed.), pp 799-842, Academic Press, New York.
[0556] 141. Milne, J. C., Eliot, A. C., Kelleher, N. L., Walsh, C. T. (1998). ATP/GTP hydrolysis is required for oxazole and thiazole biosynthesis in the peptide antibiotic microcin B17. Biochemistry 37, 13250-61.
[0557] 142. Meyer, C., Bierbaum, G., Heidrich, C., Reis, M., &fling, J., Iglesias-Wind, M. I., Kempter, C., Molitor, E., Sahl, H.-G. (1995). Nucleotide Sequence of the Lantibiotic Pep5 Biosynthetic Gene Cluster and Functional Analysis of PepP and PepC. Eur. J. Biochem. 232, 478-489.
[0558] 143. Rose, I. A., O′Connell, E. L., Litwin, S. (1974). Determination of the rate of hexokinase-glucose dissociation by the isotope-trapping method. J. Biol. Chem. 249, 5163-8.
[0559] 144. Wilkinson, K. D., Rose, I. A. (1979). Isotope trapping studies of yeast hexokinase during steady state catalysis. A combined rapid quench and isotope trapping technique. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 12567-72.
[0560] 145. Rose, I. A. (1980). The isotope trapping method: desorption rates of productive E. S complexes. Methods Enzymol. 64, 47-59.
[0561] 146. Radisky, E. S., Poulter, C. D. (2000). Squalene synthase: steady-state, pre-steady-state, and isotope-trapping studies. Biochemistry 39, 1748-60.
[0562] 147. Mathis, J. R., Back, K., Starks, C., Noel, J., Poulter, C. D., Chappell, J. (1997). Pre-steady-state study of recombinant sesquiterpene cyclases. Biochemistry 36, 8340-8.
[0563] 148. Mullins, L. S., Raushel, F. M. (1999). Channeling of ammonia through the intermolecular tunnel contained within carbamoyl phosphate synthetase. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 3803-3804.
[0564] 149. Caperelli, C. A., Frey, W. A., Benkovic, S. J. (1978). Isotope-tapping experiments with rabbit liver fructose bisphosphatase. Biochemistry 17, 1699-704.
[0565] 150. Raushel, F. M., Villafranca, J. J. (1979). Determination of rate-limiting steps of Escherichia coli carbamoyl-phosphate synthase. Rapid quench and isotope partitioning experiments. Biochemistry 18, 3424-9.
[0566] 151. Li, Y. M., Milne, J. C., Madison, L. L., Kolter, R., Walsh, C. T. (1996). From peptide precursors to oxazole and thiazole-containing peptide antibiotics: microcin B17 synthase. Science 274, 1188-93.
[0567] 152. Kelleher, N. L., Belshaw, P. J., Walsh, C. T. (1998). Regioselectivity and Chemoselectivity Analysis of Oxazole and Thiazole Ring Formation by the Peptide-Heterocyclizing Microcin B17 Synthetase Using High-Resolution MS/MS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 9716-9717.
[0568] 153. Kelleher, N. L., Hendrickson, C. L., Walsh, C. T. (1999). Posttranslational Heterocyclization of Cysteine and Serine Residues in the Antibiotic Microcin B17: Distributivity and Directionality. Biochemistry 38, 15623-15630.
[0569] 154. Roepstorff, P., Fohlman, J. (1984). Proposal for a common nomenclature for sequence ions in mass spectra of peptides. Biomed Mass Spectrom 11, 601.
[0570] 155. Krull, R. E., Chen, P., Novak, J., Kirk, M., Barnes, S., Baker, J., Krishna, N. R., Caufield, P. W. (2000). Biochemical structural analysis of the lantibiotic mutacin II. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 15845-50.
[0571] 156. Kleinnijenhuis, A. J., Duursma, M. C., Bereuking, E., Heeren, R. M. A., Heck, A. J. R. (2003). Localization of Intramolecular Monosulfide Bridges in Lantibiotics Determined with Electron Capture Induced Dissociation. Anal. Chem. asap.
[0572] 157. Marcille, F., Gomez, A., Joubert, P., Ladire, M., Veau, G., Clara, A., Gavini, F., Willems, A., Fons, M. (2002). Distribution of genes encoding the trypsin-dependent lantibiotic ruminococcin A among bacteria isolated from human fecal microbiota. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 3424-31.
[0573] 158. Hynes, W. L., Friend, V. L., Ferretti, J. J. (1994). Duplication of the lantibiotic structural gene in M-type 49 group A streptococcus strains producing streptococcin A-M49. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 4207-9.
[0574] 159. Hynes, W. L., Ferretti, J. J., Tagg, J. R. (1993). Cloning of the gene encoding Streptococcin A-FF22, a novel lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus pyogenes, and determination of its nucleotide sequence. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 1969-71.
[0575] 160. Madison, L. L., Vivas, E. I., Li, Y. M., Walsh, C. T., Kolter, R. (1997). The leader peptide is essential for the post-translational modification of the DNA-gyrase inhibitor microcin B17. Mol. Microbiol. 23, 161-8.
[0576] 161. Chen, P., Qi, F. X., Novak, J., Krull, R. E., Caufield, P. W. (2001). Effect of amino acid substitutions in conserved residues in the leader peptide on biosynthesis of the lantibiotic mutacin II. FEMS Microbiol Lett 195, 139-44.
[0577] 162. Nair, S. K., Elbaum, D., Christianson, D. W. (1996). Unexpected binding mode of the sulfonamide fluorophore 5-dimethylamino-1-naphthalene sulfonamide to human carbonic anhydrase II. Implications for the development of a zinc biosensor. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 1003-7.
[0578] 163. Nair, S. K., Krebs, J. F., Christianson, D. W., Fierke, C. A. (1995). Structural basis of inhibitor affinity to variants of human carbonic anhydrase II. Biochemistry 34, 3981-9.
[0579] 164. Nair, S. K., Christianson, D. W. (1993). Structural consequences of hydrophilic amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic pocket of human carbonic anhydrase II. Biochemistry 32, 4506-14.
[0580] 165. Nair, S. K., Christianson, D. W. (1993). Crystallographic studies of azide binding to human carbonic anhydrase II. Eur. J. Biochem. 213, 507-15.
[0581] 166. Nair, S. K., Christianson, D. W. (1991). Structural properties of human carbonic anhydrase II at pH 9.5. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 579-84.
[0582] 167. Nair, S. K., Calderone, T. L., Christianson, D. W., Fierke, C. A. (1991). Altering the mouth of a hydrophobic pocket. Structure and kinetics of human carbonic anhydrase II mutants at residue Val-121. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 17320-5.
[0583] 168. Jarrett, J. T., Choi, C. Y., Matthews, R. G. (1997). Changes in protonation associated with substrate binding and Cob(I) alamin formation in cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase. Biochemistry 36, 15739-48.
[0584] 169. Udwary, D. W., Merski, M., Townsend, C. A. (2002). A method for prediction of the locations of linker regions within large multifunctional proteins, and application to a type I polyketide synthase. J. Mol. Biol. 323, 585-98.
[0585] 170. Neis, S., Bierbaum, G., Josten, M., Pag, U., Kempter, C., Jung, G., SahI, H. G. (1997). Effect of leader peptide mutations on biosynthesis of the lantibiotic Pep5. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 149, 249-255.
[0586] 171. Havarstein, L. S., Holo, H., Nes, I. F. (1994). The leader peptide of colicin V shares consensus sequences with leader peptides that are common among peptide bacteriocins produced by gram-positive bacteria. Microbiology 140 (Pt 9), 2383-9.
[0587] 172. Havarstein, L. S., Diep, D. B., Nes, I. F. (1995). A family of bacteriocin ABC transporters carry out proteolytic processing of their substrates concomitant with export. Mol. Microbiol. 16, 229-40.
[0588] 173. Venema, K., Kok, J., Marugg, J. D., Toonen, M. Y., Ledeboer, A. M., Venema, G., Chikindas, M. L. (1995). Functional analysis of the pediocin operon of Pediococcusi acidilactici PAC1.0: PedB is the immunity protein and PedD is the precursor processing enzyme. Mol. Microbiol. 17, 515-22.
[0589] 174. Uguen, M., Uguen, P. (2002). The LcnC homologue cannot replace LctT in lacticin 481 export. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 208, 99-103.
[0590] 175. Bertini, I., Luchinat, C. (1984). High spin cobalt(II) as a probe for the investigation of metalloproteins. Adv. Inorg. Biochem. 6, 71-111.
[0591] 176. Maret, W., Vallee, B. L. (1993). Cobalt as probe and label of proteins. Methods Enzymol. 226, 52-71.
[0592] 177. Lane, R. W., Ibers, J. A., Frankel, R. B., Papaefthymiou, G. C., Holm, R. H. (1977). Synthetic analogs of the active sites of iron-sulfur proteins. 14. Synthesis, properties, and structures of bis(o-xylyl-.alpha.,.alpha.'-dithiolato)ferrate(II, III) anions, analogs of oxidized and reduced rubredoxin sites. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 84-98.
[0593] 178. May, S. W., Kuo, J. Y. (1978). Preparation and properties of cobalt(II) rubredoxin. Biochemistry 17, 3333-8.
[0594] 179. Guo, J., Giedroc, D. P. (1997). Zinc Site Redesign in T4 Gene 32 Protein: Structure and Stability of Co(II) Complexes Formed by Wild-Type and Metal Ligand Substitution Mutants. Biochemistry 36, 730-742.
[0595] 180. Roehm, P. C., Berg, J. M. (1998). Selectivity of Methylation of Metal-Bound Cysteinates and Its Consequences. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 13083-13087.
[0596] 181. Hunt, J. B., Neece, S. H., Schachman, H. K., Ginsburg, A. (1984). Mercurial-promoted Zn2+ release from Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 14793-803.
[0597] 182. Hunt, J. B., Neece, S. H., Ginsburg, A. (1985). The use of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol in studies of zinc release from Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase. Anal. Biochem. 146, 150-7.
[0598] 183. Giedroc, D. P., Keating, K. M., Williams, K. R., Konigsberg, W. H., Coleman, J. E. (1986). Gene 32 protein, the single-stranded DNA binding protein from bacteriophage T4, is a zinc metalloprotein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 83, 8452-6.
[0599] 184. Smith, D. J., Maggio, E. T., Kenyon, G. L. (1975). Simple alkanethiol groups for temporary blocking of sulfhydryl groups of enzymes. Biochemistry 14, 766-71.
[0600] 185. Kenyon, G. L., Bruice, T. W. (1977). Novel sulfhydryl reagents. Methods Enzymol. 47, 407-30.
[0601] 186. Qiu, H., Kodadek, T., Giedroc, D. P. (1994). Zinc-free and reduced T4 gene 32 protein binds single-stranded DNA weakly and fails to stimulate UvsX-catalyzed homologous pairing. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 2773-81.
[0602] 187. Zhou, Z. S., Peariso, K., Penner-Hahn, J. E., Matthews, R. G. (1999). Identification of the Zinc Ligands in Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE) from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 38, 15915-15926.
[0603] 188. Peariso, K., Goulding, C. W., Huang, S., Matthews, R. G., Penner-Hahn, J. E. (1998). Characterization of the Zinc Binding Site in Methionine Synthase Enzymes of Escherichia coli: The Role of Zinc in the Methylation of Homocysteine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 8410-8416.
[0604] 189. Peariso, K., Zhou, Z. S., Smith, A. E., Matthews, R. G., Penner-Hahn, J. E. (2001). Characterization of the Zinc Sites in Cobalamin-Independent and Cobalamin-Dependent Methionine Synthase Using Zinc and Selenium X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Biochemistry 40, 987-993.
[0605] 190. Cramer, S. P., Hille, R. (1985). Arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase—determination of the molybdenum-sulfur-arsenic geometry by EXAFS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 8164-9.
[0606] 191. Jameson, D. M., Sawyer, W. H. (1995). Fluorescence anisotropy applied to biomolecular interactions. Methods Enzymol. 246, 283.
[0607] 192. Haugland, R. P. (1996). Handbook of fluorescent probes and research chemicals. Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg.
[0608] 193. Datta, D., Wang, P., Carrico, I. S., Mayo, S. L., Tirrell, D. A. (2002). A designed phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase variant allows efficient in vivo incorporation of aryl ketone functionality into proteins. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 5652-3.
[0609] 194. McLafferty, F. W., Fridriksson, E. K., Horn, D. M., Lewis, M. A., Zubarev, R. A. (1999). Techview: biochemistry. Biomolecule mass spectrometry. Science 284, 1289-90.
[0610] 195. Kelleher, N. L. (2000). From primary structure to function: biological insights from large-molecule mass spectra. Chem. Biol. 7, R37-R45.
[0611] 196. Tagg, J. R., McGiven, A. R. (1971). Assay system for bacteriocins. Appl. Microbiol. 21, 943.
[0612] 197. Hirsch, A. (1950). The assay of the antibiotic nisin. J. Gen. Microbiol. 4, 70-83.
[0613] 198. Demel, R. A., Peelen, T., Siezen, R. J., De Kruijff, B., Kuipers, O. P. (1996). Nisin Z, mutant nisin Z and lacticin 481 interactions with anionic lipids correlate with antimicrobial activity. A monolayer study. Eur. J. Biochem. 235, 267-74.
[0614] 199. Chikindas, M. L., Novak, J., Driessen, A. J., Konings, W. N., Schilling, K. M., Caufield, P. W. (1995). Mutacin II, a bactericidal antibiotic from Streptococcus mutans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39, 2656-60.
[0615] 200. Belokon', Y. N., Sagyan, A. S., Djamgaryan, S. A., Bakhmutov, V. I., Vitt, S. V. (1990). General method for the asymmetric synthesis of anti-diastereomers of b-substituted L-2-aminobutanoic acids via chiral nickel(II) Schiff's Base complexes of dehydroaminobutanoic acid. X-ray crystal and molecular structure of the nickel(II) complex of the Schiff's base from [(benzylprolyl)amino]benzophenone and dehydroaminobutanoic acid. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 2301-2310.
[0616] 201. Baldwin, J. E., Adlington, R. M., Moss, N., Robinson, N. (1987). Penicillin biosynthesis: active site mapping with L-a-aminoadipoyl-C-methyl-L-cysteinyl)-D-valine variants. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1664-1667.
[0617] 202. Böck, A., Forchhammer, K., Heider, J., Baron, C. (1991). Selenoprotein synthesis: an expansion of the genetic code. Trends Biochem. Sci. 16, 463-7.
[0618] 203. Heider, J., Böck, A. (1993). Selenium metabolism in micro-organisms. Adv. Microb. Physiol. 35, 71-109.
[0619] 204. Tormay, P., Wilting, R., Heider, J., Böck, A. (1994). Genes coding for the selenocysteine-inserting tRNA species from Desulfomicrobium baculatum and Clostridium thermoaceticum: structural and evolutionary implications. J. Bacteriol. 176, 1268-74.
[0620] 205. Baron, C., Sturchler, C., Wu, X. Q., Gross, H. J., Krol, A., Böck, A. (1994). Eukaryotic selenocysteine inserting tRNA species support selenoprotein isynthesis in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 2228-33.
[0621] 206. Stadtman, T. C. (1991). Biosynthesis and function of selenocysteine-containing enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 16257-60.
[0622] 207. Stadtman, T. C. (1996). Selenocysteine. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 65, 83-100.
[0623] 208. Commans, S., Böck, A. (1999). Selenocysteine inserting tRNAs: an overview. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 23, 335-51.
[0624] 209. Nakajima, K., Oda, H., Okawa, K. (1983). Studies on 2-Aziridinecarboxylic acid. IX. Convenient synthesis of optically active S-alkylcysteine, threo-5-alkyl-b-methylcysteine, and lanthionine derivatives via the ring opening reaction of aziridine by several thiols. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 56, 520-522.
[0625] 210. Pansare, S. V., Vederas, J. C. (1989). Synthesis and reactivity of b-lactones derived from L-threonine and related amino acids. J. Org. Chem. 54, 2311-2316.
[0626] 211. Chen, P., Novak, J., Kirk, M., Barnes, S., Qi, F., Caufield, P. W. (1998). Structure-activity study of the lantibiotic mutacin II from Streptococcus mutans T8 by a gene replacement strategy. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 2335-40.
[0627] 212. Silverman, R. B., Abeles, R. H. (1977). Mechanism of inactivation of gamma-cystathionase by beta,beta,beta-trifluoroalanine. Biochemistry 16, 5515-20.
[0628] 213. Piettre, S., de Cock, C., Merenyi, R., Viehe, H. G. (1987). Synthesis of fluorinated vinylsulfides and selenides. Tetrahedron 43, 4309-4319.
[0629] 214. Purrington, S. T., Pittman, J. H. (1987). The preparation of a-fluorosulfoxides and vinyl fluorides. Tetrahedron Lett. 28, 3901-3904.
[0630] 215. Wang, E. A., Walsh, C. (1981). Characteristics of beta, beta-difluoroalanine and beta, beta, beta-trifluoroalanine as suicide substrates for Escherichia coli B alanine racemase. Biochemistry 20, 7539-46.
[0631] 216. Kukhar, V. (1994). Fluorine-containing amino acids. J. Fluor. Chem. 69, 199-205.
[0632] 217. Silverman, R. B., Abeles, R. H. (1976). Inactivation of pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes by mono- and polyhaloalanines. Biochemistry 15, 4718-23.
[0633] 218. Amone, A., Bravo, P., Capelli, S., Fronza, G., Meille, S. V., Zanda, M. (1996). New versatile fluorinated chiral building blocks: synthesis and reactivity of optically pure a-(fluoroalkyl)-b-sulfinylenamines. J. Org. Chem. 61, 3375-3387.
[0634] 219. Ayi, A., Guedj, R., Septe, B. (1995). Enzymatic hydrolysis of methyl 3,3-difluoro-2-amino esters. Synthesis of D- and L-3,3-difluoro-2-amino acids and their derivatives. J. Fluor. Chem. 73, 165-169.
[0635] 220. Yamazaki, T., Haga, J., Kitazume, T. (1991). Preparation and evaluation of optically active 4,4-difluorothreonine as a potent novel antitumor material. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1, 271-276.
[0636] 221. Kitazume, T., Lin, J. T., Yamazaki, T. (1991). Stereocontrolled synthesis of 4,4,4-trifluorothreonine. Tetrahedron Asym. 2, 235-238.
[0637] 222. Soloshonok, V. A. (1996). Practical synthesis of enantiopure fluoroamino acids of biological interest by asymmetric aldol reactions. ACS Symp. Ser. 639, 26-41.
[0638] 223. Kollonitsch, J., Perkins, L. M., Patchett, A. A., Doldouras, G. A., Marburg, S., Duggan, D. E., Maycock, A. L., Aster, S. D. (1978). Selective inhibitors of biosynthesis of aminergic neurotransmitters. Nature 274, 906-8.
[0639] 224. Wang, E., Walsh, C. (1978). Suicide substrates for the alanine racemase of Escherichia coli B. Biochemistry 17, 1313-21.
[0640] 225. Wang, E. A., Kallen, R., Walsh, C. (1981). Mechanism-based inactivation of serine transhydroxymethylases by D-fluoroalanine and related amino acids. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 6917-26.
[0641] 226. Walsh, C. (1982). Suicide substrates: mechanism based enzyme inactivators. Tetrahedron 38, 871-909.
[0642] 227. Duthaler, R. O. (1994). Recent developments in the stereoselective synthesis of α-amino acids. Tetrahedron 50, 1539-1650.
[0643] 228. Tellier, F., Sauvetre, R. (1991). Introduction stereoselective du groupement trifluoromethyle dans des systemes insatures. Tetrahedron Lett. 32, 5963-5964.
[0644] 229. Mitra, A. K., Ostashevsky, I., Brewer, C. F. (1983). Synthesis and 19F spectra of tetra-L-alanine analogs containing selectively incorporated 3-fluoro-L-alanine residues. Int. J. Peptide Prot. Res. 22, 494-501.
[0645] 230. Imperiali, B. (1988). Synthetic fluoropeptides as pharmacologically useful compounds. Adv. Biotechnol. Processes 10, 97-129.
[0646] 231. Höss, E., Rudolph, M., Seymour, L., Schierlinger, C., Burger, K. (1993). Peptide modification by incorporation of a-trifluoromethyl α-amino acids via trifluoromethyl-substituted acylimines. J. Fluor. Chem. 61, 163-170.
[0647] 232. Koksch, B., Sewald, N., Jakubke, H.-D., Burger, K. (1996). Synthesis and incorporation of a-trifluoromethyl-substituted amino acids into peptides. ACS Symp. Ser. 639, 42-58.
[0648] 233. Koksch, B., Sewald, N., Hofmann, H. J., Burger, K., Jakubke, H. D. (1997). Proteolytically stable peptides by incorporation of alpha-Tfm amino acids. J. Pept. Sci. 3, 157-67.
[0649] 234. Lam, K. S., Salmon, S. E., Hersh, E. M., Hruby, V. J., Kazmierski, W. M., Knapp, R. J. (1991). A new type of synthetic peptide library for identifying ligand-binding activity. Nature 354, 82-4.
[0650] 235. Houghten, R. A., Pinilla, C., Blondelle, S. E., Appel, J. R., Dooley, C. T., Cuervo, J. H. (1991). Generation and use of synthetic peptide combinatorial libraries for basic research and drug discovery. Nature 354, 84-6.
[0651] 236. Canne, L. E., Botti, P., Simon, R. J., Chen, Y. J., Dennis, E. A., Kent, S. B. H. (1999). Chemical protein synthesis by solid phase ligation of unprotected peptide segments. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 8720-8727.
[0652] 237. Brik, A., Keinan, E., Dawson, P. E. (2000). Protein synthesis by solid-phase chemical ligation using a safety catch linker. J. Org. Chem. 65, 3829-3835.
[0653] 238. Ayers, B., Blaschke, U. K., Camarero, J. A., Cotton, G. J., Holford, M., Muir, T. W. (1999). Introduction of unnatural amino acids into proteins using expressed protein ligation. Biopolymers 51, 343-354.
[0654] 239. Burkoth, T. S., Fafarman, A. T., Charych, D. H., Connolly, M. D., Zuckermann, R. N. (2003). Incorporation of Unprotected Heterocyclic Side Chains into Peptoid Oligomers via Solid-Phase Submonomer Synthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, asap.
[0655] 240. Shey, J., van der Donk, W. A. (2000). Mechanistic Studies on the Vitamin B12-Catalyzed Dechlorination of Chlorinated Alkenes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12403-12404.
[0656] 241. Peng, S., Okeley, N. M., Tsai, A.-L., Wu, G., Kulmacz, R. J., van der Donk, W. A. (2001). Structural Characterization of a Pentadienyl Radical Intermediate Formed during Catalysis by Prostaglandin synthase-2. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 3609-3610.
[0657] 242. Peng, S., Okeley, N. M., Tsai, A.-L., Wu, G., Kulmacz, R. J., van der Donk, W. A. (2002). Synthesis of Isotopically Labeled Arachidonic Acids to Probe the Reaction Mechanism of Prostaglandin H Synthase. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10785-10796.
[0658] 243. Peng, S., van der Donk, W. A. (2003). An Unusual Isotope Effect on Substrate Inhibition in the Oxidation of Arachidonic Acid by Lipoxygenase. J. Am. Chem. Soc. in press.
[0659] 244. Vrtis, J. M., White, A., Metcalf, W. W., van der Donk, W. A. (2001). Phosphite Dehydrogenase: An unusual Phosphoryl Transfer Reaction. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 2672-2673.
[0660] 245. Vrtis, J. M., White, A., Metcalf, W. W., van der Donk, W. A. (2002). Phosphite Dehydrogenase, a New Versatile Cofactor Regeneration Enzyme. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 41, 3257-3259.

Example 12

Modification of Leader Sequence can Result in Dehydration And Cyclization

[0661] In this example, a peptide is appended to the leader portion of a precursor peptide. The following substrate is utilized:
[0662] GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGAKGGCGVIHTISHE (CVISHEA) (SEQ ID NO:45). This substrate undergoes three dehydrations. The nucleotide sequence until the parentheses is the same as the sequence provided for LctA1-37. The sequence within the parentheses is added by ligating a chemically prepared peptide. The sequence of this peptide and the location of the last Ser in the peptide is unrelated to currently known lantibiotics, yet this Ser is dehydrated. The next example shows an even more dramatic result.
[0663] The following substrate is utilized:
[0664] GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGAKGGCGVIHTISHE (CVISHIS HISHA) (SEQ ID NO:46). This substrate undergoes five dehydrations. Two dehydrations occur in the region that is derived from lacticin (underlined); three more dehydrations occur in the entirely unrelated peptide that is in parentheses.

Example 13

Use of Lacticin 481 to Effect Modification of Non-Native Substrates

[0665] In this example, a given modifying enzyme is used to achieve modification of one or more non-native substrate; in particular, lacticin 481 is used to effect modification of various substrates including mutacin II, Ruminococcin A, and derivatives thereof. The amino acid sequences of the substrates and their nucleotide sequences are shown below. The names of the lantibiotics are mutacin II and Ruminococcin A.
[0666] The following nomenclature is used below: LctYyyA means Lct is the leader of lacticin 481, and YyyA is the structural peptide for mutacin II or Ruminococcin A. The first part (a) of each sequence is the His-tag that comes from the plasmid, (b) is the LctA leader, and (c) is the structural region from the other lantibiotic.
[0667] For LctMutA, the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:47) is:
[0668] 
[00002] [TABLE-US-00002]
    (a) GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMLE;  
   
    (b) MKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGA;
    and
   
    (c) NRWWQGVVPTVSYECRMNSWQHVFTCC.
[0669] The nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:48) is
[0670] 
[00003] [TABLE-US-00003]
  (a) ATGGGCAGCAGCCATCATCATCATCATCACAGCAGCGGCCTGGTGC  
  CGCGCGGCAGCCATATGCTCGAG;
 
  (b) atgaaagaac aaaactcttt taatcttctt caagaagtga
  cagaaagtga;
  and
 
  (c) attggacctt attttaggtg caaatcgttg gtggcaaggt
  gttgtgccaa cggtctcata tgagtgtcgc atgaattcat
  ggcaacatgt tttcacttgc tgttaa
[0671] We observe the expected 4 dehydrations of LctMutA, and the protease domain of LctT can remove the leader peptide and the His-tag.
[0672] For LctRumA, the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:49) is:
[0673] 
[00004] [TABLE-US-00004]
    (a) GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMLE;  
   
    (b) MKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGA;
    and
   
    (c) GNGVLKTISHECNMNTWQFLFTCC.
[0674] The nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:50) is:
[0675] 
[00005] [TABLE-US-00005]
  (a) ATGGGCAGCAGCCATCATCATCATCATCACAGCAGCGGCCTGGTGC  
  CGCGCGGCAGCCATATGCTCGAG;
 
  (b) atgaaagaac aaaactcttt taatcttctt caagaagtga
  cagaaagtga;
  and
 
  (c) attggacctt attttaggtg caGGTAATGG TGTTCTTAAA
  ACTATTTCTC ATGAATGTAA TATGAATACT TGGCAATTTC
  TTTTTACTTG TTGTTAA
[0676] We observed the expected 4 dehydrations of LctRumA.
[0677] The substrate MutA was investigated to determine whether LctM requires the Lct leader sequence. For MutA, the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:51) is:
[0678] 
[00006] [TABLE-US-00006]
    (a) GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMLE;  
   
    (b) MNKLNSNAWSLNEVSDSELDTILGG;
    and
   
    (c) NRWWQGWPTVSYECRMNSWQHVFTCC.
[0679] The nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:52) is
[0680] 
[00007] [TABLE-US-00007]
  (a) ATGGGCAGCAGCCATCATCATCATCATCACAGCAGCGGCCTGGTGC  
  CGCGCGGCAGCCATATGCTCGAGatg;
 
  (b) aa caagttaaac agtaacgcag tagtttcttt gaatgaagtt
  tcagattctg aattggatac tattttgggt ggtaatcgtt
  ggtggcaagg tgttgtgcca acggtctcat atgagtgtcg
  catgaattca tggcaacatg ttttcacttg ctgttaa
[0681] We observed 4 dehydrations for substrate MutA. Therefore the Lct leader sequence is not always necessary to achieve modification in vitro.
[0682] The substrate LctMutAK was investigated. For LctMutAK, the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:53) is (a)
[0683] 
[00008] [TABLE-US-00008]
    (a) GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMLE;  
   
    (b) MKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGA;
    and
   
    (c) KNRWWQGWPTVSYECRMNSWQHVFTCC
[0684] The nucleotide sequence (SEQ ID NO:54) is
[0685] 
[00009] [TABLE-US-00009]
  (a) ATGGGCAGCAGCCATCATCATCATCATCACAGCAGCGGCCTGGTGC  
  CGCGCGGCAGCCATATGCTCGAG;
 
  (b) atgaaagaac aaaactcttt taatcttctt caagaagtga
  cagaaagtga;
  and
 
  (c) attggacctt attttaggtg caaagaatcgttg gtggcaaggt
  gttgtgccaa cggtctcata tgagtgtcgc atgaattcat
  ggcaacatgt tttcacttgc tgttaa
[0686] We observe 4 dehydrations; here we installed a Lys at the beginning of the MutA structural region which allows us to remove the leader and the His tag using the commercially available protease LysC.

Example 14

Variations of Lacticin Substrates

[0687] Certain mutants or substitutions of the lacticin substrate are generated and tested. For example, homocysteine or selenocysteine is used in place of cysteine; the resulting substrate undergoes dehydration, cyclization, or dehydration and cyclization.
[0688] SEQ ID NO:55, GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGAKGGSGVIHTISHECN (NIe)NSA, undergoes complete dehydration (-3H2O) and cyclization.
[0689] The following three substrates (SEQ ID NO:56, SEQ ID NO:57, and SEQ ID NO:58) undergo two dehydrations as expected as well as one cyclization.
[0690] 
[00010] [TABLE-US-00010]
  SEQ ID NO:56  
  GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGAKGGSGVI  
  HTISHE(L-Homocysteine);
[0691] 
[00011] [TABLE-US-00011]
  SEQ ID NO:57  
  GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGAKGGSGVI  
  HTISHE(D-Homocysteine);
[0692] 
[00012] [TABLE-US-00012]
  SEQ ID NO:58  
  GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGAKGGSGVI  
  HTISHE (Beta-3-L-cysteine);
[0693] SEQ ID NO:59 undergoes all three expected dehydrations. S(PO4) refers to a Ser residue that we have phosphorylated chemically.
[0694] 
[00013] [TABLE-US-00013]
  SEQ ID NO:59  
  GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGAKGGSGVI  
  HTISHECNMNS(PO4)A.;
[0695] SEQ ID NO:60 undergoes the 2 expected dehydrations.
[0696] 
[00014] [TABLE-US-00014]
  SEQ ID NO:60  
  GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGAKGGCGVI  
  HT(PO4)ISHEA.;
[0697] The following site-directed mutants have also been generated:
[0698] 
[00015] [TABLE-US-00015]
  SEQ ID NO:61  
  GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILG(A24D)KG  
  GSGVIHTISHECNMNSWQFVFTCCS;
[0699] 
[00016] [TABLE-US-00016]
  SEQ ID NO:62  
  GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLIL(G23V)AKG  
  GSGVIHTISHECNMNSWQFVFTCCS;
[0700] 
[00017] [TABLE-US-00017]
  SEQ ID NO:63  
  GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELD(L20Q)ILGAKG  
  GSGVIHTISECNMNSWQFVFTCCS;
[0701] 
[00018] [TABLE-US-00018]
  SEQ ID NO:64  
  GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESE(L18E)DLILGAKG  
  GSGVIHTISHECNMNSWQFVFTCCS;
[0702] 
[00019] [TABLE-US-00019]
  SEQ ID NO:65  
    GSSHHHHHHSSGLVPRGSHMKEQNSFNLLQEVTESELDLILGAKGG  
    (S28C)GVIHTISHECNMNSWQFVFTCCS
[0703] 
[00020] [TABLE-US-00020]
  TABLE 2
 
  Sequence Listing Information.
  SEQ ID NO:   Brief Description   Type
 
  1   Lan protease recognition sequence   PRT
  2   Lan protease recognition sequence   PRT
  3   prepeptide LctA   PRT
  4   His6-LctA   PRT
  5   His6-LctA (5-51)   PRT
  6   His6-LctA(10-51)   PRT
  7   His6-LctA (25-51)   PRT
  8   His6-LctA (1-37)   PRT
  9   His6-LctA (1-38)   PRT
  10   His6-LctA (1-38) C38U (alias C38Sec)   PRT
  11   His6-LctA-T48S   PRT
  12   His6-LctA-C49S   PRT
  13   His6-LctA-C49A   PRT
  14   PCR primer for lctM   DNA
  15   PCR primer for lctM   DNA
  16   PCR primer for lctA   DNA
  17   PCR primer for lctA   DNA
  18   lctM triple mutant A458G/A556G/A815G   DNA
  19   LctM triple mutant Lys153Arg, Ser186Gly, and   PRT
    Asp272Gly; translated from above
  20   MrsM   PRT
  21   MutM   PRT
  22   CinM   PRT
  23   ScnM   PRT
  24   RumM   PRT
  25   LtnM1   PRT
  26   LtnM2   PRT
  27   NukM   PRT
  28   lctT protease   DNA
  29   LctT protease   PRT
  30   PCR primer for Lpd/lctT   DNA
  31   PCR primer for Lpd/lctT   DNA
  32   LctA recognition sequence   PRT
  33   RumA recognition sequence   PRT
  34   VarA recognition sequence   PRT
  35   ScnA recognition sequence   PRT
  36   ScnA recognition sequence   PRT
  37   MutA recognition sequence   PRT
  38   lctM gene, gtg start codon   DNA
  39   lctM gene, atg start codon   DNA
  40   LctM   PRT
  41   His tag at the N-terminus; bases from pET28 in   DNA
    His-LctM protein
  42   His tag at the N-terminus   PRT
  43   Bases from pET15b in His-LctA peptide   DNA
  44   lctA gene   DNA
  45   Appending peptide to the leader; dehydration   PRT
  46   Appending peptide to the leader; multiple   PRT
    dehydrations
  47   LctMutA   PRT
  48   LctMutA   DNA
  49   LctRumA   PRT
  50   LctRumA   DNA
  51   MutA   PRT
  52   MutA   DNA
  53   LctMutAK   PRT
  54   LctMutAK   DNA
  55   lacticin substrate variant   PRT
  56   lacticin substrate variant   PRT
  57   lacticin substrate variant   PRT
  58   lacticin substrate variant   PRT
  59   lacticin substrate variant   PRT
  60   lacticin substrate variant   PRT
  61   site-directed mutant   PRT
  62   site-directed mutant   PRT
  63   site-directed mutant   PRT
  64   site-directed mutant   PRT
  65   site-directed mutant   PRT
  66   LctM triple mutant   PRT
  67   SpaS   PRT
  68   SpaC   PRT
  69   NisC   PRT
  70   PepC   PRT
  71   EpiC   PRT
  72   CylM   PRT
  73   VarA   PRT
  74   RumA   PRT
  75   ScnA   PRT
  76   ScnA″   PRT
  77   ComA   PRT
  78   LcnC   PRT
  79   PedD   PRT
  80   CvaB   PRT
  81   nisin, NisA   PRT
  82   subtilin, SpaB   PRT
  83   His6-LctA-T48A   PRT
  84   His6-LctA-C50A   PRT
  85   primer1 His6-LctA(5-51)   DNA
  86   primer2 His6-LctA(5-51)   DNA
  87   primer1 His6-LctA(10-51)   DNA
  88   primer2 His6-LctA(10-51)   DNA
  89   primer1 His6-LctA(25-51)   DNA
  90   primer2 His6-LctA(25-51)   DNA
  91   primer1 His6-LctA(1-37)   DNA
  92   primer2 His6-LctA(1-37)   DNA
  93   primer1 His6-LctA-T48S   DNA
  94   primer2 His6-LctA-T48S   DNA
  95   primer1 His6-LctA-T48A   DNA
  96   primer2 His6-LctA-T48A   DNA
  97   primer1 His6-LctA-C49A   DNA
  98   primer2 His6-LctA-C49A   DNA
  99   primer1 His6-LctA-C49S   DNA
  100   primer2 His6-LctA-C49S   DNA
  101   mrsM   DNA
  102   mutM   DNA
  103   cinM   DNA
  104   scnM   DNA
  105   rumM   DNA
  106   lctnM1 and LctnM2   DNA
  107   spaB   DNA
  108   nisB   DNA
  109   nukM   DNA
 

STATEMENTS REGARDING INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE AND VARIATIONS

[0704] Compounds and methods relevant to the invention can involve prodrugs. For example, prodrugs of compounds are useful in the methods of this invention. Any compound that will be converted in vivo to provide a biologically, pharmaceutically or therapeutically active form of a compound of the invention can be a prodrug. Various examples and forms of prodrugs are well known in the art. Examples of prodrugs are found, inter alia, in Design of Prodrugs, edited by H. Bundgaard, (Elsevier, 1985), Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 42, at pp. 309-396, edited by K. Widder, et. al. (Academic Press, 1985); A Textbook of Drug Design and Development, edited by Krosgaard-Larsen and H. Bundgaard, Chapter 5, “Design and Application of Prodrugs,” by H. Bundgaard, at pp. 113-191, 1991); H. Bundgaard, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Vol. 8, p. 1-38 (1992); H. Bundgaard, et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 77, p. 285 (1988); and Nogrady (1985) Medicinal Chemistry A Biochemical Approach, Oxford University Press, New York, pages 388-392).
[0705] All references throughout this application, for example patent documents including issued or granted patents or equivalents; patent application publications; and non-patent literature documents or other source material; are hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entireties, as though individually incorporated by reference, to the extent each reference is at least partially not inconsistent with the disclosure in this application (for example, a reference that is partially inconsistent is incorporated by reference except for the partially inconsistent portion of the reference).
[0706] Any appendix or appendices hereto are incorporated by reference as part of the specification and/or drawings.
[0707] Where the terms “comprise”, “comprises”, “comprised”, or “comprising” are used herein, they are to be interpreted as specifying the presence of the stated features, integers, steps, or components referred to, but not to preclude the presence or addition of one or more other feature, integer, step, component, or group thereof.
[0708] The invention has been described with reference to various specific and preferred embodiments and techniques. However, it should be understood that many variations and modifications may be made while remaining within the spirit and scope of the invention. It will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art that compositions, methods, devices, device elements, materials, procedures and techniques other than those specifically described herein can be applied to the practice of the invention as broadly disclosed herein without resort to undue experimentation. All art-known functional equivalents of compositions, methods, devices, device elements, materials, procedures and techniques described herein are intended to be encompassed by this invention. Whenever a range is disclosed, all subranges and individual values are intended to be encompassed. This invention is not to be limited by the embodiments disclosed, including any shown in the drawings or exemplified in the specification, which are given by way of example or illustration and not of limitation.

REFERENCES

[0709] 1. Okeley, N. M.; Zhu, Y.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2000, 2, 3603-3606. “Facile Chemoselective Synthesis of Dehydroalanine-Containing Peptides”.
[0710] 2. Okeley, N. M.; van der Donk, W. A. Chem. & Biol. 2000, 7, R159-R171. “Novel Cofactors via Post-translational Modifications of Enzyme Active Sites”.
[0711] 3. Zhou, H.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 593-596. “Synthesis of 2-Amino-3-fluoro-acrylic Acid Containing Peptides”.
[0712] 4. Zhu, Y.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 1189-1192. “Convergent Synthesis of Peptide Conjugates Using Dehydroalanines for Chemoselective Ligations”.
[0713] 5. Xie, L.; van der Donk, W. A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2001, 98, 12863-12865. “Homemade cofactors: self-processing in galactose oxidase”.
[0714] 6. Gieselman, M. D.; Xie, L.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 1331-1334. “Synthesis of a Selenocysteine-Containing Peptide by Native Chemical Ligation”.
[0715] 7. Gieselman, M. D.; Zhu, Y.; Zhou, H.; Galonic, D.; van der Donk, W. A. ChemBioChem 2002, 3, 709-716. “Selenocysteine Derivatives for Chemoselective Ligations”.
[0716] 8. Berry, S.; Gieselman, M.; Nilges, M. J.; van der Donk, W. A.; Lu, Y. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 2084-2085. “An Engineered Azurin Variant Containing a Selenocysteine Copper Ligand”.
[0717] 9. Xie, L.; Chatterjee, C.; Balsara, R.; Okeley, N. M.; van der Donk, W. A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002, 295, 952-7. “Heterologous expression and purification of SpaB involved in subtilin biosynthesis”.
[0718] 10. Zhou, H.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 1335-1338. “Biomimetic Stereoselective Formation of Methyllanthionine”.
[0719] 11. Galonic, D.; van der Donk, W. A.; Gin, D. Y. Chem.-Eur. J. 2003, 24, 5997-6006. “Oligosaccharide-Peptide Ligation of Glycosyl Thiolates with Dehydropeptides. Synthesis of S-Linked Mucin Glycopeptide Conjugates”.
[0720] 12. Zhou, H.; Schmidt, D. M.; Gerlt, J. A.; van der Donk, W. A. ChemBioChem, 2003, 1206-1215 “Chemical and Enzymatic Synthesis of Fluorinated Dehydroalanine-Containing Peptides”.
[0721] 13. Zhu, Y.; Gieselman, M.; Zhou, H.; Okeley, N. M.; Averin, O.; van der Donk, W. A. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2003, 1, 3304-3315. “Biomimetic studies on the mechanism of stereoselective lanthionine formation”.
[0722] 14. Okeley, N. M.; Paul, M.; Stasser, J. P. Blackburn, N.; van der Donk, W. A., Biochemistry, 2003, 42, 13613-13624. “SpaC and NisC, the Cyclases Involved in Subtilin and Nisin Biosynthesis, are Zinc Proteins”.
[0723] Gomez et al., 2002. J Bacteriol 184(1):18-28.
[0724] Aso et al., on PubMed; Characterization of the gene cluster of Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1 encoding biosynthesis and immunity of the lantibiotic, Nukacin ISK-1.
[0725] Xie, L.; Miller, L.; Chatterjee, C.; Averin, O.; Kelleher, N. L.; *van der Donk, W. A.* “Lacticin 481: in vitro reconstitution of lantibiotic synthetase activity” Science, 2004, 303, 679-681.
(57)

Claims

1. A method of modifying a lantibiotic precursor peptide by dehydration or dehydration and cyclization, comprising:
(a) providing said lantibiotic precursor peptide;
(b) providing a purified LctM enzyme capable of catalyzing dehydration and cyclization of the lantibiotic precursor peptide, wherein said LctM enzyme has at least 95% sequence identity to SEQ ID NO:40 and enzymatic activity of dehydration or dehydration and cyclization of the lantibiotic precursor peptide of SEQ ID NO:3; and
(c) incubating a reaction mixture comprising a divalent metal cation, ATP, said lantibiotic precursor peptide of (a) and said LctM enzyme; thereby modifying said lantibiotic precursor peptide by dehydration or dehydration and cyclization.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the lantibiotic precursor peptide comprises at least one non-proteinogenic amino acid, unnatural amino acid, beta amino acid, peptoid, or derivatized amino acid.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the reaction mixture further comprises magnesium.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the reaction mixture further comprises magnesium and zinc.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the reaction mixture further comprises magnesium, zinc, and DTT.
6. A method of generating a biologically active lantibiotic compound, comprising:
(a) incubating a reaction mixture comprising a divalent metal ion, ATP, a lantibiotic precursor peptide and a purified LctM enzyme having at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO:40 and enzymatic activity of dehydration or dehydration and cyclization of the lantibiotic precursor peptide of SEQ ID NO: 3; and
(b) cleaving a leader portion of the lantibiotic precursor peptide; thereby generating said biologically active lantibiotic compound.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein said divalent metal cation is zinc or magnesium.
8. A method of modifying a lantibiotic precursor peptide by dehydration or dehydration and cyclization, comprising:
(a) providing said lantibiotic precursor peptide;
(b) providing a purified LctM enzyme capable of catalyzing dehydration and cyclization of the lantibiotic precursor peptide, wherein said LctM enzyme comprises the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO:40; and
(c) incubating a reaction mixture comprising a divalent metal cation, ATP, said lantibiotic precursor peptide of (a) and said LctM enzyme; thereby modifying said lantibiotic precursor peptide by dehydration or dehydration and cyclization.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein said LctM enzyme consists of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:40.
10. The method of claim 9 wherein said divalent metal cation is zinc or magnesium.
11. The method of claim 9 wherein the reaction mixture further comprises DTT.
12. The method of claim 9, wherein the reaction mixture further comprises DTT.
13. A method of generating a biologically active lantibiotic compound, comprising:
(a) incubating a reaction mixture comprising a divalent metal ion, ATP, a lantibiotic precursor peptide and a purified LctM enzyme comprising the amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 40; and
(b) cleaving a leader portion of the lantibiotic precursor peptide; thereby generating said biologically active lantibiotic compound.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein said LctM enzyme consists of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:40.
15. The method of claim 13, wherein the lantibiotic precursor peptide comprises at least one non-proteinogenic amino acid, unnatural amino acid, beta amino acid, peptoid, or derivatized amino acid.
16. The method of claim 13, wherein said divalent metal cation is zinc or magnesium.
17. The method of claim 13, wherein said reaction mixture further comprises DTT.
18. The method of claim 9, wherein the lantibiotic precursor peptide comprises at least one non-proteinogenic amino acid, unnatural amino acid, beta amino acid, peptoid, or derivatized amino acid.
*****

Download Citation


Sign in to the Lens

Feedback