USE OF COENZYME Q10 FOR IMPROVED EFFECTIVENESS OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND PRODUCTION OF ANIMAL TISSUES WITH AN INCREASED CONTENT OF THE SAID COENZYME

This invention relates to a novel use of coenzyme Q10 in animal husbandry as additive or supplement to animal feed/fodder or animal beverages, and to the enrichment of animal tissues, especially meat with coenzyme Q10. A further object of this invention is animal tissue enriched with coenzyme Q10. Animal tissues within the scope of this invention are in addition to all types of meat, bones, skins and the like, also poultry eggs and the milk of dairy animals.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQIO) is a lipophylic, water-insoluble substance that is indispensable for the functioning of the human organism, since it is involved as coenzyme in numerous metabolic processes; it is involved in processes of cell energy formation. It has been known, that the CoQIO quantity in human tissues is proportional to the activity of each tissue. Thus, the highest concentrations were observed in the heart muscle. CoQIO deficiency results in impaired vitality, resistance and the like. On the contrary, sufficient CoQIO quantities improve vitality and resistance, enhance the treatment of various diseases, and alleviate various health troubles.

Man ensures sufficient amounts of CoQIO in the organism by synthesis, and from the food. The synthesis of endogenous CoQIO, however, is reduced by age or by other causes, for example by some medicines. For this reason, the intake of CoQIO by means of conventional food is no longer sufficient. The preservation of the CoQIO level in the organism requires the consumption of increased quantities of CoQIO usually about 20-50 mg, in some cases even 100 mg or more daily. For this purpose, there is a widespread administration of CoQIO in the form of food additives, especially in the form of capsules, since conventional food is not sufficient. Namely, the CoQIO content in the food is relatively low (some mg/kg), it is higher (approx. 10-40mg/kg) only in foodstuffs, containing more fats. That is, however, not desirable for health reasons. Such foodstuffs often contain more cholesterol, which has further deleterious health effects.

With the aim to ensure the consumption of required CoQIO quantities in the food, several different technologies and special CoQIO formulations have been recently developed, to enable the addition of CoQIO to foodstuffs, especially foodstuffs of a low fat content. Within this meaning are of special importance various water-soluble CoQ 10 formulations, for example based on solubilization with beta-cyclodextrin (Prosek et al., SI patent 21783, WO 2005/111224 A2), micro-capsules and nano- capsules and the like. In this manner, however, only processed foodstuffs can be enriched, namely food/feed products that are supplemented with CoQIO in a suitable form, or in a suitable manner during processing. Thus, several food/feed products are already present on the market that are enriched by CoQIO, and substitute CoQIO in the form of food/feed supplements. Such an approach is, however, not appropriate for the enrichment of primary, namely unprocessed and basic foodstuffs respectively, for example meat, vegetables, and fruit. Meat represents a special problem. Although it is an important CoQIO source in alimentation, it also contains significant quantities of fats and cholesterol that are undesirable in health food. For example, 1 kg of chicken meat contains about 6-25 mg of CoQ10/kg, and about 10- 100 g of fats, as well as up to 600 mg of cholesterol/kg; 1 kg of pork or beef contains about 20-35 mg of CoQ10/kg, and about 15-350 g of fats, as well as up to 600-800 mg of cholesterol per kg of meat. It is evident that the CoQIO quantity in the meat is correlated with the quantity of fats and cholesterol. Accordingly, the replenishment of the CoQIO deficiency by consumption of increased quantities of fatter meat that contains a higher amount of CoQIO, is neither a sufficient nor an adequate solution.

Accordingly, meat contains significant CoQIO amounts that are, however, not sufficient to ensure the consumption of sufficient CoQIO with normal meat quantities. This is valid for rather lean meat types or parts, comprising minor amounts of fat, for example chicken meat, especially chicken breasts, containing about 6-10 mg of CoQ10/kg. In addition, fats and cholesterol render the meat less suitable for healthy alimentation. The problem of excess fats and cholesterol contents (and consequently, the inadequate ratio with respect to CoQIO) in meat and in meat products has been solved in various ways, such as elimination of fat from meat by trimming, extraction, and admixing of the products by components other than meat and the like. These solutions are problematic in view of profitability, technical feasibility, influence on sensorial characteristics of the products, and the like. Especially exacting are methods for elimination of cholesterol, which is present in fatty tissues as well as in muscle tissues. Therefore there is a continuous need for the enrichment of meat intended for human and animal consumption by CoQIO in a simple, natural and economical way. Besides, there has been a continuous need for reducing the amounts of fats and cholesterol and the improvement of the ratio of CoQIO to fats and cholesterol, respectively, in meats and meat products in a simple, economical, and natural way.

In animal husbandry there is a continuous problem of enhancing feed/fodder utilization, and the profitability of meat or meat mass production. For this purpose are utilized various feed/fodder supplements or feeds/fodders enriched with various substances, improving the animal weight rate or meat mass. On the other hand, there are utilized substances, which improve the resistance and enhance the health of said animals. Existing feed/fodder supplements such as various vitamins, proteins, and minerals might, however, have negative consequences for the animals. Owing to the accumulation of these substances in animal tissues they present a potential risk also for humans that consume the resulting meat, or meat products. Especially, this mode does not solve the feed/fodder utilization problem adequately. Hence there is a continuous need for a simple mode of improving feed/fodder utilization, increasing animal meat mass, and enhancing animal health with as few as possible, various, and possibly natural substances that cause no contamination of meat and meat products, but possibly improve the quality of meat and other animal tissues, as well as products thereof.

The problem, hitherto not adequately solved, is the enrichment of meat with CoQIO, and the improvement of the ratio of CoQIO to fats and cholesterol in meat, in order to -A- increase the amount of CoQIO at the same or reduced content of fats and cholesterol. The consumption of such meat would result in the intake of increased quantities of CoQIO, and minimize the need for C0QIO- containing food additives or medicines. For the intake of the same CoQIO amount there would be needed the consumption of less meat or meat products, and accordingly, less noxious fats and cholesterol. The amount of these fats and cholesterol would be even further diminished, owing to the reduced content in the obtained meat and meat products.

Another problem, hitherto not adequately solved, is the raising of animals having increased meat mass or weight rate, and improved feed/fodder utilization, with the aid of as few as possible various, possibly natural substances, favorably influencing animal health. All these factors would enhance the profitability of animal husbandry, the production of meat and its quality.

The task and object of this invention is an economical and simple process for the enrichment of meat of various animals with CoQIO, yielding various kinds of meat with an increased CoQIO content, and an improved ratio of CoQIO to fats and cholesterol, as well as the utilization of such meats and their products for human consumption. A further task and object of this invention is a simple method of raising animals with the aid of as few as possible various, possibly natural substances, enabling the increase of animal weight, improved feed/fodder utilization, and consequently the profitability of animal husbandry. The animals are chosen from warm-blooded animals, intended for human consumption, such as poultry, small cattle, swine, cattle, rabbits, horses, game and others, especially animals, containing less CoQIO and more cholesterol and fats in their meat or meat parts, and skin.

The tasks and objects of this invention are simultaneously solved in a surprising and unobvious way, by the addition of CoQIO in a suitable form, either alone or as a feed/fodder component or as a feed/fodder supplement, in liquid or solid form, to animal feed supply, or in other conventional ways, during convenient growth phases, or at a convenient period prior to slaughter. According to this invention the tasks and objects are solved by the use of CoQIO1 and by a process of administration to the animals or by feeding the animals with convenient CoQ.10 formulations, as well as the utilization of the obtained meat and meat products in accordance with independent claims.

The gist of invention is a novel use of CoQIO in convenient form for animal feeding, and a process of feeding animals a convenient CoQIO formulation, or a feed/fodder supplemented with CoQIO in convenient form, or with CoQ10-containing nutritional supplements, during suitable growth phases, or at a convenient period prior to slaughter. Thus, the invention solves several problems and tasks simultaneously, in an unobvious, simple and economical way. In accordance with this invention, CoQ 10 as sole natural animal feed supplement, causes several effects simultaneously, namely the increase of animal weight, the enhancement of feed/fodder utilization, the enrichment of meat with CoQIO, the diminishment of cholesterol and fat contents, and the improvement of the ratio of CoQIO to fats and cholesterol in meats and various tissues. This enables the production of meat products or tissue products, having improved properties for human health and animal health, and the utilization of meat and tissues, as well as products thereof, for health food.

The important fact is that CoQIO has virtually no negative effects on the organism, nor is it accumulated in excess of a level, acceptable to the organism or single tissue. On the contrary, it has several positive effects on humans and animals. This represents, as one aspect, another advantage in comparison with other growth- enhancing feed/fodder supplements. On the other hand, it ensures to humans and animals not only a completely safe, but also an advantageous consumption of CoQ10-enriched meat and tissues as well as products thereof, according to this invention. Hence the invention enables a simple and economical production of functional nutritional products - animal meat and tissues, to say nutritional products exerting positive effect on the health of humans and animals that consume said nutritional products. CoQIO is administered to animals in convenient form, for example by the addition of CoQIO to feed/fodder or beverages for consumption, or separately. For this purpose are utilized feed/fodder with added convenient CoQIO formulation, CoQ10-containing feed/fodder supplements, CoQ10-containing animal beverage supplements, various CoQ10-containing animal nutritional supplements such as hard or soft capsules, tablets, syrups, drops, suspensions, emulsions and other suitable formulations, based on various water-soluble or water-insoluble CoQIO forms. Preferred are formulations, endowed with enhanced CoQIO bioavailability. The feed/fodder can be natural such as forage (grass, hay), corn, vegetables and the like, or artificial such as various industrially manufactured feeds/fodders. Moreover, CoQIO can be administered by means of injectable formulations, transdermal formulations, implantates, and the like.

The above-mentioned routes enable the administration of some mg to some 100 mg CoQ10/kg body mass daily, for example 1-500 mg or more, preferably 1-50 mg, more preferably 1-20 mg CoQ10/kg body mass daily, in a single or multiple daily dose. The amount is adapted to the growth phase, by increasing daily doses during intensive growth phases. However, during starting animal development phases and during slower growth phases, the dosage is reduced or even discontinued. Such a CoQIO dosage regimen results in optimal growth increase and feed/fodder utilization, partially also in optimal CoQIO amounts in animal tissues, and the improvement of the ratio of CoQIO to fats and cholesterol. The CoQIO concentration can be significantly increased, and the fats and cholesterol amounts further reduced, by repeated CoQIO dosage or by increasing the doses at a determined period prior to slaughter. If only the increase of the CoQIO amount in tissues, and the enhancement of the ratio to cholesterol and fats, or the decrease of their amounts, is desired, this can only be accomplished by means of increased CoQIO dosage prior to slaughter. Therewith the consumption of CoQIO is optimized, concerning the growth rate efficiency, and meat quality, from the standpoint of CoQIO, fats and cholesterol concentrations, as well as the ratio of CoQIO to fats and cholesterol. This is especially important from the standpoint of profitability. In this manner, as much as some ten percent weight rate increase can be achieved at minimal CoQIO consumption, and an increase of C0QIO quantity from some percent to 100 or more percent, in individual tissues and meat parts, for example under the decrease of cholesterol for several ten percents. Thus, the present invention enables a significant weight rate and simultaneously enhances the health adequacy of the obtained meat or animal parts and products thereof, in human and animal nutrition. There is virtually no upper limit of CoQIO dosage; it depends only on the desired effects.

The procedure and regimen of CoQIO addition enable to influence the desired effects, either the increase of CoQIO content, and its ratio to cholesterol and fats, or the increase of growth rate, or both. The addition of CoQIO during the intensive growth phases increases primarily the growth rate. The addition during some weeks or at least some days prior to slaughter increases the CoQIO content in tissues. Both effects - enhanced health adequacy and growth rate - are optimally achieved by the feeding combination during both periods. The addition regimen can also influence the relative increase of individual tissues and animal parts.

Typical examples are broiler chickens, slaughtered on day 42, to say at the completion of intensive growth. At an optimal CoQIO dosage regimen, namely 20 days prior to slaughter, on the average 5 mg water-soluble CoQ10/kg body weight, the weight increase amounted to 30% at about 5% lower feed/fodder consumption, in comparison with the control group, which received no CoQIO. The total CoQIO concentration was significantly increased, for example doubled in breast meat. A minor increase of CoQIO was typical for tissues, which already contained larger amounts of said substance. Simultaneously, the cholesterol amount in individual tissues was very much diminished, especially in breast meat more than halved. The ratio of CoQIO amount to cholesterol amount was more than doubled in individual tissues. A cholesterol reduction of nearly 30% is achieved even in underskin fat tissue. By an appropriate higher dosage these effects can be further improved.

Besides, the CoQIO content in tissues can be increased by gradually increasing the amount of CoQIO. In chickens, increasing gradually the daily dosage during the last 20 days prior to slaughter from 5 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg body weight yields an approx. 25-60 % higher CoQIO content in individual tissues, in comparison with the constant addition of 5 mg/kg body weight.

Hens receive CoQ10 about 1 month prior to slaughter. Daily administration of 10 mg CoQ10/kg body weight yields an average CoQIO content increase in the meat of about 6-8 mg/kg. An increase is also noticed in tissues, where chickens show a minor CoQ10 increase, such as in the heart and thighs. This is the consequence of the general CoQ10 depletion with progressive ageing. The cholesterol content in the meat decreases for about 15-20 %, in the heart for about 30 %. In egg-laying hens, the CoQIO content in eggs is simultaneously increased; at a dosage of 7 mg CoQ10/kg body weight for about 60-70 %, at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight even for about 100 %.

In a similar manner is achieved an increase of growth rate and CoQIO content, as well as the improvement of the fats and cholesterol ratio in the meat of other raised animals, by the addition of mentioned CoQIO amounts in convenient form, during the intensive growth phase or prior to slaughtering. A daily addition of 10 mg CoQ10/kg body to a calf during the first 3 months of intensive growth phase yields a weight rate increase of about 15 %, and a CoQ10 content increase of about 20-45 %. The increase under addition of CoQIO is also improved during subsequent growth periods, up to about 20 months. The CoQIO content increase is even more pronounced, up to about 50 %. In cattle of about 5-6 years, a CoQIO increase in the meat and the diminishment of fats and cholesterol quantities, is achieved by one or two months addition of CoQ10 prior to slaughter; the amount of 15 mg CoQIO increases tissue CoQIO for about 20-60 % (up to about 40 mg/kg), and reduces cholesterol for up to about 50 %. A daily dosage of 20 mg CoQ10/kg body weight increases the CoQIO quantity for up to about 75 %, and reduces the cholesterol quantity for up to about 60 %. Besides, the fat quantity of the meat is diminished for up to about 30 %.

Owing to the above, the objects of this invention are the use and a process for the use of CoQIO in animal husbandry, for improved weight increase, increased CoQIO content and improved ratio of COQ10 to cholesterol and fats in the meat or other animal parts, then the meat and other animal parts with an increased CoQIO content, and said contents ratio, as well as their utilization in human and animal nutrition. The essence of the animal raising regimen is the addition of CoQ 10 in a convenient form during the intensive growth phase, especially for growth increasing; during the second half of animal life, for increasing the CoQIO content and diminishing cholesterol and fats contents, or for enhancing their mutual ratio, preferably 3 days to 3 months prior to slaughter. The duration of the first addition phase (for growth increase) depends on the animal type and lasts for swine about 6 months, for cattle about 18 months, especially the first three months; for chicken about 1.5 months, for rabbits about 3-4 months, similarly for geese and ducks, and so on. The administration of CoQIO to animals during the first days of life is of no avail. In short- living animals, such as chickens and broilers, both CoQIO addition phases may overlap. Thus, the optimal COQ10 addition period from the standpoint of increasing the CoQIO content and its ratio to fats and cholesterol, as well as from the standpoint of growth rate and profitability, is about 20 days prior to slaughter.

In a conventional manner, meat and other animal parts are processed according to this invention into dried or undried meat products such as pa"tes, sausages, terrines, mince meat, briquettes, and other products. Obtained are products with an increased CoQIO content and decreased cholesterol and fats contents, or an improved ratio of CoQIO to cholesterol and fats, without the addition of said enzyme during the manufacturing procedure, hence without the aid of CoQIO as supplement to said products, as well as without special elimination of cholesterol and fats. Thus, the health adequacy of alimentary products of animal origin is significantly improved.

Therefore, a further object of this invention are products made of meat parts and other tissues, obtained by raising animals with the aid of added CoQIO, their manufacture and use.

The invention is illustrated, but in no way limited, by the working Examples. Used were following materials: water-soluble CoQ 10 according to patent SI 21783, WO 2005/111224 A2 (QiOVital, Valens Int., Slovenia), AII-Q (DSM, Netherlands), CoQIO (Daewoong Chemical Co., Korea), feeds BRO-G and BRO-F2 (Perutnina Ptuj d.d., Slovenia), TL-starter and TL-PIT2 (Agrokombinat Maribor, Slovenia). Chickens were bred in Perutnina Ptuj d.d., Slovenia, other animals on private farms.

EXAMPLE 1: Preparation of feed with CoQIO

A conventional poultry feed was supplemented with CoQIO in the form of an aqueous suspension (7.5 %). A premix was prepared, "diluting" at first CoQIO in 30 kg of com meal. Then a corresponding portion of this premix was fed to other raw- materials, into a 60 kg mixer. After stirring were obtained 60 kg of a homogenous feed mixture with a CoQIO concentration of 0.0042 %.

EXAMPLE 2:

Feeding chickens CoQ10-supplemented feed for 20 days prior to slaughter

Chicken feed was admixed with water-soluble CoQIO in water (7.5 %), obtaining a homogenous feed with a CoQIO content of 0.0042 %. Healthy chicken were selected one day after hatching and two separate groups of 25 chickens were put into hencoops. During the complete period prior to slaughter the first group was fed a CoQIO free feed; the second group received the first twenty days an identical feed as the first group, and the second twenty days (prior to slaughter) a CoQ10-supplemented feed. In both groups, the weight, health state and behavior of the animals were observed. After slaughter (on day 42) were determined by means of HPLC-MS and QTLC the concentrations of CoQ10, cholesterol and fats in individual chicken parts, namely in the meat of thighs, wings, breasts, hearts, and livers. Analysis results are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. All animals were healthy, and of normal behavior. The average animal weight in the reference group increased 10.4 - fold (from 217 g to 2258), the weight in the test group 13.3 - fold (from 192 g to 2546 g). Thus, the weight rate in the test group exceeded the rate in the reference group for 28 %. Table 1. Comparison of average CoQIO contents in 42-days chicken, fed without (reference group), at first without, then the last 20 days prior to slaughter with the addition of CoQIO (results are given in mg CoQ10/kg of meat), and the ratio of CoQIO content in the test group in comparison with the reference group.

Table 2. Comparison of cholesterol content in the group, fed 42 days a feed without CoQIO addition (reference group), with the group, fed at first a feed without, then the last 20 days prior to slaughter with the addition of CoQ10 (test group); results are given in g/kg of meat.

10-2

Table 3. Ratio of CoQ10 and cholesterol contents x

EXAMPLE 3: Feeding chickens CoQ10-supplemented feed for 30 days prior to slaughter

Chicken feed was admixed with water-soluble CoQ10 in water (7.5 %), obtaining a homogenous feed with a CoQ10 content of 0.0042 %. Healthy chicken were selected one day after hatching and two separate groups of 25 chickens were put into hen-coops. During the whole period prior to slaughter the first group received a CoQ10-free feed; the second group received the first ten days an identical feed as the first group, and the remaining thirty days (prior to slaughter) a C0QIO- supplemented feed. In both groups, the weight, health state and behavior of the animals were controlled. After slaughter (on day 42) were determined by means of HPLC-MS and QTLC the concentrations of CoQIO, cholesterol and fats in individual chicken parts, namely in the meat of thighs, wings, breasts, hearts, and livers. Analysis results are shown in Table 4 and Table 5.

Table 4. Comparison of average CoQIO contents in 42-days chicken, fed without (reference group), at first without, then the last 30 days prior to slaughter with the addition of CoQIO (test group); results are given in mg CoQ10/kg.

Table 5. Comparison of average cholesterol content in the group, fed a feed without CoQIO addition (reference group), with the group, fed at first a feed without, then the last 30 days prior to slaughter with the addition of CoQIO (test group); results are given in g/kg.

EXAMPLE 4: Feeding chickens CoQ10-supplemented feed for 40 days

Chicken feed was admixed with water-soluble CoQIO in water (7.5 %), obtaining a homogenous feed with a CoQIO content of 0.0042 %. Healthy chicken were selected one day after hatching and two separate groups of 25 chickens were put into hencoops. During the whole period prior to slaughter the first group received a CoQIO- free feed; the second group 40 days (prior to slaughter) a CoQ10-supplemented feed. In both groups, the weight, health state and behavior of the animals were observed. After slaughter (on day 42) were determined by means of HPLC-MS and QTLC the concentrations of CoQIO1 cholesterol and fats in individual chicken parts, namely in the meat of thighs, wings, breasts, hearts, and livers. Analysis results are shown in Table 6 and Table 7.

Table 6. Comparison of average CoQIO contents in 42-days chicken, fed without (reference group), and with the addition of CoQIO (test group); results are given in mg CoQ10/kg.

Table 7. Comparison of cholesterol content in the group, fed 40 days a feed without CoQIO addition (reference group), with the group, fed with the addition of CoQIO (test group); results are given in m/kg.

Table 8. Ratio of CoQ 10 to cholesterol contents x 10-2

EXAMPLE 5: Feeding hens CoQ10-supplemented feed

Hens were fed for 21 days natural, CoQ10-supplemented feed of improved water- solubility, each consuming each on the average 7 mg CoQIO/kg body weight daily. The CoQ10 content in eggs was analyzed by HPLC-MS method, prior to the addition of CoQIO to the feed, on day 13, and on day 21. The results are represented in Table 9.

Table 9. Increase of CoQIO content in eggs; the results are expressed per kg of egg yolk

EXAPLE 8: Meat-and-liver pate

The pate was made of meat and livers of hens, fed the last 20 days prior to slaughter, a feed homogenously supplemented with CoQIO to a concentration of 0.008 %, as in Example 1. According to an industrial recipe, the hen meat and liver were processed into a pa"te; its CoQ10, fats and cholesterol contents were analyzed. The results were compared with the results of the reference pate. (Table 8). Table 10. Comparison of CoQIO, fats and cholesterol contents in the pate made of meat and livers of normal hens, with that of hens, fed the last 20 days prior to slaughter, CoQ10-supplemented feed.

Accordingly, this invention relates to a use of coenzyme Q10 to improve the effectiveness of animal husbandry, and the production of animal tissues, to say all types of meat, bones, skins and the like, poultry eggs and the milk of dairy animals, with an increased content of said enzyme, wherein the intake of coenzyme Q10 by the animals is performed by consumption or direct administration into or onto the body, and wherein coenzyme Q10 is in a convenient water-soluble or water-insoluble form, preferably in the form of enhanced bioavailability. The animals consume the coenzyme Q10 or receive it in another manner during all their lifetime or at a determined period any time during their lifetime, preferably during their growth phase and/or at an optional period prior to slaughter, more preferably during growth phases and/or 3-90 days prior to slaughter. The animals consume 1-1000 mg of coenzyme

Q10 per kg of body weight daily, preferably 1-50 mg, more preferably 1-20 mg.

Coenzyme Q10 is added to the animal feed/fodder or beverage, the feed/fodder being any animal nutrient, unprocessed or processed, natural or artificial or industrially manufactured, respectively. Coenzyme Q10 is in the form of convenient solid, semisolid, semiliquid or liquid formulations for the administration to animals, such as capsules, tablets, boluses, granules, powders, syrups, injectable formulations, creams, ointments, implantates and others. The duration of coenzyme

Q10 addition is regulated in conformance with the desired effects, animal type, profitability and the like. To increase the animal growth rate, and the utilization of the animal feed/fodder, coenzyme Q10 is administered to animals during the growth period to increase the concentration of coenzyme Q10, and the concentration ratio of coenzyme Q10 to cholesterol and tissue fats, respectively, at a convenient time prior to slaughter. The mentioned animals are poultry, small cattle, pigs, rabbits, and other animals, the meat or other parts of which are intended for human or animal consumption. Animal tissues, including poultry eggs and milk of dairy animals, according to this invention, are enriched with coenzyme Q10; at the same time, they may contain less cholesterol and fats. Their quantity ratio of coenzyme Q10 to their cholesterol and tissue fats is improved.

Animal tissue products are intended for human or animal consumption, and contain increased quantities of coenzyme Q10, and less cholesterol and fats; they have an improved quantity ratio of coenzyme Q10 to their cholesterol and tissue fats, respectively. Tissues and tissue products are intended for human or animal consumption.

Feed/fodder and beverages for animals, according to this invention, comprise added coenzyme Q 10.

Feed/fodder supplements, according to this invention, comprise added coenzyme

Q10.

Formulations for the administration to animals, according to this invention, comprise added coenzyme Q10.

Processes for the manufacture of animal feed/fodder and formulations with coenzyme Q10, are characterized by the addition of coenzyme Q10 during an optional phase of the manufacturing procedure, or by admixing to the pre-prepared feed/fodder or formulations.

What is claimed is:

1. A use of coenzyme Q10 to improve the effectiveness of animal husbandry, and the production of animal tissues with an increased content of said enzyme, wherein the intake of coenzyme Q10 by the animals is performed by consumption or direct administration into or onto the body, coenzyme Q10 being in a convenient water-soluble or water-insoluble form, preferably in the form of enhanced bioavailability, the animals consuming the coenzyme Q10 or receive it in another manner during all their lifetime or at a determined period any time during their lifetime, preferably during their growth phase and/or at an optional period prior to slaughter, more preferably during growth phases and/or 3-90 days prior to slaughter, and the animals consume 1-1000 mg of coenzyme Q10 per kg of body weight daily, preferably 1-50 mg, more preferably 1-20 mg.

2. The use according to the previous claim, wherein coenzyme Q10 is added to the animal feed/fodder or beverage.

3. The use according to previous claims, wherein the feed/fodder is any food for the animal, unprocessed or processed, natural or artificial or industrially manufactured, respectively.

4. The use according to previous claims, wherein coenzyme Q10 is in the form of convenient solid, semisolid, semiliquid or liquid preparations for the administration to animals, such as capsules, tablets, boluses, granules, powders, syrups, injectable formulations, creams, ointments, implantates and others.

5. The use according to previous claims, wherein the time and duration of coenzyme Q10 addition, and CoQ10 dosage are regulated in conformance with the desired effects, animal type, profitability and the like.

6. The use according to previous claims, characterized in that in order to increase the animal growth and the utilization of the animal feed/fodder, coenzyme Q10 is administered to animals during the growth period to increase the concentration of coenzyme Q10, and the concentration ratio of coenzyme Q10 to cholesterol and tissue fats respectively, at a convenient time prior to slaughter.

7. The use according to previous claims, wherein the animals are poultry, small cattle, pigs, rabbits, and other animals, the meat or other parts of which are intended for human consumption.

8. Animal tissues including poultry eggs and milk of dairy animals, produced according to previous claims, wherein the quantity ratio of coenzyme Q10 to their cholesterol and tissue fats is improved.

9. Tissue products according to previous claims, characterized in that they are intended for human or animal nutrition, containing increased quantities of coenzyme Q10, and having an improved quantity ratio of coenzyme Q10 to their cholesterol and tissue fats, respectively.

10. Tissues and tissue products according to previous claims for human or animal nutrition.

11. Feed/fodder and beverages for animals, characterized in that they comprise added coenzyme Q10.

12. Feed/fodder supplements, characterized in that they comprise added coenzyme Q10.

13. Formulations for the administration to animals according to previous claims, characterized in that they comprise added coenzyme Q10.

14. Process for the manufacture of animal feed/fodder and formulations with coenzyme Q10, characterized in that coenzyme Q10 is added during an optional phase of the manufacturing procedure, or by admixing to the pre-prepared feed/fodder.

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