Pest Control Compositions And Methods

  • Published: Apr 16, 2009
  • Earliest Priority: Jan 16 2007
  • Family: 11
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  • Cited by: 52
  • Cites: 101
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  *US20090099135A1*
  US20090099135A1                                 
(19)United States 
(12)Patent Application Publication(10)Pub. No.: US 2009/0099135 A1
 Enan(43)Pub. Date:Apr.  16, 2009

(54)Pest control compositions and methods 
    
(75)Inventor: Essam Enan,  Davis, CA (US) 
    
 Correspondence Address: 
 SONNENSCHEIN NATH & ROSENTHAL LLP  
 P.O. BOX 061080, WACKER DRIVE STATION, SEARS TOWER 
 CHICAGO, IL 60606-1080  (US) 
    
(73)Assignee:TyraTech, Inc.,  Melbourne, FL (US), Type: US Company 
(21)Appl. No.: 12/009,220 
(22)Filed: Jan.  16, 2008 
 Related U.S. Application Data 
(60)Provisional application No. 60/885,214, filed on Jan.  16, 2007.
 
 Provisional application No. 60/885,403, filed on Jan.  17, 2007.
 
 Provisional application No. 60/889,259, filed on Feb.  9, 2007.
 
 Publication Classification 
(51)Int. Cl. A01N 057/16 (20060101); A01N 047/12 (20060101); A01N 043/12 (20060101); A01N 057/14 (20060101); A01N 053/06 (20060101); A01N 051/00 (20060101); A01N 043/40 (20060101); A01P 003/00 (20060101); A01P 007/04 (20060101); A01P 007/02 (20060101); A01N 043/90 (20060101); A01N 043/16 (20060101); A01N 043/56 (20060101); A01N 029/12 (20060101); A01N 043/52 (20060101); A01N 057/12 (20060101)
(52)U.S. Cl. 514/86; 514/477; 514/469; 514/481; 514/395; 514/122; 514/89; 514/486; 514/132; 514/748; 514/520; 514/531; 514/407; 514/365; 514/341; 514/453; 514/343; 514/299

        

(57)

Abstract

Embodiments of the present invention provide compositions for controlling a target pest including a pest control product and at least one active agent, wherein: the active agent can be capable of interacting with a receptor in the target pest; the pest control product can have a first activity against the target pest when applied without the active agent and the compositions can have a second activity against the target pest; and the second activity can be greater than the first activity.
 Claim(s),  Drawing Sheet(s), and Figure(s)
 
 


CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Application Ser. Nos. 60/885,214 filed Jan. 16, 2007, 60/885,403 filed Jan. 17, 2007, and 60/889,259 filed Feb. 9, 2007, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention relates to compositions and methods related to controlling insects.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] While the first recorded use of chemicals to control pests dates back to 2500 BC, only in the last 60 years has chemical control has been widely used. Early pesticides included hellebore to control body lice, nicotine to control aphids, and pyrithrin to control a wide variety of insects. Lead arsenate was first used in 1892 as an orchard spray, while at the same time it was discovered that a mixture of lime and copper sulphate (Bordeaux mixture) controlled downy mildew, a fungal disease of grapes.
[0004] The modern era of chemical pest control commenced during World War II. For example, DDT played a major role in maintaining the health and welfare of soldiers who used it to control body lice and mosquitoes. Further developments of pesticides followed, and with their relatively low cost, ease of use, and effectiveness, they became the primary means of pest control. Protection of crops, produce, animals, and humans over extended periods became possible with corresponding increases in food production and improved standards of living.
[0005] Some modern pesticides are sophisticated compounds that are carefully researched to ensure they are effective against target organisms, generally safe to the environment, and can be used without undue hazard to users or consumers. Many of these have been developed to target specific biochemical reactions within the target organism, e.g. an enzyme necessary for photosynthesis within a plant or a hormone required for normal development in an insect. Thus, some modern chemicals are safer, more specific, and friendlier to the environment than the older products they have replaced.

SUMMARY

[0006] Embodiments of the present invention provide compositions for controlling a target pest including a pest control product and at least one active agent, wherein: the active agent can be capable of interacting with a receptor in the target pest; the pest control product can have a first activity against the target pest when applied without the active agent and the compositions can have a second activity against the target pest; and the second activity can be greater than the first activity. The first and second activities can be quantified by measuring concentration of the pest control product effective to control the target pest, and a concentration corresponding to the first activity can be higher than a concentration corresponding to the second activity. The first and second activities can be quantified by measuring disablement effect of the target pest at a standard concentration of pest control product, and the compositions exhibit a greater disablement effect than the pest control product applied without the active agent. The first activity can persist for a first period, the second activity can persist for a second period, and the second period can be longer than the first period. The active agent can include a synergistic combination of at least two receptor ligands. The second activity can reflect a synergistic interaction of the active agent and the pest control product.
[0007] The target pest can be selected from the group consisting of a fungus, a plant, an animal, a moneran, and a protist. The target pest can be an arthropod species, such as, for example, an insect, an arachnid, or an arachnoid. The target pest can be a species belonging to an animal order selected from: Acari, Anoplura, Araneae, Blattodea, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Grylloptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Mantodea, Mallophaga, Neuroptera, Odonata, Orthoptera, Psocoptera, Siphonaptera, Symphyla, Thysanura, and Thysanoptera.
[0008] The pest control product can be a chlorphenoxy compound such as, for example, 2,4-D Amine and/or 2,4D IBE. Likewise, the pest control product can be a carbamate such as, for example, methomyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, BPMC, carbendazim, carbosulfan, captan hydrochloride, and/or cartap. The pest control product can be an organophosphate such as, for example, acephate, malathion, diazinon, chlorpyfiros, fenoxycab, edifenphos, febuconazole, chlorphenapyr, magnesium phosphide, metamidophos, and/or fenitrothion. The pest control product can be an organochlorine such as, for example, DDT, DDE, and/or heptachlorepoxide. The pest control product can be a pyrethroid such as, for example, cypermethrin, cynmethylin+2,4-D IBE, lambdacyhalothrin, dazomet, cyfluthrin, betacypermethrin, pendimethlin, permethrin, deltamethrin, bifenethrin, alphacypermethrin, fenvalerate, propanil, and/or esfenvalerate. The pest control product can be a neonicotinoid such as, for example, thiomethoxam, fipronil, clothianidin, and/or imidacloprid. The pest control product can include at least one of an avermectin, abamectin, spinosad, fluxastrobin, and/or indoxacarb. The pest control product can be a botanical product such as, for example, rotenone, nicotine, caffeine, a pyrethrum, an essential oil, and/or a fixed oil. The pest control product can be a fungicide, a nematicide, an insecticide, an acaricide, and/or a bactericide.
[0009] The receptor can be a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), such as a GPCR of the insect olfactory cascade, such as, for example, a tyramine receptor, an olfactory receptor Or43a, an olfactory receptor Or83b and/or an octopamine receptor. Binding of the receptor by an ingredient of the compositions can result in a change in intracellular level of cAMP and/or calcium, wherein the change can be sufficient to permit control of the target pest.
[0010] Control can include a condition such as, for example, killing, knockdown, repellency, interference with reproduction, interference with feeding, and interference with a stage of a life cycle of the target pest.
[0011] Embodiments of the invention also include a crop protected by the compositions disclosed herein.
[0012] In addition, embodiments of the invention can include compositions for controlling a target pest including a pest control product and at least one active agent, wherein: the active agent can include a ligand of a GPCR of a target pest, wherein binding of the ligand to the GPCR can cause a change in a level of cAMP or calcium that can permit control of the target pest; the pest control product can have a first activity against the target pest, the active agent can have a second activity against the target pest, and the compositions can have a third activity against the target pest; and the third activity can be greater than the first activity or the second activity. The active agent can include a synergistic combination of at least two GPCR ligands. The third activity can be indicative of synergy between the active agent and the pest control product. In some embodiments, compositions can include at least two active ingredients, wherein at least one active ingredient interacts with a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the pest and wherein at least one active ingredient does not interact with the GPCR, and wherein the at least two active ingredients in combination have a synergistic pest-control activity. The pest can be an insect and the GPCR can be associated with olfaction, and further the GPCR preferably can be absent from vertebrate animals. The synergistic pest-control activity can have a coefficient of synergy in excess of 1.5. The synergistic pest-control activity can exceed additive effects of the active ingredients, as measured by the Colby calculation of synergy. The GPCR can have a high affinity for the active ingredient in a target organism and the GPCR can be absent or can have a low affinity for the active ingredient in a non-target organism. The non-target organism can be a vertebrate animal. In some embodiments, the target organism can be a plant, an animal, a fungus, a protist, or a moneran, and the non-target organism can be selected from a crop plant, a vertebrate animal, and a non-pest invertebrate.
[0013] In some embodiments, the invention provides low-resistance pest-control compositions, including at least a first active ingredient and a second active ingredient, wherein the first active ingredient interacts with a first molecular target under genetic control within a selected pest, and wherein the second active ingredient interacts with a second molecular target under genetic control within the selected pest, and wherein the ingredients in the compositions act together in a complementary manner upon the target pest, and wherein resistance to the compositions in an individual target pest requires two separate genetic lesions divergent from a non-resistant population of the pest. The first and second molecular targets can include two separate molecules encoded or controlled by separate genetic elements. The complementary manner can include an additive effect of each agent acting separately, or the complementary manner can include a synergistic effect as compared with each agent acting separately. The first molecular target can be a GPCR, and the second molecular target is preferably not the same as the first molecular target.
[0014] Also provided in some embodiments are pest-control compositions exhibiting high potency against an invertebrate target pest and low toxicity against a vertebrate animal, the compositions including a synergistic combination of active agents, wherein each active agent interacts with a molecular target with high affinity in the target pest and that can be absent form, or present with low affinity, from the vertebrate. The at least one active agent can be a ligand of a selected GPCR, and the at least one active agent is preferably not a ligand of the selected GPCR. The high target potency and low vertebrate toxicity can be expressed as a ratio of LD50(target) versus LD50(vertebrate animal), and wherein the ratio can be less than 100:1.
[0015] In some embodiments, the invention provides methods of pest control including contacting a target pest with a composition as described herein, resulting in control of the pest. The methods can include applying a composition to a target pest or to a substrate associated with a target pest, wherein the compositions can include a pesticide and an active agent including at least one receptor ligand, and wherein the pest control can include affecting a physiological condition of the pest associated with a function of the pesticide while also affecting a function of the receptor associated with the receptor ligand. The binding of the receptor by an ingredient of the compositions can result in a change in intracellular level of cAMP and/or calcium, and wherein the change can be sufficient to permit control of the target pest. The pesticide can be selected from a chlorphenoxy compound, a carbamate, an organophosphate, an organochlorine, a pyrethroid, a neonicotinoid, a botanical product, a fungicide, a nematicide, and insecticide, and acaracide, a bactericide. and an avermectin. The substrate can be, for example, a crop plant and/or a soil. The target pest can be, for example, a fungus, a plant, an animal, a moneran, or a protist. The use of the compositions can permit an improvement of control of the pest as compared with use of the pesticide alone or the active agent alone. The improvement can include a synergistic interaction of the pest control product with the active agent. The improvement can include an improved result with use of a substantially similar amount of the pest control product. The improved result can be at least one of: increased killing of the target pest; increased interference with reproduction by the target pest; and prolonged effectiveness of the pest control product. The improvement can include a substantially similar result with use of a substantially lower amount of the pest control product and/or the active agent. Use of the compositions permits an agricultural improvement such as, for example, increased crop yield; reduced frequency of application of pest control product; reduced phytotoxicity associated with the pesticide; and reduced cost or increased value associated with at least one environmental factor. The environmental factor can include, for example, air quality, water quality, soil quality, detectable pesticide residue, safety or comfort of workers; and a collateral effect on a non-target organism.
[0016] Also provided are methods of developing a compositions for pest control, including: providing a cell line expressing at least one of: a tyramine receptor, an olfactory receptor Or43a, or an olfactory receptor Or83b, wherein binding of a ligand to any of the receptors causes a change in a level of intracellular cAMP or calcium, and the change can be indicative of a potential for invertebrate pest control; contacting the cell with a candidate ligand; detecting a change in the level of cAMP and/or calcium in the cell; identifying the candidate ligand as an active compound for control of an invertebrate pest; and combining the active compound with a pesticide to form a composition for pest control, wherein the pesticide does not bind to a receptor bound by the active compound, and wherein a combined effect of the active compound and the pesticide can include an effect against a target pest that can be greater than the effect of either the active compound alone or the pesticide alone. The compositions further can include a second active compound capable of binding at least one of the receptors. The active compounds can cooperate to cause a synergistic change in the level of cAMP and/or calcium in the cell line and/or in a target pest. The combined effect of the active compound and the pesticide can be synergistic. The combined effect can be determined by at least one condition selected from the group consisting of: killing, knockdown, repellency, interference with reproduction, interference with feeding, and interference with a stage of a life cycle of the target pest.
[0017] Also provided are further methods of pest control, including, providing a composition including at a first and a second active ingredient, wherein the first active ingredient interacts with a receptor of a target pest, and wherein the second active ingredient can be a pesticide that does not interact with the receptor of the first active ingredient; and contacting the pest with the compositions, wherein the contacting results in synergistic pest control. The compositions further can include a third active ingredient, wherein the third active ingredient interacts with a receptor of the target pest, and wherein at least the first and third active ingredients in combination synergistically interact to permit control of the target pest. The first and third active ingredients can optionally bind the same receptor; in other embodiments, the first and third active ingredients do not bind the same receptor. The first, second, and third active ingredients in combination can have a synergistic effect that can be greater than the effect of any single ingredient and can be also greater than the synergistic effect of the first and third ingredients in combination. The receptor can be a GPCR such as, for example, a tyramine receptor, an olfactory receptor Or43a, and an olfactory receptor Or83b. The pest control can be associated with a receptor-activated alteration in a level of cAMP and/or calcium within the pest. The alteration can persist for at least about 60 seconds.
[0018] Also provided are other methods of pest control, including: providing a composition including at least two active ingredients, wherein at least one active ingredient interacts with a GPCR of a target pest, the composition produces a first level of at least one of intracellular calcium and cyclic AMP in a cell expressing the GPCR on exposure to the cell, and the first level can be higher than a second level produced when the cell can be contacted with any single active ingredient; and contacting the pest with the compositions, wherein the contacting results in synergistic pest control. Other embodiments provide methods for controlling a target pest including use of a pest control compositions, the compositions including a pest control product and at least one active agent, wherein: the active agent can include a ligand of a GPCR of a target pest, wherein binding of the ligand to the GPCR causes a change in a level of cAMP or calcium that permits control of the target pest; the pest control product can have a first activity against the target pest, the active agent can have a second activity against the target pest, and the compositions can have a third activity against the target pest; and the third activity can be greater than the first activity or the second activity. A further method of pest control can include use of a pest control composition, wherein the composition can include at least two active ingredients, wherein at least one active ingredient interacts with a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of the pest and wherein at least one active ingredient does not interact with the GPCR, and wherein the at least two active ingredients in combination have a synergistic pest-control activity. Other methods of pest control can permit low-resistance in a target pest, including administering a pest-control composition, the composition including at least a first active ingredient and a second active ingredient, wherein the first active ingredient interacts with a first molecular target under genetic control within a selected pest, and wherein the second active ingredient interacts with a second molecular target under genetic control within the selected pest, and wherein the ingredients in the composition act together in a complementary manner upon the target pest, and wherein resistance to the composition in an individual target pest requires two separate genetic lesions divergent from a non-resistant population of the pest.
[0019] Still other embodiments provide pest control compositions exemplified by the following: in combination, a blend of lilac flower oil (LFO), d-limonene, thyme oil, and further including a pesticide. The pesticide can be, for example, clothianidin. The blend can include 10-80% LFO, 5-60% d-limonene, and 10-80% thyme oil. In other embodiments, the blend can include 20-60% LFO, 10-45% d-limonene, and 20-60% thyme oil. In other embodiments, blend can include 42.6% w/w LFO, 27.35% w/w d-limonene, and 30.08% w/w thyme oil white.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0020] FIG. 1 shows a screening method using a transfected cell lines expressing a receptor of interest, for example, a biogenic amine receptor, such as, a TyR or an octopamine receptor;
[0021] FIG. 2 shows the binding of a ligand to a biogenic amine receptor, resulting in downstream signaling affecting certain physiological responses;
[0022] FIG. 3 shows an insect control chemical, deltamethrin (DM), affecting downstream signaling;
[0023] FIG. 4A shows a pesticidal effect against Aedes aegypti caused by 1) a test composition; 2) clothianidin; and 3) a combination of a test composition and clothianidin;
[0024] FIG. 4B shows a pesticidal effect against Aedes aegypti caused by 1) a test composition; 2) clothianidin; and 3) a combination of a test composition and clothianidin;
[0025] FIG. 4C shows a pesticidal effect against Aedes aegypti caused by 1) a test composition; 2) imidacloprid; and 3) a combination of a test composition and imidacloprid;
[0026] FIG. 4D shows a pesticidal effect against Drosophila sp. caused by 1) a test composition; 2) imidacloprid; and 3) a combination of a test composition and imidacloprid;
[0027] FIG. 5 shows a pesticidal effect against Aedes aegypti caused by 1) a test composition; 2) imidacloprid; and 3) a combination of a test composition and imidacloprid;
[0028] FIG. 6A shows a pesticidal effect against Periplaneta americana caused by 1) a test composition; 2) clothianidin; and 3) a combination of a test composition and clothianidin;
[0029] FIG. 6B shows a pesticidal effect against Periplaneta americana caused by 1) a test composition; 2) imidacloprid; and 3) a combination of a test composition and imidacloprid;
[0030] FIG. 7 shows a pesticidal effect against bed bugs caused by 1) a test composition; 2) pyrethrum; and 3) a combination of a test composition and pyrethrum;
[0031] FIG. 8A shows the nucleic acid sequence and the peptide sequence of a Tyramine receptor;
[0032] FIG. 8B shows the nucleic acid sequence and the peptide sequence of a Tyramine receptor;
[0033] FIG. 9 shows fluorescence intensity curves corresponding to intracellular calcium ion concentrations, with the curve corresponding to the composition containing the mixture of imidacloprid and thyme oil indicated by triangles, the curve corresponding to the composition containing the thyme oil alone indicated by circles, and the curve corresponding to the composition containing imidacloprid alone indicated by squares;
[0034] FIG. 10 shows fluorescence intensity curves corresponding to intracellular calcium ion concentrations, with the curve corresponding to the composition containing the mixture of fluoxastrobin and thyme oil indicated by triangles, the curve corresponding to the composition containing the thyme oil alone indicated by squares, and the curve corresponding to the composition containing fluoxastrobin alone indicated by circles.

DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS

[0035] Many previously known and commercialized products having sufficient pesticidal activity to be useful also have toxic or deleterious effects on mammals, fish, fowl, or other non-target species. For example, common insecticides such as organophosphorus compounds and carbamates inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase in all classes of animals. Chlordimeform and related formamidines are known to act on insect octopamine receptors, but have been removed from the market because of cardiotoxic potential in vertebrates and carcinogenicity in animals and a varied effect on different insects.
[0036] However, the deleterious effects of many pesticides can be mitigated by reducing the amount of pesticide that can be applied to a given area to achieve the desired result. This reduction can be achieved by combining the pesticidal compound or product with selected active ingredients. These active ingredients can comprise, for example, plant essential oils, and the like. Combinations of selected active ingredients with selected pesticidal compounds or products can reduce the concentration of pesticide needed to achieve a net efficiency, and extend the useful life of existing synthetic pesticides.
[0037] The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are provided. Modifications to embodiments described in this document, and other embodiments, will be evident to those of ordinary skill in the art after a study of the information provided in this document. The information provided in this document, and particularly the specific details of the described exemplary embodiments, is provided primarily for clearness of understanding and no unnecessary limitations are to be understood therefrom.
[0038] Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods of screening compositions for pest-control potential, compositions for controlling pests, and methods for using these compositions.
[0039] As used herein, “pests” can mean any organism whose existence it can be desirable to control. Pests can include, for example, bacteria, cestodes, fungi, insects, nematodes, parasites, plants, and the like.
[0040] As used herein, “pesticidal” can mean, for example, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, herbicidal, insecticidal, and the like.
[0041] Screening of Compositions
[0042] In some embodiments of the invention, the screening method for pest control potential can target a molecule of an insect olfactory receptor protein. In some embodiments of the invention, the screening method for pest control potential can target an insect olfactory receptor protein. The insect olfactory system includes more than 60 identified olfactory receptors. These receptors are generally members of a large family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs).
[0043] As used herein, a “receptor” is an entity on the cell membrane or within the cell, cytoplasm, or cell nucleus that can bind to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as, for example, a neurotransmitter, hormone, or the like, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. Ligand-induced changes in the behavior of receptor proteins can result in physiological changes that constitute the biological actions of the ligands.
[0044] In accordance with the present disclosure, receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors may be classified on the basis of binding affinity of the receptor to an active ingredient. This may also be expressed as the binding affinity of the active ingredient for the receptor. The binding affinity of an active ingredient for a receptor, or the binding affinity of a receptor for an active ingredient, may be measured in accordance with methods disclosed herein or methods known to those of skill in the art. As used in the present disclosure, a “low” affinity indicates that a high concentration of the active ingredient relative to the receptor is required to maximally occupy the binding site of the receptor and trigger a physiological response, while a “high” affinity indicates that that a low concentration of the active ingredient relative to the receptor is adequate to maximally occupy the binding site of the receptor and trigger a physiological response. A “high” affinity may correspond to, for example, an active ingredient concentration of two or more orders of magnitude less than the concentration of the receptor that is effective to trigger the physiological response, while a “low” affinity may correspond to an active ingredient concentration of one or more orders of magnitude greater than the concentration of the receptor that is effective to trigger the physiological response.
[0045] In Drosophila melanogaster, the olfactory receptors are located in two pairs of appendages located on the head of the fly. The family of Drosophila chemoreceptors includes approximately 62 odorant receptor (Or) and 68 gustatory receptor (Gr) proteins, encoded by families of approximately 60 Or and 60 Gr genes through alternative splicing. Some of these receptor proteins have been functionally characterized, while others have been identified by sequence homology to other sequences but have not been fully characterized. Other insects have similar olfactory receptor proteins.
[0046] In certain embodiments, the insect olfactory receptor protein targeted by the screening or insect control method of the invention is the tyramine receptor (TyR). In additional embodiments, the insect olfactory receptor protein is the insect olfactory receptor protein Or83b or Or43a. In additional embodiments, the targeted protein can be any of the insect olfactory protein receptors.
[0047] Additionally, other components of the insect olfactory receptor cascade can be targeted using the method of the invention in order to identify useful insect control compounds. Exemplary insect olfactory cascade components that can be targeted by methods of the invention include but are not limited to serotonin receptor, Or22a, Or22b, Gr5a, Gr21a, Gr61a, β-arrestin receptor, GRK2 receptor, and tyramine β-hydroxylase receptor, and the like.
[0048] With reference to FIG. 1, an exemplary screening method for identifying effective pestcontrol compositions can make use of one or more transfected cell lines expressing a receptor of interest, for example, a biogenic amine receptor, such as, a TyR or an octopamine receptor.
[0049] In some embodiments of the invention, isolated cell membranes expressing the receptor of interest can be used in competitive binding assays. Whole cells can be used to study changes in signaling down-stream to the receptor, in response to treatment with a test composition.
[0050] Embodiments of the invention can utilize prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells including, for example, bacterial cells, yeast cells, fungal cells, insect cells, nematode cells, plant cells, animal cells, and the like. Suitable animal cells can include, for example, HEK cells, HeLa cells, COS cells, U20S cells, CHO-K1 cells, various primary mammalian cells, and the like. An animal model expressing one or more conjugates of an arrestin and a marker molecule, for example, throughout its tissues, within a particular organ or tissue type, or the like, can be used.
[0051] The potential for insect control activity can be identified by measuring the affinity of the test compositions for the receptor in the cell lines expressing a TyrR, Or83b, and/or Or43a. The potential for insect control activity can also be identified by measuring the change in intracellular cAMP and/or Ca2+ in the cell lines expressing TyrR, Or83b, and/or Or43a following treatment with the test compositions. The gene sequences of the TyrR, the Or 83b receptor and the Or 43a receptor have substantial similarity between various insect species. As such, the Drosophila Schneider cell lines expressing these receptors can be used to screen for compositions having insect control activity in various insect species.
[0052] In some embodiments, a method of selecting a composition for pesticidal use can include the following. A cell expressing a TyR is provided and is contacted with test compounds. The receptor binding affinity of the compounds is measured. At least one parameter selected from the following parameters is measured: intracellular cAMP level, and intracellular Ca2+ level. A first compound for the composition is identified, that is capable of altering at least one of the parameters, and that has a high receptor binding affinity for the TyR; and a second compound for the composition is identified, that is capable of altering at least one of the parameters, and that has a low receptor binding affinity for the TyR. A composition is selected that includes the first and second compounds. In some embodiments, a composition is selected that includes the first and second compounds and demonstrates an anti-parasitic effect that exceeds the anti-parasitic effect of any of the compounds when used alone.
[0053] In some embodiments of the invention, the cell used can be any cell capable of being transfected with and express a TyR. Examples of cells include, but are not limited to: insect cells, such as Drosophila Schneider cells, Drosophila Schneider 2 cells (S2 cells), and Spodoptera frugiperda cells (e.g., Sf9 or Sf21); or mammalian cells, such as Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK-293 cells), African green monkey kidney fibroblast cells (COS-7 cells), HeLa Cells, and Human Keratinocyte cells (HaCaT cells).
[0054] The TyrR can be a full-length TyrR, a functional fragment of a TyrR, or a functional variant of a TyrR. A functional fragment of a TyrR is a TyrR in which amino acid residues are deleted as compared to the reference polypeptide, i.e., full-length TyrR, but where the remaining amino acid sequence retains the binding affinity of the reference polypeptide for tyramine. A functional variant of a TyrR is a TyrR with amino acid insertions, amino acid deletions, or conservative amino acid substitutions, that retains the binding affinity of the reference polypeptide for tyramine. A “conservative amino acid substitution” is a substitution of an amino acid residue with a functionally similar residue. Examples of conservative substitutions can include, for example, the substitution of one non-polar (hydrophobic) residue such as isoleucine, valine, leucine or methionine for another; the substitution of one polar (hydrophilic) residue for another such as between arginine and lysine, between glutamine and asparagine, between glycine and serine; the substitution of one basic residue such as lysine, arginine or histidine for another; the substitution of one acidic residue, such as aspartic acid or glutamic acid for another, and the like. A conservative amino acid substitution can also include replacing a residue with a chemically derivatized residue, provided that the resulting polypeptide retains the binding affinity of the reference polypeptide for tyramine. Examples of TyrR5 can include, for example: TyrR5, such as, Drosophila melanogaster TyrR (GENBANK® accession number (GAN) CAA38565), Locusta migratoria TyrR (GAN: Q25321), TyrR5 of other invertebrates, TyrR5 of nematodes, and the like.
[0055] Exemplary screening methods can include “positive” screening, where, for example, compositions that bind a receptor of interest are selected. Exemplary screening methods can include “negative” screening, where, for example, compositions that bind a receptor of interest are rejected. An exemplary method can include: selecting a composition that binds a TyR. Another exemplary method can include: selecting a composition that binds a TyR and does not bind an octopamine receptor.
[0056] In some embodiments of the invention, the efficacy of a test composition can be determined by conducting studies with insects. For example, the efficacy of a test composition for repelling an insect can be studied using controlled experiments wherein insects are exposed to the test composition. In some embodiments, the toxicity of a test composition against an insect can be studied using controlled experiments wherein insects are exposed to the test composition.
[0057] Methods of screening compositions for insect control activity are set forth in the following applications, each of which is incorporated in its entirety herein by reference: U.S. application Ser. No. 10/832,022, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS; U.S. application Ser. No. 11/086,615, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS RELATED TO THE OCTOPAMINE RECEPTOR; U.S. application Ser. No. 11/365,426, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS INVOLVING THE TYRAMINE RECEPTOR; and U.S. application Ser. No. 11/870,385, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS.
[0058] Compositions for Pest Control
[0059] Embodiments of the invention can include a composition for controlling pests. Embodiments of the invention that include a composition for controlling pests can include an pest control chemical or product. Embodiments of the invention that include a composition for controlling pests can include an active agent.
[0060] In embodiments of the invention that include an active agent, the active agent can be, for example, an agent that can have a biological impact on an insect, such as, for example, a chemical, a compound, or the like. In embodiments of the invention that include an active agent, the active agent can be, for example, one or more plant essential oils, or the like. The plant essential oils, when combined, can have a synergistic effect. Embodiments can also can include a fixed oil, which is typically a non-volatile, non-scented plant oil. Additionally, in some embodiments, these compositions can be made up of generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compounds.
[0061] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one pest control chemical, the at least one pest control chemical can be selected from, for example, the pest control chemicals set forth in Table 1, or the like.
[00001] [TABLE-US-00001]
  TABLE 1
 
  PEST CONTROL CHEMICALS
    CAS
  Pest Control Chemical   Registry Number
 
  ABAMECTIN   71751-41-2
  ACEPHATE   30560-19-1
  ACETAMIPRID   135410-20-7
  ACETOCHLOR   34256-82-1
  ACEQUINOCYL   57960-19-7
  ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL
  ALACHLOR   15972-60-8
  ALDICARB   116-06-3
  ALDIMORPH
  ALLETHRIN   584-79-2
  AMISULBROM
  AMITRAZ   33089-61-1
  ANILAZINE
  AZACONAZOLE
  AZOXYSTROBIN
  BIFENTHRIN   82657-04-3
  BENALAXYL
  BENDIOCARB   22781-23-3
  BENTHIAVALICARB
  BENODANIL
  BENOMYL
  BIFENTHRIN   82657-04-3
  BINAPACRYL
  BIORESMETHRIN   28434-01-7
  BIPHENYL
  BITERTANOL
  BLASTICIDIN-S
  BOSCALID
  BROMUCONAZOLE
  BUPIRIMATE
  CAPTAFOL
  CAPTAN
  CARBENDAZIM   1563-66-2
  CARBOFURAN
  CARBARYL   63-25-2
  CARBENDAZIM
  CARBOXIN
  CARPROPAMID
  CHLORDIMEFORM   6164-98-3
  CHLORFENVINFOS   470-90-6
  CHLORONEB
  CHLOROTHALONIL   1897-45-6
  CHLOROXURON   1982-47-4
  CHLORPYRIFOS   2921-88-2
  CHLOZOLINATE
  CLOTHIANIDIN
  COPPER (DIFFERENT SALTS)
  COPPER FUNGICIDES
  CYAZOFAMID
  CYCLOPROPANECARBOXYLIC ACID, 2,2-   39515-40-7
  DIMETHYL-3-(2-METHYL-1-PROPENYL)-,
  CYANO(3-PHENOXYPHENYL)METHYL
  ESTER
  CYFLUFENAMID
  CYFLUTHRIN   68359-37-5
  CYHALOFOP BUTYL   122008-85-9
  CYHALOTHRIN K   91465-08-6
  CYHALOTHRIN (lambda)
  CYMOXANIL
  CYPERMETHRIN   52315-07-8
  CYPROCONAZOLE
  CYPRODINIL
  CYROMAZINE   66215-27-8
  D-TRANS-ALLETHRIN   28057-48-9
  DELTAMETHRIN (DECA-)   52918-63-5
  DIAFENTHIURON   80060-09-0
  DIAZINON   333-41-5
  DICHLOFENTHION   97-17-6
  DICHLOFLUANID
  DICLOCYMET
  DICLOMEZINE
  DICLORAN
  DIFENOCONAZOLE
  DIETHOFENCARB
  DIFLUBENZURON   35367-38-5
  DIFLUMETORIM
  DIFENOCONAZOLE
  DIMETHIRIMOL
  DIMETHOATE   60-51-5
  DIMETHOMORPH
  DIMOXYSTROBIN
  DINICONAZOLE
  DINOCAP
  DISULFOTON   298-04-4
  DITHIANON
  DODEMORPH
  DODINE
  EDFINPHOS
  ENDOSULFAN   115-29-7
  ENESTROBIN
  EPOXICONAZOLE
  ESFENVALERATE   66230-04-4
  ETHABOXAM
  ETHIRIMOL
  ETRIDIAZOLE
  FAMOXADONE
  FENBUCONAZOLE
  FENFURAM
  FENITROTHION   122-14-5
  FENOXYCARB   72490-01-8
  ENPROPATHRIN   39515-41-8
  FENAMIDONE
  FENARIMOL
  FENHEXAMID
  FENOXANIL
  FENPICLONIL
  FENPROPIDIN
  FENPROPIMORPH.
  FENTIN ACETATE
  FENTIN CHLORIDE
  FENTIN HYDROXIDE
  FENVALERATE   51630-58-1
  FERBAM
  FERIMZONE
  FIPRONIL   120068-37-3
  FLUAZINAM
  FLUDIOXONIL
  FLUMORPH
  FLUSILAZOLE
  FLUSULFAMIDE
  FLUTRIAFOL
  FLUOPICOLIDE
  FLUOXASTROBIN
  FLUQUINCONAZOLE
  FLUTOLANIL
  FOSETYL-AL
  FOLPET
  FTHALIDE
  FUBERIDAZOLE
  FURAMETPYR
  FURALAXYL
  GUAZATINE
  HEXACONAZOLE
  HYDRAMETHYLNON   67485-29-4
  HYMEXAZOLE
  IMAZALIL
  IMIBENCONAZOLE
  IMIDACLOPRID   105827-78-9
  IMINOCTADINE
  INDOXACARB
  IODOCARB
  IPCONAZOLE
  IPROBENFOS (IBP)
  IPRODINE
  ISOPROTHIOLANE
  ISOTIANIL
  KASUGAMYCIN
  KRESOXIM-METHYL
  LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN   91465-08-6
  LUFENURON   103055-07-8
  MALATHION   121-75-5
  MANCOZEB
  MANDIPROPAMID
  MANEB
  MEPANIPYRIM
  MEPRONIL
  METALAXYL
  METALAXYL-M (=MEFENOXAM)
  METCONAZOLE
  METHIDATHION   950-37-8
  METHAMIDAPHOS (O,S-   10265-92-6
  Dimethylphosphoramidothiolate)
  METHASULFOCARB
  METHOMYL   16752-77-5
  METHYL PARATHION   298-00-0
  METIRAM
  METOMINOSTROBIN
  METRAFENONE
  MINERAL OILS, ORGANIC OILS,
  POTASSIUM BICARBONATE, MATERIAL OF
  BIOLOGICAL ORIGIN
  MYCLOBUTANIL
  NAFTIFINE
  NALED   300-76-5
  NUARIMOL
  OCTHILINONE
  OFURACE
  ORYSASTROBIN
  OXADIXYL
  OXAMYL   23135-22-0
  OXOLINIC ACID
  OXPOCONAZOLE
  OXYCARBOXIN
  OXYDEMETON METHYL   301-12-2
  OXYTETRACYCLINE
  PEFURAZOATE
  PENCONAZOLE
  PENCYCURON
  PENTHIOPYRAD
  PERMETHRIN   52645-53-1
  PHENOTHRIN   26002-80-2
  PHOPHOROUS ACID AND SALTS
  PHORATE   52645-53-1
  PHOSMET   298-02-2
  PICOXYSTROBIN
  PIPERALIN
  POLYOXIN
  PRALLETHRIN (ETOC)   23031-36-9
  PROBENAZOLE (ALSO ANTIBACTERIAL
  AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY)
  PROCHLORAZ
  PROCYMIDONE
  PROFENOFOS   41198-08-7
  PROPAMOCARB
  PROPICONAZOLE
  PROPINEB
  PROQUINAZID
  PROTHIOCARB
  PROTHIOCONAZOLE
  PYRACLOSTROBIN
  PYRAZOPHOS
  PYRETHRUM   8003-34-7
  PYRIBUTICARB
  PYRIFENOX
  PYRIMETHANIL
  PYRIBENCARB
  PYROQUILON
  QUINTOZENE (PCNB)
  QUINOXYFEN
  RESMETHRIN   10453-86-8
  SILITHIOFAM
  SIMECONAZOLE
  SPINOSAD   131929-60-7
  SPIROXAMINE
  STREPTOMYCIN
  SULPHUR
  TEBUCONAZOLE
  TEBUFENOZIDE   112410-23-8
  TECLOFTHALAM (BACTERICIDE)
  TECNAZENE (TCNB)
  TEFLUTHRIN   79538-32-2
  TERBINAFINE
  TETRACONAZOLE
  THIABENDAZOLE
  TIADINIL
  THIFLUZAMIDE
  THIOCYCLAM   31895-21-3
  THIODICARB   59669-26-0
  THIOPHANATE
  THIOPHANATE-METHYL
  THIAMETHOXAM   153719-23-4
  THIRAM
  TOLCLOFOS-METHYL
  TOLYFLUANID
  TRALOMETHRIN   66841-25-6
  TRIADIMEFON
  TRIADIMENOL
  TRIAZOXIDE
  TRICYCLAZOLE
  TRIDEMORPH
  TRIFLOXYSTROBIN
  TRIFLUMIZOLE
  TRIFORINE
  TRITICONAZOLE
  VALIDAMYCIN
  VALIPHENAL
  VINCLOZOLIN
  N,N-DIETHYL-3-METHYLBENZAMIDE   134-62-3
  (DEET)
  ZINEB
  ZIRAM
  ZOXAMIDE
 
[0062] Embodiments of the invention can include compounds such as, for example, abamectin, allethrin, citronella oil, IR3535® (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid ethyl ester), methyl nonyl ketone, metofluthrin, neem oil, nepetalactone, oil of lemon eucalyptus, permethrin, picaridin, p-menthane 3, 8 diol, and the like.
[0063] Embodiments of the present invention can include at least one insect control chemical, and at least one compound of a plant origin, or at least one blend of compounds of a plant origin. With reference to FIG. 2, compounds of plant origin, such as plant essential oils, can bind certain biogenic amine receptors, resulting in downstream signaling affecting certain physiological responses. With reference to FIG. 3, insect control chemicals, such as deltamethrin (DM), can also affect downstream signaling. As depicted in FIGS. 2 and 3, the compounds or blends of plant origin and the insect control chemicals activate signaling in different manners.
[0064] In embodiments that include an insect control chemical, the insect control chemical can include, for example, any insect control chemical from the classes listed in the following table:
[00002] [TABLE-US-00002]
  TABLE 2
 
  CLASSIFICATION OF INSECT CONTROL COMPOSITIONS
        Chemical subgroup  
        or exemplifying active
  Group   Subgroup   Primary target site of action   ingredient   Active ingredients
 
   1*    1A   Acetylcholine esterase   Carbamates   Aldicarb
      inhibitors     Bendiocarb
          Carbaryl
          Carbofuran
          Methiocarb
          Methomyl
          Oxamyl
          Propoxur
          Thiodicarb
     1B     Organophosphates   Acephate
          Azinphos-methyl
          Chlorpyrifos
          Chlorpyrifos-
          methyl
          Coumaphos
          Diazinon
          Dichlorvos
          Dicrotophos
          Dimethoate
          Disulfoton
          Ethoprop
          Fenamiphos
          Fenthion
          Isofenphos
          Malathion
          Methamidophos
          Methidathion
          Methyl parathion
          Naled
          Oxydemeton-
          methyl
          Phorate
          Profenofos
          Propetamphos
          Temephos
          Terbufos
          Tetrachlorvinphos
          Trichlorfon
   2*    2A   GABA-gated chloride   Cyclodiene   Endosulfan
      channel antagonists   organochlorines   Lindane
     2B     Fipronil   Fipronil
        (phenylpyrazoles)
   3     Sodium channel modulators   Pyrethroids   Allethrin
          d-cis-trans Allethrin
          d-trans Allethrin
          Bifenthrin
          Bioallethrin S-
          cyclopentenyl
          Cyfluthrin
          Beta-Cyfluthrin
          Cypermethrin
          zeta-Cypermethrin
          Cyphenothrin
          [(1R)-trans-
          isomers]
          Deltamethrin
          Esfenvalerate
          Fenpropathrin
          Fenvalerate
          Imiprothrin
          Permethrin
          Phenothrin [(1R)-
          trans-isomer]
          Prallethrin
          Resmethrin
          Tefluthrin
          Tetramethrin
          Tralomethrin
        Pyrethrins   Pyrethrins
          (pyrethrum)
        Methoxychlor   Methoxychlor
   4*    4A   Nicotinic acetylcholine   Neonicotinoids   Acetamiprid
      receptor agonists/antagonists     Imidacloprid
          Thiamethoxam
     4B     Nicotine   Nicotine
   6     Chloride channel activators   Avermectins,   Abamectin
        Milbemycins
   7*    7A   Juvenile hormone mimics   Juvenile hormone   Hydroprene
        analogues   Kinoprene
          Methoprene
     7B     Fenoxycarb   Fenoxycarb
   8*    8A   Compounds of unknown or   Methyl bromide   Methyl bromide
      non-specific mode of action     and other alkyl
      (fumigants)     halides
     8B     Chloropicrin   Chloropicrin
     8C     Sulfuryl fluoride   Sulfuryl fluoride
   9*    9A   Compounds of unknown or   Cryolite   Cryolite
      non-specific mode of action
      (selective feeding blockers)
  10*   10A   Compounds of unknown or   Clofentezine   Clofentezine
      non-specific mode of action   Hexythiazox   Hexythiazox
    10B   (mite growth inhibitors)   Etoxazole   Etoxazole
  11*   11A1   Microbial disruptors of insectB. t. var. israelensisB. t. var. israelinsis
    11B1   midgut membranes (includesB. t. var. aizawaiB. t. var. aizawai
    11B2   transgenic crops expressingB. t. var. kurstakiB. t. var. kurstaki
    B. t. toxins)
  12*   12B   Inhibitors of oxidative   Organotin miticides   Fentutatin oxide
      phosphorylation, disruptors of
      ATP formation (inhibitors of
    12C   ATP synthase)   Propargite   Propargite
  15     Inhibitors of chitin   Benzoylureas   Diflubenzuron
      biosynthesis, type 0,     Hexaflumuron
      Leptdopteran     Novaluron
  17     Moulting disruptor, Dipteran   Cyromazine   Cyromazine
  18*   18A   Ecdysone agonists/moulting   Diacylhydrazines   Halofenozide
      disruptors     Methoxyfenozide
          Tebufenozide
    18B     Azadirachtin   Azadirachtin
  19     Octopaminergic agonists   Amitraz   Amitraz
  20*   20A   Mitochondrial complex III   Hydramethylnon   Hydramethylnon
      electron transport inhibitors
      (Coupling site II)
  21     Mitochondrial complex I   METI acaricides,   Rotenone
      electron transport inhibitors   Rotenone
  22     Voltage-dependent sodium   Indoxacarb   Indoxacarb
      channel blockers
  24*   24A   Mitochondrial complex IV   Aluminum phosphide   Aluminum
      electron transport inhibitors     phosphide
    24C     Phosphine   Phosphine
  25     Neuronal inhibitors (unknown   Bifenazate   Bifenazate
      mode of action)
  27*   27A   Synergists   P450 monooxygenase   Piperonyl butoxide
        inhibitors
  UN   UNC   Compounds with unknown   Dicofol   Dicofol
    UND   mode of action**   Pyridalyl   Pyridalyl
  NS   NSA   Miscellaneous non-specific   Borax   Borax
    (multi-site) inhibitors
 
[0065] In some embodiments of the invention, the insect control chemical can include at least one of, for example, an organophosphate compound, a carbamate compound, a carbazate compound, a neonicotinoid compound, an organochlorine compound, an organotin compound, an oxadiazine compound, a pyridazinone compound, a pyrethroid, a tetrazine compound, or the like.
[0066] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one organophosphate compound, the organophosphate compound can be, for example, azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, methidathion, phosmet, or the like.
[0067] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one carbamate compound, the carbamate compound can be, for example, methomyl, oxamyl, carbaryl, formetanate, hexythiazox, or the like.
[0068] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one carbazate compound, the carbazate compound can be, for example, bifenazate, or the like.
[0069] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one neonicotinoid compound, the neonicotinoid compound can be acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiomethoxam, or the like.
[0070] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one organochlorine compound, the organochlorine compound can be, for example, endosulfan, dicofil, or the like.
[0071] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one organotin compound, the organotin compound can be, for example, hexakis, or the like.
[0072] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one oxadiazine compound, the oxadiazine compound can be, for example, indoxacarb, or the like.
[0073] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one pyridazinone compound, the pyridazinone compound can be, for example, pyridaben, or the like.
[0074] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one pyrethroid, the pyrethroid can be, for example, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, permethrin, or the like.
[0075] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one tetrazine compound, the tetrazine compound can be, for example, clofentezine, or the like.
[0076] Embodiments of the invention can include at least one insect control product; and at least one compound of a plant origin, or at least one blend of compounds of a plant origin. The at least one insect control product can be selected from, for example, the insect control products set forth in Table 4, or the like.
[00003] [TABLE-US-00003]
  TABLE 3
 
  INSECT CONTROL PRODUCTS
  Brand Name   Generic name   Classification
 
  ARCHER 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE  
  2,4-D AMINE 6   2,4-D AMINE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  LBS/USG
  2,4-D AMINE 3.34   2,4-D AMINE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  LBS/USG
  2,4-D AMINE EC   2,4-D AMINE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  2,4-D ESTER   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  2,4-D ESTER   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  2,4-D ESTER   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  2,4-D ESTER   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  2,4-D ESTER   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  2,4-D GRANULES   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  2,4-D GRANULES   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  5 Star GENERAL   ISOPROTHIOLANE
  ABATE 500 E   TEBUFENOZIDE
  ABATE SG   TEMEPHOS
  Access 2,4-d ESTER   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  ACETAM 75 SP   ACEPHATE   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  ACROBAT 50 WP   DIMETHOMORPH
  ACROBAT MZ   DIMETHOMORPH +
    MANCOZEB
  ACTARA 25 WG   THIABENDAZOLE + 0-
    PHENOL
  ACTELLIC 25 EC   PIPEROPHOS + 2,4-D
    IBE
  ACTIVO 22 SC   ANILOFOS + ETHOYSULFRON
  ADER 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  ADMIRE 5 WP   IMAZAQUIN
  ADVANCE EC   BUTACHLOR +   MISCELLANEOUS
    PROPANIL
  ADVANTAGE 5 G   CARBOFURAN   CARBAMATE
  ADVANTAGE 5 G   CARBOFURAN   CARBAMATE
  AFALON 50 WP   LINDANE
  AGRI MEK 1.8 EC   AVERMECTIN   CHLORIDE CHANNEL ACTIVATOR
  AGRICOTE MZ 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  AGRISOL A-150 K   POLYOXYETHYLENE
    DODECYL ETHER
  AGRISOL A-150K   POLYOXYETHYLENE
    SORBITAN FATTY
    ACIDS
  AGRO   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYPERMETHRIN 5 EC
  AGROPOINT CARTAP   CARTAP
  50 SP   HYDROCHLORIDE
  AGROZEB 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  AL-100 TS   SETHOXYDIM
  ALAKDAN 300   BPMC + CHLOPYRIFOS
  ALIETTE 80 WP   FOSETHYL-AL
  ALIETTE 800 WG   FOSETHYL-AL
  ALMIX 20 WP   METRIBUZIN
  AMBUSH 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  AMDRO ANT BAIT   HEXYTHIAZOX
  AMETREX 80 WP   AMETRYNE   MISCELLANEOUS
  AMETREX 80 WP   AMETRYNE   MISCELLANEOUS
  AMETRYNE 80 WP   AMETRYNE   MISCELLANEOUS
  AMISTAR 25 SC   AZOXYSTROBIN
  AMMO 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  AMWAY APSA 80   ALKYL ARYL
    ALKOXYLATE + TALL
    OIL FATTY AC
  ANCOM BUTACHLOR   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  60 EC
  ANCOM   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYPERMETHRIN 5 EC
  ANTRACOL 70 WG   PROPICONAZOLE
  ANTRACOL 70 WP   PROPINEB
  ANVIL 5 SC   HALOXYFOP-R-
    METHYL ESTER
  APACHE 10 G   CADUSAFOS
  APACHE 100 ME   CADUSAFOS
  APACHE 100 ME   CADUSAFOS
  APPLAUD 10 WP   BUPROFESIN
  APRON 35 SD   MCPA
  AQUADIN 25 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  AQUADIN 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  ARGOLD 10 EC   CINMETHYLIN
  ARGOLD PLUS   CYNMETHYLIN + 2,4-D   PYRETHROID
    IBE
  ARIES SUPER   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  METHRIN 5 EC
  ARMOR   THIOPHANATE
    METHYL
  ARMURE 300 EC   DIFECONAZOLE +
    PROPICONAZOLE
  ARNIS 2.5 EC   LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN   PYRETHROID
  ARRIVO 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  ARROW 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  ASCEND 50 SC   FIPRONIL
  ASSET 48 SL   GLYPHOSATE
    MONOETHALONAMINE
    SALT
  ASSURE II EC   PYRIMETHANIL
  ATABRON 5 E   CHLORFLUAZURON
  ATRAMET COMBI 80   AMETRYNE +   MISCELLANEOUS
  WP   ATRAZINE
  ATRAZINE 80 WP   ATRAZINE   MISCELLANEOUS
  ATTACK 5R   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  ATTAIN M-80   MALATHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  AVANTEC EC   BUTACHLOR +   MISCELLANEOUS
    PROPANIL
  AVID   AVERMECTIN   CHLORIDE CHANNEL ACTIVATOR
  AX 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  BALEAR 500 SC   CHLOROTHALONIL   CHLORONITRILE
  BANKIT   AZOXYSTROBIN
  BANKO 720 SC   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  BANKO 720 SC   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  BANKO 75 WP   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  BANNER 60 EC   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  BANOLE OIL   PARAFFIN OIL
  BANOLE OIL 60   PARAFFINIC MINERAL
    OIL
  BASAGRAN 48 EC   BENTAZONE
  BASAMID G   DAZOMET   PYRETHROID
  BASTA 15 SL   GIBBERRELIC ACID
  BASUDIN 40 WP   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  BASUDIN 400 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  BASUDIN 600 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  BAVISTIN 50 DF   CARBARYL   CARBAMATE
  BAYCOR 300 EC   BITERTANOL
  BAYLETON 25 WP   THIOPHANATE
    METHYL
  BAYLUSCIDE 250 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  BAYLUSCIDE 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE SALT
  BAYLUSCIDE 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE SALT
  BAYONET 6%   METALDEHYDE
  PELLETS
  BAYTHROID 0125 EC   CYFLUTHRIN   Pyrethroid
  BAYTHROID 050 EC   CYFLUTHRIN   Pyrethroid
  BAZZOKA   CHLORPYFIROS +   Organophosphate + Carbamate
    BPMC
  BELEREX TABLET   GIBBERRELIC ACID
  BELORAN 400 SL   BENZOXONIUM
    CHLORIDE
  BENLATE 50 WP/OD   BENOMYL
  BENSUL 10 WP   BENSULFURON
    METHYL
  BERDUGO 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE SALT
  BERELEX TABLET   GENERIC NAME
  BIDA 2.5 EC   LAMBACYHALOTHRIN   PYRETHROID
  BIFLEX 10 TC   BIFENTHRIN
  BIFLEX 10 TC   BIFENTHRIN
  BIFLEX 2.5 TC   BIFENTHRIN
  BIFLEX TC   BIFENTHRIN
  BIOACT WG   PACLOBUTRAZOL
  BIODAN 3 G   CARBUFORAN   CARBAMATE
  BIOZEB   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  BIOZEB 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  BLADE 60 EC   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  BLINK 275 EC   CHLORPYFIROS +   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
    CYPERMETHRIN
  BLOCKADE 480 SL   BENTAZONE
  BLUE COP 770 WP   COPPER HYDROXIDE   MISCELLANEOUS
  BOLT 50 SP   CARTAP   CARBAMATE
  BOOST 500 SC   ACIBENZOLAR-S-
    METHYL
  BOXER 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  BRAVO 720 FLO   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  BREAK-THRU   POLYCARBOXYLIC
    ACID
  BRODAN 31.5 EC   CHLORPYFIROS +   Organophosphate + Carbamate
    BPMC
  BROMO GAS   METHOMYL
  BRONCHO   GLYPHOSATE
    AMMONIUM SALT
  BUGBUSTER 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  BULLDOZER 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  BULLET 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  BULL'S EYE   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  INSECTICIDE
  BUMPER 25 EC   PROPICONAZOLE
  BURNDOWN 160 AS   GLYPHOSATE DI-
    AMMONIUM SALT
  BURNDOWN 160 AS   GLYPHOSATE IPA
  BUSHWHACK 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  BUTACHLOR 600 EC   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  BUTATAF 60 E   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  CALIBER 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  CALIBER 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  CALIXIN 75 EC   TRICLOPYR
  CAPTAN 50 WP   CAPTAN   MISCELLANEOUS
  CAPTAN 50 WP   CAPTAN   MISCELLANEOUS
  CAPTURE 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CARANCHO 2.5 EC   ETHOFENPROX
  CARBARYL 85 S   CARBARYL   CARBAMATE
  CARVIL 50 EC   BPMC   CARBAMATE
  CASCADE 10 WDC   FLUFENOXURON
  CELCURE A(P) WOOD   COPPER, CHROME, ARSENIC
  PRESERVE   (CCA)
  CHAKU 2.5 EC   LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN
  CHAMP DP   COPPER HYDROXIDE   COPPER
  CHAMPION WP   CUPRIC HYDROXIDE   COPPER
  CHESS 25 WP   PROPINEB
  CHESS 50 WG   PYMETROZINE
  CHIX 2.5 EC   BETACYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CHLORMITE TC   CHLOROPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  CHOPPER 85 S   CARBARYL   CARBAMATE
  CITRUS LUSTER 213   THIABENDAZOLE
  CIVIL 75 WP   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  CLEANFIELD EC   BUTACHLOR + PROPANIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  CLEAR OUT 41   GLYPHOSPATE IPA
  CLEAR OUT 41 PLUS   GLYPHOSPHATE IPA
  CLINCHER.100 EC   CYHALOFOP BUTYL
  COBRA 20 EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  COMBAT 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  COMMAND 3 ME   CLOMAZONE
  COMMAND 3 ME   CLOMAZONE
  COMMAND PLUS 600   CLOMAZONE +
  EC   PROPANIL
  COMPETE 75 SP   ACEPHATE   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  COMPRO 600 EC   CLOMAZONE + PROPANIL
  CONFIDOR 100 SL   IMIDACLOPRID
  CONFIDOR 200 SL   IMIDACLOPRID
  CONTRAZINE 80 WP   ATRAZINE   MISCELLANEOUS
  CONTRAZINE 80 WP   ATRAZINE   MISCELLANEOUS
  CONTROL 250 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  CONTROL 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE SALT
  CORSAIR 5 EC   PENDIMETHLIN   PYRETHROID
  CORSAIR 5 EC   PERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  COSAVET DF   SULFUR
  COTRIN 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  COTRIN 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  COUNTER 10 G   TEMEPHOS
  COZEB 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  CRUSHER 250 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  CRUSHER 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE SALT
  CRUSHER 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  CULTAR 25 SC   OXYFLUORFEN
  CUPRAVIT OB 21   COPPER   COPPER
    OXYCHLORIDE
  CURZATE M   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  FUNGICIDE
  CYBEST 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYCLONE 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYMBUSH 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYPER-5   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYPERMETHRIN 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYPERTHRIN 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYPEX 50 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYPRO 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYREN 300 EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DACINOL 2787 50 WP   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  DACINOL 2787 75 WP   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  DACONIL 720 SC   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  DEADBOL   NICLOSAMIDE
  DECIDE 2.5 EC   DELTAMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  DECIS 1% SC   DELTAMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  DECIS 2.5 EC   DELTAMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  DECIS M 2.5 EC   DELTAMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  DECIS R   DELTAMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  DECIS TAB   DELTAMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  DEFENSA 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  DEGESCH MAGTOXIN   LUFENURON
  DEGESCH   MAGNESSIUM
  PLATES/STRIPS   PHOSPHIDE
  DEGESH PHOSTOXIN   ALUMINUM   RODENTICIDE
    PHOSPHIDE
  DELMARK 2.5 EC   DELTAMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  DETIA GAS EX-B   ALUMINUM   RODENTICIDE
    PHOSPHIDE
  DETIA GAS EX-T   ALUMINUM   RODENTICIDE
    PHOSPHIDE
  DETIA PHOSPHINE   ALUMINUM   RODENTICIDE
  PELLETS   PHOSPHIDE
  DIACARB 50 EC   BPMC   CARBAMATE
  DIAFURAN 10 G   CARBOFURAN   CARBAMATE
  DIAFURAN 3 G   CARBOFURAN   CARBAMATE
  DIAFURAN 5 G   CARBOFURAN   CARBAMATE
  DIAGRAN 5 G   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DIAGRAN 5 G   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DIAZINON 40 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DIAZINON 60 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DIAZINON 60 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DIAZINON 60 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DIAZINON 600 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DIAZOL 40 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DIAZOL 40 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DIAZOL 60 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DIAZOL 60 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DICARE 37.5 WG   DIAFENTHIURON +   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
    FENOXYCAB
  DICARZOL 20 SP   FORMETHANATE HCL
  DIMO 50 SP   CARTAP
    HYDROCHLORIDE
  DIPEL WP   BACILLUS   PLANT ORIGIN
    THURINGIENSIS
  DIPTEREX 95 SP   TRIBUTYLPOLYGLYCO
    ETHER
  DIREK 800   BUTACHLOR +
    SAFENER
  DITHANE F-448   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  DITHANE F-448   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  DITHANE M-45   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  DITHANE M-45   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  DITHANE M-45 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  DITHANE OS 600   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  DITHANE OS-600   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  DIUREX 80 WP   DIURON   UREA
  DIUREX 80 WP   DIURON   UREA
  DIURON 80 WP   DIURON   UREA
  DIURON 80 WP   DIURON   UREA
  DIURON 80 WP   DIURON   UREA
  DMA 3.34 LBS/USG   2,4-D AMINE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  DRAGO 60 WP   FLUFENACET
  DREXEL DIURON 80   DIURON   UREA
  DF
  DREXEL MALATHION   MALATHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  57 EC
  DREXEL SULFA 80 W   SULFUR
  DURSBAN   CHLORPYRIFOS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  DYNAMEC   AVERMECTIN   CHLORIDE CHANNEL ACTIVATOR
  EASY 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  ELTRA 200 SC   CARBOFURAN   CARBAMATE
  EQUATION PRO 52.5   CYMOXANIL +
  DF   FAMOXADONE
  ERASER 70 EC   BUTACHLOR +   MISCELLANEOUS
    PROPANIL
  ETHREL 10 SL   ETHEPHON
  ETHREL PGR 48%   ETHEPHON
  ETROFOLAN 50 WP   ISAZOFOS
  EXPERT 20 EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  EXTREME 50 SP   CARTAP
    HYDROCHLORIDE
  FASTAC 15 WDG   ALPHACYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  FASTAC 250 SC   ALPHACYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  FASTAC R   ALPHACYPERMETHRIN +   PYRETHROID + CARBAMATE
    BPMC
  FENOM D 225 EC   DIAZINON +   Organophosphate + Pyrethroid
    CYPERMETHRIN
  FLASH 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  FLIP 500 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  FLIP 700 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE SALT
  FOLICUR 250 EC   SULPHUR
  FOLICUR 430 SC   TEBUCONAZOLE
  FORWARD 700 EC   BUTACHLOR +   MISCELLANEOUS
    PROPANIL
  FROWNCIDE 50 SC   FLUAZINAM
  FRUITONE CPA   CHLOROPHENOXY
    PROPIONIC ACID
  FUJI-ONE 40 EC   ISOPROCARB
  FUMITOXIN   ALUMINUM   RODENTICIDE
    PHOSPHIDE
  FUNGAFLOR 50 L   HYDRAMETHYLNON
  FUNGAFLOR 75 SP   IMAZALIL
  FUNGITOX 70 WP   THIOPHANATE
    METHYL
  FUNGURAN-OH   COPPER HYDROXIDE   MISCELLANEOUS
  FURADAN 10G   CARBARYL   CARBAMATE
  FURADAN 3 G   CARBENDAZIM   CARBAMATE
  FURADAN 3G   CARBOFURAN   CARBAMATE
  FURADAN 5 G   CARBARYL   CARBAMATE
  FURADAN 5 G   CARBOFURAN   CARBAMATE
  FURUDAN 10 G   CARBOSULFAN   CARBAMATE
  FURUDAN 3 G   CARBOSULFAN   CARBAMATE
  FURUDAN 5 G   CARBUFORAN   CARBAMATE
  GALLANT SUPER   HALOSULFURON
    METHYL
  GARLON 4   TRICHLOROFON
  GAROTE EC   CHLORPYRIFOS + BPMC   Organophosphate + Carbamate
  GAS 250 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  GAUCHO 70 WS   IMIDACLOPRID
  GEM 2,4-D AMINE   2,4-D AMINE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  GEM 2,4-D ESTER   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  GEM ATRAZINE   ATRAZINE   MISCELLANEOUS
  GEM MALATHION 57   MALATHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  EC
  GEMTRAK 50 SP   CARTAP
    HYDROCHLORIDE
  GESAPAX 500 FW   AMETRYNE   MISCELLANEOUS
  GESAPAX 80 WP   AMETRYNE   MISCELLANEOUS
  GESAPAX COMBI 80   AMETRYNE +   MISCELLANEOUS
  WP   ATRAZINE
  GESAPRIM 80 WP   ATRAZINE   MISCELLANEOUS
  GLADIATOR 75 WDG   CHLORPYRIFOS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  GLYPHOMAX   GLYPHOSATE IPA
  GOAL 24 EC   OXADIAZON
  GOAL 24 EC   OXYFLOURFEN
  GRAMOXONE 20 AS   PARAFINIC MINERAL
    OIL
  GRASSEDGE   THIOBENCARB
  GRASSEDGE 800 EC   THIOBENCARB + 2,4-D
  GUARDIAN 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  HALT   BACILLUS   PLANT ORIGIN
    THURINGIENSIS
  HEDONAL LIQ. SL   2,4-D AMINE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  4OO
  HERBADOX 33 EC   PENDIMETHALIN
  HERBIMAX   PIRIMIPHOS METHYL
  HERCULES 20 EC   TRIADIMEFON
  HI-CONFIL F 75 WP   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  HIDROCOB 77 WP   COPPER HYDROXIDE   MISCELLANEOUS
  HINOSAN 300 EC   EDIFENPHOS   Organophosphate
  HINOSAN 50 EC   EDIFENPHOS   Organophosphate
  HI-PER 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  HIT 250 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  HIT WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  HOESTICK   TRIAZOPHOS
  HOPCIDE 50 EC   BPMC   CARBAMATE
  HOPCIN 50 EC   BPMC   CARBAMATE
  HOPKILL 50 EC   BPMC   CARBAMATE
  HOSTATHION 20 EC   TRIAZOPHOS
  HYDROX 77 WP   COPPER HYDROXIDE   COPPER
  HYDROXIDE SUPER   COPER HYDROXIDE   COPPER
  77 WP
  HYDROXIDE SUPER   COPPER HYDROXIDE   COPPER
  77 WP
  HYTOX 50 WP   MICP
  HYVAR X   BROMACIL
  WEEDKILLER
  IMAGE 1.5 LC   IMAZALIL
  IMPACT 2.5 EC   DELTAMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  INDAR 2F   FENBUCONAZOLE   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  INDAR 2F   FENBUCONAZOLE   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  INSECT PRO 50 SP   CARTAP
    HYDOCLORIDE
  INSECT PRO 50 SP   CARTAP
    HYDOCLORIDE
  INSTAR   CARTAP
    HYDROCHLORIDE
  INVEST 10 WP   CYCLOSULFAMURON
  IVA DIURON 80 WP   DIURON   MISCELLANEOUS
  IVA PYRITILINE 20 PE   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  M/B
  IVAZEB 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  KARATE 2.5 EC   LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN   PYRETHROID
  KARATE w/ ZEON   LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN   PYRETHROID
  TECHNOLOGY
  KARET 40   MANEB W/ ZINC
  KARMEX   DIURON   MISCELLANEOUS
  WEEDKILLER
  KHOLUSCIDE 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE SALT
  KICK 25 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  KICK 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  KILLER 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  KILPES 3 EC   FENVALERATE   PYRETHROID
  KING 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  KITAL ATRAZINE   ATRAZINE   MISCELLANEOUS
  KITAL MANCOZEB   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  KITAL STRYKER 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  KLEEN UP 480 AS   GLYPHOSATE IPA
  KLEN UP 480 AS   GLYPHOSATE IPA
  KLERAT WITH   BRODIFACOUM   COUMARIN
  BITREX
  KLIK 700 EC   BUTACHLOR +   MISCELLANEOUS
    PROPANIL
  KNOCK OUT 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  KOCIDE 101   CUPRIC HYDROXIDE   MISCELLANEOUS
  KOCIDE DF   CUPRIC HYDROXIDE   MISCELLANEOUS
  KOCIDE DF 2000   COPPER HYDROXIDE   MISCELLANEOUS
  KOP-HYDROXIDE 50   COPPER HYDROXIDE   MISCELLANEOUS
  WP
  KOTETSU 10 SC   CHLORPHENAPYR   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  KRISS EC   LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN   PYRETHROID
  KUHZAK 25 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  KUHZAK 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  KUMULUS DF   ELEMENTAL SULFUR
  LANNATE 40 SP   METHIOCARB
  LARVIN 350 FS   THIOBENCARB + 2,4-D
    IBE
  LATRON B-1956   PHENTHOATE + BPMC
  LEAD CORP. 2,4-D   2,4-D AMINE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  AMINE
  LEADCORP CARTAP   CARTAP
    HYDROCHLORIDE
  LEADCORP   MALATHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  MALATHION 57 EC
  LEADMARK 3 EC   FENVALERATE   PYRETHROID
  LEADONIL 500 SC   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  LEADREX TC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  LEADTHREL 480 SL   ETHEPON
  LEBAYCID 50 EC   FENTHION
  LECSPRO 44 WP   FENTRAZAMIDE +   PYRETHROID
    PROPANIL
  LENTREK TC   CHLORPYRIFOS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  LENTREK TC   CHLORPYRIFOS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  LINDAFOR 75 F   LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN   ORGANOCHLORINE
  LONDAX WP   BENSULFURON
    METHYL
  LORSBAN 3E   CHLORPYRIFOS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  LORSBAN 40 EC   CHLORPYRIFOS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  LUTENSOL A8   ALKYL
    POLYETHELENE
    GLYSOL ETHER
  LUV 2,4-D ESTER   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  LUV MALATHION 57   MALATHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  EC
  MACHETE 5 G   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  MACHETE EC   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  MACHETE EXPRESS   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  MACHO   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  MAGIK 5% EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  MAGNUM 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  MAITHREL 10 PGR   ETHEPON
  MAITHREL 48 PGR   ETHEPON
  MALATHION 57 E   MAGNESSIUM   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  PREMIUM   PHOSPHIDE
  MALATHION 57 EC   MALATHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  MALATHION 57 EC   MALATHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  MANAGER 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  MANZATE 200   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  FUNGICIDE
  MANZATE 75 DF   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  MANZEB 80 WP   MIPC
  MARSBYL 85 WP   CARBARYL   CARBAMATE
  MARVEL 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  MASO 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  MASTER 2.5 EC   LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN   PYRETHROID
  MASTRA DIURON 80   DIURON   MISCELLANEOUS
  WP
  MATADOR 60 SC   METAMIDOPHOS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  MATCH 050 EC   LINURON   UREA
  MATON 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  MEBROM   METHYL BROMIDE +
    CHLOROPICRIN
  MEGARIFOS 20 EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  MEGATHRIN 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  MELODY DUO   IPRODIONE
  MESUROL 50 WP   METHAMIDOPHOS
  META BAIT   METALDEHYDE
  META BAIT 6%   METALAXYL-m +
  PELLETS   MANCOZEB
  METABROM   METHYL BROMIDE +
    CHLOROPICRIN
  MICROTHIOL DF   SPINOSAD
  MIMIC 20 F   TEBUCONAZOLE
  MIMIC 20 F   TEBUFENOZIDE
  MINER 50 SP   CARTAP
    HYDROCHLORIDE
  MIPCIN 50 WP   METSULFURON
    METHYL +
    CHLORIMURON ETH
  MIRACLE AMINE   2,4-D AMINE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  MIRAL 3 G   IPROVALICARB +
    PROPINEB
  MOCAP 10 G   ETHOPROP
  MODEL 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  MOLUXIDE 250 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  MOSPHILAN 3 EC   ACETAMIPRID
  NABU-S   QUIZALOFOP-P-ETHYL
  NEMACUR 10 G   PERMETHRIN + Zn
  NEMACUR 400 EC   PHENAMIPHOS
  NEMATHORIN 10 G   FOZTHIAZATE
  NET 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE SALT
  NICLOS M   NICLOSAMIDE
  NISSORUN 5 EC   HEXAFLUMURON
  NOBLITE 60 WG   FENAMIDONE + MANCOZEB
  NOMINEE 100 SC   BISPYRIBAC SODIUM
  NOMINEE 100 SC   BISPYRIBAC SODIUM
  NORDOX 50 WP   COPPER OXIDE   COPPER
  NURELLE D   CHLORPYFIROS +   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
    CYPERMETHRIN
  NUVACRON 300 SCW   Mn—Zn ETHYLENE
    BISDITHIOCARBAMATE
  NYDREL 100   ETHEPHON
  NYDREL 480   ETHEPHON
  OCHO 5 WP   CARBARYL   CARBAMATE
  OMEGA 45 EC   PRETILACHLOR +
    FENCLORIM
  ONECIDE 15 EC   FLUAZIFOP-P-BUTYL
  ORTHENE/ACETAM   ACEPHATE   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  75 SP
  ORTHENE 75 SP   ACEPHATE   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  OXYCHLOR 85 WP   COPPER
    OXYCHLORIDE
  PADAN 50 SP   CAPTAN   CARBAMATE
    HYDROCHLORIDE
  PADAN 50 SP   CARTAP
    HYDROCHLORIDE
  PARAFUNGUS 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  PARAKUHOL 250 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  PARAPEST D 400 EC   DIAZINON   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  PARAULOD 300 EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  PARTNER 40 DF   CARFENTRAZONE-
    ETHYL
  PARTNER 40 DF   CARFENTRAZONE-
    ETHYL
  PASSPORT 500 SC   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  PENNANT   PHENAMIPHOS
  PERFEK 31.5 EC   CHLORPYRIFOS +   Organophosphate + Carbamate
    BPMC
  PERFEKTHION 40 EC   DIMETHOATE
  PERMIT 10 WP   GLYSOPHATE IPA
  PESTMASTER   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  PILARICH 500 G/L FP   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  PILARZEB 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  PIPSET 35 WP   CINOSULFURON +
    PIPEROPHOS
  PISTOL 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE
  PISTOL 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE SALT
  PLANTERS   MALATHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  MALATHION 57 EC
  POLIDO 2.5 EC   ETHOFENPROX
  PORSANAIL   METALDEHYDE
  POSSE 200 SC   CARBOSULFAN   CARBAMATE
  POWER   GLYPHOSATE IPA
  POWER SUPRATECH   GLYPHOSATE DI-
    AMMONIUM SALT
  PREDATOR EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  PREDATOR PLUS   CHLORPYFIROS +   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
    CYPERMETHRIN
  PREKILL 330   PARAQUAT
    DICHLORIDE
  PREMISE 200 SC   IMIDACLOPRID
  PREMIUM 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  PREVENT 77 WP   COPPER HYDROXIDE   COPPER
  PREVICUR-N   PROFENOFOS
  PROCIN 25 WP   BUFROFESIN
  PROCURE 50 WP   BENOMYL
  PROPLANT   PROPAMOCARB
  PROVADO SUPRA 050   IMIDACLOPRID
  EC
  PROVIN 85 WP   CARBARYL   CARBAMATE
  PUNISH 5.5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  PYRITILENE 20 PE   CHLOPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  M/B
  PYTOX 10 EC   PERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  QUICKPHOS (ROUND   ALUMINUM   RODENTICIDE
  TAB)   PHOSPHIDE
  RACUMIN DUST   COUMATETRALYL
  RADISSON   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  MANCOZEB 80 WP
  RADOR 262.5 EC   CHLORPYFIROS +   Organophosphate + Pyrethroid
    BETACYFLUTHRIN
  RAFT 800 WG   NICLOSAMIDE
    ETHANOLAMINE SALT
  RAPIDO 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  RATKIL ZINC   WARFARIN
  PHOSPHIDE80% BAIT
  RATOXIN P   TRISILOXANE
    ALKOXYLATE + ALLYL
    ETHOXYLA
  RECRUIT II   HEXACONAZOLE
  REDEEM 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  RED-OUT 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  REGENT 0.3 GR   FIPRONIL
  REV 800 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  RICESTAR EC   FENOXAPROP P-ETHYL
  RIDOMIL GOLD MZ 68   METALAXYL +
  WP   MANCOZEB
  RIDOMIL MZ 58 WP   METALAXYL
  RILOF 500 EC   PICLORAM + 2,4-D
  RIPCORD 2.5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  ROBODAX 25 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  ROGUE EC   BUTACHLOR + 2,4-D
  RONSTAR 25 EC   OXADIARGYL
  RONSTAR 2G   OXADIAZON
  ROUND-UP BIOSORB   GLYPHOSATE
    ISOPROPYLAMINE
    SALT
  ROUNDUP EW   GLYPHOSATE IPA
  ROUND-UP MAX   GLUFOSINATE
    AMMONIUM
  ROVER   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  ROVRAL 50 WP   INDOXACARB
  ROVRAL AQUAFLO   IPRODIONE
  50 SC
  ROYAL CARTAP   CARTAP   CARBAMATE
  ROYANIL 75 WP   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  SABEDONG 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  SAMURAI 60EC   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  SANAFURAN 3 G   CARBOSULFAN   CARBAMATE
  SANAZOLE 250 EC   PROPICONAZOLE
  SAPROL EC   TRIFLUMIZOLE
  SATURN 60 EC   THIAMETOXAM
  SATURN D   THIOBENCARB + 2,4-D
  SATURN S   THIOBENCARB   THIOCARBAMATE
  SAVIOR 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  SCOPE 70 WP   THIOPHANATE
    METHYL
  SCORE 250 EC   DIFENOCONAZOLE
  SELECRON 500 EC   PROCHLORAZ MN
  SELECT 120 EC   CLETHODIM
  SELECT 120 EC   CLETHODIM
  SENCOR 70 WP   METHYL BROMIDE +
    CHLOROPICRIN
  SENTINEL 75 WP   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  SERVWEL 2,4-D   2,4-D AMINE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  AMINE
  SERVWEL   MALATHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  MALATHION 57 EC
  SERVWEL   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  MANCOZEB 80 WP
  SERVWEL TKO 50 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  SERVWEL2,4-D   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  GRANULES
  SEVIN 50 WP   CARBUFORAN   CARBAMATE
  SEVIN 85 WP   CARBUFORAN   CARBAMATE
  SHERPA 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  SHIELD   CHLOROTHALONIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  SHOTGUN M   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  SICO 250 EC   DIFENOCONAZOLE
  SIGA 300 EC   CHLORPYRIFOS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  SIGANEX 600 SC   PYMETROZINE
  SIGMA   GLYPHOSPHATE IPA
  SILWET 408   TRISILOXANE
    ALKOXYLATE + ALLYL
    ETHOXYLA
  SILWET 408   TRIFORINE
  SLASH   GLYPHOSATE IPA
  SMART 480   GLYPHOSATE IPA
  SMART 480   GLYPHOSATE IPA
  SMASH 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  SNAIL CHAMP 25 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  SNAIL OUT 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  SNAILKIL 6% P   METALDEHYDE
  SNIPER 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  SOFIT 300 EC   POLYOXYETHYLENE
    SORBITANT FATTY
    ACIDS+
  SOLIGNUM BROWN   PERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  SOLIGNUM   PERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  COLORLESS
  SOLNET 500 EC   PRETILACHLOR
  SONIC 60 EC   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  SPECTRA 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  SPEED 25 EC   MONOCROTOPHOS
  SPEED 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  SPEEDEX   POLYETHER:POLYMETHYLSILOXANE
    COPOLYME
  STAM LV-10   PROPAMOCARB HCL
  STAR 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  STEADFAST TC   ALPHACYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  STEWARD WDG   IMIDACLOPRID +
    CYFLUTHRIN
  STIMUKIL FLY BAIT   METHOMYL
  STINGRAY 5.625   DELTAMETHRIN + BUPROFEZIN
  STIX 480 EC   CARBUFORAN   CARBAMATE
  STOP 6% PELLETS   METALDEHYDE
  STORM WAX W/   FLOCOUMAFEN
  BITREX
  SUCCESS   SORBITAN
  NATURALYTE 25 SC   MONOOLATE(SB), POLY
    OXYETHYL
  SUMI-ALPHA 2.5 EC   ESFENVALERATE   PYRETHROID
  SUMI-ALPHA 2.5 EC   ESFENVALERATE   PYRETHROID
  SUMI-ALPHA 2.5 EC   ESFENVALERATE   PYRETHROID
  SUMICIDIN   FENVALERATE   PYRETHROID
  SUMICIDIN 3 EC   FENVALERATE   PYRETHROID
  SUMICIDIN 3 EC   FENVALERATE   PYRETHROID
  SUMI-EIGHT   DINICONAZOLE
  SUMITHION 40 WDP   FENITROTHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  SUMITHION 50 EC   FENITROTHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  SUMITHION 50 EC   FENITHROTHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  SUMITHION 50 EC   FENITROTHION   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  SUNRICE 15 WDG   ETHOXYSULFURON
  SUNSPRAY 8N   PAECILOMYCES
    LILACINUS STRAIN 251
  SUPER BLUE 85 WP   COPPER   COPPER
    OXYCHLORIDE
  SUPREME 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  SUPREMO EC   BPMC + CHLORPYFIROS
  SURE 250 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  SUREKILL 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  SURFACTANT A-100   POLYETHER-
    POLYMETHYLSILOXANE
    COPOLYM
  SURFACTANT A-100   POLYOXYETHYLENE
    DODECYL ETHER
  SURFIX   BETA PINENE
    POLYMER
  SWEEP   THIOPHANATE
    METHYL
  SWIPE 25 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  SWIPE 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  TAMARON 600 SL   METALDEHYDE
  TAMEX 360 EC   BUTRALIN
  TARGET 2.5 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  TARGET 25 EC   NICLOSAMIDE
  TECTO 45 FW   TETRAMETHYLTHIURAM
    DISULPHIDE
  TEGA 075 EC   TRIDEMORPH
  TELONE II   DICHCHLOROPROPENE
  TERMEX 48 EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  TERMIDOR 2.5 EC   FIPRONIL
  TERMINATOR 2.5 EC   LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN   PYRETHROID
  TERMITE-X   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  TERRAGUARD 48 EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  THESIS 2.5 EC   DELTAMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  THIRAM 80 WG   TETRAMETHYLTHIURAM
    DISULPHIDE
  THYLATE 80 WG   TERBUFOS
  TIGER 25 SC   NICLOSAMIDE
  TILT 250 EC   PROPANIL
  TIMBER GUARD   PERMETHRIN + Zn
  CLEAR
  TIMBER GUARD   PERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  MEDIUM BROWN
  TOP 70 WP   THIOPHANATE
    METHYL
  TOPNOTCH   THIODICARB
  TOPSIN-M 70 WP   THIOPHANATE
    METHYL
  TOPSTAR 60 EC   OXADIARGYL
  TORDON 101   PHTHALIC GLYCEROL
  MIXTURE   ALKYL
  TORNADO 60 EC   BUTACHLOR + PROPANIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  TORNADO 60 EC   BUTACHLOR +   MISCELLANEOUS
    PROPANIL
  TORO   BUTACHLOR +   MISCELLANEOUS
    PROPANIL
  TORPEDO 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  TRAMEX COMBI 80   AMETRYNE +   MISCELLANEOUS
  WP   ATRAZINE
  TRANZEB 455 FC   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  TRANZEB 80 WP   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  TRAP 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  TREBON 10 EC   ETHOFENPROX
  TREBON 10 EC   ETHOFENPROX
  TREBON 10 EW   ETHOFENPROX
  TREFIC 20 WP   ETHOFENPROX
  TRIFMINE 30 WP   TRIFLOXYSTROBIN
  TRIGARD 75 WP   CYROMAZINE
  TRIM 50 WP   LINURON
  TRINEB 80 WP   MANCOZEB +
    CYMOXANIL
  TRIO 50 WP   PROCHLORAZ
  TRIPLEX 50 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  TROJAN 31.5 EC   CHLORPYFIROS + BPMC
  TWISTER 70 EC   BUTACHLOR +   MISCELLANEOUS
    PROPANIL
  TWISTER EC   BUTACHLOR + PROPANIL   MISCELLANEOUS
  ULTIMO EC 200   NICLOSAMIDE
  ULTIMO EC 225   NICLOSAMIDE
  UPROOT 60 EC   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  VECTRON 10 EW   ETHOFENPROX
  VECTRON 20 WP   ETHOFENPROX
  VEGETOX 50 SP   CARTAP   CARBAMATE
  VERTIMEC   AVERMECTIN   CHLORIDE CHANNEL ACTIVATOR
  VEXTER 300 EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  VINDEX PLUS   PHENTHOATE
  VISOCOL 50 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  VITAL BLUE 85 WP   COPPER   COPPER
    OXYCHLORIDE
  VITIGRAN BLUE 58   COPPER   COPPER
  WP   OXYCHLORIDE
  VITIGRAN BLUE 58   COPPER   COPPER
  WP   OXYCHLORIDE
  VONDOZEB 42 SC   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  VONDOZEB 75 DF   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  VONDOZEB L   MANEB
  VONDOZEB PLUS   MANCOZEB   DITHIOCARBAMATE
  WALLOP 70 WP   NICLOSAMIDE
  WARRIOR 31.5   CHLORPYRIFOS +   ORGANOPHOSPHATE + CARBAMATE
    BPMC
  WAZARY 10 FL   FENVALERATE   PYRETHROID
  WAZARY 10 FL   FENVALERATE   PYRETHROID
  WEAPON 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  WEDKILL 2,4-D   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  WEEDER 60 EC   BUTACHLOR   MISCELLANEOUS
  WEEDTROL 40 EC   2,4-D IBE   CHLOROPHENOXY COMPOUND
  WEISER ATRAZINE 80   ATRAZINE   1,3,5-TRIAZINE
  WP
  WEISSER ATRAZINE   ATRAZINE   1,3,5-TRIAZINE
  80 WP
  WEISSER   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  CYPERMETHRIN 5 EC
  WHIP-S 120 EW   FENOXAPROP P-ETHYL
  WHIP-S 75 EW   FENOXAPROP P-ETHYL
  WINNER 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  WIPER5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
  WOLMAN CCA-C   COPPER, CHROME, ARSENIC
    (CCA)
  XENTARI WDG   BACILLUS   PLANT ORIGIN
    THURINGIENSIS
  X-PHOS 20 EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  X-PHOS 40 EC   CHLORPYFIROS   ORGANOPHOSPHATE
  X-RAT 1% P   WARFARIN
  XTRAGRO 10 LS   ETHEPHON
  XTRAGRO 240 PGR   ETHEPHON
  XTRAGRO 480 PGR   ETHEPHON
  ZACARB 85 WP   CARBARYL   CARBAMATE
  ZACK 50 WP   MIPC
  ZECTRIC 6% PELLETS   METALDEHYDE
  ZEPHYR   AVERMECTIN   CHLORIDE CHANNEL ACTIVATOR
  ZINC PHOSPHIDE 80   ZINC PHOSPHIDE
  DP
  ZOOM 5 EC   CYPERMETHRIN   PYRETHROID
 
[0077] Embodiments of the invention can include at least one biologically-based insecticide, such as, for example, abamectin, proteins and/or spores derived from Bacillus thuriniensis, spinosad, or the like.
[0078] Embodiments of the invention can include at least one insect growth regulator, such as, for example, etoxazol, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, or the like.
[0079] Embodiments of the invention can include at least one oil, such as, for example, “Superior oil,” highly-refined oils, and the like.
[0080] Embodiments of the invention can include at least one pheromone, such as, for example, Codling moth pheromone, Oriental fruit moth pheromone, and the like.
[0081] Embodiments of the invention can include a herbicidal chemical or product. In some embodiments, these herbicidal chemicals can include, for example, amide herbicides, anilide herbicides, arylalanine herbicides, chloroacetanilide herbicides, sulfonanilide herbicides, sulfonamide herbicides, thioamide herbicides, antibiotic herbicides, aromatic acid herbicides, benzoic acid herbicides, pyrimidinyloxybenzoic acid herbicides, pyrimidinylthiobenzoic acid herbicides, phthalic acid herbicides, picolinic acid herbicides, quinolinecarboxylic acid herbicides, arsenical herbicides, benzoylcyclohexanedione herbicides, benzofuranyl alkylsulfonate herbicides, benzothiazole herbicides, carbamate herbicides, carbanilate herbicides, cyclohexene oxime herbicides, cyclopropylisoxazole herbicides, dicarboximide herbicides, dinitroaniline herbicides, dinitrophenol herbicides, diphenyl ether herbicides, nitrophenyl ether herbicides, dithiocarbamate herbicides, halogenated aliphatic herbicides, imidazolinone herbicides, inorganic herbicides, nitrile herbicides, organophosphorus herbicides, oxadiazolone herbicides, phenoxy herbicides, phenoxyacetic herbicides, phenoxybutyric herbicides, phenoxypropionic herbicides, aryloxyphenoxypropionic herbicides, phenylenediamine herbicides, pyrazole herbicides, benzoylpyrazole herbicides, phenylpyrazole herbicides, pyridazine herbicides, pyridazinone herbicides, pyridine herbicides, pyrimidinediamine herbicides, quaternary ammonium herbicides, thiocarbamate herbicides, thiocarbonate herbicides, thiourea herbicides, triazine herbicides, chlorotriazine herbicides, methoxytriazine herbicides, methylthiotriazine herbicides, triazinone herbicides, triazole herbicides, triazolopyrimidine herbicides, uracil herbicides, urea herbicides, phenylurea herbicides, sulfonylurea herbicides, pyrimidinylsulfonylurea herbicides, triazinylsulfonylurea herbicides, thiadiazolylurea herbicides, unclassified herbicides, and the like.
[0082] Embodiments of the invention can include a fungicidal chemical or product. In some embodiments, these fungicidal chemicals can include, for example, aliphatic nitrogen fungicides, amide fungicides, acylamino acid fungicides, anilide fungicides, benzanilide fungicides, furanilide fungicides sulfonanilide fungicides, benzamide fungicides, furamide fungicides, phenylsulfamide fungicides, sulfonamide fungicides, valinamide fungicides, antibiotic fungicides, strobilurin fungicides, aromatic fungicides, benzimidazole fungicides, benzimidazole precursor fungicides, benzothiazole fungicides, bridged diphenyl fungicides, carbamate fungicides, benzimidazolylcarbamate fungicides, carbanilate fungicides, conazole fungicides, copper fungicides, dicarboximide fungicides, dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicides, phthalimide fungicides, dinitrophenol fungicides, dithiocarbamate fungicides, imidazole fungicides, inorganic fungicides, mercury fungicides, morpholine fungicides, organophosphorus fungicides, organotin fungicides, oxathin fungicides, oxazole fungicides, polysulfide fungicides, pyrazole fungicides, pyridine fungicides, pyrimidine fungicides, pyrrole fungicides, quinoline fungicides, quinone fungicides, quinoxaline fungicides, thiazole fungicides, thiazolidine fungicides, thiocarbamate fungicides, thiophene fungicides, triazine fungicides, triazole fungicides, urea fungicides, unclassified fungicides, and the like.
[0083] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one compound or chemical of a plant origin, the at least one compound or chemical of a plant origin can include, for example, any of the compounds or chemicals listed in table 4, or the like:
[00004] [TABLE-US-00004]
  TABLE 4
 
  COMPOUNDS OF PLANT ORIGIN
 
 
    T-ANETHOLE
    ALLYL SULFIDE
    ALLYL TRISULFIDE
    ALLYL-DISULFIDE
    ARTEMISIA
    ALCOHOL ACETATE
    BENZALDEHYDE
    BENZOIC ACID
    BENZYL ACETATE
    BENZYL ALCOHOL
    BERGAMOTENE
    B-BISABOLENE
    BISABOLENE OXIDE
    A-BISABOLOL
    BISABOLOL OXIDE
    BISOBOLOL OXIDE B
    BORNYL ACETATE
    B-BOURBONENE
    BLACK SEED OIL (BSO)
    A-CADINOL
    CAMPHENE
    A-CAMPHOLENE
    A-CAMPHOLENE
    ALDEHYDE
    CAMPHOR
    CARVACROL
    D-CARVONE
    L-CARVONE
    CARYOPHYLLENE OXIDE
    TRANS-CARYOPHYLLENE
    CASTOR OIL
    CEDAR OIL
    CHAMAZULENE
    1,8-CINEOLE
    CINNAMALDEHYDE
    CINNAMYL ALCOHOL
    CINNAMON OIL
    CITRAL A
    CITRAL B ISOPROPYL
    CITRATE
    CITRONELLAL
    CITRONELLA OIL
    CITRONELLOL
    CITRONELLYL ACETATE
    CITRONELLYL FORMATE
    CLOVE OIL
    A-COPAENE
    CORNMINT OIL
    CORN OIL
    B-COSTOL
    CRYPTONE
    CUMIN OIL
    CURZERENONE
    P-CYMENE
    DAVANONE
    DIALLYL TETRASULFIDE
    DIETHYL PHTHALATE
    DIHYDROPYROCURZERENONE
    DIHYDROTAGENTONE
    BETA-ELEMENE
    GAMMA-ELEMENE
    ELMOL
    ESTRAGOLE
    2-ETHYL-2-HEXEN-1-OL
    EUGENOL
    EUGENOL ACETATE
    A-FARNESENE
    (Z,E)-A-FARNESENE
    E-B-FARNESENE
    FENCHONE
    FURANODIENE FURANOEUDESM A-1,3-DIENE
    FURANOEUDESM A-1,4-DIENE
    FURANO GERMACRA 1,10(15)-DIENE-6-ONE
    FURANOSESQUITERPENE
    GARLIC OIL
    GERANIOL
    GERANIOL ACETATE
    GERMACRENE D
    GERMACRENE B
    GRAPEFRUIT OIL
    A-GURJUNENE
    A-HUMULENE
    A-IONONE
    B-IONONE
    ISOBORNEOL
    ISOFURANOGERMACRENE
    ISO-MENTHONE
    ISO-PULEGONE
    JASMONE
    LECITHIN
    LEMON OIL
    LEMON GRASS OIL
    LILAC FLOWER OIL (LFO)
    LIME OIL
    D-LIMONENE
    LINALOOL
    LINALYL ACETATE
    LINALYL ANTHRANILATE
    LINDESTRENE
    LINDENOL
    LINSEED OIL
    METHYL-ALLYL-TRISULFIDE
    MENTHOL
    MENTHONE
    2-METHOXY FURANODIENE
    MENTHYL ACETATE
    METHYL CINNAMATE
    METHYL CITRATE
    METHYL DI-HYDROJASMONATE
    MENTHYL SALICYLATE
    MINERAL OIL
    MUSK AMBRETTE
    MYRCENE
    MYRTENAL
    NERALDIMETHYL ACETATE
    NEROLIDOL
    NONANONE
    GAMMA-NONALACTONE
    OIL OF PENNYROYAL
    OLIVE OIL
    ORANGE SWEET OIL
    1-OCTANOL
    E OCIMENONE
    Z OCIMENONE
    3-OCTANONE
    OCIMENE
    OCTYL ACETATE
    PEANUT OIL
    PERILLYL ALCOHOL
    PEPPERMINT OIL
    A-PHELLANDRENE
    B-PHELLANDRENE
    PHENETHYL
    PROPRIONATE
    PHENYL ACETALDEHYDE
    A-PINENE
    B-PINENE
    PINE OIL
    TRANS-PINOCARVEOL
    PIPERONAL
    PIPERONYL
    PIPERONYL ACETATE
    PIPERONYL ALCOHOL
    PIPERONYL AMINE
    PRENAL
    PULEGONE
    QUININE
    ROSEMARY OIL
    SABINENE
    SABINYL
    ACETATE
    SAFFLOWER OIL
    A-SANTALENE
    SANTALOL
    SATIVEN
    Δ-SELINENE
    SESAME OIL
    B-SESQUPHELANDRENE
    SILICONE FLUID
    SODIUM LAURYL
    SULFATE
    SOYBEAN OIL
    SPATHULENOL
    TAGETONE
    TANGERINE OIL
    A-TERPINENE
    TERPINENE 900
    A-TERPINEOL
    A-TERPINOLENE
    GAMMA-TERPINEOL
    A-TERPINYL ACETATE
    2-TERT-BUTYL-P-QUINONE
    A-THUJONE
    THYME OIL
    THYMOL
    THYMYL METHYL ETHER
    GAMMA-UNDECALACTONE
    VALERIC ANHYDRIDE
    VANILLIN
    TRANS-VERBENOL
    CIS-VERBENOL
    VERBENONE
    WHITE MINERAL OIL
    YOMOGI ALCOHOL
    ZINGIBERENE
   
[0084] Additional compounds and chemicals of a plant origin that can be used in accordance with embodiments of the present invention are set forth in the following applications, each of which is incorporated in its entirety herein by reference: U.S. application Ser. No. 10/832,022, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS; U.S. application Ser. No. 11/086,615, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS RELATED TO THE OCTOPAMINE RECEPTOR; U.S. application Ser. No. 11/365,426, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS INVOLVING THE TYRAMINE RECEPTOR; and U.S. application Ser. No. 11/870,385, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS.
[0085] In certain embodiments, it can be desirable to include a naturally-occurring version or a synthetic version of a compound. For example, in certain embodiments it can be desirable to include Lime Oil 410, a synthetic lime oil that can be obtained, for example, from Millennium Chemicals, Inc. In certain exemplary compositions, it can be desirable to include a compound that is designated as meeting Food Chemical Codex (FCC), for example, Geraniol Fine FCC or Tetrahydrolinalool FCC, which compounds can be obtained, for example, from Millennium Chemicals, Inc.
[0086] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one blend of compounds of a plant origin, the compounds of plant origin can be tested for their precise chemical composition using, for example, High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Mass Spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography, or the like.
[0087] The term “about” or “approximately” means within an acceptable error range for the particular value as determined by one of ordinary skill in the art, which will depend in part on how the value is measured or determined, i.e., the limitations of the measurement system, i.e., the degree of precision required for a particular purpose, such as a pharmaceutical formulation. For example, “about” can mean within 1 or more than 1 standard deviations, per the practice in the art. Alternatively, “about” can mean a range of up to 20%, preferably up to 10%, more preferably up to 5%, and more preferably still up to 1% of a given value. Alternatively, particularly with respect to biological systems or processes, the term can mean within an order of magnitude, preferably within 5-fold, and more preferably within 2-fold, of a value. Where particular values are described in the application and claims, unless otherwise stated the term “about” meaning within an acceptable error range for the particular value should be assumed.
[0088] The term “substantially,” as used herein, means at least about 80%, preferably at least about 90%, more preferably at least about 99%, for example at least about 99.9%. In some embodiments, the term “substantially” can mean completely, or about 100%.
[0089] In embodiments of the invention that include at least one blend of compounds of a plant origin, the at least one blend of compounds can include at least two compounds. For example, in an exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include LFO and Black Seed Oil (BSO).
[0090] In another exemplary embodiments, the at least one blend of compounds can include LFO, D-limonene, Thyme Oil White, and Lime Oil.
[0091] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Tetrahydrolinalool, Isopropyl Myristate, Piperonal (aldehyde), Triethyl Citrate, Linalool, Geraniol, Vanillin, D-limonene, Lime Oil, and Thyme Oil White.
[0092] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Isopropyl myristate, Tetrahydrolinalool, Linalool, Geraniol, Piperonal (aldehyde), Vanillin, and BSO.
[0093] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Isopropyl myristate, Tetrahydrolinalool, Linalool Synthetic, Geraniol Fine, Piperonal (aldehyde), Vanillin, BSO, Methyl Salicylate, and D-limonene.
[0094] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Thyme Oil White, Wintergreen Oil, Isopropyl Myristate, and Vanillin.
[0095] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include D-limonene, Thyme Oil White, and Wintergreen Oil.
[0096] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Thyme Oil White, Wintergreen Oil, and Isopropyl Myristate.
[0097] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include D-limonene, Linalool, Geraniol, Tetrahydrolinalool, Isopropyl Myristate, Piperonal, and Vanillin.
[0098] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Methyl Salicylate, Linalool, Geraniol, Tetrahydrolinalool, Isopropyl Myristate, Piperonal (aldehyde), Vanillin, BSO, and D-limonene.
[0099] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Isopropyl myristate, Tetrahydrolinalool, Linalool, Geraniol, Piperonal (aldehyde), Vanillin, Mineral Oil, BSO, and D-limonene.
[0100] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Linalool, Thymol (crystal), Alpha-Pinene, Para-Cymene, and trans-Anethole.
[0101] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Isopropyl Myristate, Tetrahydrolinalool, Linalool, Geraniol, Piperonal (aldehyde), Vanillin, and BSO.
[0102] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Thyme Oil White, Methyl Salicylate, Isopropyl Myristate, and Vanillin.
[0103] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include D-limonene, Thyme Oil White, and Methyl Salicylate.
[0104] In another exemplary embodiment, the at least one blend of compounds can include Methyl Salicylate, Thymol, Geraniol, Isopropyl Myristate, and Vanillin.
[0105] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 4 and 5% Lilace Flower Oil (LFO), between 75 and 90% D-Limonene, between 3 and 4% Thyme Oil White, and between 8 and 12% Lime Oil 410.
[0106] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 4.40% LFO, 82.3% D-Limonene, 3.3% Thyme Oil White, and 10.0% Lime Oil 410.
[0107] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 75 and 90% D-Limonene, between 2.5 and 4% Thyme Oil White, between 0.5 and 0.65% Linalool Coeur, between 0.7 and 0.9% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.04 and 0.06% Vanillin, between 0.7 and 0.9% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.7 and 0.9% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 9 and 11% Lime Oil Minus, between 0.35 and 0.5% Geraniol 60, and between 0.7 and 0.9% Triethyl Citrate.
[0108] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 82.52% D-Limonene, 3.28% Thyme Oil White, 0.57% Linalool Coeur, 0.78% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.05% Vanillin, 0.80% Isopropyl myristate, 0.80% Piperonal (aldehyde), 9.99% Lime Oil Minus, 0.41% Geraniol 60, and 0.80% Triethyl Citrate.
[0109] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 18 and 24% BSO, between 14 and 17% Linalool Coeur, between 17 and 21% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 1.6 and 2% Vanillin, between 21 and 26% Isopropyl myristate, between 7 and 9% Piperonal (aldehyde), and between 9 and 12% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0110] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 21.50% BSO, 15.90% Linalool Coeur, 19.00% Tetrahydrolinalool, 1.80% Vanillin, 23.50% Isopropyl myristate, 7.80% Piperonal (aldehyde), and 10.50% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0111] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 8 and 10% D-Limonene, 24 and 28.5% BSO, 5.5 and 7.0% Linalool Coeur, between 7 and 9% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.7 and 0.9% Vanillin, between 8.5 and 10.5% Isopropyl myristate, between 2.8 and 3.6% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 3.8 and 5% Geraniol Fine FCC, and between 29 and 37% Methyl Salicylate 98% Nat.
[0112] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 8.80% D-Limonene, 26.20% BSO, 6.40% Linalool Coeur, 7.80% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.80% Vanillin, 9.50% Isopropyl myristate, 3.20% Piperonal (aldehyde), 4.30% Geraniol Fine FCC, and 33.00% Methyl Salicylate 98% Nat.
[0113] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 18 and 23% Thyme Oil White, between 40 and 50% Wintergreen Oil, between 1 and 1.2% Vanillin, and between 30 and 37% Isopropyl myristate.
[0114] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 20.50% Thyme Oil White, 45.00% Wintergreen Oil, 1.10% Vanillin, and 33.40% Isopropyl myristate.
[0115] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 50 and 62% D-Limonene, between 10.5 and 13.5% Thyme Oil White, and between 28 and 35% Wintergreen Oil.
[0116] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 56.30% D-Limonene, 12.38% Thyme Oil White, and 31.32% Wintergreen Oil.
[0117] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 50 and 62% D-Limonene, between 10.5 and 13.5% Thyme Oil White, and between 28 and 35% Wintergreen Oil Technical.
[0118] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 56.30% D-Limonene, 12.38% Thyme Oil White, and 31.32% Wintergreen Oil Technical.
[0119] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 11.5 and 14.5% LFO, between 7.9 and 9.5% D-Limonene, between 8.5 and 10.6% Thyme Oil White, and between 61 and 76% Lime Oil 410.
[0120] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 12.94% LFO, 8.72% D-Limonene, 9.58% Thyme Oil White, and 68.76% Lime Oil 410.
[0121] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 11.5 and 14.5% LFO, between 38 and 46.5% D-Limonene, between 8.5 and 10.6% Thyme Oil White, between 0.76 and 0.92% Linalool Coeur, between 6 and 8% Citral, between 6.5 and 8% gamma-terpinene, between 1.1 and 1.5% Alpha-Pinene (98%), between 4.1 and 5.2% Alpha-Terpineol, between 3.8 and 5% Terpinolene, between 1 and 1.25% Para-Cymene, between 1.6 and 2% Linalyl Acetate, between 1.7 and 2.1% Beta Pinene, between 0.08 and 0.1% Camphor Dextro, between 0.07 and 0.09% Terpinene 40 L, between 1.7 and 2.1% Alpha Terpinene, between 0.8 and 1.0% Bomeol L, between 0.3 and 0.45% Camphene, between 0.10 and 0.14% Decanal, between 0.09 and 0.11% Dodecanal, between 0.005 and 0.015% Fenchol Alpha, between 0.1 and 0.14% Geranyl Acetate, between 0.2 and 0.35% Isoborneol, between 0.24 and 0.28% 2-Methyl 1,3-cyclohexadiene, between 0.7 and 0.85% Myrcene, between 0.015 and 0.025% Nonanal, between 0.03 and 0.05% Octanal, and between 0.015 and 0.025% Tocopherol Gamma Tenox.
[0122] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 12.94% LFO, 42.2% D-Limonene, 9.58% Thyme Oil White, 0.84% Linalool Coeur, 7.02% Citral, 7.23% gamma-terpinene, 1.33% Alpha-Pinene (98%), 4.68% Alpha-Terpineol, 4.33% Terpinolene, 1.11% Para-Cymene, 1.79% Linalyl Acetate, 1.93% Beta Pinene, 0.09% Camphor Dextro, 0.08% Terpinene 40 L, 1.93% Alpha Terpinene, 0.89% Bomeol L, 0.37% Camphene, 0.12% Decanal, 0.10%. Dodecanal, 0.01% Fenchol Alpha, 0.12% Geranyl Acetate, 0.28% Isoborneol, 0.26% 2-Methyl 1,3-cyclohexadiene, 0.78% Myrcene, 0.02% Nonanal, 0.04% Octanal, and 0.02% Tocopherol Gamma Tenox.
[0123] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 8.7 and 10.8% D-Limonene, between 7.7 and 9.4% Thyme Oil White, between 62 and 76% Lime Oil 410, between 1.4 and 1.9% Linalool Coeur, between 2 and 2.5% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.13 and 0.17% Vanillin, between 2.1 and 2.55% Isopropyl myristate, between 2.1 and 2.55% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 1.08 and 1.35% Geraniol 60, and between 2.1 and 2.55% Triethyl Citrate.
[0124] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 9.70% D-Limonene, 8.54% Thyme Oil White, 69.41% Lime Oil 410, 1.66% Linalool Coeur, 2.29% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.15% Vanillin, 2.35% Isopropyl myristate, 2.35% Piperonal (aldehyde), 1.21% Geraniol 60, and 2.35% Triethyl Citrate.
[0125] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 72 and 89% LFO and between 18 and 22% Black Seed Oil (BSO).
[0126] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include ˜80.09% LFO and 19.91% BSO.
[0127] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 45 and 56% LFO and between 45 and 55% BSO.
[0128] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 50.13% LFO and 49.87% BSO.
[0129] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 4.1 and 5.2% Thyme Oil White, between 52 and 64% Wintergreen Oil, and between 33 and 42% Isopropyl myristate.
[0130] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 4.60% Thyme Oil White, 57.80% Wintergreen Oil, and 37.60% Isopropyl myristate.
[0131] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 25 and 31% D-Limonene, between 4 and 5% Thyme Oil White, and between 60 and 72% Wintergreen Oil.
[0132] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 28.24% D-Limonene, 4.44% Thyme Oil White, and 67.32% Wintergreen Oil.
[0133] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 8.9 and 11% D-Limonene, between 12.5 and 16% Linalool Coeur, between 21.5 and 27% Tetrehydrolinalool, between 2.2 and 2.7% Vanillin, between 25 and 32% Isopropyl myristate, between 9 and 11% Piperonal (aldehyde), and between 9 and 11.4% Geraniol 60.
[0134] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 9.90% D-Limonene, 14.14% Linalool Coeur, 24.29% Tetrehydrolinalool, 2.48% Vanillin, 28.92% Isopropyl myristate, 9.97% Piperonal (aldehyde), and 10.30% Geraniol 60.
[0135] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 8.4 and 10.2% D-Limonene, between 29 and 35% Black Seed Oil, between 8.5 and 10.6% Linalool Coeur, between 10 and 12.8% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 1 and 1.35% Vanillin, between 12.5 and 15.5% Isopropyl myristate, between 4.2 and 5.3% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 5.7 and 6.9% Geraniol Fine FCC, and between 10.5 and 13% Methyl Salicylate 98% Nat.
[0136] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 9.30% D-Limonene, 31.92% Black Seed Oil, 9.48% Linalool Coeur, 11.40% Tetrahydrolinalool, 1.16% Vanillin, 14.04% Isopropyl myristate, 4.68% Piperonal (aldehyde), 6.29% Geraniol Fine FCC, and 11.72% Methyl Salicylate 98% Nat.
[0137] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 8.7 and 10.4% D-Limonene, between 23 and 30% Black Seed Oil, between 8.9 and 10.8% Linalool Coeur, between 10.7 and 12.9% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 1.05 and 1.35% Vanillin, between 13.4 and 16.5% Mineral Oil White (USP), between 13 and 16% Isopropyl myristate, between 4.4 and 5.4% Piperonal (aldehyde), and between 5.9 and 7.2% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0138] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 9.63% D-Limonene, 26.66% BSO, 9.82% Linalool Coeur, 11.81% Tetrahydrolinalool, 1.20% Vanillin, 14.97% Mineral Oil White (USP), 14.54% Isopropyl myristate, 4.85% Piperonal (aldehyde), and 6.51% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0139] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 47 and 58% BSO, between 8.7 and 10.5% Linalool Coeur, between 10 and 13% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 1.0 and 1.25% Vanillin, between 12.8 and 15.3% Isopropyl myristate, between 4.3 and 5.2% Piperonal (aldehyde), and between 5.7 and 7% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0140] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 52.28% BSO, 9.63% Linalool Coeur, 11.57% Tetrahydrolinalool, 1.12% Vanillin, 14.26% Isopropyl myristate, 4.75% Piperonal (aldehyde), and 6.38% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0141] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 34 and 42.5% Thyme Oil White, between 22 and 27.5% Wintergreen Oil, between 1.0 and 1.22% Vanillin, and between 32 and 40% Isopropyl myristate.
[0142] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 38.21% Thyme Oil White, 24.79% Wintergreen Oil, 1.11% Vanillin, and 35.89% Isopropyl myristate.
[0143] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 35 and 44% Thyme Oil White, between 22 and 27.2% Wintergreen Oil, and between 32 and 40% Isopropyl myristate.
[0144] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, and 35.94% Isopropyl myristate.
[0145] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 35 and 44% Thyme Oil White, between 32 and 40% Isopropyl myristate, and between 22 and 27.2% Wintergreen Oil Technical.
[0146] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 39.24% Thyme Oil White, 35.94% Isopropyl myristate, and 24.82% Wintergreen Oil Technical.
[0147] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 13.3 and 16.3% D-Limonene, between 2.6 and 3.2% Linalool Coeur, between 3.15 and 3.85% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.18 and 0.22% Vanillin, between 3.05 and 3.75% Isopropyl myristate, between 3.2 and 4.0% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 1.25 and 1.55% Piperonyl Alcohol, and between 63 and 78% Lime Oil Minus.
[0148] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 14.8% D-Limonene, 2.9% Linalool Coeur, 3.5% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.2% Vanillin, 3.4% Isopropyl myristate, 3.6% Piperonal (aldehyde), 1.4% Piperonyl Alcohol, and 70.2% Lime Oil Minus.
[0149] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 62 and 77% D-Limonene, between 2.6 and 3.2% Linalool Coeur, between 3.15 and 3.85% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.18 and 0.22% Vanillin, between 3.05 and 3.75% Isopropyl myristate, between 3.25 and 3.95% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 1.25 and 1.55% Piperonyl Alcohol, and between 13.5 and 16.7% Lime Oil Minus.
[0150] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 69.8% D-Limonene, 2.9% Linalool Coeur, 3.5% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.2% Vanillin, 3.4% Isopropyl myristate, 3.6% Piperonal (aldehyde), 1.4% Piperonyl Alcohol, and 15.2% Lime Oil Minus.
[0151] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 5.1 and 6.3% Linalool Coeur, between 6.2 and 7.6% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.36 and 0.44% Vanillin, between 6.1 and 7.5% Isopropyl myristate, between 6.4 and 7.9% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 2.6 and 3.2% Piperonyl Alcohol, and between 63 and 78% Lime Oil Minus.
[0152] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 5.7% Linalool Coeur, 6.9% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.4% Vanillin, 6.8% Isopropyl myristate, 7.1% Piperonal (aldehyde), 2.9% Piperonyl Alcohol, and 70.2% Lime Oil Minus.
[0153] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 37 and 45.5% LFO, between 25 and 31% D-Limonene, and between 27.5 and 34% Thyme Oil White.
[0154] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 41.4% LFO, 27.9% D-Limonene, and 30.7% Thyme Oil White.
[0155] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 24 and 30% D-Limonene, between 27 and 33% Thyme Oil White, and between 38 and 47% Blend C-4003 (13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal [aldehyde], 9.8% Geraniol 60, 19.1% Triethyl Citrate).
[0156] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 27.35% D-Limonene, 30.08% Thyme Oil White, and 42.57% Blend C-4003 (13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal [aldehyde], 9.8% Geraniol 60, 19.1% Triethyl Citrate).
[0157] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 24 and 31% D-Limonene, between 27 and 33% Thyme Oil White, between 5.1 and 6.3% Linalool Coeur, between 7.1 and 8.8% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.45 and 0.55% Vanillin, between 7.3 and 8.9% Isopropyl myristate, between 7.3 and 8.9% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 3.8 and 4.6% Geraniol 60, and between 7.3 and 8.9% Triethyl Citrate.
[0158] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 27.4% D-Limonene, 30.1% Thyme Oil White, 5.7% Linalool Coeur, 7.9% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.5% Vanillin, 8.1% Isopropyl myristate, 8.1% Piperonal (aldehyde), 4.2% Geraniol 60, and 8.1% Triethyl Citrate.
[0159] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 38 and 47% LFO, between 24 and 31% D-Limonene, between 27 and 33% Thyme Oil White.
[0160] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 42.6% LFO, 27.35% D-Limonene, 30.08% Thyme Oil White.
[0161] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 3.6 and 4.45% D-Limonene, between 4 and 4.9% Thyme Oil White, between 15 and 18.4% Benzyl Alcohol, between 18 and 23.5% Isopar M, between 41 and 49% Water, between 5.7 and 7% C-4003 (13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal [aldehyde], 9.8% Geraniol 60, and 19.1% Triethyl Citrate), and between 2.8.5 and 3.5% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, 90.00% Water).
[0162] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 4.03% D-Limonene, 4.43% Thyme Oil White, 16.61% Benzyl Alcohol, 20.95% Isopar M, 44.53% Water, 6.27% C-4003 (13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal (aldehyde), 9.8% Geraniol 60, 19.1% Triethyl Citrate), and 3.18% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, 90.00% Water).
[0163] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 3.6 and 4.45% D-Limonene, 4.0 and 4.75% Thyme Oil White, between 0.76 and 0.92% Linalool Coeur, between 1.05 and 1.27% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.063 and 0.077% Vanillin, between 1.05 and 1.33% Isopropyl myristate, between 1.05 and 1.33% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 0.56 and 0.68% Geraniol 60, between 1.05 and 1.33% Triethyl Citrate, between 15 and 18% Benzyl Alcohol, between 18 and 24.2% Isopar M, between 40 and 49% Water, and between 2.85 and 3.5% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, 90.00% Water).
[0164] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 4.03% D-Limonene, 4.43% Thyme Oil White, 0.84% Linalool Coeur, 1.16% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.07% Vanillin, 1.19% Isopropyl myristate, 1.19% Piperonal (aldehyde), 0.62% Geraniol 60, 1.19% Triethyl Citrate, 16.61% Benzyl Alcohol, 20.95% Isopar M, 44.53% Water, and 3.18% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, 90.00% Water).
[0165] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 24 and 31% D-Limonene, between 27 and 33% Thyme Oil White, and between 38 and 47% Blend C-4003 (13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal [aldehyde], 9.8% Geraniol 60, and 19.1% Triethyl Citrate).
[0166] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 27.35% D-Limonene, 30.08% Thyme Oil White, and 42.57% Blend C-4003 (13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal [aldehyde], 9.8% Geraniol 60, and 19.1% Triethyl Citrate).
[0167] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 24 and 31% D-Limonene, between 27 and 33% Thyme Oil White, between 5.2 and 6.4% Linalool Coeur, between 7 and 8.8% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.45 and 0.55% Vanillin, between 7.2 and 8.9% Isopropyl myristate, between 7.2 and 8.9% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 3.7 and 4.6% Geraniol 60, and between 7.3 and 9.0% Triethyl Citrate.
[0168] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 27.35% D-Limonene, 30.08% Thyme Oil White, 5.73% Linalool Coeur, 7.88% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.50% Vanillin, 8.08% Isopropyl myristate, 8.09% Piperonal (aldehyde), 4.18% Geraniol 60, and 8.11% Triethyl Citrate.
[0169] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 4 and 4.9% Lilac Flower Oil, between 7.6 and 9.1% D-Limonene, 2.9 and 3.65% Thyme Oil White, and between 9 and 11% Lime Oil Minus.
[0170] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 4.4% Lilac Flower Oil, 82.3% D-Limonene, 3.3% Thyme Oil White, and 10.0% Lime Oil Minus.
[0171] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 11.7 and 14.2% Lilac Flower Oil, between 7.9 and 9.6% D-Limonene, between 8.7 and 10.6% Thyme Oil White, and between 61 and 76% Lime Oil Minus.
[0172] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 12.94% Lilac Flower Oil, 8.72% D-Limonene, 9.58% Thyme Oil White, and 68.76% Lime Oil Minus.
[0173] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 8.8 and 10.8% D-Limonene, between 7.7 and 9.5% Thyme Oil White, between 1.53 and 1.87% Linalool Coeur, between 2.1 and 2.5% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.09 and 0.11% Vanillin, between 2.15 and 2.65% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 62 and 77% Lime Oil Minus, between 1.05 and 1.35% Geraniol 60, and between 2.15 and 2.55% Triethyl Citrate.
[0174] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 9.8% D-Limonene, 8.6% Thyme Oil White, 1.7% Linalool Coeur, 2.3% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.1% Vanillin, 2.4% Piperonal (aldehyde), 69.3% Lime Oil Minus, 1.2% Geraniol 60, and 2.4% Triethyl Citrate.
[0175] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 18 and 23% Thyme Oil White, between 40 and 50% Wintergreen Oil, and between 31 and 38% Isopropyl myristate.
[0176] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, and 34.3% Isopropyl myristate.
[0177] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 19 and 24% Black Seed Oil, between 14 and 17.5% Linalool Coeur, between 17 and 21% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 1.7 and 2.1% Vanillin, between 21 and 26% Isopropyl myristate, between 7 and 8.6% Piperonal (aldehyde), and between 9.5 and 11.6% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0178] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 21.5% Black Seed Oil, 15.8% Linalool Coeur, 19.0% Tetrahydrolinalool, 1.9% Vanillin, 23.4% Isopropyl myristate, 7.8% Piperonal (aldehyde), and 10.5% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0179] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 6 and 7.4% Linalool Coeur, between 22 and 26% Soy Bean Oil, between 33 and 41% Thymol (crystal), and between 3.3 and 4.2% Alpha-Pinene (98%).
[0180] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 6.63% Linalool Coeur, 24.03% Soy Bean Oil, 37.17% Thymol (crystal), and 3.78% Alpha-Pinene (98%).
[0181] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 7.9 and 9.6% Linalool Coeur, between 43 and 53% Thymol (crystal), between 4.5 and 5.5% Alpha-Pinene (98%), and between 33 and 42% Para-Cymene.
[0182] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 8.73% Linalool Coeur, 48.93% Thymol (crystal), 4.97% Alpha-Pinene (98%), and 37.37% Para-Cymene.
[0183] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 7.9 and 9.5% D-Limonene, between 8.6 and 10.5% Thyme Oil White, between 61 and 76% Lime Oil 410, between 2.3 and 2.9% Linalool Coeur, between 2.8 and 3.4% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.29 and 0.35% Vanillin, between 3.4 and 4.3% Isopropyl myristate, between 1.16 and 1.42% Piperonal (aldehyde), and between 1.5 and 1.9% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0184] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 8.72% D-Limonene, 9.58% Thyme Oil White, 68.76% Lime Oil 410, 2.61% Linalool Coeur, 3.13% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.32% Vanillin, 3.86% Isopropyl myristate, 1.29% Piperonal (aldehyde), and 1.73% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0185] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 25 and 31% D-Limonene, between 4 and 4.9% Thyme Oil White, and between 60 and 74% Methyl Salicylate (Synth.).
[0186] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 28.24% D-Limonene, 4.44% Thyme Oil White, and 67.32% Methyl Salicylate (Synth.).
[0187] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 18 and 23% Thyme Oil White, between 31 and 37.8% Isopropyl Myristate, and between 40 and 50% Wintergreen Oil (Technical).
[0188] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 20.6% Thyme Oil White, 34.3% Isopropyl Myristate, and 45.1% Wintergreen Oil (Technical).
[0189] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 49 and 60% Castor Oil hydrogenated (PEO40), between 20.7 and 25% Lemon Grass Oil (India), and between 20 and 24.6% Blend B-5006 (12.94% Lilac Flower Oil, 8.72% D-Limonene, 9.58% Thyme Oil White, 68.76% Lime Oil 410).
[0190] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 54.63% Castor Oil hydrogenated—PEO40, 22.93% Lemon Grass Oil—India, and 22.44% Blend B-5006 (12.94% Lilac Flower Oil, 8.72% D-Limonene, 9.58% Thyme Oil White, 68.76% Lime Oil 410).
[0191] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 14.5 and 17.8% Lilac Flower Oil, between 60 and 75% D-Limonene, between 10 and 12.4% Thyme Oil White, and between 4.4 and 5.4% Black Seed Oil.
[0192] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 16.18% Lilac Flower Oil, 67.81% D-Limonene, 11.18% Thyme Oil White, and 4.83% Black Seed Oil.
[0193] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 14.4 and 17.6% Lilac Flower Oil (LFO), between 60 and 75% D-Limonene, between 10.4 and 12.7% Thyme Oil White, and between 4.8 and 5.8% Black Seed Oil (BSO).
[0194] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 16.01% LFO, 67.09% D-Limonene, 11.59% Thyme Oil White, 5.31% BSO.
[0195] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 8 and 9.6% D-Limonene, between 8.8 and 10.6% Thyme Oil White, between 50 and 60% Lime Oil 410, between 1.5 and 1.85% Linalool Coeur, between 2.1 and 2.5% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.135 and 0.165% Vanillin, between 2.1 and 2.5% Isopropyl myristate, between 2.1 and 2.6% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 1.1 and 1.35% Geraniol 60, between 2.1 and 2.6% Triethyl Citrate, and between 12.5 and 15.3% Isopar M.
[0196] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 8.83% D-Limonene, 9.71% Thyme Oil White, 55.17% Lime Oil 410, 1.68% Linalool Coeur, 2.31% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.15% Vanillin, 2.37% Isopropyl myristate, 2.37% Piperonal (aldehyde), 1.23% Geraniol 60, 2.38% Triethyl Citrate, and 13.80% Isopar M.
[0197] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 7.9 and 9.5% D-Limonene, between 8.6 and 10.5% Thyme Oil White, between 62 and 76% Lime Oil 410, between 1.5 and 1.82% Linalool Coeur, between 2 and 2.5% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.14 and 0.16% Vanillin, between 2.1 and 2.6% Isopropyl myristate, between 2.1 and 2.6% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 1.1 and 1.32% Geraniol 60, and between 2.1 and 2.6% Triethyl Citrate.
[0198] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 8.72% D-Limonene, 9.59% Thyme Oil White, 69.35% Lime Oil 410, 1.66% Linalool Coeur, 2.28% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.15% Vanillin, 2.34% Isopropyl myristate, 2.34% Piperonal (aldehyde), 1.21% Geraniol 60, and 2.35% Triethyl Citrate.
[0199] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 14.7 and 18% LFO, between 61 and 76% D-Limonene, between 4.8 and 5.9% Thyme Oil White, and between 9 and 11% Lime Oil 410.
[0200] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 16.31% LFO, 68.34% D-Limonene, 5.37% Thyme Oil White, and 9.98% Lime Oil 410.
[0201] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 4.2 and 5.2% Linalool Coeur, between 36 and 45% Thymol (crystal), between 1.7 and 2.1% Alpha-Pinene (98%), between 31 and 38% Para-Cymene, and between 16 and 20% Trans-anethole.
[0202] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 4.7% Linalool Coeur, 40.8% Thymol (crystal), 1.9% Alpha-Pinene (98%), 34.49% Para-Cymene, and 18.2% Trans-anethole.
[0203] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 6 and 7.4% Linalool Coeur, between 21.5 and 26.5% Soy Bean Oil, between 33 and 41% Thymol (crystal), between 3.4 and 4.2% Alpha-Pinene (98%), and between 25 and 31% Para-Cymene.
[0204] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 6.6% Linalool Coeur, 24.0% Soy Bean Oil, 37.2% Thymol (crystal), 3.8% Alpha-Pinene (98%), and 28.39% Para-Cymene.
[0205] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 36 and 45% Linalool Coeur, between 31 and 37.5% Thymol (crystal), between 4.2 and 5.2% Alpha-Pinene (98%), between 1.7 and 2.1% Para-Cymene, and between 16.5 and 20% Trans-anethole.
[0206] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 40.8% Linalool Coeur, 34.4% Thymol (crystal), 4.7% Alpha-Pinene (98%), 1.9% Para-Cymene, and 18.20% Trans-anethole.
[0207] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 8.5 and 10.5% Linalool Coeur, between 42 and 53% Thymol (crystal), between 8.5 and 10.4% Alpha-Pinene (98%), and between 30 and 36.5% Para-Cymene.
[0208] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 9.49% Linalool Coeur, 47.87% Thymol (crystal), 9.46% Alpha-Pinene (98%), and 33.18% Para-Cymene.
[0209] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 18 and 22.3% Linalool Coeur, between 22 and 27% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 2.2 and 2.7% Vanillin, between 26 and 33% Isopropyl myristate, between 9 and 11% Piperonal (aldehyde), and between 12 and 14.6% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0210] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 20.15% Linalool Coeur, 24.23% Tetrahydrolinalool, 2.47% Vanillin, 29.84% Isopropyl myristate, 9.95% Piperonal (aldehyde), and 13.36% Geraniol Fine FCC.
[0211] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 20 and 26% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 1.0 and 1.4% Vanillin, between 4 and 4.9% Hercolyn D, between 13.5 and 16.6% Isopropyl myristate, between 6.8 and 8.3% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 20 and 25.2% Ethyl Linalool, between 6 and 7.3% Hedione, between 9 and 11.2% Triethyl Citrate, and between 8.1 and 10% Dipropylene glycol (DPG).
[0212] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 22.98% Tetrahydrolinalool, 1.17% Vanillin, 4.44% Hercolyn D, 15.10% Isopropyl myristate, 7.55% Piperonal (aldehyde), 22.91% Ethyl Linalool, 6.67% Hedione, 10.10% Triethyl Citrate, and 9.09% Dipropylene glycol (DPG).
[0213] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 12.2 and 14.8% Linalool Coeur, between 16.9 and 20.1% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.08 and 1.32% Vanillin, between 17 and 21% Isopropyl myristate, between 17 and 21% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 8.8 and 10.8% Geraniol 60, and between 17 and 21% Triethyl Citrate.
[0214] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal (aldehyde), 9.8% Geraniol 60, and 19.1% Triethyl Citrate.
[0215] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 17 and 21% Linalool Coeur, between 21 and 25.5% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 1.08 and 1.32% Vanillin, between 20.6 and 25.2% Isopropyl myristate, between 21 and 26% Piperonal (aldehyde), and between 8.6 and 10.5% Piperonyl Alcohol.
[0216] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 19.2% Linalool Coeur, 23.2% Tetrahydrolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 22.9% Isopropyl myristate, 23.8% Piperonal (aldehyde), and 9.6% Piperonyl Alcohol.
[0217] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 43 and 54% D-Limonene, between 1.1 and 1.34% Linalool Coeur, between 9.2 and 11.3% Citral, between 9.4 and 11.6% gamma-terpinene, between 1.7 and 2.13% Alpha-Pinene (98%), between 6.1 and 7.5% Alpha-Terpineol, between 5.6 and 7.0% Terpinolene, between 1.45 and 1.76% Para-Cymene, between 2.34 and 2.86% Linalyl Acetate, between 2.5 and 3.1% Beta Pinene, between 0.12 and 0.14% Camphor Dextro, between 0.1 and 0.12% Terpinene 40 L, between 2.5 and 3.1% Alpha Terpinene, between 1.17 and 1.43% Bomeol L, between 0.49 and 0.61% Camphene, between 0.155 and 0.185% Decanal, between 0.13 and 0.15% Dodecanal, between 0.009 and 0.011% Fenchol Alpha, between 0.16 and 0.20% Geranyl Acetate, between 0.37 and 0.45% Isoborneol, between 0.34 and 0.42% 2-Methyl 1,3-cyclohexadiene, between 1.03 and 1.25% Myrcene, between 0.027 and 0.033% Nonanal, between 0.054 and 0.066% Octanal, and between 0.027 and 0.033% Tocopherol Gamma Tenox.
[0218] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 48.58% D-Limonene, 1.22% Linalool Coeur, 10.21% Citral, 10.51% gamma-terpinene, 1.94% Alpha-Pinene (98%), 6.80% Alpha-Terpineol, 6.30% Terpinolene, 1.61% Para-Cymene, 2.60% Linalyl Acetate, 2.80% Beta Pinene, 0.13% Camphor Dextro, 0.11% Terpinene 40 L, 2.80% Alpha Terpinene, 1.30% Borneol L, 0.54% Camphene, 0.17% Decanal, 0.14% Dodecanal, 0.01% Fenchol Alpha, 0.18% Geranyl Acetate, 0.41% Isoborneol, 0.38% 2-Methyl 1,3-cyclohexadiene, 1.14% Myrcene, 0.03% Nonanal, 0.06% Octanal, and 0.03% Tocopherol Gamma Tenox.
[0219] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 52 and 65% D-Limonene, between 1.3 and 1.61% Linalool Coeur, between 11.4 and 13.9% gamma-terpinene, between 2.1 and 2.6% Alpha-Pinene (98%), between 6.8 and 8.5% Terpinolene, between 1.7 and 2.2% Para-Cymene, between 2.8 and 2.45% Linalyl Acetate, between 3 and 3.7% Beta Pinene, between 0.145 and 0.176% Camphor Dextro, between 0.12 and 0.14% Terpinene 40 L, between 3 and 3.7% Alpha Terpinene, between 1.42 and 1.72% Borneol L, between 0.59 and 0.71% Camphene, between 0.18 and 0.22% Decanal, between 0.155 and 0.185% Dodecanal, between 0.009 and 0.011% Fenchol Alpha, 0.2 and 0.24% Geranyl Acetate, between 0.44 and 0.54% Isoborneol, between 0.42 and 0.5% 2-Methyl 1,3-cyclohexadiene, between 1.24 and 1.5% Myrcene, between 0.036 and 0.044% Nonanal, between 0.06 and 0.08% Octanal, and between 0.036 and 0.044% Tocopherol Gamma Tenox.
[0220] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 58.54% D-Limonene, 1.47% Linalool Coeur, 12.66% gamma-terpinene, 2.34% Alpha-Pinene (98%), 7.59% Terpinolene, 1.94% Para-Cymene, 3.13% Linalyl Acetate, 3.37% Beta Pinene, 0.16% Camphor Dextro, 0.13% Terpinene 40 L, 3.37% Alpha Terpinene, 1.57% Borneol L, 0.65% Camphene, 0.20% Decanal, 0.17% Dodecanal, 0.01% Fenchol Alpha, 0.22% Geranyl Acetate, 0.49% Isoborneol, 0.46% 2-Methyl 1,3-cyclohexadiene, 1.37% Myrcene, 0.04% Nonanal, 0.07% Octanal, and 0.04% Tocopherol Gamma Tenox.
[0221] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 31 and 38% D-Limonene, between 9 and 11.1% Linalool Coeur, between 4.5 and 5.5% Alpha-Pinene (98%), between 9 and 11.2% Terpinolene, between 9 and 11.1% Para-Cymene, between 2.8 and 5.9% Linalyl Acetate, between 4.5 and 5.8% Beta Pinene, between 4.3 and 5.4% Alpha Terpinene, between 5.2 and 6.4% Camphene, and between 8.3 and 10.2% Myrcene.
[0222] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 34.50% D-Limonene, 10.05% Linalool Coeur, 5.01% Alpha-Pinene (98%), 10.10% Terpinolene, 10.04% Para-Cymene, 5.30% Linalyl Acetate, 5.02% Beta Pinene, 4.88% Alpha Terpinene, 5.84% Camphene, and 9.26% Myrcene.
[0223] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 81 and 99% B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, and 34.3% Isopropyl myristate) and between 9 and 11% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, 90.00% Water).
[0224] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 90% B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, and 34.3% Isopropyl myristate) and 10% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, 90.00% Water).
[0225] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.8 and 1.0% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.18 and 0.22% Lecithin, between 8.8 and 10.8% Water, and between 80 and 98% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate).
[0226] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, and 89.1% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate).
[0227] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.9 and 1.1% Potassium sorbate, between 0.25 and 0.31% Xanthan Gum, between 73 and 89% Water, and between 15.3 and 18.4% Blend F-4001 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5028 [20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate]).
[0228] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.00% Potassium sorbate, 0.28% Xanthan Gum, 81.82% Water, and 16.90% Blend F-4001 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5028 [20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate]).
[0229] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.10 and 0.12% Potassium sorbate, between 0.135 and 0.165% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.25 and 0.31% Xanthan Gum, between 0.030 and 0.038% Lecithin, between 76 and 92% Water, and between 13.5 and 16.5% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate).
[0230] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.11% Potassium sorbate, 0.15% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.28% Xanthan Gum, 0.034% Lecithin, 84.4% Water, and 15% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate).
[0231] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 2.7 and 3.4% Thyme Oil White, between 6 and 7.5% Wintergreen Oil, between 4.5 and 5.7% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.1 and 0.12% Potassium sorbate, between 0.135 and 0.165% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.25 and 0.31% Xanthan Gum, between 0.027 and 0.033% Lecithin, and between 76 and 91% Water.
[0232] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 3.09% Thyme Oil White, 6.77% Wintergreen Oil, 5.15% Isopropyl myristate, 0.11% Potassium sorbate, 0.15% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.28% Xanthan Gum, 0.03% Lecithin, and 84.41% Water.
[0233] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.8 and 1.0% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.18 and 0.22% Lecithin, between 9 and 11% Water, and between 80 and 98% Blend B-5016 (39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl myristate).
[0234] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, and 89.10% Blend B-5016 (39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl myristate).
[0235] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 2.7 and 3.4% Water, between 76 and 92% Blend F-4001 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5028 [20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate]), and between 11.5 and 14% Solution S-3001 (Stock 2.5% Xanthan-1% K sorbate; 1% Potassium Sorbate, 2.50% Xanthan Gum, 96.50% Water).
[0236] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 3.1% Water, 84.2% Blend F-4001 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5028 [20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate]), and 12.7% Solution S-3001 (Stock 2.5% Xanthan-1% K sorbate; 1% Potassium Sorbate, 2.50% Xanthan Gum, 96.50% Water).
[0237] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 14 and 17% Thyme Oil White, between 30 and 37% Wintergreen Oil, between 23 and 27.5% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.115 and 0.145% Potassium sorbate, between 0.7 and 0.83% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.29 and 0.36% Xanthan Gum, between 0.15 and 0.19% Lecithin, and between 21 and 26% Water.
[0238] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 15.5% Thyme Oil White, 33.8% Wintergreen Oil, 25.7% Isopropyl myristate, 0.13% Potassium sorbate, 0.76% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.32% Xanthan Gum, 0.17% Lecithin, and 23.6% Water.
[0239] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 9.2% Water, between 70 and 88% Blend F-4001 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5028 [20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate]), and between 10.5 and 13.2% Solution S-3001 (Stock 2.5% Xanthan-1% K sorbate; 1% Potassium Sorbate, 2.50% Xanthan Gum, 96.50% Water).
[0240] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 9.2% Water, 78.87% Blend F-4001 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5028 [20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate]), and 11.90% Solution S-3001 (Stock 2.5% Xanthan-1% K sorbate; 1% Potassium Sorbate, 2.50% Xanthan Gum, 96.50% Water).
[0241] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.11 and 0.15% Potassium sorbate, between 0.7 and 0.84% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.29 and 0.36% Xanthan gum, between 0.15 and 0.19% Lecithin, between 25 and 32% Water, and between 63 and 77% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate).
[0242] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.13% Potassium sorbate, 0.76% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.32% Xanthan gum, 0.17% Lecithin, 28.6% Water, and 70% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate).
[0243] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 2.8 and 3.4% Water, between 76 and 92% Blend F-4003 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.10% Blend B-5016 [39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate]), and between 11.5 and 14% Solution S-3001 (Stock 2.5% Xanthan-1% K sorbate; 1% Potassium Sorbate, 2.50% Xanthan Gum, 96.50% Water).
[0244] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 3.1% Water, 84.2% Cationic formulation-Hi residual (F-4003; 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.10% Blend B-5016 [39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate]), and 12.7% Solution S-3001 (Stock 2.5% Xanthan-1% K sorbate; 1% Potassium Sorbate, 2.50% Xanthan Gum, 96.50% Water).
[0245] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.9 and 1.1% Potassium sorbate, between 0.25 and 0.31% Xanthan gum, between 73 and 90% Water, and between 15.3 and 18.5% Blend F-4003 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.10% Blend B-5016 [39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate]).
[0246] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1% Potassium sorbate, 0.28% Xanthan gum, 81.8% Water, and 16.9% Blend F-4003 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.10% Blend B-5016 [39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate]).
[0247] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.8 and 1.0% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.18 and 0.22% Lecithin, between 8.9 and 11% Water, and between 80 and 98% Blend B-5034 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 34.3% Isopropyl Myristate, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil Technical).
[0248] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, and 89.10% Blend B-5034 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 34.3% Isopropyl Myristate, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil Technical).
[0249] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.9 and 1.1% Potassium sorbate, between 0.25 and 0.31% Xanthan gum, between 73 and 90% Water, and between 15.3 and 17.5% Formulation F-4009 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.10% Blend B-5034 [24B-4a for Institutions with Methyl Sal; 20.6% Thyme Oil White, 34.3% Isopropyl Myristate, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil Technical]).
[0250] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.00% Potassium sorbate, 0.28% Xanthan gum, 81.82% Water, and 16.9% Formulation F-4009 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.10% Blend B-5034 [24B-4a for Institutions with Methyl Sal; 20.6% Thyme Oil White, 34.3% Isopropyl Myristate, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil Technical]).
[0251] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.18 and 0.22% Citronella Oil, between 0.18 and 0.22% Carbopol 940, between 0.9 and 0.11% BHT, between 54 and 66% Water, between 12.5 and 16% Emulsifying Wax, between 3.6 and 4.4% Light liquid paraffin, between 8.1 and 9.9% White Soft Paraffin, between 0.22 and 0.28% Sodium metabisulfate, between 1.8 and 2.2% Propylene glycol, between 0.13 and 0.17% Methyl parabin, between 0.045 and 0.055% Propyl parabin, between 4.5 and 5.5% Cresmer RH40 hydrogenated, between 0.13 and 0.17% Triethanolamine, between 0.018 and 0.022% Vitamin E acetate, between 0.045 and 0.055% Disodium EDTA, and between 4.5 and 5.5% Blend B-5006 (12.94% Lilac Flower Oil, 8.72% D-Limonene, 9.58% Thyme Oil White, 68.76% Lime Oil 410).
[0252] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.20% Citronella Oil, 0.20% Carbopol 940, 0.10% BHT, 59.83% Water, 14.00% Emulsifying Wax, 4.00% Light liquid paraffin, 9.00% White Soft Paraffin, 0.25% Sodium metabisulfate, 2.00% Propylene glycol, 0.15% Methyl parabin, 0.05% Propyl parabin, 5.00% Cresmer RH40 hydrogenated, 0.15% Triethanolamine, 0.02% Vitamin E acetate, 0.05% Disodium EDTA, and 5.00% Blend B-5006 (12.94% Lilac Flower Oil, 8.72% D-Limonene, 9.58% Thyme Oil White, 68.76% Lime Oil 410).
[0253] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.045 and 0.055% Span 80, between 0.18 and 0.22% Sodium benzoate, between 26 and 32% Isopar M, between 13 and 16% A46 Propellant, between 38 and 46% Water, between 1.3 and 1.7% Isopropyl alcohol, and between 11.2 and 13.7% Blend B-5005 (56.30% D-Limonene, 12.38% Thyme Oil White, 31.32% Wintergreen Oil).
[0254] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.05% Span 80, 0.20% Sodium benzoate, 29% Isopar M, 14.5% A46 Propellant, 42.25% Water, 1.50% Isopropyl alcohol, and 12.5% Blend B-5005 (56.30% D-Limonene, 12.38% Thyme Oil White, 31.32% Wintergreen Oil).
[0255] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 46 and 56% Isopar M, between 36 and 44% A46 propellant, between 2.7 and 3.3% Isopropyl alcohol, and between 5.4 and 6.6% B-5024 (TT-7; 27.35% D-Limonene, 30.08% Thyme Oil White, 42.57% Blend C-4003 [13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal (aldehyde), 9.8% Geraniol 60, 19.1% Triethyl Citrate]).
[0256] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 51.0% Isopar M, 40.0% A46 propellant, 3.0% Isopropyl alcohol, and 6.0% B-5024 (TT-7; 27.35% D-Limonene, 30.08% Thyme Oil White, 42.57% Blend C-4003 [13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal (aldehyde), 9.8% Geraniol 60, 19.1% Triethyl Citrate]).
[0257] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 46 and 56% Isopar M, between 36 and 44% A46 propellant, between 0.045 and 0.055% Bifenthrin, between 2.7 and 3.3% Isopropyl alcohol, and between 5.4 and 6.6% Blend B-5024 (TT-7; 27.35% D-Limonene, 30.08% Thyme Oil White, 42.57% Blend C-4003 [13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal (aldehyde), 9.8% Geraniol 60, 19.1% Triethyl Citrate]).
[0258] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 51.0% Isopar M, 40.0% A46 propellant, 0.05% Bifenthrin, 3.0% Isopropyl alcohol, and 6.0% Blend B-5024 (TT-7; 27.35% D-Limonene, 30.08% Thyme Oil White, 42.57% Blend C-4003 [13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal (aldehyde), 9.8% Geraniol 60, 19.1% Triethyl Citrate]).
[0259] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 49 and 60% Isopar M, between 36 and 44% A46 propellant, and between 5.4 and 6.6% Blend B-5021 (HL1; 27.35% D-Limonene, 30.08% Thyme Oil White, 42.57% Blend C-4003 [13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal (aldehyde), 9.8% Geraniol 60, 19.1% Triethyl Citrate]).
[0260] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 54.0% Isopar M, 40.0% A46 propellant, and 6.0% Blend B-5021 (HL1; 27.35% D-Limonene, 30.08% Thyme Oil White, 42.57% Blend C-4003 [13.5% Linalool Coeur, 18.5% Tetradyrdolinalool, 1.2% Vanillin, 19.0% Isopropyl myristate, 19.0% Piperonal (aldehyde), 9.8% Geraniol 60, 19.1% Triethyl Citrate]).
[0261] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 1.8 and 2.3% Thyme Oil White, between 4 and 5% Wintergreen Oil, between 3.1 and 3.75% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.10 and 0.12% Potassium Sorbate, between 0.135 and 0.165% Polyclycerol-4-oleate, between 0.25 and 0.31% Xanthan Gum, between 0.027 and 0.033% Lecithin, and between 80 and 98% Water.
[0262] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 2.06% Thyme Oil White, 4.51% Wintergreen Oil, 3.43% Isopropyl myristate, 0.11% Potassium Sorbate, 0.15% Polyclycerol-4-oleate, 0.28% Xanthan Gum, 0.03% Lecithin, and 89.42% Water.
[0263] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.9 and 1.15% Thyme Oil White, between 2 and 2.5% Wintergreen Oil, between 1.55 and 1.89% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.1 and 0.12% Potassium Sorbate, between 0.13 and 0.17% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.25 and 0.31% Xanthan Gum, between 0.027 and 0.033% Lecithin, and between 85 and 100% Water.
[0264] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.03% Thyme Oil White, 2.26% Wintergreen Oil, 1.72% Isopropyl myristate, 0.11% Potassium Sorbate, 0.15% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.28% Xanthan Gum, 0.03% Lecithin, and 94.43% Water.
[0265] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.18 and 0.22% Soya Lecithin, between 0.8 and 1.0% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 8.8 and 10.8% Water, and between 80 and 98% Blend B-5016 (39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate).
[0266] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.20% Soya Lecithin, 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.80% Water, and 89.10% Blend B-5016 (39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate).
[0267] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 32 and 38% Thyme Oil White, between 29 and 35% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.18 and 0.22% Soya Lecithin, between 0.8 and 1.0% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 8.8 and 10.8% Water, and between 20 and 24% Wintergreen Oil Technical.
[0268] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 35.0% Thyme Oil White, 32.0% Isopropyl myristate, 0.20% Soya Lecithin, 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.80% Water, and 22.1% Wintergreen Oil Technical.
[0269] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.09 and 0.11% Soya Lecithin, between 0.8 and 1.0% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 8.9 and 10.9% Water, and between 80 and 98% Blend B-5004 (20.50% Thyme Oil White, 45.00% Wintergreen Oil, 1.10% Vanillin, 33.40% Isopropyl myristate).
[0270] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.10% Soya Lecithin, 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.90% Water, and 89.1% Blend B-5004 (20.50% Thyme Oil White, 45.00% Wintergreen Oil, 1.10% Vanillin, 33.40% Isopropyl myristate).
[0271] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 16 and 20.5% Thyme Oil White, between 36 and 44% Wintergreen Oil, between 0.89 and 1.08% Vanillin, between 26.5 and 33% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.09 and 0.11% Soya Lecithin, between 0.8 and 1.0% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, and between 8.9 and 10.9% Water.
[0272] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 18.27% Thyme Oil White, 40.10% Wintergreen Oil, 0.98% Vanillin, 29.76% Isopropyl myristate, 0.10% Soya Lecithin, 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, and 9.90% Water.
[0273] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 1.7 and 2.1% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 8 and 10% Water, and between 80 and 98% Blend B-5016 (39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate).
[0274] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.00% Water, and 89.10% Blend B-5016 (39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate).
[0275] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 31.5 and 38.5% Thyme Oil White, between 29 and 35% Isopropyl myristate, between 1.7 and 2.1% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 8 and 10% Water, and between 20 and 24% Wintergreen Oil (Technical).
[0276] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 35.0% Thyme Oil White, 32.0% Isopropyl myristate, 1.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.00% Water, and 22.1% Wintergreen Oil (Technical).
[0277] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.10 and 0.12% Potassium Sorbate, between 1.7 and 2.1% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.24 and 0.31% Xanthan Gum, between 78 and 94% Water, and between 10 and 12.5% Blend P-1010 (0.10% Soya Lecithin, 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.90% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5004 [20.50% Thyme Oil White, 45.00% Wintergreen Oil, 1.10% Vanillin, 33.40% Isopropyl myristate]).
[0278] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.11% Potassium Sorbate, 1.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.275% Xanthan Gum, 86.410% Water, and 11.30% Blend P-1010 (0.10% Soya Lecithin, 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.90% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5004 [20.50% Thyme Oil White, 45.00% Wintergreen Oil, 1.10% Vanillin, 33.40% Isopropyl myristate]).
[0279] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 5.0 and 6.3% D-Limonene, between 1.1 and 1.4% Thyme Oil White, between 0.010 and 0.012% Soya Lecithin, between 0.1 and 0.12% Potassium Sorbate, between 1.8 and 2.2% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.24 and 0.31% Xanthan Gum, between 79 and 96.5% Water, and between 2.8 and 3.45% Wintergreen Oil (Technical).
[0280] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 5.67% D-Limonene, 1.25% Thyme Oil White, 0.011% Soya Lecithin, 0.11% Potassium Sorbate, 2.002% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.275% Xanthan Gum, 87.529% Water, and 3.15% Wintergreen Oil (Technical).
[0281] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.1 and 0.12% Potassium Sorbate, between 0.24 and 0.31% Xanthan Gum, between 80 and 97% Water, and between 10 and 12.6% Blend P-1000 (0.20% Soya Lecithin, 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.80% Water, 89.10% Blend B-5016 [39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate]).
[0282] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.11% Potassium Sorbate, 0.275% Xanthan Gum, 88.315% Water, and 11.30% Blend P-1000 (0.20% Soya Lecithin, 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.80% Water, 89.10% Blend B-5016 [39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate]).
[0283] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 3.5 and 4.4% Thyme Oil White, between 3.2 and 4% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.02 and 0.025% Soya Lecithin, between 0.1 and 0.12% Potassium Sorbate, between 0.9 and 0.115% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.25 and 0.30% Xanthan Gum, between 80 and 98% Water, and between 2.2 and 2.8% Wintergreen Oil (Technical).
[0284] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 3.95% Thyme Oil White, 3.62% Isopropyl myristate, 0.023% Soya Lecithin, 0.11% Potassium Sorbate, 0.102% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.275% Xanthan Gum, 89.422% Water, 2.50% Wintergreen Oil (Technical).
[0285] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.1 and 0.12% Potassium Sorbate, between 0.25 and 0.30% Xanthan Gum, between 80 and 98% Water, and between 10 and 12.6% Blend P-1020 (1.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.00% Water, 89.10% Blend B-5016 [39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate]).
[0286] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.11% Potassium Sorbate, 0.275% Xanthan Gum, 88.315% Water, and 11.30% Blend P-1020 (1.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 9.00% Water, 89.10% Blend B-5016 [39.24% Thyme Oil White, 24.82% Wintergreen Oil, 35.94% Isopropyl Myristate]).
[0287] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 3.5 and 4.4% Thyme Oil White, between 2.2 and 2.8% Wintergreen Oil, between 3.3 and 40% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.1 and 0.12% Potassium Sorbate, between 0.18 and 0.23% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.25 and 0.30% Xanthan Gum, and between 80 and 98% Water.
[0288] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 3.95% Thyme Oil White, 2.50% Wintergreen Oil, 3.62% Isopropyl myristate, 0.11% Potassium Sorbate, 0.21% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.275% Xanthan Gum, and 89.332% Water.
[0289] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.9 and 1.1% Potassium Sorbate, between 2.2 and 2.8% Xanthan Gum, and between 87 and 100% Water.
[0290] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.00% Potassium Sorbate, 2.500% Xanthan Gum, and 96.500% Water.
[0291] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 1.8 and 2.2% Sodium Benzoate and between 89 and 100% Water.
[0292] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 2% Sodium Benzoate and 98% Water.
[0293] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 1.05 and 1.32% Span 80, between 1.5 and 1.8% Tween 80, between 13 and 15.4% Isopar M, between 60 and 76% Water, between 2.5 and 3.2% Blend B-5005 (25B-4-b blend; 56.30% D-Limonene, 12.38% Thyme Oil White, 31.32% Wintergreen Oil), and between 10 and 12.5% Solution P-1100 (2% Sodium Benzoate; 2% Sodium Benzoate, 98% Water).
[0294] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.20% Span 80, 1.65% Tween 80, 14.20% Isopar M, 68.75% Water, 2.84% Blend B-5005 (25B-4-b blend; 56.30% D-Limonene, 12.38% Thyme Oil White, 31.32% Wintergreen Oil), and 11.36% Solution P-1100 (2% Sodium Benzoate; 2% Sodium Benzoate, 98% Water).
[0295] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 1.4 and 1.8% D-Limonene, between 0.32 and 0.38% Thyme Oil White, between 0.8 and 0.98% Wintergreen Oil, between 1.1 and 1.3% Span 80, between 1.5 and 1.8% Tween 80, between 0.2 and 0.26% Sodium Benzoate, between 13 and 15.4% Isopar M, and between 71 and 88% Water.
[0296] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.60% D-Limonene, 0.35% Thyme Oil White, 0.89% Wintergreen Oil, 1.20% Span 80, 1.65% Tween 80, 0.23% Sodium Benzoate, 14.20% Isopar M, and 79.88% Water.
[0297] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 20 and 24% Propellent A70 and between 70 and 86% Blend P-1100 (1.20% Span 80, 1.65% Tween 80, 14.20% Isopar M, 68.75% Water, 2.84% Blend B-5005 [56.30% D-Limonene, 12.38% Thyme Oil White, 31.32% Wintergreen Oil], 11.36% Solution P-1100 [2% Sodium Benzoate; 2% Sodium Benzoate, 98% Water]).
[0298] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 22% Propellent A70 and 78% Blend P-110 (1.20% Span 80, 1.65% Tween 80, 14.20% Isopar M, 68.75% Water, 2.84% Blend B-5005 [56.30% D-Limonene, 12.38% Thyme Oil White, 31.32% Wintergreen Oil], 11.36% Solution P-1100 [2% Sodium Benzoate; 2% Sodium Benzoate, 98% Water]).
[0299] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 1.1 and 1.4% D-Limonene, between 0.24 and 0.3% Thyme Oil White, between 0.62 and 0.76% Wintergreen Oil, between 0.85 and 1.04% Span 80, between 1.1 and 1.48% Tween 80, between 0.16 and 0.20% Sodium Benzoate, between 10 and 12.2% Isopar M, between 56 and 69% Water, and between 20 and 24% Propellent A70.
[0300] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.25% D-Limonene, 0.27% Thyme Oil White, 0.69% Wintergreen Oil, 0.94% Span 80, 1.29% Tween 80, 0.18% Sodium Benzoate, 11.08% Isopar M, 62.31% Water, and 22.0% Propellent A70.
[0301] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.9 and 1.1% Potassium Sorbate, between 0.13 and 0.17% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, between 0.25 and 0:31% Xanthan Gum, between 0.030 and 0.037% Lecithin, between 75 and 91% Water, and between 13.5 and 16.6% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate).
[0302] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.0% Potassium Sorbate, 0.15% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.28% Xanthan Gum, 0.034% Lecithin, 83.5% Water, and 15.1% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate).
[0303] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 30 and 37% Water and between 59 and 74% Formulation F-4002 (1.00% Potassium sorbate, 0.28% Xanthan Gum, 81.82% Water, 16.90% Formulation F-4001 [0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate)]).
[0304] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 33.40% Water and 66.60% Formulation F-4002 (1.00% Potassium sorbate, 0.28% Xanthan Gum, 81.82% Water, 16.90% Formulation F-4001 [0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate)]).
[0305] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 3.6 and 4.5% D-Limonene, between 4 and 4.9% Thyme Oil White, between 15 and 18.2% Benzyl Alcohol, between 18 and 23.5% Isopar M, between 44 and 49% Water, between 5.6 and 7.0% Blend C-4003 (3.18% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Laurly Sulfate, 90% Water).
[0306] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 4.03% D-Limonene, 4.43% Thyme Oil White, 16.61% Benzyl Alcohol, 20.95% Isopar M, 44.53% Water, 6.27% Blend C-4003 (3.18% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Laurly Sulfate, 90% Water).
[0307] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 3.6 and 4.45% D-Limonene, between 4.0 and 4.9% Thyme Oil White, between 15 and 18.4% Benzyl Alcohol, between 18 and 23.4% Isopar M, between 40 and 49% Water, between 0.045 and 0.055% Bifenthrin, between 5.6 and 7.0% Blend C-4003 (3.178% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Laurly Sulfate, 90% Water).
[0308] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 4.028% D-Limonene, 4.428% Thyme Oil White, 16.60% Benzyl Alcohol, 20.94% Isopar M, 44.51% Water, 0.05% Bifenthrin, 6.267% Blend C-4003 (3.178% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Laurly Sulfate, 90% Water).
[0309] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 1.8 and 2.3% Thyme Oil White, between 4.0 and 5.0% Wintergreen Oil, between 3.1 and 3.8% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.45 and 0.55% Span 80, between 13.5 and 16.5% Isopar M, between 67 and 82% Water, and between 0.045 and 0.055% Bifenthrin.
[0310] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 2.06% Thyme Oil White, 4.51% Wintergreen Oil, 3.43% Isopropyl myristate, 0.50% Span 80, 15% Isopar M, 74.45% Water, 0.05% Bifenthrin.
[0311] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.36 and 0.45% Thyme Oil White, between 0.8 and 1.0% Wintergreen Oil, between 0.6 and 0.76% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.018 and 0.022% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, and between 88 and 100% Water.
[0312] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.41% Thyme Oil White, 0.90% Wintergreen Oil, 0.69% Isopropyl myristate, 0.02% Sodium LaurylSulfate, and 97.98% Water.
[0313] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.9 and 1.15% Thyme Oil White, between 2.0 and 2.5% Wintergreen Oil, between 1.5 and 1.9% Isopropyl myristate, and between 85 and 100% AgSorb.
[0314] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.03% Thyme Oil White, 2.26% Wintergreen Oil, 1.71% Isopropyl myristate, 95.00% AgSorb.
[0315] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.9 and 1.16% Thyme Oil White, between 2.0 and 2.5% Wintergreen Oil, between 1.5 and 1.9% Isopropyl myristate, and between 85 and 100% DG Light.
[0316] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 1.03% Thyme Oil White, 2.26% Wintergreen Oil, 1.71% Isopropyl myristate, 95.0% DG Light.
[0317] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.36 and 0.45% Thyme Oil White, between 0.8 and 1.0% Wintergreen Oil, between 0.6 and 0.78% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.018 and 0.022% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, and between 87 and 100% Water.
[0318] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.41% Thyme Oil White, 0.90% Wintergreen Oil, 0.69% Isopropyl myristate, 0.02% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, 97.98% Water.
[0319] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 22 and 27% D-Limonene, between 0.89 and 1.1% Thyme Oil White, between 0.15 and 0.19% Linalool Coeur, between 0.2 and 0.26% Tetrahydrolinalool, between 0.018 and 0.022% Vanillin, between 0.22 and 0.26% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.215 and 0.265% Piperonal (aldehyde), between 2.7 and 3.3% Lime Oil Minus, between 0.11 and 0.13% Geraniol 60, between 0.22 and 0.26% Triethyl Citrate, between 60 and 74% Water, and between 2.7 and 3.3% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate; 90% Water).
[0320] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 24.76% D-Limonene, 0.98% Thyme Oil White, 0.17% Linalool Coeur, 0.23% Tetrahydrolinalool, 0.02% Vanillin, 0.24% Isopropyl myristate, 0.24% Piperonal (aldehyde), 3.00% Lime Oil Minus, 0.12% Geraniol 60, 0.24% Triethyl Citrate, 67% Water, 3% Solution S-3002 (Stock 10% SLS Solution; 10% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate; 90% Water).
[0321] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 18 and 23% Thyme Oil White, between 40 and 50% Wintergreen Oil, between 31 and 38% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.9 and 1.1% Potassium Sorbate, between 0.25 and 0.31% Xanthan Gum, between 72 and 89% Water, between 15 and 17.6% Blend F-4001 (0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5028 [20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate]).
[0322] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate, 1% Potassium Sorbate, 0.28% Xanthan Gum, 81.82% Water, 16.90% Blend F-4001 ({Cationic Formulation;} 0.90% Polyglycerol-4-oleate, 0.20% Lecithin, 9.8% Water, 89.1% Blend B-5028 [20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate]).
[0323] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 85 and 100% Miracle Gro (Sterile), and between 4.5 and 5.5% Blend B-5028 (20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate).
[0324] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 95% Miracle Gro (Sterile), 5% Blend B-5028 ({25B-4A for Institutions;}20.6% Thyme Oil White, 45.1% Wintergreen Oil, 34.3% Isopropyl myristate).
[0325] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include between 0.45 and 0.56% Thyme Oil White, between 1.0 and 1.3% Wintergreen Oil, between 0.78 and 0.95% Isopropyl myristate, between 0.45 and 0.55% Span 80, between 13.5 and 16.5% Isopar M, between 73 and 90% Water, and between 0.045 and 0.55% Bifenthrin.
[0326] In some embodiments, the blend of compounds can include 0.51% Thyme Oil White, 1.13% Wintergreen Oil, 0.86% Isopropyl myristate, 0.50% Span 80, 15% Isopar M, 81.95% Water, and 0.05% Bifenthrin.
[0327] In certain embodiments wherein the composition includes LFO, one or more of the following compounds can be substituted for the LFO: Tetrahydrolinalool, Ethyl Linalool, Heliotropine, Hedion, Hercolyn D, and Triethyl Citrate. In certain embodiments wherein the composition includes LFO, a blend of the following compounds can be substituted for the LFO: Isopropyl myristate, Tetrahydrolinalool FCC, Linalool, Geraniol Fine FCC, Piperonal (aldehyde), and Vanillin.
[0328] In certain embodiments wherein the composition includes LFO, a blend of the following compounds can be substituted for the LFO: Isopropyl myristate, Tetrahydrolinalool, Linalool, Geraniol, Piperonal (aldehyde), Vanillin, Methyl Salicylate, and D-limonene.
[0329] In certain embodiments wherein the composition includes BSO, one or more of the following compounds can be substituted for the BSO: alpha-thujene: alpha-pinene; beta-pinene; p-cymene; limonene; and tert-butyl-p-benzoquinone.
[0330] In certain exemplary embodiments wherein the composition includes Thyme Oil, one or more of the following compounds can be substituted for the Thyme Oil: thymol, α-thujone; α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, p-cymene, α-terpinene, linalool, borneol, β-caryophyllene, and carvacrol.
[0331] Compounds used to prepare the exemplary compositions of the present invention can be obtained, for example, from the following sources: Millennium Chemicals, Inc. (Jacksonville, Fla.), Ungerer Company (Lincoln Park, N.J.), SAFC (Milwaukee, Wis.), and IFF Inc. (Hazlet, N.J.).
[0332] In some embodiments of the compositions, it can be desirable to include compounds each having a purity of about 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, or 95%. For example, in some embodiments of the compositions that include geraniol, it can be desirable to include a geraniol that is at least about 60%, 85% or 95% pure. In some embodiments, it can be desirable to include a specific type of geraniol. For example, in some embodiments, the compositions can include: geraniol 60, geraniol 85, or geraniol 95. When geraniol is obtained as geraniol 60, geraniol 85, or geraniol 95, then forty percent, fifteen percent, or five percent of the oil can be Nerol. Nerol is a monoterpene (C10H18O), that can be extracted from attar of roses, oil of orange blossoms and oil of lavender.
[0333] Embodiments of the present invention can include art-recognised ingredients normally used in such formulations. These ingredients can include, for example, antifoaming agents, anti-microbial agents, anti-oxidants, anti-redeposition agents, bleaches, colorants, emulsifiers, enzymes, fats, fluorescent materials, fungicides, hydrotropes, moisturisers, optical brighteners, perfume carriers, perfume, preservatives, proteins, silicones, soil release agents, solubilisers, sugar derivatives, sun screens, surfactants, vitamins waxes, and the like.
[0334] In certain embodiments, embodiments of the present invention can also contain other adjuvants or modifiers such as one or more therapeutically or cosmetically active ingredients. Exemplary therapeutic or cosmetically active ingredients useful in the compositions of the invention can include, for example, fungicides, sunscreening agents, sunblocking agents, vitamins, tanning agents, plant extracts, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-oxidants, radical scavenging agents, retinoids, alpha-hydroxy acids, emollients, antiseptics, antibiotics, antibacterial agents, antihistamines, and the like, and can be present in an amount effective for achieving the therapeutic or cosmetic result desired.
[0335] In some embodiments, compositions of this invention can include one or more materials that can function as an antioxidant, such as reducing agents and free radical scavengers. Suitable materials that can function as an antioxidant can include, for example: acetyl cysteine, ascorbic acid, t-butyl hydroquinone, cysteine, diamylhydroquinone, erythorbic acid, ferulic acid, hydroquinone, p-hydroxyanisole, hydroxylamine sulfate, magnesium ascorbate, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, octocrylene, phloroglucinol, potassium ascorbyl tocopheryl phosphate, potassium sulfite, rutin, sodium ascorbate, sodium sulfite, sodium thloglycolate, thiodiglycol, thiodiglycolamide, thioglycolic acid, thiosalicylic acid, tocopherol, tocopheryl acetate, tocopheryl linoleate, tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, and the like.
[0336] Embodiments of the invention can also include one or more materials that can function as a chelating agent to complex with metallic ions. This action can help to inactivate the metallic ions for the purpose of preventing their adverse effects on the stability or appearance of a formulated composition. Chelating agents suitable for use in an embodiment of this invention can include, for example, aminotrimethylene phosphonic acid, beta-alanine diacetic acid, calcium disodium EDTA, citric acid, cyclodextrin, cyclohexanediamine tetraacetic acid, diammonium citrate, diammonium EDTA, dipotassium EDTA, disodium azacycloheptane diphosphonate, disodium EDTA, disodium pyrophosphate, EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), gluconic acid, HEDTA (hydroxyethyl ethylene diamine triacetic acid), methyl cyclodextrin, pentapotassium triphosphate, pentasodium aminotrimethylene phosphonate, pentasodium triphosphate, pentetic acid, phytic acid, potassium citrate, potassium gluconate, sodium citrate, sodium diethylenetriamine pentamethylene phosphonate, sodium dihydroxyethylglycinate, sodium gluconate, sodium metaphosphate, sodium metasilicate, sodium phytate, triethanolamine (“TEA”)-EDTA, TEA-polyphosphate, tetrahydroxypropyl ethylenediamine, tetrapotassium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium EDTA, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, tripotassium EDTA, trisodium EDTA, trisodium HEDTA, trisodium phosphate, and the like.
[0337] Embodiments of the invention can also include one or more materials that can function as a humectant. A humectant is added to a composition to retard moisture loss during use, which effect is accomplished, in general, by the presence therein of hygroscopic materials.
[0338] In some embodiments, each compound can make up between about 1% to about 99%, by weight (wt/wt %) or by volume (vol/vol %), of the composition. For example, one composition of the present invention comprises about 2% alpha-Pinene and about 98% D-limonene. As used herein, percent amounts, by weight or by volume, of compounds are to be understood as referring to relative amounts of the compounds. As such, for example, a composition including 7% linalool, 35% thymol, 4% alpha-pinene, 30% para-cymene, and 24% soy bean oil (vol/vol %) can be said to include a ratio of 7 to 35 to 4 to 30 to 24 linalool, thymol, alpha-pinene, para-cymene, and soy bean oil, respectively (by volume). As such, if one compound is removed from the composition, or additional compounds or other ingredients are added to the composition, it is contemplated that the remaining compounds can be provided in the same relative amounts. For example, if soy bean oil were removed from the exemplary composition, the resulting composition would include 7 to 35 to 4 to 40 linalool, thymol, alpha-pinene, and para-cymene, respectively (by volume). This resulting composition would include 9.21% linalool, 46.05% thymol, 5.26% alpha-pinene, and 39.48% para-cymene (vol/vol %). For another example, if safflower oil were added to the original composition to yield a final composition containing 40% (vol/vol) safflower oil, then the resulting composition would include 4.2% linalool, 21% thymol, 2.4% alpha-pinene, 18% para-cymene, 14.4% soy bean oil, and 40% safflower oil (vol/vol %). One having ordinary skill in the art would understand that volume percentages are easily converted to weight percentages based the known or measured specific gravity of the substance.
[0339] Surprisingly, by combining certain insect control chemicals, and compounds or blends of the present invention, insect control activity of the resulting compositions can be enhanced, i.e., a synergistic effect on insect control activity is achieved when a certain chemical or chemicals, and a certain compound or compounds are combined. In other words, the compositions including certain combinations of at least one chemical, and at least one compound or at least one blend of compounds can have an enhanced ability to control insects, as compared to each of the chemicals or compounds taken alone.
[0340] In embodiments of the present invention, “synergy” can refer to any substantial enhancement, in a combination of at least two ingredients, of a measurable effect, when compared with the effect of one active ingredient alone, or when compared with the effect of the complete combination minus at least one ingredient. Synergy is a specific feature of a combination of ingredients, and is above any background level of enhancement that would be due solely to, e.g., additive effects of any random combination of ingredients. Effects include but are not limited to: repellant effect of the composition; pesticidal effect of the composition; perturbation of a cell message or cell signal such as, e.g., calcium, cyclic-AMP, and the like; and diminution of activity or downstream effects of a molecular target.
[0341] In various embodiments, a substantial enhancement can be expressed as a coefficient of synergy, wherein the coefficient is a ratio of the measured effect of the complete blend, divided by the effect of a comparison composition, typically a single ingredient or a subset of ingredients found in the complete blend. In some embodiments, the synergy coefficient can be adjusted for differences in concentration of the complete blend and the comparison composition.
[0342] In some embodiments of the invention, a coefficient of synergy of 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, or 1.5 can be substantial and commercially desirable. In other embodiments, the coefficient of synergy can be from about 1.6 to about 5, including but not limited to 1.8, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5. In other embodiments, the coefficient of synergy can be from about 5 to 50, including but not limited to 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45. In other embodiments, the coefficient of synergy can be from about 50 to about 500, or more, including but not limited to 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450. Any coefficient of synergy above 500 is also contemplated within embodiments of the present invention.
[0343] Given that a broad range of synergies can be found in various embodiments of the invention, it is expressly noted that a coefficient of synergy can be described as being “greater than” a given number and therefore not necessarily limited to being within the bounds of a range having a lower and an upper numerical limit. Likewise, in some embodiments of the invention, certain low synergy coefficients, or lower ends of ranges, are expressly excluded. Accordingly, in some embodiments, synergy can be expressed as being “greater than” a given number that constitutes a lower limit of synergy for such an embodiment. For example, in some embodiments, the synergy coefficient is equal to or greater than 25; in such an embodiment, all synergy coefficients below 25, even though substantial, are expressly excluded.
[0344] Compositions containing combinations of certain chemicals and compounds can be tested for synergistic effect on insect control activity by comparing the effect of a particular combination of at least one chemical, and at least one compound or at least one blend of compounds, to the effect of the individual chemical(s) and compound(s). Additional information related to making a synergy determination can be found in the Examples set forth in this document.
[0345] Exemplary methods that can be used to determine the synergistic effect of a particular composition are set forth in the following applications, each of which is incorporated in its entirety herein by reference: U.S. application Ser. No. 10/832,022, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS; U.S. application Ser. No. 11/086,615, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS RELATED TO THE OCTOPAMINE RECEPTOR; U.S. application Ser. No. 11/365,426, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS INVOLVING THE TYRAMINE RECEPTOR; and U.S. application Ser. No. 11/870,385, entitled COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CONTROLLING INSECTS.
[0346] Controlling Pests
[0347] Embodiments of the invention can be used to control insect species belonging to orders Acari, Anoplura, Araneae, Blattodea, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Grylloptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Mantodea, Mallophaga, Neuroptera, Odonata, Orthoptera, Psocoptera, Siphonaptera, Symphyla, Thysanura, and Thysanoptera.
[0348] Embodiments of the present invention can be used to control, for example, the insects set forth in Table 5, or the like.
[00005] [TABLE-US-00005]
  TABLE 5
 
  INSECTS SUBJECT TO CONTROL BY EMBODIMENTS OF THE
  INVENTION
    English Common    
  Scientific Name   Name   Order   Family
 
Abgrallaspis ithacae (Ferris)   hemlock scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Acalitus essigi (Hassan)   redberry mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Acalitus rudis (Can.)   birch budgall mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Acalitus vaccinii (Keif.)   blueberry bud mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Acalymma vittatum (F.)   striped cucumber   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Acantholyda erythrocephala (L.)   pine false webworm   Hymenoptera   Pamphiliidae
Acantholyda zappei (Roh.)   nesting pine sawfly   Hymenoptera   Pamphiliidae
Acanthomyops interjectus (Mayr)   larger yellow ant   Hymenoptera   Formicidae
Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say)   bean weevil   Coleoptera   Bruchidae
Acarus siro L.   grain mite   Acari   Acaridae
Aceria campestricola (Frauen.)   elm leafgall mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Aceria dispar (Nal.)   aspen leaf mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Aceria elongatus (Hodg.)   crimson erineum mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Aceria fraxiniflora (Felt)   ash flower gall mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Aceria parapopuli (Keif.)   poplar budgall mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Aceria tosichella Keif.   wheat curl mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Acericecis ocellaris (O.S.)   ocellate gall midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Achaearanea tepidariorum (Koch)   European house   Araneae   Theridiidae
    spider
Acheta domesticus (L.)   house cricket   Grylloptera   Gryllidae
Achyra rantalis (Gn.)   garden webworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Acleris chalybeana (Fern.)   lesser maple leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Acleris comariana (Zell.)   strawberry tortrix   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Acleris fuscana (B. &Bsk.)   small aspen leaftier   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Acleris gloverana (Wlsm.)   western blackheaded   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    budworm
Acleris logiana (Cl.)   blackheaded birch   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    leaffolder
Acleris minuta (Rob.)   yellowheaded   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    fireworm
Acleris variana (Fern.)   eastern blackheaded   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    budworm
Acossus centerensis (Lint.)   poplar carpenterworm   Lepidoptera   Cossidae
Acossus populi (Wlk.)   aspen carpenterworm   Lepidoptera   Cossidae
Acrobasis betulella Hulst   birch tubemaker   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Acrobasis caryae Grt.   hickory shoot borer   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Acrobasis comptoniella Hulst   sweetfern leaf   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
    casebearer
Acrobasis juglandis (LeB.)   pecan leaf casebearer   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Acrobasis rubrifasciella Pack.   alder tubemaker   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Acrobasis sylviella Ely   ironwood tubemaker   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Acrobasis vaccinii Riley   cranberry fruitworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Acronicta americana (Harr.)   American dagger   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    moth
Acronicta dactylina Grt.   alder dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta fragilis (Gn.)   fragile dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta funeralis G. &R.   paddle caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta furcifera Gn.   forked dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta grisea Wlk.   gray dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta hasta Gn.   cherry dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta impressa Wlk.   willow dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta innotata Gn.   birch dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta leporina (L.)   poplar dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta lepusculina Gn.   cottonwood dagger   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    moth
Acronicta oblinita (J. E. Smith)   smeared dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta tristis Sm.   sad dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Acronicta vinnula (Grt.)   elm dagger moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Actebia fennica (Tausch.)   black army cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Actias luna (L.)   luna moth   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Aculops lycopersici (Tryon)   tomato russet mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Aculus fockeui (Nal. &Tr.)   plum rust mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Aculus schlechtendali (Nal.)   apple rust mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Acyrthosiphon caraganae   caragana aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
  (Cholodk.)
Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harr.)   pea aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Adalia bipunctata (L.)   twospotted lady   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
    beetle
Adelges abietis (L.)   eastern spruce gall   Homoptera   Adelgidae
    adelgid
Adelges cooleyi (Gill.)   Cooley spruce gall   Homoptera   Adelgidae
    adelgid
Adelges lariciatus (Patch)   spruce gall adelgid   Homoptera   Adelgidae
Adelges laricis Vallot   pale spruce gall   Homoptera   Adelgidae
    adelgid
Adelges piceae (Ratz.)   balsam woolly   Homoptera   Adelgidae
    adelgid
Adelges tsugae Ann.   hemlock woolly   Homoptera   Adelgidae
    adelgid
Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze)   alfalfa plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Adelphocoris rapidus (Say)   rapid plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Adelphocoris superbus (Uhl.)   superb plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Aedes aegypti (L.)   yellowfever mosquito   Diptera   Culicidae
Aellopos titan (Cram.)   whitebanded day   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
    sphinx
Aeshna canadensis Wlk.   Canada darner   Odonata   Aeshnidae
Aeshna umbrosa Wlk.   shadow darner   Odonata   Aeshnidae
Aglais milberti (Godt.)   Milbert tortoiseshell   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Agrilus anxius Gory   bronze birch borer   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
Agrilus aurichalceus Redt.   rose stem girdler   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
Agrilus bilineatus (Weber)   twolined chestnut   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
    borer
Agrilus liragus B. &B.   bronze poplar borer   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
Agrilus politus (Say)   willow gall limb   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
    borer
Agrilus ruficollis (F.)   rednecked cane borer   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
Agriopodes fallax (H.-S.)   green marvel   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Agriotes limosus (LeC.)   little brown click   Coleoptera   Elateridae
    beetle
Agriotes lineatus (L.)   lined click beetle   Coleoptera   Elateridae
Agriotes mancus (Say)   wheat wireworm   Coleoptera   Elateridae
Agriotes obscurus (L.)   dusky wireworm   Coleoptera   Elateridae
Agriotes sparsus LeC.   western wireworm   Coleoptera   Elateridae
Agriphila vulgivagella (Clem.)   vagabond crambus   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Agrius cingulata (F.)   pinkspotted   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
    hawkmoth
Agromyza aristata Malloch   elm agromyzid   Diptera   Agromyzidae
    leafminer
Agromyza frontella (Rond.)   alfalfa blotch   Diptera   Agromyzidae
    leafminer
Agromyza melampyga (Loew)   mockorange   Diptera   Agromyzidae
    leafminer
Agrotis gladiaria Morr.   claybacked cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.)   black cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Agrotis orthogonia Morr.   pale western cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Ahasverus advena (Waltl)   foreign grain beetle   Coleoptera   Cucujidae
Alabama argillacea (Hbn.)   cotton leafworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Alaus myops (F.)   smalleyed click beetle   Coleoptera   Elateridae
Alaus oculatus (L.)   eyed click beetle   Coleoptera   Elateridae
Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troup.)   brownlegged grain   Acari   Acaridae
    mite
Allantus cinctus (L.)   curled rose sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Alniphagus aspericollis (LeC.)   alder bark beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Alphitobius diaperinus (Panz.)   lesser mealworm   Coleoptera   Tenebrionidae
Alphitobius laevigatus (F.)   black fungus beetle   Coleoptera   Tenebrionidae
Alphitophagus bifasciatus (Say)   twobanded fungus   Coleoptera   Tenebrionidae
    beetle
Alsophila pometaria (Harr.)   fall cankerworm   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Altica ambiens LeC.   alder flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Altica canadensis Gent.   prairie flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Altica chalybaea Ill.   grape flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Altica prasina LeC.   poplar flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Altica rosae Woods   rose flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Altica sylvia Malloch   blueberry flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Altica ulmi Woods   elm flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Alypia langtoni Couper   fireweed caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Alypia octomaculata (F.)   eightspotted forester   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Amblyscirtes vialis (Edw.)   roadside skipper   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Amphibolips confluenta (Harr.)   spongy oakapple gall   Hymenoptera   Cynipidae
Amphibolips quercusinanis (O.S.)   large oakapple gall   Hymenoptera   Cynipidae
Amphicerus bicaudatus (Say)   apple twig borer   Coleoptera   Bostrichidae
Amphimallon majalis (Raz.)   European chafer   Coleoptera   Scarabaeidae
Amphion floridensis B. P. Clark   nessus sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Amphipoea interoceanica (Sm.)   strawberry cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Amphipyra pyramidoides Gn.   copper underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Amphipyra pyramidoides Gn.   rearhumped   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    caterpillar
Amplicephalus inimicus (Say)   painted leafhopper   Homoptera   Cicadellidae
Anabrus simplex Hald.   Mormon cricket   Orthoptera   Tettigoniidae
Anacampsis innocuella (Zell.)   darkheaded aspen   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
    leafroller
Anacampsis niveopulvella (Cham.)   paleheaded aspen   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
    leafroller
Anagrapha falcifera (Kby.)   celery looper   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Anaphothrips obscurus (Müll.)   grass thrips   Tysanoptera   Thripidae
Anarsia lineatella Zell.   peach twig borer   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
Anasa tristis (DeG.)   squash bug   Heteroptera   Coreidae
Anathix puta (G. &R.)   poplar catkin moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Anatis labiculata (Say)   fifteenspotted lady   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
    beetle
Anatis mali (Say)   eyespotted lady beetle   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
Ancistronycha bilineata (Say)   twolined cantharid   Coleoptera   Cantharidae
Ancylis burgessiana (Zell.)   oak leaffolder   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Ancylis comptana (Frö.)   strawberry leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Ancylis discigerana (Wlk.)   yellow birch   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    leaffolder
Anelaphus parallelus (Newm.)   hickory twig pruner   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Anelaphus villosus (F.)   twig pruner   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Anisota finlaysoni Riotte   shorthorned oakworm   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Anisota senatoria (J. E. Smith)   orangestriped   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
    oakworm
Anisota stigma (F.)   spiny oakworm   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Anisota virginiensis (Drury)   pinkstriped oakworm   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Anobium punctatum (DeG.)   furniture beetle   Coleoptera   Anobiidae
Anomoea laticlavia (Först.)   claycoloured leaf   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Anoplonyx canadensis Hgtn.   onelined larch sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Anoplonyx luteipes (Cress.)   threelined larch   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    sawfly
Antheraea polyphemus (Cram.)   polyphemus moth   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Anthonomus musculus Say   cranberry weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Anthonomus quadrigibbus (Say)   apple curculio   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Anthonomus signatus Say   strawberry bud weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Anthonomus signatus Say   strawberry clipper   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
    weevil
Anthophylax attenuatus (Hald.)   mottled longhorned   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
    beetle
Anthrenus flavipes LeC.   furniture carpet   Coleoptera   Dermestidae
    beetle*
Anthrenus museorum (L.)   museum beetle   Coleoptera   Dermestidae
Anthrenus scrophulariae (L.)   carpet beetle   Coleoptera   Dermestidae
Anthrenus verbasci (L.)   varied carpet beetle   Coleoptera   Dermestidae
Antispila nysaefoliella Clem.   tupelo leafminer   Lepidoptera   Heliozelidae
Apamea amputatrix (Fitch)   yellowheaded   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    cutworm
Apamea devastator (Brace)   glassy cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Aphis craccivora Koch   cowpea aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Aphis fabae Scop.   black bean aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Aphis fabae Scop.   bean aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Aphis gossypii Glov.   melon aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Aphis maculatae Oestl.   spotted poplar aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Aphis nasturtii Kltb.   buckthorn aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Aphis pomi DeG.   apple aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Aphis rubicola Oest.   raspberry aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Aphomia gularis (Zell.)   stored nut moth   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Aphrophora cribrata (Wlk.)   pine spittlebug   Homoptera   Cercopidae
Aphrophora fulva Doering   western pine   Homoptera   Cercopidae
    spittlebug
Aphrophora parallela (Say)   spruce spittlebug   Homoptera   Cercopidae
Aphrophora permutata Uhl.   Douglas-fir spittlebug   Homoptera   Cercopidae
Aphrophora saratogensis (Fitch)   Saratoga spittlebug   Homoptera   Cercopidae
Apion longirostre Oliv.   hollyhock weevil   Coleoptera   Apionidae
Apion nigrum Hbst.   black locust seed   Coleoptera   Apionidae
    weevil*
Apion simile Kby.   birch catkin weevil   Coleoptera   Apionidae
Apis mellifera L.   honey bee   Hymenoptera   Apidae
Apotomis dextrana (McD.)   green aspen leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Aradus kormileri Heiss   pine flat bug   Heteroptera   Aradidae
Araecerus fasciculatus (DeG.)   coffee bean weevil   Coleoptera   Anthribidae
Araneus trifolium (Hentz)   shamrock spider   Araneae   Araneidae
Archips argyrospila (Wlk.)   fruittree leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Archips cerasivorana (Fitch)   uglynest caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Archips fervidana (Clem.)   oak webworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Archips mortuana Kft.   duskyback leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Archips negundana (Dyar)   larger boxelder   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    leafroller
Archips packardiana (Fern.)   spring spruce needle   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    moth
Archips purpurana (Clem.)   omnivorous leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Archips rosana (L.)   European leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Archips semiferana (Wlk.)   oak leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Arctia caja (L.)   great tiger moth   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Argas persicus (Oken)   fowl tick   Acari   Argasidae
Argyresthia conjugella Zell.   apple fruit moth   Lepidoptera   Argyresthiidae
Argyresthia laricella Kft.   larch shoot moth   Lepidoptera   Argyresthiidae
Argyresthia oreasella Clem.   cherry shoot borer   Lepidoptera   Argyresthiidae
Argyresthia thuiella (Pack.)   arborvitae leafminer   Lepidoptera   Argyresthiidae
Argyrotaenia citrana (Fern.)   orange tortrix   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Argyrotaenia mariana (Fern.)   graybanded leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Argyrotaenia occultana Free.   fall spruce needle   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    moth
Argyrotaenia pinatubana (Kft.)   pine tube moth   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Argyrotaenia quadrifasciana   fourlined leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
  (Fern.)
Argyrotaenia quercifoliana (Fitch)   tortricid oakworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Argyrotaenia tabulana Free.   jack pine tube moth   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Argyrotaenia velutinana (Wlk.)   redbanded leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Arhopalus foveicollis (Hald.)   pitted longhorned   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
    beetle
Arhopalus productus (LeC.)   new house borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Armadillidium vulgare (Latr.)   pillbug   Isopoda   Armadillidae
Aroga trialbamaculella (Cham.)   redstriped fireworm   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
Arrhenodes minutus (Drury)   oak timberworm   Coleoptera   Brentidae
Asemum striatum (L.)   opaque sawyer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Aspidiotus nerii Bouch,   oleander scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Asterodiapsis variolosa (Ratz.)   golden oak scale   Homoptera   Asterolecaniida
Asynapta hopkinsi Felt   cone resin midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Asynonychus cervinus (Boh.)   Fuller rose beetle   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Attagenus pellio (L.)   fur beetle   Coleoptera   Dermestidae
Attagenus unicolor (Brahm)   black carpet beetle   Coleoptera   Dermestidae
Aulacaspis rosae (Bouch,)   rose scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Aulacorthum solani (Kltb.)   foxglove aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Aulocara elliotti (Thos.)   bigheaded   Orthoptera   Acrididae
    grasshopper
Autographa biloba (Steph.)   bilobed looper   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Autographa californica (Speyer)   alfalfa looper   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Automeris io (F.)   io moth   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.)   olive fruit fly   Diptera   Tephritidae
Baliosus nervosus (Panz.)   basswood leafminer   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Banasa dimiata (Say)   banasa stink bug   Heteroptera   Pentatomidae
Barbara colfaxiana (Kft.)   Douglas-fir cone   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    moth
Battus philenor (L.)   pipevine swallowtail   Lepidoptera   Papilionidae
Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)   sweetpotato whitefly   Homoptera   Aleyrodidae
Biston betularia cognataria (Gn.)   pepper-and-salt moth   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Blastobasis glandulella (Riley)   acorn moth   Lepidoptera   Blastobasidae
Blatta orientalis L.   oriental cockroach   Blattodea   Blattellidae
Blattella germanica (L.)   German cockroach   Blattodea   Blattellidae
Blissus l. leucopterus (Say)   chinch bug   Heteroptera   Lygaeidae
Blissus leucopterus hirtus Montd.   hairy chinch bug   Heteroptera   Lygaeidae
Blissus occiduus Barber   western chinch bug   Heteroptera   Lygaeidae
Boisea rubrolineata (Barber)   western boxelder bug   Heteroptera   Rhopalidae
Boisea trivittata (Say)   boxelder bug   Heteroptera   Rhopalidae
Boloria bellona (F.)   meadow fritillary   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Boloria eunomia (Esp.)   bog fritillary   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Boloria selene (D. &S.)   silverbordered   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
    fritillary
Bombyx mori (L.)   silkworm   Lepidoptera   Bombycidae
Bomolocha deceptalis (Wlk.)   basswood owlet moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Bourletiella hortensis (Fitch)   garden springtail   Collembola   Sminthuridae
Bovicola bovis (L.)   cattle biting louse   Mallophaga   Trichodectidae
Bovicola caprae (G{dot over (u)}rlt)   goat biting louse   Mallophaga   Trichodectidae
Bovicola equi (Denny)   horse biting louse   Mallophaga   Trichodectidae
Bovicola ovis (Schr.)   sheep biting louse   Mallophaga   Trichodectidae
Brachycaudus persicae (Pass.)   black peach aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Brachycoynella asparagi (Mord.)   asparagus aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Brevicoryne brassicae (L.)   cabbage aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Brochymena quadripustulata (F.)   fourhumped stink bug   Heteroptera   Pentatomidae
Bromius obscurus (L.)   western grape   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    rootworm
Bruchophagus platypterus (Wlk.)   clover seed chalcid   Hymenoptera   Eurytomidae
Bruchophagus roddi (Guss.)   alfalfa seed chalcid   Hymenoptera   Eurytomidae
Bruchus brachialis Fåhr.   vetch bruchid   Coleoptera   Bruchidae
Bruchus pisorum (L.)   pea weevil   Coleoptera   Bruchidae
Bruchus rufimanus Boh.   broadbean weevil   Coleoptera   Bruchidae
Bryobia praetiosa Koch   clover mite   Acari   Tetranychidae
Bryobia rubrioculus (Scheut.)   brown mite   Acari   Tetranychidae
Bucculatrix ainsliella Murt.   oak skeletonizer   Lepidoptera   Lyonetiidae
Bucculatrix canadensisella Cham.   birch skeletonizer   Lepidoptera   Lyonetiidae
Buprestis aurulenta L.   golden buprestid   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
Buprestis maculativentris Say   ventrally-spotted   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
    buprestid
Byturus unicolor Say   raspberry fruitworm   Coleoptera   Byturidae
Cacopsylla buxi (L.)   boxwood psyllid   Homoptera   Psyllidae
Cacopsylla mali (Schmdb.)   apple sucker   Homoptera   Psyllidae
Cacopsylla negundinis Mally   boxelder psyllid   Homoptera   Psyllidae
Cacopsylla pyricola Först.   pear psylla   Homoptera   Psyllidae
Cadra cautella (Wlk.)   almond moth   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Cadra figulilella (Greg.)   raisin moth   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Caenurgina crassiuscula (Haw.)   clover looper   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Caliroa cerasi (L.)   pear sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Caliroa cerasi (L.)   pearslug   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Caliroa fasciata (Nort.)   oakslug   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Caliroa fasciata (Nort.)   oak sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Callidium antennatum hesperum   blackhorned pine   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
  Casey   borer
Calligrapha alni Schaeff.   russet alder leaf   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Calligrapha philadelphica (L.)   dogwood leaf beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Calligrapha scalaris (LeC.)   elm calligrapha   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Callirhytis cornigera (O.S.)   horned oak gall wasp   Hymenoptera   Cynipidae
Callirhytis quercuspunctata   gouty oak gall wasp   Hymenoptera   Cynipidae
  (Bass.)
Callosamia promethea (Drury)   promethea moth   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Calocoris norvegicus Gmel.   strawberry bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Calopteryx maculata (Beauv.)   ebony jeweling   Odonata   Calopterygidae
Caloptilia alnivorella (Cham.)   alder leafminer   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
Caloptilia invariabilis (Braun)   cherry leafcone   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    caterpillar
Caloptilia negundella (Cham.)   boxelder leafroller   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
Caloptilia syringella (F.)   lilac leafminer   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
Calosoma calidum (F.)   fiery hunter   Coleoptera   Carabidae
Calvia quatuordecimguttata (L.)   fourteenspotted lady   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
    beetle
Cameraria aceriella (Clem.)   maple leafblotch   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    miner
Cameraria betulivora (Wlsm.)   birch leafblotch miner   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
Cameraria cincinnatiella (Cham.)   gregarious oak   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    leafminer
Cameraria hamadryadella (Clem.)   solitary oak leafminer   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
Camnula pellucida (Scudd.)   clearwinged   Orthoptera   Acrididae
    grasshopper
Campaea perlata (Gn.)   fringed looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Camponotus ferrugineus (F.)   red carpenter ant   Hymenoptera   Formicidae
Camponotus herculeanus (L.)   boreal carpenter ant   Hymenoptera   Formicidae
Camponotus pennsylvanicus   black carpenter ant   Hymenoptera   Formicidae
  (DeG.)
Campylomma verbasci (Meyer)   mullein bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Canarsia ulmiarrosorella (Clem.)   elm leaftier   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Caripeta angustiorata Wlk.   brown pine looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Caripeta divisata Wlk.   gray spruce looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Carpoglyphus lactis (L.)   driedfruit mite   Acari   Carpoglyphidae
Carpophilus hemipterus (L.)   driedfruit beetle   Coleoptera   Nitidulidae
Carterocephalus palaemon   Arctic skipper   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
  (Pallas)
Cartodere constricta (Gyll.)   plaster beetle   Coleoptera   Lathridiidae
Carulaspis juniperi (Bouch,)   juniper scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Catastega aceriella Clem.   maple trumpet   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    skeletonizer
Catocala blandula Hulst   gray-blue underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Catocala briseis Edw.   briseis underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Catocala cerogama Gn.   yellowbanded   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    underwing
Catocala concumbens Wlk.   pink underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Catocala gracilis Edw.   graceful underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Catocala habilis Grt.   hickory underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Catocala ilia (Cram.)   ilia underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Catocala relicta Wlk.   white underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Catocala sordida Grt.   blueberry underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Catocala ultronia (Hbn.)   plum tree underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Catocala unijuga Wlk.   oncemarried   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    underwing
Caulocampus acericaulis (MacG.)   maple petiole borer   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Cavariella aegopodii (Scop.)   carrot-willow aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Cecidomyia pellex O.S.   ash bulletgall midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyia piniinopis O.S.   jack pine midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyia resinicola (O.S.)   jack pine resin midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyia verrucicola O.S.   linden wart gall   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    midge
Cecidophyopsis ribis (Westw.)   currant bud mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Cecidophyopsis ribis (Westw.)   blackcurrant big bud   Acari   Eriophyidae
    mite
Celastrina argiolus (Cram.)   spring azure   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Cephalcia fascipennis (Cress.)   spruce webspinning   Hymenoptera   Pamphiliidae
    sawfly
Cephalcia marginata Middk.   red pine webspinning   Hymenoptera   Pamphiliidae
    sawfly
Cephaloon lepturoides Newm.   false leptura beetle   Coleoptera   Cephaloidae
Cephus cinctus Nort.   wheat stem sawfly   Hymenoptera   Cephidae
Cephus pygmaeus (L.)   European wheat stem   Hymenoptera   Cephidae
    sawfly
Cerapteryx graminis L.   antler moth   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Ceratomia amyntor (Gey.)   elm sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Ceratomia undulosa (Wlk.)   waved sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schr.)   European chicken flea   Siphonaptera   Ceratophyllidae
Ceratophyllus niger Fox   western chicken flea   Siphonaptera   Ceratophyllidae
Cercyonis pegala (F.)   common wood   Lepidoptera   Satyridae
    nymph
Cerotoma trifurcata (Först.)   bean leaf beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Payk.)   cabbage seedpod   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
    weevil
Ceutorhynchus rapae Gyll.   cabbage curculio   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsh.   corn flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Chaetophloeus heterodoxus   mountain mahogany   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
  (Casey)   bark beetle
Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Ckll.)   strawberry aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Chaitophorus populicola Thos.   smokywinged poplar   Homoptera   Aphididae
    aphid
Chalcophora virginiensis (Drury)   sculptured pine borer   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
Charidotella sexpunctata bicolor   golden tortoise beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
  (F.)
Charidryas harrisii (Scudd.)   Harris checkerspot   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Charidryas nycteis (Dbly.)   silvery checkerspot   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Cheimophila salicella (Hbn.)   blueberry flagleaf   Lepidoptera   Oecophoridae
    webworm
Chelopistes meleagridis (L.)   large turkey louse   Mallophaga   Philopteridae
Chelymorpha cassidea (F.)   argus tortoise beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Chilocorus stigma (Say)   twicestabbed lady   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
    beetle
Chionaspis americana Johns.   elm scurfy scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Chionaspis corni Cooley   dogwood scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Chionaspis furfura (Fitch)   scurfy scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Chionaspis lintneri Comst.   Lintner scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch)   pine needle scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Chionaspis salicisnigrae (Walsh)   willow scurfy scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Chionodes formosella (Murt.)   spring oak leafroller   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
Chionodes obscurusella (Cham.)   boxelder leafworm   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria   blackberry looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
  (Gn.)
Chlorochroa sayi (Stål)   Say stink bug   Heteroptera   Pentatomidae
Choreutis pariana (Cl.)   apple-and-thorn   Lepidoptera   Choreutidae
    skeletonizer
Chorioptes bovis (Gerl.)   chorioptic mange   Acari   Psoroptidae
    mite
Choristoneura biennis Free.   two-year-cycle   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    budworm
Choristoneura conflictana (Wlk.)   large aspen tortrix   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Choristoneura fractvittana (Clem.)   brokenbanded   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    leafroller
Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)   spruce budworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Choristoneura occidentalis Free.   western spruce   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    budworm
Choristoneura p. pinus Free.   jack pine budworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Choristoneura parallela (Rob.)   spotted fireworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Choristoneura rosaceana (Harr.)   obliquebanded   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    leafroller
Chortippus c. curtipennis (Harr.)   marsh meadow   Orthoptera   Acrididae
    grasshopper
Chromatomyia syngenesiae Hdy.   chrysanthemum   Diptera   Agromyzidae
    leafminer
Chrysobothris femorata (Oliv.)   flatheaded appletree   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
    borer
Chrysochus auratus (F.)   dogbane beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Chrysomela crotchi Brown   aspen leaf beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Chrysomela scripta F.   cottonwood leaf   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Chrysomela walshi Brown   balsam poplar leaf   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Chrysopa oculata Say   goldeneyed lacewing   Neuroptera   Chrysopidae
Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.)   common green   Neuroptera   Chrysopidae
    lacewing
Chrysoteuchia topiaria (Zell.)   cranberry girdler   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Cimbex americana Leach   elm sawfly   Hymenoptera   Cimbicidae
Cimex lectularius L.   bed bug   Heteroptera   Cimicidae
Cimex pilosellus (Horv.)   bat bug   Heteroptera   Cimicidae
Cinara banksiana P. &T.   jack pine aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Cinara curvipes (Patch)   balsam fir aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Cinara fornacula Hottes   green spruce aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Cinara laricifex (Fitch)   black larch aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Cinara laricis (Htg.)   larch aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Cinara pinea (Mord.)   pine aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Cinara strobi (Fitch)   white pine aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Cingilia catenaria (Drury)   chainspotted   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
    geometer
Circulifer tenellus (Baker)   beet leafhopper   Homoptera   Cicadellidae
Citheronia regalis (F.)   hickory horned devil   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Citheronia regalis (F.)   regal moth   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Clastoptera obtusa (Say)   alder spittlebug   Homoptera   Cercopidae
Clastoptera proteus Fitch   dogwood spittlebug   Homoptera   Cercopidae
Clepsis persicana (Fitch)   whitetriangle   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    leafroller
Clossiana titania grandis (B. &   purple lesser fritillary   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
  McD.)
Clostera albosigma Fitch   rustylined leaftier   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
Clostera apicalis (Wlk.)   redmarked tentmaker   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
Clostera inclusa (Hbn.)   poplar tentmaker   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
Cnephasia longana (Haw.)   omnivorous leaftier   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Coccinella novemnotata Hbst.   ninespotted lady   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
    beetle
Coccinella septempunctata L.   sevenspotted lady   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
    beetle
Coccinella transversoguttata   transverse lady beetle   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
richardsoni Brown
Coccinella undecimpunctata L.   elevenspotted lady   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
    beetle
Cochliomyia macellaria (F.)   secondary   Diptera   Calliphoridae
    screwworm
Coenonympha inornata Edw.   inornate ringlet   Lepidoptera   Satyridae
Coleophora laricella (Hbn.)   larch casebearer   Lepidoptera   Coleophoridae
Coleophora laticornella Clem.   pecan cigar   Lepidoptera   Coleophoridae
    casebearer
Coleophora limosipennella (Dup.)   elm casebearer   Lepidoptera   Coleophoridae
Coleophora malivorella Riley   pistol casebearer   Lepidoptera   Coleophoridae
Coleophora pruniella Clem.   cherry casebearer   Lepidoptera   Coleophoridae
Coleophora serratella (L.)   cigar casebearer   Lepidoptera   Coleophoridae
Coleophora serratella (L.)   birch casebearer   Lepidoptera   Coleophoridae
Coleotechnites apicitripunctella   green hemlock   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
  (Clem.)   needleminer
Coleotechnites canusella (Free.)   banded jack pine   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
    needleminer
Coleotechnites laricis (Free.)   orange larch   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
    tubemaker
Coleotechnites macleodi (Free.)   brown hemlock   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
    needleminer
Coleotechnites milleri (Bsk.)   lodgepole   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
    needleminer
Coleotechnites piceaella (Kft.)   orange spruce   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
    needleminer
Coleotechnites resinosae (Free.)   red pine needleminer   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
Coleotechnites thujaella (Kft.)   brown cedar   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
    leafminer
Colias eurytheme Bdv.   alfalfa caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Pieridae
Colias interior Scudd.   pinkedged sulphur   Lepidoptera   Pieridae
Colias philodice Godt.   clouded sulphur   Lepidoptera   Pieridae
Colomerus vitis (Pgst.)   grape erineum mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Colopha ulmicola (Fitch)   elm cockscombgall   Homoptera   Aphididae
    aphid
Coloradia pandora Blake   pandora moth   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Conophthorus coniperda (Schw.)   white pine cone   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    beetle
Conophthorus ponderosae Hopk.   ponderosa pine cone   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    beetle
Conophthorus ponderosae Hopk.   lodgepole cone beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Conophthorus resinosae Hopk.   red pine cone beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Conotrachelus juglandis LeC.   butternut curculio   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Conotrachelus nenuphar (Hbst.)   plum curculio   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Contarinia baeri (Prell)   European pineneedle   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    midge
Contarinia bromicola (M. &A.)   bromegrass seed   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    midge
Contarinia canadensis Felt   ash midribgall midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Contarinia johnsoni Felt   grape blossom midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Contarinia negundifolia Felt   boxelder leaf gall   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    midge
Contarinia negundinis (Gill.)   boxelder budgall   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    midge
Contarinia oregonensis Foote   Douglas-fir cone gall   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    midge
Contarinia pyrivora (Riley)   pear midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Contarinia schulzi Gagn,   sunflower midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Contarinia virginianae (Felt)   chokecherry midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Contarinia washingtonensis Johns.   Douglas-fir cone   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    scale midge
Corcyra cephalonica (Staint.)   rice moth   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Corthylus punctatissimus (Zimm.)   pitted ambrosia beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Corydalus cornutus (L.)   dobsonfly   Neuroptera   Corydalidae
Corydalus cornutus (L.)   hellgrammite   Neuroptera   Corydalidae
Corythucha arcuata (Say)   oak lace bug   Heteroptera   Tingidae
Corythucha ciliata (Say)   sycamore lace bug   Heteroptera   Tingidae
Corythucha elegans Drake   willow lace bug   Heteroptera   Tingidae
Corythucha heidemanni Drake   alder lace bug   Heteroptera   Tingidae
Corythucha juglandis (Fitch)   walnut lace bug   Heteroptera   Tingidae
Corythucha pallipes Parsh.   birch lace bug   Heteroptera   Tingidae
Corythucha ulmi O. &D.   elm lace bug   Heteroptera   Tingidae
Cotalpa lanigera (L.)   goldsmith beetle   Coleoptera   Scarabaeidae
Craponius inaequalis (Say)   grape curculio   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Creophilus maxillosus (L.)   hairy rove beetle   Coleoptera   Staphylinidac
Crepidodera nana (Say)   tiny aspen flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Crioceris asparagi (L.)   asparagus beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Crioceris duodecimpunctata (L.)   spotted asparagus   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Crocigrapha normani (Grt.)   climbing cherry   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    cutworm
Croesia curvalana (Kft.)   blueberry leafier   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Croesia semipurpurana (Kft.)   oak leafshredder   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Croesus latitarsus Nort.   dusky birch sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Cryptocala acadiensis (Bethune)   catocaline dart   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.   beech scale   Homoptera   Eriococcidae
Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Steph.)   rusty grain beetle   Coleoptera   Cucujidae
Cryptolestes pusillus (Schonh.)   flat grain beetle   Coleoptera   Cucujidae
Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouv.)   flourmill beetle   Coleoptera   Cucujidae
Cryptomyzus ribis (L.)   currant aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Cryptophagus varus W. &C.   sigmoid fungus beetle   Coleoptera   Cryptophagidae
Cryptorhynchus lapathi (L.)   poplar-and-willow   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
    borer
Ctenicera aeripennis (Kby.)   Puget Sound   Coleoptera   Elateridae
    wireworm
Ctenicera destructor (Brown)   prairie grain   Coleoptera   Elateridae
    wireworm
Ctenicera propola propola LeC.   twospotted click   Coleoptera   Elateridae
    beetle
Ctenicera pruinina (Horn)   Great Basin   Coleoptera   Elateridae
    wireworm
Ctenicera r. resplendens (Esch.)   green click beetle   Coleoptera   Elateridae
Ctenicera triundulata (Rand.)   threespotted click   Coleoptera   Elateridae
    beetle
Ctenocephalides canis (Curt.)   dog flea   Siphonaptera   Pulicidae
Ctenocephalides felis (Bouch,)   cat flea   Siphonaptera   Pulicidae
Cucullia intermedia Speyer   goldenrod cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Culex pipiens L.   northern house   Diptera   Culicidae
    mosquito
Curculio uniformis (LeC.)   filbert weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Cuterebra tenebrosa Coq.   rodent bot fly   Diptera   Oestridae
Cydia caryana (Fitch)   hickory shuckworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Cydia latiferreana (Wlsm.)   filbertworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Cydia nigricana (F.)   pea moth   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Cydia piperana Kft.   ponderosa pine   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    seedworm
Cydia pomonella (L.)   codling moth   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Cydia strobilella (L.)   spruce seed moth   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Cydia toreuta (Grt.)   eastern pine   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    seedworm
Cynaeus angustus (LeC.)   larger black flour   Coleoptera   Tenebrionidae
    beetle
Cytodites nudus (Vizioli)   airsac mite   Acari   Cytoditidae
Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch)   grape phylloxera   Homoptera   Phylloxeridae
Danaus plexippus (L.)   monarch butterfly   Lepidoptera   Danaidae
Darapsa myron (Cram.)   Virginiacreeper   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
    sphinx
Darapsa versicolor (Harr.)   hydrangea sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Dasineura balsamicola (Lint.)   introduced false   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    balsam gall midge
Dasineura communis Felt   gouty vein midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Dasineura gleditchiae O.S.   honeylocust podgall   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    midge
Dasineura leguminicola (Lint.)   clover seed midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Dasineura mali (Keif.)   apple leaf midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Dasineura rhodophaga (Coq.)   rose midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Dasineura swainei (Felt)   spruce bud midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Dasychira dorsipennata (B. &   hardwood tussock   Lepidoptera   Lymantriidae
  McD.)   moth
Dasychira pinicola (Dyar)   pine tussock moth   Lepidoptera   Lymantriidae
Dasychira plagiata (Wlk.)   northern pine tussock   Lepidoptera   Lymantriidae
    moth
Dasylophia thyatiroides (Wlk.)   beech caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
Datana integerrima G. &R.   walnut caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
Datana ministra (Drury)   yellownecked   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
    caterpillar
Deidamia inscripta (Harr.)   lettered sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Delia antiqua (Meig.)   onion maggot   Diptera   Anthomyiidae
Delia floralis (Fall.)   turnip maggot   Diptera   Anthomyiidae
Delia platura (Meig.)   seedcorn maggot   Diptera   Anthomyiidae
Delia radicum (L.)   cabbage maggot   Diptera   Anthomyiidae
Demodex bovis Stiles   cattle follicle mite   Acari   Demodicidae
Demodex cati M, gn.   cat follicle mite   Acari   Demodicidae
Demodex equi Raill.   horse follicle mite   Acari   Demodicidae
Demodex ovis Raill.   sheep follicle mite   Acari   Demodicidae
Demodex phylloides Csokor   hog follicle mite   Acari   Demodicidae
Dendroctonus brevicomis LeC.   western pine beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.   southern pine beetle*   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Dendroctonus murrayanae Hopk.   lodgepole pine beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.   mountain pine beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk.   Douglas-fir beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Dendroctonus punctatus LeC.   boreal spruce beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kby.)   spruce beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Dendroctonus simplex LeC.   eastern larch beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Dendroctonus valens LeC.   red turpentine beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Depressaria pastinacella (Dup.)   parsnip webworm   Lepidoptera   Oecophoridae
Dermacentor albipictus (Pack.)   winter tick   Acari   Ixodidae
Dermacentor andersoni Stiles   Rocky Mountain   Acari   Ixodidae
    wood tick
Dermacentor variabilis (Say)   American dog tick   Acari   Ixodidae
Dermanyssus gallinae (DeG.)   chicken mite   Acari   Dermanyssidae
Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes   American house dust   Acari   Epidermoptidae
    mite
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus   European house dust   Acari   Epidermoptidae
  (Troues.)   mite
Dermestes ater DeG.   black larder beetle   Coleoptera   Dermestidae
Dermestes lardarius L.   larder beetle   Coleoptera   Dermestidae
Dermestes maculatus DeG.   hide beetle   Coleoptera   Dermestidae
Desmia funeralis (Hbn.)   grape leaffolder   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Desmocerus palliatus (Först.)   elder borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Diabrotica barberi S. &L.   northern corn   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    rootworm
Diabrotica undecimpunctata   spotted cucumber   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
howardi Barber   beetle
Diabrotica v. virgifera LeC.   western corn   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    rootworm
Diapheromera femorata (Say)   walkingstick   Phasmatodea   Heteronemiidae
Diaspidiotus ancylus (Putn.)   Putnam scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Dicerca divaricata (Say)   flatheaded hardwood   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
    borer
Dicerca tenebrica (Kby.)   flatheaded poplar   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
    borer
Dicerca tenebrosa (Kby.)   flatheaded conifer   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
    borer
Dichelonyx backii (Kby.)   green rose chafer   Coleoptera   Scarabaeidae
Dichomeris ligulella Hbn.   palmerworm   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
Dichomeris marginella (F.)   juniper webworm   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
Dimorphopteryx melanognathus   fringed birch sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
  Roh.
Dioryctria abietivorella (Grt.)   fir coneworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Dioryctria auranticella (Grt.)   ponderosa pine   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
    coneworm
Dioryctria disclusa Heinr.   webbing coneworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Dioryctria reniculelloides Mut. &   spruce coneworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
  Mun.
Dioryctria resinosella Mut.   red pine shoot moth   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Dioryctria zimmermani (Grt.)   Zimmerman pine   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
    moth
Diplolepis radicum (O.S.)   rose root gall wasp   Hymenoptera   Cynipidae
Diplolepis rosae (L.)   mossyrose gall wasp   Hymenoptera   Cynipidae
Diprion similis (Htg.)   introduced pine   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
    sawfly
Diptacus gigantorhynchus (Nal.)   bigbeaked plum mite   Acari   Diptilomiopidae
Discestra trifolii (Hufn.)   clover cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Disonycha alternata (Ill.)   striped willow leaf   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Disonycha triangularis (Say)   threespotted flea   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Disonycha xanthomelas (Dalm.)   spinach flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Dissosteira carolina (L.)   Carolina grasshopper   Orthoptera   Acrididae
Diuraphis noxia (Mordv.)   Russian wheat aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Diuraphis tritici (Gill.)   western wheat aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Dolichovespula arenaria (F.)   aerial yellowjacket   Hymenoptera   Vespidae
Dolichovespula maculata (L.)   baldfaced hornet   Hymenoptera   Vespidae
Drepana arcuata Wlk.   masked birch   Lepidoptera   Drepanidae
    caterpillar
Drepana bilineata (Pack.)   warty birch caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Drepanidae
Drepanaphis acerifoliae (Thos.)   painted maple aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Dryocampa rubicunda (F.)   greenstriped   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
    mapleworm
Dryocoetes betulae Hopk.   birch bark beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Dryocoetes confusus Swaine   western balsam bark   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    beetle
Dysaphis plantaginea (Pass.)   rosy apple aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Dysstroma citrata (L.)   dark marbled carpet   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Eacles imperialis pini Mich.   pine imperial moth   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Earomyia abietum McAlp.   fir seed maggot   Diptera   Lonchaeidae
Ecdytolopha insiticiana Zell.   locust twig borer   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Ectoedemia lindquisti (Free.)   small birch leafminer   Lepidoptera   Nepticulidae
Ectropis crepuscularia (D. &S.)   saddleback looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Eilema bicolor (Grt.)   smoky moth   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Elaphria versicolor (Grt.)   fir harlequin   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Elasmostethus cruciatus Say   redcrossed stink bug   Heteroptera   Acanthosomatida
Elatobium abietinum (Wlk.)   spruce aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Empoasca fabae (Harr.)   potato leafhopper   Homoptera   Cicadellidae
Empoasca maligna (Walsh)   apple leafhopper   Homoptera   Cicadellidae
Enargia decolor (Wlk.)   aspen twoleaf tier   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Enchenopa binotata (Say)   twomarked   Homoptera   Membracidae
    treehopper
Endelomyia aethiops (F.)   roseslug   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Endopiza viteana Clem.   grape berry moth   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Endothenia albolineana (Kft.)   spruce needleminer   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Endrosis sarcitrella (L.)   whiteshouldered   Lepidoptera   Oecophoridae
    house moth
Ennomos magnaria Gn.   maple spanworm   Lpidoptera   Geometridae
Ennomos subsignaria (Hbn.)   elm spanworm   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Enodia anthedon Clark   northern pearly eye   Lepidoptera   Satyridae
Entomoscelis americana Brown   red turnip beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Epargyreus clarus (Cram.)   silverspotted skipper   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Ephestia elutella (Hbn.)   tobacco moth   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Ephestia kuehniella Zell.   Mediterranean flour   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
    moth
Epicauta fabricii (LeC.)   ashgray blister beetle   Coleoptera   Meloidae
Epicauta maculata (Say)   spotted blister beetle   Coleoptera   Meloidae
Epicauta murina (LeC.)   dark blister beetle   Coleoptera   Meloidae
Epicauta pennsylvanica (DeG.)   black blister beetle   Coleoptera   Meloidae
Epicauta pestifera Werner   margined blister   Coleoptera   Meloidae
    beetle*
Epicauta subglabra (Fall)   caragana blister beetle   Coleoptera   Meloidae
Epicauta vittata (F.)   striped blister beetle   Coleoptera   Meloidae
Epilachna varivestis Muls.   Mexican bean beetle   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
Epinotia meritana Heinr.   white fir needleminer   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Epinotia nanana (Treit.)   European spruce   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    needleminer
Epinotia nisella (Cl.)   yellowheaded aspen   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    leaftier
Epinotia radicana (Heinr.)   redstriped   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    needleworm
Epinotia solandriana (L.)   birch-aspen leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Epinotia solicitana (Wlk.)   birch shootworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Epinotia timidella (Clem.)   oak trumpet   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    skeletonizer
Epinotia tsugana Free.   hemlock needleminer   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Epirrita autumnata henshawi   November moth   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
  (Swett)
Epitrimerus pyri (Nal.)   pear rust mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Epitrix cucumeris (Harr.)   potato flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Epitrix hirtipennis (Melsh.)   tobacco flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Epitrix subcrinita (LeC.)   western potato flea   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Epitrix tuberis Gent.   tuber flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Erannis tiliaria (Harr.)   linden looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Erannis tiliaria vancouverensis   western winter moth   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
  Hulst
Ergates spiculatus (LeC.)   ponderous borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Eriocampa juglandis (Fitch)   woolly butternut   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    sawfly
Eriocampa ovata (L.)   woolly alder sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Eriophyes betulae (Nal.)   birch witches broom   Acari   Eriophyidae
    mite
Eriophyes pyri (Pgst.)   pearleaf blister mite   Acari   Eriophyidae
Eriosoma americanum (Riley)   woolly elm aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Eriosoma crataegi (Oestl.)   woolly hawthorn   Homoptera   Aphididae
    aphid
Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausm.)   woolly apple aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Eristalis tenax (L.)   drone fly   Diptera   Syrphidae
Eristalis tenax (L.)   rattailed maggot   Diptera   Syrphidae
Erynnis icelus (Scudd. &Burg.)   dreamy dusky wing   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Erynnis juvenalis (F.)   Juvenal dusky wing   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Erythroneura comes (Say)   grape leafhopper   Homoptera   Cicadellidae
Erythroneura tricincta Fitch   threebanded   Homoptera   Cicadellidae
    leafhopper
Erythroneura vitis (Harr.)   grapevine leafhopper   Homoptera   Cicadellidae
Erythroneura ziczac Walsh   Virginiacreeper   Homoptera   Cicadellidae
    leafhopper
Estigmene acrea (Drury)   saltmarsh caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Euceraphis punctipennis (Zett.)   European birch aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Euchaetes egle (Drury)   milkweed tussock   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
    moth
Euclea delphinii (Bdv.)   spiny slug caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Limacodidae
Eucosma gloriola Heinr.   eastern pine shoot   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    borer
Eucosma monitorana Heinr.   red pine cone borer   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Eucosma recissoriana Heinr.   lodgepole pine cone   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    borer
Eucosma siskiyouana (Kft.)   fir cone borer   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Eucosma sonomana Kft.   western pine shoot   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    borer
Eucosma tocullionana Heinr.   white pine cone borer   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Eudryas grata (F.)   beautiful wood   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    nymph
Eudryas unio (Hbn.)   pearly wood nymph   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Eulachnus agilis (Kltb.)   spotted pineneedle   Homoptera   Aphididae
    aphid
Eulithis diversilineata (Hbn.)   grapevine looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Eumerus strigatus (Fall.)   onion bulb fly   Diptera   Syrphidae
Eumerus tuberculatus Rond.   lesser bulb fly   Diptera   Syrphidae
Eumorpha achemon (Drury)   achemon sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Eumorpha pandorus (Hbn.)   pandora sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Eupareophora parca (Cress.)   spiny ash sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Euparthenos nubilis (Hbn.)   locust underwing   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Euphoria inda (L.)   bumble flower beetle   Coleoptera   Scarabaeidae
Euphranta canadensis (Loew)   currant fruit fly   Diptera   Tephritidae
Euphydryas phaeton (Drury)   Baltimore   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Euphyes vestris (Bdv.)   dun skipper   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Eupithecia filmata Pears.   early brown looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Eupithecia luteata Pack.   fir needle inchworm   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Eupithecia mutata Pears.   spruce cone looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Eupithecia palpata Pack.   small pine looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Eupithecia spermaphaga (Dyar)   fir cone looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Eupithecia transcanadata MacK.   small conifer looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.)   browntail moth   Lepidoptera   Lymantriidae
Eupsilia tristigmata (Grt.)   brown fruitworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Euptoieta claudia (Cram.)   variegated fritillary   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Eurema lisa Bdv. &LeC.   little sulphur   Lepidoptera   Pieridae
Eurema nicippe (Cram.)   sleepy orange   Lepidoptera   Pieridae
Euschistus tristigmus (Say)   dusky stink bug   Heteroptera   Pentatomidae
Euschistus variolarius (P. de B.)   onespotted stink bug   Heteroptera   Pentatomidae
Eutrapela clemataria (J. E. Smith)   purplishbrown looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Eutrombidium trigonum (Herm.)   red grasshopper mite   Acari   Trombidiidae
Euura atra (Jur.)   smaller willow shoot   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    sawfly
Euxoa auxiliaris (Grt.)   army cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Euxoa detersa (Wlk.)   sand cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Euxoa messoria (Harr.)   darksided cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Euxoa ochrogaster (Gn.)   redbacked cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Euxoa scandens (Riley)   white cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Euxoa tessellata (Harr.)   striped cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Euxoa tristicula (Morr.)   early cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Euzophera semifuneralis (Wlk.)   American plum borer   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Everes amyntula (Bdv.)   western tailed blue   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Everes comyntas (Godt.)   eastern tailed blue   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Evergestis pallidata (Hufn.)   purplebacked   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
    cabbageworm
Evergestis rimosalis (Gn.)   cross-striped   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
    cabbageworm
Evora hemidesma (Zell.)   spirea leaftier   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Exoteleia dodecella (L.)   pine bud moth   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
Exoteleia nepheos Free.   pine candle moth   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
Fannia canicularis (L.)   little house fly   Diptera   Muscidae
Fannia scalaris (F.)   latrine fly   Diptera   Muscidae
Faronta diffusa (Wlk.)   wheat head   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    armyworm
Felicola subrostratus (Burm.)   cat louse   Mallophaga   Trichodectidae
Feltia jaculifera (Gn.)   dingy cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Feniseca tarquinius (F.)   harvester   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Fenusa dohrnii (Tisch.)   European alder   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    leafminer
Fenusa pusilla (Lep.)   birch leafminer   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Fidia viticida Walsh   grape rootworm   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Fishia discors (Grt.)   garden cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Forficula auricularia L.   European earwig   Dermaptera   Forficulidae
Formica exsectoides Forel   Allegheny mound ant   Hymenoptera   Formicidae
Formica fusca L.   silky ant   Hymenoptera   Formicidae
Formica obscuripes Forel   western thatching ant   Hymenoptera   Formicidae
Frankliniella occidentalis (Perg.)   western flower thrips   Thysanoptera   Thripidae
Frankliniella tritici (Fitch)   flower thrips   Thysanoptera   Thripidae
Frankliniella vaccinii Morg.   blueberry thrips   Thysanoptera   Thripidae
Galeruca browni Blake   peppergrass beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Galerucella nymphaeae (L.)   waterlily leaf beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Galleria mellonella (L.)   greater wax moth   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Galleria mellonella (L.)   waxworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Gargaphia tiliae (Walsh)   basswood lace bug   Heteroptera   Tingidae
Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis   nose bot fly   Diptera   Oestridae
  (L.)
Gasterophilus intestinalis (DeG.)   horse bot fly   Diptera   Oestridae
Gasterophilus nasalis (L.)   throat bot fly   Diptera   Oestridae
Gilpinia frutetorum (F.)   nursery pine sawfly   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
Gilpinia hercyniae (Htg.)   European spruce   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
    sawfly
Givira lotta B.&McD.   pine carpenterworm   Lepidoptera   Cossidae
Glaucopsyche lygdamus (Dbly.)   silvery blue   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Glischrochilus quadrisignatus   fourspotted sap beetle   Coleoptera   Nitidulidae
  (Say)
Glycobius speciosus (Say)   sugar maple borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Glyphipteryx linneella (Cl.)   linden bark borer   Lepidoptera   Glyphipterigidae
Glyptoscelis pubescens (F.)   hairy leaf beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Gnatocerus cornutus (F.)   broadhorned flour   Coleoptera   Tenebrionidae
    beetle
Goes tesselatus (Hald.)   oak sapling borer*   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Gonioctena americana (Schaeff.)   American aspen   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Goniodes gigas (Tasch.)   large chicken louse   Mallophaga   Philopteridae
Gossyparia spuria (Mod.)   European elm scale   Homoptera   Eriococcidae
Grammia virguncula (Kby.)   little virgin tiger moth   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Grapholita interstinctana (Clem.)   clover head caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Grapholita molesta (Bsk.)   oriental fruit moth   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Grapholita packardi Zell.   cherry fruitworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Grapholita prunivora (Walsh)   lesser appleworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Gretchena delicatana Heinr.   ironwood fruitworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Grylloprociphilus imbricator   beech blight aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
  (Fitch)
Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burm.   fall field cricket   Grylloptera   Gryllidae
Gryllus veletis (Alex. &Big.)   spring field cricket   Grylloptera   Gryllidae
Gypsonoma haimbachiana (Kft.)   cottonwood twig   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    borer
Haemaphysalis chordeilis (Pack.)   bird tick   Acari   Ixodidae
Haemaphysalis leporispalustris   rabbit tick   Acari   Ixodidae
  (Pack.)
Haematobia irritans (L.)   horn fly   Diptera   Muscidae
Haematopinus asini (L.)   horse sucking louse   Anoplura   Haematopinidae
Haematopinus eurysternus (Nitz.)   shortnosed cattle   Anoplura   Haematopinidae
    louse
Haematopinus suis (L.)   hog louse   Anoplura   Haematopinidae
Haemodipsus ventricosus (Denny)   rabbit louse   Anoplura   Hoplopleuridae
Halysidota harrisii Walsh   sycamore tussock   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
    moth
Halysidota tessellaris (J. E. Smith)   pale tussock moth   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Hamamelistes spinosus Shimer   witch hazel gall aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Haploa confusa (Lyman)   Lyman haploa   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Haploa lecontei (G.-M.)   Leconte haploa   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Haplothrips leucanthemi Schr.   clover thrips   Thysanoptera   Phlaeothripidae
Harkenclenus titus (F.)   coral hairstreak   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Harrisimemna trisignata (Wlk.)   Harris threespot   Lepidoptera   Zygaenidae
Hedya nubiferana (Haw.)   green budworm   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)   tomato fruitworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)   corn earworn   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Heliothis ononis (D. &S.)   flax bollworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Heliothis virescens (F.)   tobacco budworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis   greenhouse thrips   Thysanoptera   Thripidae
  (Bouch,)
Hemaris diffinis (Bdv.)   snowberry clearwing   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Hemaris thysbe (F.)   hummingbird moth   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Hemichroa crocea (Geoff.)   striped alder sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Henricus fuscodorsanus (Kft.)   cone cochylid   Lepidoptera   Cochylidae
Hepialus gracilis Grt.   graceful ghost moth   Lepidoptera   Hepialidae
Hercinothrips femoralis (Reut.)   banded greenhouse   Thysanoptera   Thripidae
    thrips
Herculia thymetusalis (Wlk.)   spruce needleworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Hesperia comma borealis Linds.   Labrador skipper   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Hesperia comma laurentina   Laurentian skipper   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
  (Lyman)
Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fall.)   late birch leaf   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    edgeminer
Heterocampa guttivitta (Wlk.)   saddled prominent   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
Hippodamia convergens G.-M.   convergent lady   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
    beetle
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata   thirteenspotted lady   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
tibialis (Say)   beetle
Hofmannophila pseudospretella   brown house moth   Lepidoptera   Oecophoridae
  (Staint.)
Homadaula anisocentra Meyr.   mimosa webworm   Lepidoptera   Plutellidae
Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst)   sunflower moth   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Homoglaea hircina Morr.   goat sallow   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Homohadena badistriga (Grt.)   honeysuckle   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    budworm
Hoplocampa halcyon (Nort.)   shadbush sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug)   European apple   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    sawfly
Hyalophora cecropia (L.)   cecropia moth   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Hyalophora columbia (S. I. Smith)   Columbian silk moth   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Hyalophora columbia (S. I. Smith)   larch silkworm   Lepidoptera   Saturniidae
Hyalopterus pruni (Geoff.)   mealy plum aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Hydraecia immanis Gn.   hop vine borer   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Hydraecia micacea (Esp.)   potato stem borer   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Hydria prunivorata (Fgn.)   cherry scallopshell   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
    moth
Hydriomena divisaria (Wlk.)   transversebanded   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
    looper
Hylastinus obscurus (Marsh.)   clover root borer   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Hyles gallii (Rott.)   bedstraw hawkmoth   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Hyles lineata (F.)   whitelined sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Hylesinus aculeatus Say   eastern ash bark   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    beetle
Hylesinus californicus (Swaine)   western ash bark   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    beetle
Hyllolycaena hyllus (Cram.)   bronze copper   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Hylobius congener D. T., S. &M.   seedling debarking   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
    weevil
Hylobius pales (Hbst.)   pales weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Hylobius piceus (DeG.)   large spruce weevil*   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Hylobius pinicola (Couper)   Couper collar weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Hylobius radicis Buch.   pine root collar   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
    weevil
Hylobius warreni Wood   Warren root collar   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
    weevil
Hylotrupes bajulus (L.)   old house borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Hylurgopinus rufipes (Eichh.)   native elm bark beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Hypagyrtis unipunctata (Haw.)   onespotted variant   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Hypena scabra (F.)   green cloverworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Hypera meles (F.)   clover head weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Hypera nigrirostris (F.)   lesser clover leaf   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
    weevil
Hypera postica (Gyll.)   alfalfa weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Hypera punctata (F.)   clover leaf weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Hyphantria cunea (Drury)   fall webworm   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Hypnoidus abbreviatus (Say)   abbreviated   Coleoptera   Elateridae
    wireworm
Hypoderma bovis (L.)   northern cattle grub   Diptera   Oestridae
Hypoderma lineatum (DeVill.)   common cattle grub   Diptera   Oestridae
Hypoderma tarandi (L.)   caribou warble fly   Diptera   Oestridae
Hypogastrura nivicola (Fitch)   snow flea   Collembola   Hypogastruridae
Hypoprepia fucosa Hbn.   painted lichen moth   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Hypoprepia miniata (Kby.)   scarletwinged lichen   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
    moth
Hyppa xylinoides (Gn.)   cranberry cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Incisalia augustinus (Westw.)   brown elfin   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Incisalia henrici (G. &R.)   Henry elfin   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Incisalia irus (Godt.)   frosted elfin   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Incisalia lanoraieensis Shep.   bog elfin   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Incisalia niphon clarki Free.   pine elfin   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Incisalia polia C. &W.   hoary elfin   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Ipimorpha pleonectusa Grt.   blackcheeked aspen   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    caterpillar
Ips borealis Swaine   northern engraver   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Ips calligraphus (Germ.)   coarsewriting   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    engraver
Ips grandicollis (Eichh.)   southern pine   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    engraver
Ips perturbatus (Eichh.)   northern spruce   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    engraver
Ips pini (Say)   pine engraver   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Isochnus rufipes (LeC.)   willow flea weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Itame loricaria (Evers.)   false bruce spanworm   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Itame pustularia (Gn.)   lesser maple   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
    spanworm
Itame ribearia (Fitch)   currant spanworm   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Ithycerus noveboracensis (Först.)   New York weevil   Coleoptera   Ithyceridae
Ixodes pacificus Cooley &Kohls   western blacklegged   Acari   Ixodidae
    tick
Janus abbreviatus (Say)   willow shoot sawfly   Hymenoptera   Cephidae
Janus integer (Nort.)   currant stem girdler   Hymenoptera   Cephidae
Junonia coenia (Hbn.)   buckeye   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Kaliofenusa ulmi (Sund.)   elm leafminer   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Kaltenbachiella ulmifusa (W. &   elm pouchgall aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
  R.)
Kaltenbachiola canadensis (Felt)   spruce cone gall   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    midge
Kaltenbachiola rachiphaga (Tripp)   spruce cone axis   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    midge
Keiferia lycopersicella (Wlsm.)   tomato pinworm   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
kleidocerys resedae geminatus Say   birch catkin bug   Heteroptera   Lygaeidae
Labidomera clivicollis (Kby.)   milkweed leaf beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Labops hesperius Uhl.   black grass bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Lacinipolia meditata (Grt.)   pinkbacked cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Lacinipolia renigera (Steph.)   bristly cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Lambdina f. fiscellaria (Gn.)   hemlock looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa   western hemlock   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
  (Hulst)   looper
Lambdina fiscellaria somniaria   western oak looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
  (Hulst)
Lampronia rubiella (Bjerk.)   raspberry bud moth   Lepidoptera   Incurvariidae
Laothoe juglandis (J. E. Smith)   walnut sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Lapara bombycoides Wlk.   pine tree sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Lasioderma serricorne (F.)   cigarette beetle   Coleoptera   Anobiidae
Latheticus oryzae Waterh.   longheaded flour   Coleoptera   Tenebrionidae
    beetle
Lathridius minutus (L.)   squarenosed fungus   Coleoptera   Lathridiidae
    beetle
Latrodectus variolus Walck.   northern widow   Araneae   Theridiidae
    spider
Lema t. trilinea White   threelined potato   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Lepidosaphes ulmi (L.)   oystershell scale   Homoptera   Diaspididae
Lepisma saccharina L.   silverfish   Thysanura   Lepismatidae
Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)   Colorado potato   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Leptoglossus occidentalis Heid.   western conifer-seed   Heteroptera   Coreidae
    bug
Leptopterna dolabrata (L.)   meadow plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Lepyrus nordenskioeldi canadensis   poplar-willow leaf   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
  Casey   weevil
Lethocerus americanus (Leidy)   giant water bug   Heteroptera   Belostomatidae
Leucoma salicis (L.)   satin moth   Lepidoptera   Lymantriidae
Ligyrus gibbosus (DeG.)   carrot beetle   Coleoptera   Scarabaeidae
Lilioceris lilii (Scop.)   lily leaf beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Limenitis a. arthemis (Drury)   white admiral   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Limenitis archippus (Cram.)   viceroy   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Limenitis arthemis astyanax (F.)   redspotted purple   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Limonius agonus (Say)   eastern field   Coleoptera   Elateridae
    wireworm
Limonius californicus (Man.)   sugarbeet wireworm   Coleoptera   Elateridae
Limonius canus LeC.   Pacific Coast   Coleoptera   Elateridae
    wireworm
Limonius infuscatus Mots.   western field   Coleoptera   Elateridae
    wireworm
Limothrips denticornis Hal.   barley thrips   Thysanoptera   Thripidae
Linognathus ovillus (Nm.)   sheep sucking louse   Anoplura   Linognathidae
Linognathus pedalis (Osb.)   sheep foot louse   Anoplura   Linognathidae
Linognathus setosus (Olf.)   dog sucking louse   Anoplura   Linognathidae
Linognathus stenopsis (Burm.)   goat sucking louse   Anoplura   Linognathidae
Linognathus vituli (L.)   longnosed cattle louse   Anoplura   Linognathidae
Linsleya sphaericollis (Say)   ash blister beetle   Coleoptera   Meloidae
Lipaphis erysimi (Kltb.)   turnip aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Lipeurus caponis (L.)   wing louse   Mallophaga   Philopteridae
Liriomyza sativae Blanch.   vegetable leafminer   Diptera   Agromyzidae
Listronotus oregonensis (LeC.)   carrot weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Lithophane antennata (Wlk.)   green fruitworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Lixus concavus Say   rhubarb curcuilo   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Lobophora nivigerata Wlk.   twolined aspen looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Lochmaeus bilineata (Pack.)   elm prominent   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
Lochmaeus manteo Dbly.   variable oakleaf   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
    caterpillar
Lomographa semiclarata (Wlk.)   wild cherry looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Lophocampa caryae Harr.   hickory tussock moth   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Lophocampa maculata Harr.   spotted tussock moth   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Loxostege cereralis (Zell.)   alfalfa webworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Loxostege sticticalis (L.)   beet webworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Lucilia sericata (Meig.)   sheep blow fly   Diptera   Calliphoridae
Lycaeides idas (L.)   northern blue   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Lycaena dorcas (Kby.)   dorcas copper   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Lycaena epixanthe (Bdv. &LeC.)   bog copper   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Lycaena phlaeas americana Harr.   American copper   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Lycia ursaria (Wlk.)   stout spanworm   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Lyctus linearis (Goeze)   cosmopolitan   Coleoptera   Lyctidae
    powderpost beetle
Lyctus planicollis LeC.   southern lyctus beetle   Coleoptera   Lyctidae
Lygidea mendax Reut.   apple red bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Lygocoris caryae (Knight)   hickory plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Lygocoris communis (Knight)   green apple bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Lygocoris communis (Knight)   pear plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Lygocoris quercalbae (Knight)   oak plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Lygus elisus Van D.   lucerne plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Lygus elisus Van D.   pale legume bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Lygus hesperus Knight   western tarnished   Heteroptera   Miridae
    plant bug
Lygus lineolaris (P. de B.)   tarnished plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Lymantria dispar (L.)   gypsy moth   Lepidoptera   Lymantriidae
Lytta nuttalli Say   Nuttall blister beetle   Coleoptera   Meloidae
Macrodactylus subspinosus (F.)   rose chafer   Coleoptera   Scarabaeidae
Macronoctua onusta Grt.   iris borer   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Macropsis trimaculata (Fitch)   plum leafhopper   Homoptera   Cicadellidae
Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Gill.)   chrysanthemum aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thos.)   potato aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Macrosiphum rosae (L.)   rose aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Macrosteles quadrilineatus Fbs.   aster leafhopper   Homoptera   Cicadellidae
Magdalis armicollis (Say)   red elm bark weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Magdalis barbita (Say)   black elm bark weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Magicicada septendecim (L.)   periodical cicada   Homoptera   Cicadidae
Malacosoma americanum (F.)   eastern tent caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Lasiocampidae
Malacosoma californicum   prairie tent caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Lasiocampidae
lutescens (N. &D.)
Malacosoma californicum pluviale   northern tent   Lepidoptera   Lasiocampidae
  (Dyar)   caterpillar
Malacosoma disstria Hbn.   forest tent caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Lasiocampidae
Mamestra configurata Wlk.   bertha armyworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Manduca quinquemaculata (Haw.)   tomato hornworm   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Manduca sexta (L.)   tobacco hornworm   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Mantis religiosa L.   praying mantis   Mantodea   Mantidae
Mantis religiosa L.   European mantid   Mantodea   Mantidae
Marmara elotella (Bsk.)   apple barkminer   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
Marmara fasciella (Cham.)   white pine barkminer   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
Marmara pomonella Bsk.   apple fruitminer   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
Matsucoccus macrocicatrices   white pine fungus   Homoptera   Margarodidae
  Rich.   scale
Matsucoccus resinosae B. &God.   red pine scale   Homoptera   Margarodidae
Mayetiola carpophaga (Tripp)   spruce seed midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Mayetiola destructor (Say)   Hessian fly   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Mayetiola piceae (Felt)   spruce gall midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Mayetiola thujae (Hed.)   western red cedar   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
    cone midge
Mecas confusa C. &L.   poplar gall borer*   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Megachile rotundata (F.)   alfalfa leafcutting bee   Hymenoptera   Megachilidae
Megacyllene robiniae (Först.)   locust borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Megastigmus atedius Wlk.   spruce seed chalcid   Hymenoptera   Torymidae
Megastigmus laricis Marc.   larch seed chalcid   Hymenoptera   Torymidae
Megastigmus pinus Parf.   fir seed chalcid   Hymenoptera   Torymidae
Megastigmus specularis Walley   balsam fir seed   Hymenoptera   Torymidae
    chalcid
Megastigmus spermotrophus   Douglas-fir seed   Hymenoptera   Torymidae
  Wachtl   chalcid
Megisto cymela (Cram.)   little wood satyr   Lepidoptera   Satyridae
Melanchra picta (Harr.)   zebra caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Melanolophia canadaria (Gn.)   variable redmarked   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
    looper
Melanolophia imitata (Wlk.)   greenstriped forest   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
    looper
Melanophila acuminata (DeG.)   black fire beetle   Coleoptera   Buprestidae
Melanoplus bivittatus (Say)   twostriped   Orthoptera   Acrididae
    grasshopper
Melanoplus borealis (Fieb.)   northern grasshopper   Orthoptera   Acrididae
Melanoplus femurrubrum (DeG.)   redlegged   Orthoptera   Acrididae
    grasshopper
Melanoplus packardii Scudd.   Packard grasshopper   Orthoptera   Acrididae
Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.)   migratory   Orthoptera   Acrididae
    grasshopper
Melanoplus spretus (Walsh)   Rocky Mountain   Orthoptera   Acrididae
    grasshopper
Melittia cucurbitae (Harr.)   squash vine borer   Lepidoptera   Sesiidae
Meloe americanus Leach   buttercup oil beetle   Coleoptera   Meloidae
Melophagus ovinus (L.)   sheep ked   Diptera   Hippoboscidae
Menacanthus stramineus (Nitz.)   chicken body louse   Mallophaga   Menoponidae
Menopon gallinae (L.)   shaft louse   Mallophaga   Menoponidae
Merhynchites bicolor (F.)   rose curculio   Coleoptera   Rhynchitidae
Merodon equestris (F.)   narcissus bulb fly   Diptera   Syrphidae
Meromyza americana Fitch   wheat stem maggot   Diptera   Chloropidae
Meroptera pravella (Grt.)   lesser aspen   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
    webworm
Mesolecanium nigrofasciatum   terrapin scale   Homoptera   Coccidae
  (Perg.)
Messa nana (Klug)   early birch leaf   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    edgeminer
Messa populifoliella (Towns.)   poplar leafmining   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    sawfly
Metopolophium dirhodum (Wlk.)   rose-grass aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Micrurapteryx salicifoliella   willow leafminer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
  (Cham.)
Mindarus abietinus Koch   balsam twig aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Monochamus marmorator Kby.   balsam fir sawyer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Monochamus mutator LeC.   spotted pine sawyer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Monochamus notatus (Drury)   northeastern sawyer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Monochamus s. scutellatus (Say)   whitespotted sawyer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Monochamus scutellatus   Oregon fir sawyer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
oregonensis (LeC.)
Monochroa fragariae (Bsk.)   strawberry   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
    crownminer
Monoctenus fulvus (Nort.)   cedar sawfly   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
Monoctenus suffusus (Cress.)   arborvitae sawfly   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
Monomorium minimum (Buckl.)   little black ant   Hymenoptera   Formicidae
Monomorium pharaonis (L.)   pharaoh ant   Hymenoptera   Formicidae
Mononychus vulpeculus (F.)   iris weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Monophadnoides geniculatus   raspberry sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
  (Htg.)
Mordwilkoja vagabunda (Walsh)   poplar vagabond   Homoptera   Aphididae
    aphid
Mulsantina picta (Rand.)   pine lady beetle   Coleoptera   Coccinellidae
Murgantia histrionica (Hahn)   harlequin bug   Heteroptera   Pentatomidae
Musca autumnalis DeG.   face fly   Diptera   Muscidae
Musca domestica L.   house fly   Diptera   Muscidae
Muscina stabulans (Fall.)   false stable fly   Diptera   Muscidae
Mycetophagus quadriguttatus   spotted hairy fungus   Coleoptera   Mycetophagidae
  Müll.   beetle
Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster   shallot aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Myzus cerasi (F.)   black cherry aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Myzus persicae (Sulz.)   green peach aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Nacerdes melanura (L.)   wharf borer   Coleoptera   Oedemeridae
Nacophora quernaria (J. E. Smith)   oak beauty   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Nadata gibbosa (J. E. Smith)   yellowlined   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
    caterpillar
Nearctaphis bakeri (Cowen)   clover aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Necrobia ruficollis (F.)   redshouldered ham   Coleoptera   Cleridae
    beetle
Necrobia rufipes (DeG.)   redlegged ham beetle   Coleoptera   Cleridae
Nemapogon granella (L.)   European grain moth   Lepidoptera   Tineidae
Nematocampa resistaria (H.-S.)   filament bearer   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Nematus ribesii (Scop.)   imported   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    currantworm
Nemocestes incomptus (Horn)   woods weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Nemoria mimosaria (Gn.)   flanged looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Neochlamisus cribripennis (LeC.)   blueberry case beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Neoclytus acuminatus (F.)   redheaded ash borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Neoclytus caprea (Say)   banded ash borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Neodiprion abietis (Harr.)   balsam fir sawfly   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
Neodiprion burkei Midd.   lodgepole sawfly   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch)   redheaded pine   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
    sawfly
Neodiprion n. nanulus Schedl   red pine sawfly   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
Neodiprion pinetum (Nort.)   white pine sawfly   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
Neodiprion pratti banksianae Roh.   jack pine sawfly   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
Neodiprion rugifrons Midd.   redheaded jack pine   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
    sawfly
Neodiprion sertifer (Geoff.)   European pine sawfly   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
Neodiprion swainei Midd.   Swaine jack pine   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
    sawfly
Neodiprion tsugae Midd.   hemlock sawfly   Hymenoptera   Diprionidae
Neohydatothrips tiliae (Hood)   basswood thrips   Thysanoptera   Thripidae
Neophasia menapia (C. &R. F.)   pine white   Lepidoptera   Pieridae
Nephelodes minians Gn.   bronzed cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Nephopterix subcaesiella (Clem.)   locust leafroller   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Nephopterix subfuscella (Rag.)   striped sumac   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
    leafroller
Nepytia canosaria (Wlk.)   false hemlock looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Nepytia freemani Mun.   western false hemlock   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
    looper
Nepytia phantasmaria (Stkr.)   phantom hemlock   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
    looper
Neurotoma inconspicua (Nort.)   plum webspinning   Hymenoptera   Pamphiliidae
    sawfly
Niptus hololeucus (Fald.)   golden spider beetle   Coleoptera   Ptinidae
Nites betulella (Bsk.)   blackdotted birch   Lepidoptera   Oecophoridae
    leaftier
Nites grotella (Rob.)   hazel leaftier   Lepidoptera   Oecophoridae
Nodonota puncticollis (Say)   rose leaf beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Nomia melanderi Ckll.   alkali bee   Hymenoptera   Halictidae
Nomius pygmaeus (Dej.)   stink beetle   Coleoptera   Carabidae
Nomophila nearctica Mun.   celery stalkworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (Bosc)   northern rat flea   Siphonaptera   Ceratophyllidae
Nymphalis antiopa (L.)   mourningcloak   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
    butterfly
Nymphalis antiopa (L.)   spiny elm caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Nymphalis californica (Bdv.)   California   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
    tortoiseshell
Nymphalis vau-album (D. &S.)   Compton tortoiseshell   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Nysius niger Baker   northern false chinch   Heteroptera   Lygaeidae
    bug
Oberea bimaculata (Oliv.)   raspberry cane borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Oberea schaumii LeC.   poplar branch borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Obolodiplosis robiniae (Hald.)   locust gall midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Obrussa ochrefasciella (Cham.)   hard maple budminer   Lepidoptera   Nepticulidae
Odontopus calceatus (Say)   tuliptree leafminer   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Odontota dorsalis (Thunb.)   locust leafminer   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Oecanthus fultoni T. J. Wlk.   snowy tree cricket   Grylloptera   Gryllidae
Oecanthus nigricornis Wlk.   blackhorned tree   Grylloptera   Gryllidae
    cricket
Oecanthus quadripunctatus Beut.   fourspotted tree   Grylloptera   Gryllidae
    cricket
Oeciacus vicarius Horv.   swallow bug   Heteroptera   Cimicidae
Oeneis chryxus (Dbly. &Hew.)   chryxus arctic   Lepidoptera   Satyridae
Oeneis jutta (Hbn.)   jutta arctic   Lepidoptera   Satyridae
Oeneis macounii (Edw.)   Macoun arctic   Lepidoptera   Satyridae
Oeneis polixenes (F.)   polixenes arctic   Lepidoptera   Satyridae
Oeneis taygete Gey.   whiteveined arctic   Lepidoptera   Satyridae
Oenensis melissa (F.)   melissa arctic   Lepidoptera   Satyridae
Oestrus ovis L.   sheep bot fly   Diptera   Oestridae
Olethreutes permundana (Clem.)   raspberry leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Oligocentria lignicolor (Wlk.)   lacecapped caterpillar   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
Oligonychus pratensis (Banks)   Banks grass mite   Acari   Tetranychidae
Oligonychus ununguis (Jac.)   spruce spider mite   Acari   Tetranychidae
Omanodus floralis (L.)   narrownecked grain   Coleoptera   Anthicidae
    beetle
Omias saccatus (LeC.)   sagebrush weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Oncideres cingulata (Say)   twig girdler   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dall.)   large milkweed bug   Heteroptera   Lygaeidae
Operophtera bruceata (Hulst)   Bruce spanworm   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Operophtera brumata (L.)   winter moth   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Orgyia antiqua (L.)   rusty tussock moth   Lepidoptera   Lymantriidae
Orgyia leucostigma (J. E. Smith)   whitemarked tussock   Lepidoptera   Lymantriidae
    moth
Orgyia pseudotsugata (McD.)   Douglas-fir tussock   Lepidoptera   Lymantriidae
    moth
Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)   tropical rat mite   Acari   Macronyssidae
Ornithonyssus sylviarum (C. &F.)   northern fowl mite   Acari   Macronyssidae
Ortholepis pasadamia (Dyar)   striped birch pyralid   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Orthosia hibisci (Gn.)   speckled green   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    fruitworm
Orthosia revicta (Morr.)   rusty whitesided   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    caterpillar
Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel)   merchant grain beetle   Coleoptera   Cucujidae
Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.)   sawtoothed grain   Coleoptera   Cucujidae
    beetle
Oscinella frit (L.)   frit fly   Diptera   Chloropidae
Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.)   European corn borer   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Ostrinia obumbratalis (Led.)   smartweed borer   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Otiorhynchus ligustici (L.)   alfalfa snout beetle   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Otiorhynchus ovatus (L.)   strawberry root   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
    weevil
Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus   rough strawberry   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
  (Goeze)   weevil
Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.)   black vine weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Otobius megnini (Dugès)   ear tick   Acari   Argasidae
Otodectes cynotis (Her.)   ear mite   Acari   Psoroptidae
Oulema melanopus (L.)   cereal leaf beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Pachypsylla celtidismamma   hackberry nipplegall   Homoptera   Psyllidae
  (Fletcher)   maker
Pachyrhinus ferrugineus (Casey)   rusty pineneedle   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
    weevil
Pachysphinx modesta (Harr.)   big poplar sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Paleacrita vernata (Peck)   spring cankerworm   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Palorus ratzeburgii (Wissm.)   smalleyed flour beetle   Coleoptera   Tenebrionidae
Palorus subdepressus (Woll.)   depressed flour beetle   Coleoptera   Tenebrionidae
Palpita magniferalis (Wlk.)   ash leafroller   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Palthis angulalis (Hbn.)   spruce harlequin   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Pamphilius ochreipes (Cress.)   viburnum   Hymenoptera   Pamphiliidae
    webspinning sawfly
Pandemis canadana Kft.   green aspen leaftier   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Pandemis limitata (Rob.)   threelined leafroller   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Panonychus ulmi (Koch)   European red mite   Acari   Tetranychidae
Panthea acronyctoides (Wlk.)   tufted spruce   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    caterpillar
Panthea furcilla (Pack.)   tufted white pine   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
    caterpillar
Paonias excaecatus (J. E. Smith)   blindeyed sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Paonias myops (J. E. Smith)   smalleyed sphinx   Lepidoptera   Sphingidae
Papaipema cataphracta (Grt.)   burdock borer   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Papaipema nebris (Gn.)   stalk borer   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Papilio brevicauda Saund.   shorttailed   Lepidoptera   Papilionidae
    swallowtail
Papilio canadensis (R. &J.)   Canadian tiger   Lepidoptera   Papilionidae
    swallowtail
Papilio cresphontes Cram.   giant swallowtail   Lepidoptera   Papilionidae
Papilio cresphontes Cram.   orangedog   Lepidoptera   Papilionidae
Papilio glaucus L.   tiger swallowtail   Lepidoptera   Papilionidae
Papilio polyxenes asterias Stoll   parsleyworm   Lepidoptera   Papilionidae
Papilio polyxenes asterias Stoll   celeryworm   Lepidoptera   Papilionidae
Papilio polyxenes asterias Stoll   black swallowtail   Lepidoptera   Papilionidae
Papilio troilus L.   spicebush swallowtail   Lepidoptera   Papilionidae
Paraclemensia acerifoliella (Fitch)   maple leafcutter   Lepidoptera   Incurvariidae
Paradiplosis tumifex Gagn,   balsam gall midge   Diptera   Cecidomyiidae
Paraleucoptera albella (Cham.)   cottonwood leafminer   Lepidoptera   Lyonetiidae
Parandra brunnea brunnea (F.)   pole borer   Coleoptera   Cerambycidae
Paraphytomyza populicola (Wlk.)   Lombardy leafminer   Diptera   Agromyzidae
Paraprociphilus tessellatus (Fitch)   woolly alder aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc)   tomato psyllid   Homoptera   Psyllidae
Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc)   potato psyllid   Homoptera   Psyllidae
Parcoblatta pennsylvanica (DeG.)   Pennsylvania wood   Blattodea   Blattellidae
    cockroach
Parectopa robiniella Clem.   locust digitate   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    leafminer
Paria fragariae Wilcox   strawberry rootworm   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Parornix geminatella Pack.   unspotted tentiform   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    leafminer
Parthenolecanium corni (Bouch.)   European fruit   Homoptera   Coccidae
    lecanium
Parthenolecanium persicae (F.)   European peach scale   Homoptera   Coccidae
Parthenolecanium quercifex   oak lecanium   Homoptera   Coccidae
  (Fitch)
Pediculus humanus capitis DeG.   head louse   Anoplura   Pediculidae
Pediculus humanus humanus L.   body louse   Anoplura   Pediculidae
Pegomya hyoscyami (Panz.)   spinach leafminer   Diptera   Anthomyiidae
Pegomya rubivora (Coq.)   raspberry cane   Diptera   Anthomyiidae
    maggot
Pegomya spp.   beet leafminer   Diptera   Anthomyiidae
Pemphigus bursarius (L.)   lettuce aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Pemphigus populitransversus Riley   poplar petiolegall   Homoptera   Aphididae
    aphid
Pemphigus populivenae Fitch   sugarbeet root aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Pennisetia marginata (Harr.)   raspberry crown borer   Lepidoptera   Sesiidae
Peranabrus scabricollis (Thos.)   coulee cricket   Grylloptera   Tettigoniidae
Peridroma saucia (Hbn.)   variegated cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Perillus bioculatus (F.)   twospotted stink bug   Heteroptera   Pentatomidae
Periphyllus lyropictus (Kess.)   Norway maple aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Periphyllus negundinis (Thos.)   boxelder aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Periplaneta americana (L.)   American cockroach   Blattodea   Blattidae
Periplaneta australasiae (F.)   Australian cockroach   Blattodea   Blattidae
Periplaneta brunnea Burm.   brown cockroach   Blattodea   Blattidae
Petrobia latens (Müll.)   brown wheat mite   Acari   Tetranychidae
Petrova albicapitana (Bsk.)   northern pitch twig   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
    moth
Petrova comstockiana (Fern.)   pitch twig moth   Lepidoptera   Tortricidae
Phenacoccus aceris (Sign.)   apple mealybug   Homoptera   Pseudococcidae
Phenacoccus gossypii T. &C.   Mexican mealybug   Homoptera   Pseudococcidae
Pheosia rimosa Pack.   false hornworm   Lepidoptera   Notodontidae
Phigalia titea (Cram.)   spiny looper   Lepidoptera   Geometridae
Philaenus spumarius (L.)   meadow spittlebug   Homoptera   Cercopidae
Phloeosinus canadensis Swaine   northern cedar bark   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    beetle
Phloeosinus punctatus LeC.   western cedar bark   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    beetle
Phloeotribus liminaris (Harr.)   peach bark beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Phobetron pithecium (J. E. Smith)   hag moth   Lepidoptera   Limacodidae
Pholisora catullus (F.)   common sooty wing   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Phormia regina (Meig.)   black blow fly   Diptera   Calliphoridae
Phorodon humuli (Schr.)   hop aphid   Homoptera   Aphididae
Phragmatobia assimilans Wlk.   dusky red tiger moth   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
Phragmatobia fuliginosa rubricosa   ruby tiger moth   Lepidoptera   Arctiidae
  (Harr.)
Phratora p. purpurea Brown   aspen skeletonizer   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Phthorimaea operculella (Zell.)   potato tuberworm   Lepidoptera   Gelechiidae
Phyciodes batesii (Reak.)   tawny crescent   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Phyciodes selenis (Kby.)   northern pearl   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
    crescent
Phyllobius intrusus Kono   arborvitae weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Phyllobius oblongus (L.)   European snout beetle   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Phyllocnistis populiella Cham.   aspen serpentine   Lepidoptera   Lyonetiidae
    leafminer
Phyllocolpa bozemani (Cooley)   poplar leaffolding   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    sawfly
Phyllocolpa popuella (Ross)   poplar edgefolding   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    sawfly
Phyllodesma americana (Harr.)   lappet moth   Lepidoptera   Lasiocampidae
Phyllonorycter apparella (H.-S.)   aspen leafblotch   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    miner
Phyllonorycter blancardella (F.)   spotted tentiform   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    leafminer
Phyllonorycter crataegella (Clem.)   apple blotch   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    leafminer
Phyllonorycter lucetiella (Clem.)   basswood   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    squareblotch miner
Phyllonorycter lucidicostella   lesser maple   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
  (Clem.)   leafblotch miner
Phyllonorycter nipigon (Free.)   balsam poplar   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    leafblotch miner
Phyllonorycter populiella (Cham.)   poplar leafminer   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
Phyllonorycter propinquinella   cherry blotchminer   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
  (Braun)
Phyllonorycter salicifoliella   willow leafblotch   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
  (Cham.)   miner
Phyllonorycter tiliacella (Cham.)   basswood   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
    roundblotch miner
Phyllonorycter tremuloidiella   aspen blotchminer   Lepidoptera   Gracillariidae
  (Braun)
Phyllophaga fusca (Frö.)   northern June beetle   Coleoptera   Scarabaeidae
Phyllophaga futilis (LeC.)   lesser June beetle   Coleoptera   Scarabaeidae
Phyllophaga rugosa (Melsh.)   rugose June beetle   Coleoptera   Scarabaeidae
Phyllotreta albionica (LeC.)   cabbage flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Phyllotreta armoraciae (Koch)   horseradish flea   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze)   crucifer flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Phyllotreta pusilla Horn   western black flea   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Phyllotreta robusta LeC.   garden flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Phyllotreta striolata (F.)   striped flea beetle   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
Physokermes piceae (Schr.)   spruce bud scale   Homoptera   Coccidae
Phytobia amelanchieris (Greene)   amelanchier twig   Diptera   Agromyzidae
    borer
Phytobia betulivora Spencer   birch cambium miner   Diptera   Agromyzidae
Phytobia setosa (Loew)   red maple cambium   Diptera   Agromyzidae
    borer
Phytomyza ilicis Curt.   holly leafminer   Diptera   Agromyzidae
Phytonemus pallidus (Banks)   cyclamen mite   Acari   Tarsonemidae
Pieris napi (L.)   mustard white   Lepidoptera   Pieridae
Pieris rapae (L.)   cabbage butterfly   Lepidoptera   Pieridae
Pieris rapae (L.)   imported   Lepidoptera   Pieridae
    cabbageworm
Pieris virginiensis (Edw.)   West Virginia white   Lepidoptera   Pieridae
Pikonema alaskensis (Roh.)   yellowheaded spruce   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    sawfly
Pikonema dimmockii (Cress.)   greenheaded spruce   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
    sawfly
Pineus floccus (Patch)   red spruce adelgid   Homoptera   Adelgidae
Pineus pinifoliae (Fitch)   pine leaf adelgid   Homoptera   Adelgidae
Pineus similis (Gill.)   ragged spruce gall   Homoptera   Adelgidae
    adelgid
Pineus strobi (Htg.)   pine bark adelgid   Homoptera   Adelgidae
Piophila casei (L.)   cheese skipper   Diptera   Piophilidae
Pissodes nemorensis Germ.   northern pine weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Pissodes rotundatus LeC.   small spruce weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Pissodes striatulus (F.)   balsam bark weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Pissodes strobi (Peck)   white pine weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Pissodes terminalis Hopping   lodgepole terminal   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
    weevil
Pityokteines sparsus (LeC.)   balsam fir bark beetle   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
Plagiodera versicolora (Laich.)   imported willow leaf   Coleoptera   Chrysomelidae
    beetle
Plagiognathus obscurus Uhl.   obscure plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Planococcus citri (Risso)   citrus mealybug   Homoptera   Pseudococcidae
Platycotis vittata (F.)   oak treehopper   Homoptera   Membracidae
Plebejus saepiolus (Bdv.)   greenish blue   Lepidoptera   Lycaenidae
Pleroneura brunneicornis Roh.   balsam shootboring   Hymenoptera   Xyelidae
    sawfly
Plodia interpunctella (Hbn.)   Indianmeal moth   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Plutella xylostella (L.)   diamondback moth   Lepidoptera   Plutellidae
Pnyxia scabiei (Hopk.)   potato scab gnat   Diptera   Sciaridae
Poanes hobomok (Harr.)   Hobomok skipper   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Poanes viator (Edw.)   broadwinged skipper   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Pococera aplastella (Hulst)   aspen webworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Pococera asperatella (Clem.)   maple webworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Pococera expandens (Wlk.)   striped oak webworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Pococera militella (Zell.)   sycamore webworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Pococera robustella (Zell.)   pine webworm   Lepidoptera   Pyralidae
Podapion gallicola Riley   pine gall weevil   Coleoptera   Apionidae
Podisus maculiventris (Say)   spined soldier bug   Heteroptera   Pentatomidae
Podosesia syringae (Harr.)   lilac borer   Lepidoptera   Sesiidae
Podosesia syringae (Harr.)   ash borer   Lepidoptera   Sesiidae
Poecilocapsus lineatus (F.)   fourlined plant bug   Heteroptera   Miridae
Pogonomyrmex occidentalis   western harvester ant   Hymenoptera   Formicidae
  (Cress.)
Polites mystic (Edw.)   long dash   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Polites peckius (Kby.)   Peck skipper   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Polites themistocles (Latr.)   tawnyedged skipper   Lepidoptera   Hesperiidae
Pollenia rudis (F.)   cluster fly   Diptera   Calliphoridae
Polychrysia moneta (F.)   delphinium cutworm   Lepidoptera   Noctuidae
Polydrusus impressifrons (Gyll.)   pale green weevil   Coleoptera   Curculionidae
Polygonia comma (Harr.)   hop merchant   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Polygonia faunus (Edw.)   green comma   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Polygonia gracilis (G. &R.)   hoary comma   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Polygonia interrogationis (F.)   question mark   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Polygonia progne (Cram.)   gray comma   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Polygonia satyrus (Edw.)   satyr anglewing   Lepidoptera   Nymphalidae
Polygraphus rufipennis (Kby.)   foureyed spruce bark   Coleoptera   Scolytidae
    beetle
Polyphylla decemlineata (Say)   tenlined June beetle   Coleoptera   Scarabaeidae
Pontania proxima (Lep.)   willow redgall sawfly   Hymenoptera   Tenthredinidae
Pontania s-pomum (Walsh)   willow applegall