Ancestral Proteins

ANCESTRAL PROTEINS

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No.

61/364,640, filed on July 15, 2010, and also claims priority to PCT/US11/44084, filed on July 14, 2011, which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.

[0002] This patent disclosure contains material that is subject to copyright protection. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent document or the patent disclosure as it appears in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office patent file or records, but otherwise reserves any and all copyright rights.

[0003] This invention was made with government support under HL66030 and HL61228 awarded by NIH. The government has certain rights in the invention.

[0004] To conform to the requirements for International Patent Applications, many of the figures presented herein are black and white representations of images originally created in color. The original color versions can be viewed in Perez- Jimenez et al., 2011, Nat Struct Mol Biol. , 18(5):592-6 (including the accompanying Supplementary Information available in the on-line version of the manuscript available on the Nature Structural &

Molecular Biology web site) and Perez- Jimenez, et al., 2009, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16: 890-6, and Alegre-Cebollada et al., 2010, J Biol Chem, 285(25): 18961-6. The contents of Perez- Jimenez et al., 2011, Nat Struct Mol Biol., May;18(5):592-6 (including the accompanying "Supplementary Information,"), Perez- Jimenez et al., 2009, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16:890-6 and Alegre-Cebollada et al., 2010, J Biol Chem, 285(25): 18961-6, are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0005] All patents, patent applications and publications cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. The disclosures of these publications in their entireties are hereby incorporated by reference into this application in order to more fully describe the state of the art as known to those skilled therein as of the date of the invention described herein.

[0006] BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0007] The market for industrial enzymes has exploded in the past decades, with applications now including biotech, pharma, detergents, textile production, food processing, wine making, paper manufacturing, beauty products and many other areas. This has created an increasing need for enzymes that are stable at a wider range of temperatures and pH. As of today, there is no reliable method to achieve this while not simultaneously affecting the activity. A common practice nowadays is to randomly insert mutations in existing enzymes and screen for variants that exhibit the desired characteristics. However, due to the enormous combinatorial possibilities, this often becomes a costly and work-intense endeavor, and never guarantees success. Still, this has been the preferred method to discover most of the presently used industrial enzymes, many of which are patented.

[0008] Little is known about how the chemistry of primitive enzymes arose and how the environmental conditions affected the evolution of their chemistry (Zalatan et al., Nat. Chem. Biol., 5:516-520 (2009)); however since these organisms lived on the primordial earth and in an environment that was much hotter and more acidic than today, their enzymes would have been optimized to have a higher thermal and acidic stability than their modern counterparts. Experimental paleogenetics and paleobiochemistry (e.g. the study of resurrected proteins) can reveal valuable information regarding the adaptation of extinct forms of life to climatic, ecological and physiological alterations (Thornton, Science 301, 1714-7 (2003); Thomson et al, Nat Genet 37, 630-5 (2005); Boussau et al, Nature 456, 942-5 (2008); Chang et al, Mol Biol Evol 19, 1483-9 (2002)). Unfortunately, previous reconstruction and resurrection provide a journey back in time on the order of a only few millions years (Myr) (Benner et al, Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol 75, 1-132, xi (2007); Thornton, Nat Rev Genet 5, 366-75 (2004); Gaucher et al, Nature 425, 285-8 (2003)). Consequently, many hypotheses about ancient life remain untested and cannot be directly answered by examining fossil records (Nisbet and Sleep, Nature 409, 1083-91 (2001)). There is a need for reliable methods for optimizing the pH and temperature stabilities of existing enzymes. There is also a need for methods useful for developing enzymes in a predictable and cost effective manner that are more effective and work in a wider range of environments. This invention addresses these needs.

[0009] SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0010] In one aspect, the invention relates to an isolated polypeptide having a sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In another aspect, the invention relates to an isolated polypeptide having at least about 75% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In still another aspect, the invention relates to an isolated polypeptide comprising at least about 10, at least about 20, at least about 30, at least about 50 at least about 60, at least about 70, at least about 80, at least about 90 or at least about 100 consecutive amino acids from any of SEQ ID NOs: 1-7. In one embodiment, the isolated polypeptide does not have 100% identity with any extant polypeptide. In another embodiment, the variant has at least about 85.5%), at least about 90.5%>, at least about 92.5%, at least about 95%, about 96%>, about 96.5%, about 97%, about 97.5%, about 98%, about 98.5%, about 99%, about 99.5% or about 99.9% amino acid sequence identity to any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[0011] In still a further embodiment, the isolated polypeptide has enzymatic activity. In still another embodiment, the isolated polypeptide has thioredoxin activity.

[0012] In yet another embodiment, the isolated polypeptide is labeled. In one embodiment, the label is colorimetric, radioactive, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent. In still a further embodiment, the isolated polypeptide is chemically modified. In one embodiment, the chemical modification comprises covalent modification of an amino acid. In another embodiment, the covalent modification comprises methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, citrullination, or ADP ribosylation.

[0013] In one aspect, the invention relates to an isolated antibody that specifically binds to a polypeptide of any of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[0014] In another aspect, the invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes a polypeptide having a sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In another aspect, the invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes a polypeptide having at least about 75% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In another aspect, the invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes a polypeptide comprising at least about 10, at least about 20, at least about 30, at least about 50 at least about 60, at least about 70, at least about 80, at least about 90 or at least about 100 consecutive amino acids from any of SEQ ID NOs: 1-7.

[0015] In one embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is optimized for expression in a mammalian expression system. In another embodiment, the nucleic acid sequence is optimized for expression in a bacterial expression system. In one embodiment, the baterial expression system is E. coli. In another embodiment, the isolated nucleic acid is operably linked to one or more control sequences that direct the production of the polypeptide in a suitable expression host. [0016] In another aspect, the invention relates to a recombinant expression vector comprising an isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes a polypeptide having a sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[0017] In another aspect, the invention relates to a recombinant expression vector comprising an isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes a polypeptide having at least about 75% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[0018] In another aspect, the invention relates to a recombinant expression vector comprising an isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes a polypeptide comprising at least about 10, at least about 20, at least about 30, at least about 50 at least about 60, at least about 70, at least about 80, at least about 90 or at least about 100 consecutive amino acids from any of SEQ ID NOs: 1-7.

[0019] In another aspect, the invention relates to a host cell comprising a recombinant expression vector comprising an isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes a polypeptide having a sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[0020] In another aspect, the invention relates to a host cell comprising a a recombinant expression vector comprising an isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes a polypeptide having at least about 75% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1- 7.

[0021] In another aspect, the invention relates to a host cell comprising a a recombinant expression vector comprising an isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes a polypeptide comprising at least about 10, at least about 20, at least about 30, at least about 50 at least about 60, at least about 70, at least about 80, at least about 90 or at least about 100 consecutive amino acids from any of SEQ ID NOs: 1-7.

[0022] In still a further aspect, the invention relates to a method for producing a polypeptide having a sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO: 1-7, the method comprising cultivating a host cell comprising a nucleic acid construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding the polypeptide under conditions suitable for production of the polypeptide; and recovering the polypeptide.

[0023] In still a further aspect, the invention relates to a method for producing a polypeptide having at least about 75% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1-7, the method comprising cultivating a host cell comprising a nucleic acid construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding the polypeptide under conditions suitable for production of the polypeptide; and recovering the polypeptide.

[0024] In still a further aspect, the invention relates to a method for producing a polypeptide comprising at least about 10, at least about 20, at least about 30, at least about 50 at least about 60, at least about 70, at least about 80, at least about 90 or at least about 100 consecutive amino acids from any of SEQ ID NOs: 1-7, the method comprising cultivating a host cell comprising a nucleic acid construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding the polypeptide under conditions suitable for production of the polypeptide; and recovering the polypeptide.

[0025] In still another aspect, the invention relates to a method of generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide having greater activity or stability at low pH than an extant polypeptide, the method comprising (a) aligning a plurality of sequences

corresponding to homologues of the extant polypeptide, (b) generating a phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (c) using bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree, (d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence, (e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position and wherein a polypeptide comprising the reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence has increased activity or stability at low pH relative to the extant polypeptide.

[0026] In still another aspect, the invention relates to a method generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide having greater activity or stability at high temperature than an extant polypeptide, the method comprising (a) aligning a plurality of sequences corresponding to homologues of the extant polypeptide, (b) generating a phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (c) using bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree, (d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence, (e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position and wherein a polypeptide comprising the reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence has increased activity or stability at high temperature relative to the extant polypeptide.

[0027] In still another aspect, the invention relates to a method generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide having a higher melting temperature than an extant polypeptide, the method comprising (a) aligning a plurality of sequences corresponding to homologues of the extant polypeptide, (b) generating a phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (c) using bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree, (d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence, (e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position and wherein a polypeptide comprising the reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence has a higher melting temperature than an extant polypeptide.

[0028] In one embodiment, the extant polypeptide is a thioredoxin polypeptide.

[0029] In another aspect, the invention relates to a polypeptide produced according to the methods described herein.

[0030] BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0031] Figure 1. Single molecule assay of Trx catalysis. Fig. 1A A pair of vicinal cysteines (positions 32 and 75 in the sequence; yellow) are engineered into the 127 protein structure, dividing the protein mechanically in two parts. The two cysteines spontaneously form a disulfide bond. A polypeptide made of eight repeats of such engineered 127 proteins, (I27s_s)8, is mechanically stretched at constant force. Fig. IB Unfolding of a single protein in the chain causes a step elongation by ~11 nm. Unfolding also removes the steric constraints on the disulfide bond exposing it to a nucleophilic attack by a Trx enzyme present in the surrounding solution. Fig. 1C A successful nucleophilic attack reduces the disulfide bond and allows for a further extension of the protein by ~14 nm. Fig. ID Experimental force clamp trace showing the stepwise elongation of a (I27s_s)8 polypeptide at a constant force of 100 pN. The first step marks the unfolding of a single I27s_s module in the chain and the second the reduction of its disulfide bond. The rate of reduction at any given force is easily measured from a collection of such traces. Fig. IE Force dependency of the rate of reduction of disulfide bonds by different reducing agents. Human Trx shows a negative force dependency that reaches a force independent minimum. By contrast, L-cysteine shows a simple exponential increase in the rate of reduction with the applied force. Bacterial thioredoxins show a combination of mechanisms giving a characteristic V shaped force dependency.

[0032] Figure 2. Molecular mechanisms of Trx catalysis. Fig. 2 A Trx enzymes main structural features are a prominent binding groove marked by the shaded light green area, and the catalytic cysteine located on the rim of the groove (human; PDB code 3Trx). Fig. 2B A Trx enzyme collides and binds a substrate protein that contains a disulfide bond. Once the disulfide bonded substrate binds to the groove, the sulfur atoms of the catalytic cysteine (#1, inset) and the substrate disulfide (#2,3, inset) must align 180° from each other in order to acquire the correct SN2 geometry for disulfide bond reduction to occur. This alignment takes place inside the binding groove.

[0033] Figure 3. Structural characteristics of the binding groove in Trx enzymes. Fig. 3 A Geometric characteristics of the peptide-binding groove in human Trx. Fig. 3B A clear structural difference can be observed when comparing bacterial and eukaryotic origin Trxs. In the case of eukaryotic Trxs the binding groove is much deeper and hindered than in the case of bacterial Trxs. Fig. 3C Comparison of the force dependency of the reduction rate for human and E. coli Trx enzymes. Human Trx (10 μΜ, red squares) shows two distinct mechanisms. A first mechanism is exponentially inhibited by force (I), and a second mechanism is force independent (II). A third mechanism is apparent in E. coli Trx (10 μΜ, green triangles) whereby at high forces, the rate of catalysis increases exponentially (III).

[0034] Figure 4. Resurrected Trx from the Last Bacterial Common Ancestor (LBCA). Fig. 4 A Differential scanning calorimetry measure the melting temperatures of LBCA (113 °C) and modern E. Coli Trx (87 °C). Fig. 4B LBCA is active at pH 5, by contrast modern E. coli and human thioredoxin show ~20 fold lower rates at this pH. Fig. 4C The rate of reduction of LBCA shows a maximum at 100 pN, suggesting changes in the way the substrate fits into the binding groove. By contrast, all extant Trx enzymes show a maximal rate at zero force.

[0035] Figure 5. Schematic of the combined TIRF-AFM (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence- Atomic Force Microscope) experiment. Fig. 5A A fluorescently labeled Trx enzyme binds to an exposed disulfide bond in an unfolded polypeptide. When bound, the enzyme is localized in the TIRF field and can consequently be detected as a bright fluorescence spot localized exactly underneath of the AFM tip. The catalysis event is independently detected by the AFM as a stepwise extension of the substrate. The final dissociation event is detected as the disappearance of the fluorescent spot from the base of the AFM cantilever. Fig. 5B Schematic drawing showing the expected data from a combined TIRF- AFM experiment. The fluorescence intensity data comes from the pixels on the CCD corresponding to the area under the tip of the AFM. The extension trace shows the surface-tip distance for the AFM during force-clamp. Three relevant dwell times to be measured are marked 1 , 2 and 3 respectively. The force dependency of all three dwell times will be measured.

[0036] Figure 6. Force spectroscopy reveals the dynamic rearrangement of the substrate during Trx catalysis. Fig. 6A An Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based assay of Trx catalysis. A disulfide bonded polypeptide is picked up by an AFM cantilever and mechanically stretched at constant force. The cartoons on the right show the detection scheme. The polypeptide is first extended by unfolding, right up to the disulfide bond. The exposed disulfide then undergoes a nucleophilic attack by the Trx enzyme. Reduction of the substrate disulfide bond allows for an extra extension that is easily detected by the AFM. The rate of reduction is measured from the kinetics of the step increases in length that mark each reduction event. Fig. 6B A key observation made using the single molecule assay was that a sufficiently high mechanical force applied to the substrate disulfide bond inhibited the enzymatic reaction. The sequence of cartoons explains the effect of a pulling force in inhibiting the rotation of the disulfide bond that is needed to acquire the configuration for the SN2 reaction.

[0037] Figure 7. A putative search mechanism for Trx enzymes. (1) A Trx enzyme undergoing a 3-D diffusion search randomly binds the exposed polypeptide. (2) The enzyme then undergoes a 1-D diffusion search for the exposed disulfide, over a sliding distance dsi. This mechanism greatly reduces the time necessary for finding the target.

[0038] Figure 8. Phylogenetic Tree used for the ancestral sequence reconstruction of Trx enzymes. A total of 203 sequences were used (see Table 1). The nodes of interest are indicated with red arrows. Last bacterial common ancestors (LCBA), last archaeal common ancestor (LACA), archaea/eukaryota common ancestor (AECA), last common ancestor cyanobacterial and deinococcus/thermus groups (LPBCA) that represents the origin of photosynthetic bacteria; last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA), last common ancestor of γ-proteobacteria (LGPCA) and last common ancestor of animals and fungi (LAFCA).

[0039] Figure 9. Phylogenetic analysis of Trx enzymes and ancestral sequences reconstruction. Fig 9A Schematic phylogenetic tree showing the geological time in which different extinct organisms lived, i.e., last bacterial common ancestors (LBCA); last archaeal common ancestor (LAC A); archaea/eukaryota common ancestor (AECA) and last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Other internal nodes are: the last common ancestor of

photosynthetic bacteria (LPBCA), the last common ancestor of γ-proteobacteria (LGPCA), and the last common ancestor of animals and fungi (LAFCA). The dashed lines represent further bifurcations. Divergence times are compiled from multiple sources (see Hedges and Kumar, The Timetree of life, xxi, 551 p. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009)). Fig. 9B Posterior probability distribution of the inferred amino acids across 106 sites for the interested internal nodes. The inferred amino acid at each site for the interested internal node is the residue with the highest posterior probability. Fig. 9C Denaturation temperatures (Tm) vs. geological time for ancestral Trx enzymes. Modern E. coli and Human Trx enzymes are also indicated. The inset shows experimental DSC thermograms for E. coli Trx and LBCA Trx.

[0040] Figure 10 M-PASs for Trx enzymes belonging to representative extinct organisms: The sequences are calculated using maximum likelihood methods. Also included are E. coli and human Trx sequences for comparative purposes. A high degree of

conservation around the active site CGPC is observed (red residues marked with asterisks).

[0041] Figure 11. Single-molecule disulfide reduction assay. Fig. 11A Schematic representation of the singe-molecule disulfide reduction assay. A first pulse of force rapidly unfolds the I27G32C-A75C domains (Unf). When the disulfide bond is exposed to the solvent a single Trx molecule can reduce it (Red.) Fig. 11B Experimental force-clamp trace showing single disulfide reductions of a (I27G32C-A75C)S polypeptide. The unfolding pulse was set at 185 pN for 0.2 s and the test-pulse force at 500 pN. Fig, 11C Probability of reduction ( red(t)) resulted from summing and normalizing the reduction test pulse at different forces for AECA Trx (3.5 μΜ). Fig. 11D Force-dependency of disulfide reduction by AECA Trx; human Trx is also shown for comparison. Both Trx enzymes show a similar pattern: a negative force- dependency of the reduction rate, from 30-200 pN, consistent with a Michaelis-Menten mechanisms and a force-independent mechanism, from 200 pN and up, described by an electron transfer reaction (Perez- Jimenez et al., Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)). Notice the higher activity for AECA Trx (3.5 μΜ for AECA Trx vs. 10 μΜ for human TRX). The lines represent fittings to the kinetic model.

[0042] Figure 12. Force-clamp experiment for detection of single disulfide reduction events. A first pulse of force (175 pN, 0.3 s) unfolds the I27G32C-A75C domains up to the disulfide bond. The unfolding events can be monitored as a series of step of ~11 nm per module (bottom panel). A second pulse of force (100 pN) is applied to monitor single disulfide reduction by Trx enzymes. In this case the release of the trapped residues behind the disulfide bond gives rise to a length increment of ~14 nm per module (top panel).

[0043] Figure 13A-F. Experimental traces of single disulfide reductions by ancestral Trxs. Both, the unfolding pulse (175 pN) and the test pulse at different forces are shown. Individual reduction events can be observed in the test-pulse force. Numerous traces like these (15-80) are used at every force to complete the full force-dependency of disulfide bond reduction by Trx enzymes, as shown in Fig.14.

[0044] Figure 14. Force-dependence of disulfide reduction by ancestral Trx enzymes. The reduction rate at a given force is obtained by summing, averaging and fitting to a single exponential numerous traces (15-80) like the one shown in Fig. 11B. The solid lines are fitting to the kinetic model. The grey circles and dashed lines represent the rate vs. force dependence for modern Trxs: Pea Trxm from chloroplast (Fig. 14C), P. falciparum Trx (Fig. 14D), E. coli Trx (Figs. 14A and 14E) and Human Trx (Fig 14F) (all extracted from Perez- Jimenez et al. Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)). These modern Trxs are descendants of the ancestral Trxs in the same plot.

[0045] Figure 15. Rate constants for disulfide bond reduction by ancestral Trxs. These values are obtained by extrapolating to zero force the fitting of the reduction rate vs. force data (Fig. 8) to the three-state kinetic model described in the methods section.

[0046] Figure 16. Rate constants of disulfide bond reduction at pH 5. Fig. 16A A high activity for AECA (black squared) and LACA (circles) Trxs can be observed at pH 5 when the substrate is pulled at low forces (50-150 pN). LBCA Trx (triangles) shows similar activity to that at pH 7.2 with a similar trend (Fig. 14A). The solid lines are exponential fit to the experimental data. Fig. 16B The rate constants for disulfide reduction by ancestral Trxs at F=100 pN are remarkably high when compared with the rate constants measured for modern Trxs, E. coli and human at the same force.

[0047] Figure 17. Functional assay of fluorescently labeled Trx enzymes. Fig. 17A Ensemble average of reduction events obtained with labeled E. coli Trx enzymes (10 μΜ). Fig. 17B TIRF image capturing a labeled enzyme entering the evanescent field. The trace shows the time course of one such visit. Stepwise bleaching events mark the multiple labels of the enzyme (arrows).

[0048] Figure 18. A single molecule assay for oxidative folding. Fig. 18A Under a denaturing force of 110 pN, each initial (I27s-s)s unfolding event is measured as an 11 nm extension of the polypeptide, followed by reduction events catalyzed by human thioredoxin (10 μΜ wild-type fiTrx), yielding additional 14 nm extensions (inset). Refolding of the fully denatured polypeptide is subsequently initiated by switching off the stretching force. After some time At, folding is stopped and the state of the substrate is probed by again applying a stretching force. During the probe stage we only observed 25 nm steps, indicating that while the (I27s-s)8 polypeptide had refolded, the disulfide bonds did not reoxidize. Fig. 18B A histogram of the step sizes observed during the probe pulse from different traces confirms the absence of reoxidized proteins. Fig. 18C By contrast if the exact same experiment is repeated in the presence of a mutant form of human thioredoxin (fiTrx ), all disulfide bonds reduced during the denature pulse, become reoxidized as demonstrated by the presence of an equal number of 11 nm and 14 nm steps during the probe pulse.

[0049] Figure 19. Cross-linking reaction to generate cleavable substrates. Fig. 19A Two distant cysteines are introduced in the 127 protein at positions A and B (positions 27 and 55). We covalently link the exposed cysteines with bifunctional molecules containing a cleavable bond (green bar). Fig. 19B If the 127 protein is left open, the unfolding step size is that of a full length protein with AL-29 nm. Fig. 19C If the cysteines are bridged by a bifunctional reagent (here shown with BMDB), many 127 proteins now extend by only AL~20 nm, limited by the covalent bridge. Fig. 19D Cleavage of a bridge by an enzyme will result into a further extension by AL~9 nm, identifying the reaction.

[0050] Figure 20. Rate constants for disulfide bond reduction by ancestral and modern Trxs enzymes. These values are obtained by extrapolating to zero force the fitting of the reduction rate vs. force data (Fig.14) to the three-state kinetic model described herein. [0051] Figure 21. Insulin activity assay for ancestral and modern Trx enzymes. Activity determined with the turbidity insulin bulk enzymatic assay (Benner et al., Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol 75, 1-132, xi (2007)). The turbidity assay is less sensitive in detecting differences in activity amongst the different enzymes. This assay cannot be used to probe the activity of the enzymes at pH 5 due to the precipitation of insulin at pH below 6 (Benner et al, Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol 75, 1-132, xi (2007); Thornton, Nat Rev Genet 5, 366-75 (2004)).

[0052] Figure 22. Rate constants for disulfide reduction by ancestral Trx enzymes at pH 5 are higher than for modern E. coli and human Trx. Thioredoxin from the acidophile Acetobater aceti shows activity at pH 5, enzymes from the thermophilic Sulfolobus tokodaii do not show a detectable rate of reduction at the same pH. All experiments were conducted at a pulling force of 100 pN. Error bars represent s.e.m. obtained using the bootstrap method.

[0053] Figure 23. Activity of ancestral Trxs and modern E. coli Trx measured using DTNB as substrate at pH 5 and determined by monitoring spectrophotometrically the formation of TNB at 412 nm. Error bars represent s.d. from three different measurements.

[0054] Figure 24. Experimental DSC thermogram for Sulfolubus tokodaii Trx (Archaea). The solid line represents fit to the two-state thermodynamic model (Liberies, Ancestral sequence reconstruction, xiii, 252 p. (Oxford University Press, Oxford ; New York, 2007)). A Tm of 122.6° C is obtained from the fit.

[0055] Figure 25. Structural representation of the ancestral enzyme thioredoxin

AECA.

[0056] DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0057] The issued patents, applications, and other publications that are cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

[0058] Industry has a large demand of pH stable and temperature polypeptides for use in a number of industrial applications. Methods to alter polypeptide pH and temperature stability without eliminating function of the polypeptide are highly needed. The methods described herein are related in part to the finding that it is possible to predict, synthesize and characterize enzymes from extinct organisms that lived on earth as long as 4 billion years ago. In certain aspects, the methods described herein are relate to the understanding that because these organisms lived on the primordial earth (i.e. in an environment that was much hotter and more acidic than today), their enzymes were necessarily optimized through selective pressure to have a higher thermal and acidic stability than their modern

counterparts. In some aspects, the methods described herein are relate to the finding that because enzyme homologues exist different species, Bayesian statistics can be used to predict the ancestral gene encoding for a version of the enzyme that was present in the common ancestor of these organisms.

[0059] In certain aspects, the methods described herein can be used to substitute amino acids according to their presence in resurrected protein sequences from extinct organisms. In one embodiment, the methods described herein are useful for altering (e.g increasing) the stability of a recombinant polypeptide at low pH and/or high temperatures by making one or more conservative substitutions in the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide. In one embodiment, the methods described herein are useful for altering (e.g increasing) the activity of a recombinant polypeptide at low pH and/or high temperatures by making one or more conservative substitutions in the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide.

[0060] In certain aspects, the invention described herein relates to the finding that single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy can be used to study protein dynamics under a mechanical force. The experimental resurrection of ancestors of these universal enzymes together with the sensitivity of single-molecule techniques can be a powerful tool towards understanding the origin and evolution of life on Earth. As described herein, the force- dependency of a reaction can be a sensitive probe of substrate nanomechanics during catalysis. This type of protein spectroscopy can also be useful for obtaining details of enzyme active site dynamics. The methods described herein can also complement structural x-ray and NMR data and provide benchmarks for molecular dynamics simulations

[0061] Definitions

[0062] The singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural references unless the content clearly dictates otherwise.

[0063] As used herein, "sequence identity" means the percentage of identical nucleotide or amino acid residues at corresponding positions in two or more sequences when the sequences are aligned to maximize sequence matching, i.e., taking into account gaps and insertions. "Percent identity" in the context of two or more nucleic acids or polypeptide sequences, refers to the percentage of nucleotides or amino acids that two or more sequences or subsequences contain which are the same. A specified percentage of amino acid residues or nucleotides can be referred to such as: 60% identity, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% or more identity over a specified region, when compared and aligned for correspondence over a comparison window, or designated region as measured using one of the following sequence comparison algorithms or by manual alignment and visual inspection.

[0064] As used herein, the term "extant" refers to taxa (such as species, genera or families) that are still in existence (living). The term extant contrasts with extinct. As used herein, the terms "extant protein", "extant polypeptide", "extant amino acid sequence", "extant gene" and "extant nucleic acid sequence" refer to proteins, polypeptides, amino acid sequences, genes, and nucleic acid sequences from extant taxa.

[0065] Other definitions are provided throughout the specification.

[0066] A journey back in time is possible at the molecular level by resurrecting proteins from extinct organisms. Laboratory resurrection of these ancestral proteins enables exploration of aspects of ancient life that cannot be inferred from fossil records alone (Benner et al, Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol 75, 1-132, xi (2007); Thornton, Nat Rev Genet 5, 366-75 (2004); Liberies, Ancestral sequence reconstruction, xiii, 252 p. (Oxford University Press, Oxford ; New York, 2007); Hall, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 5431-6 (2006). Such time traveling is largely limited by the ambiguity in the historical models used for ancestral sequence inference. (Pollock and Chang, in Ancestral sequence reconstruction, pages 85-94 (ed. Liberies. D.A., Oxford University Press, Oxford ; New York, 2007); Gaucher et al, Nature 425, 285-8 (2003); Gaucher et al, Nature 451, 704-7 (2008)). For instance, uncertainties in databases, sequence alignments, failures in evolutionary theories and uncertainty in the construction of phylogenetic trees are common sources of ambiguity.

[0067] Understanding the molecular mechanisms of enzyme function presents unique challenges in biophysics. In certain aspects, the invention described herein relates to computational methods for resuscitating ancestral genes. In some embodiments, the methods described herein can be used to reconstruct the amino acid sequence of ancient proteins. Reconstructed proteins can be expressed in an expression system and, in certain applications, examined for their activity, pH stability or thermal stability (Gaucher et al. Nature, 2008. 451(7179): p. 704-U2; Gaucher et al, Nature, 2003. 425(6955): p. 285-8). [0068] The pH and temperature stability of polypeptides can depend in part on the distribution of amino acid residues throughout the three dimensional structure of the polypeptide. In one aspect, the methods described herein are relate to findings from the resurrection of seven Precambrian thioredoxin enzymes (Trx), dating back between -1.4 and ~4 billion years ago (Gyr). These findings relate to the evolution of enzymatic reactions of thioredoxin enzymes (Trx) from extinct organisms that lived in the Precambrian. Their mechanism of reduction was probed using single molecule force-spectroscopy which can readily distinguish simple nucleophiles from the more complex chemistry of the active site of Trx enzymes. As described herein, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that these resurrected enzymes have melting temperatures up to ~32 °C higher than those of extant Trx, following a trend with a slope of ~ 6 K/Gyr. From the force-dependency of the rate of reduction of an engineered substrate can be used to determine whether the ancient Trxs utilized chemical mechanisms of reduction similar to those of modern enzymes. As described herein, the most ancient enzymes showed high activity at low pH, where the extant Trxs became inactive under in low pH environments. The results described herein show that, while Trx enzymes have maintained their reductase chemistry unchanged, they have adapted over a 4 Gyr time span to the changes in temperature and ocean acidity that characterize the evolution of the environment from ancient to modern Earth.

[0069] The results described herein also show that the chemical mechanisms observed in modern Trx enzymes were already present in Trxs from Precambrian organisms. Ancestral Trx enzymes from LBCA, AECA and LACA that lived in the mid- to-late Hadean were highly resistant to temperature and active in relatively acidic conditions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that in early life Trx enzymes were present in hot environments and these environments have progressively cooled from 4 to 0.5 Gyr (Nisbet and Sleep, Nature 409, 1083-91 (2001); Gaucher et al, Nature 451, 704-7 (2008); Knauth et al, Geo. Soc. Am. Bull, 115: 566-580 (2003); Schulte, M., Oceanography 20, 42-49 (2007)). However, it is also possible that a much cooler early Earth was populated by psychrophiles, mesophiles and thermophiles and that the latter could have been the only survivors of cataclysmic events (e.g., the late heavy

bombardment or global glaciations on Early Earth (Nisbet and Sleep, Nature 409, 1083-91 (2001); Gogarten-Boekels et al, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 25: 251-264 (1995)). Thus, these findings indicate that important biochemical pathways in the modern biosphere were already established by 3.5 Gyr ago (Nisbet and Sleep, Nature 409, 1083-91 (2001)). For instance, metabolism is one of the most conserved cellular processes. Important pathways like energy production, sugar degradation, cofactor biosynthesis or amino acids processing are highly conserved from bacteria to human and were likely present in LUCA (Peregrin- Alvarez et al, Genome Res 13, 422-7 (2003)). Thus, in some aspects, the present invention is directed to a nucleic acid encoding a recombinant thioredoxin or to recombinant thioredoxin amino acid sequences, such as for example a thioredoxin polypeptide optimized to have greater stability and/or activity at high temperature and/or low pH, that has been modified to change amino acids where the one or more modified are pH optimizing or temperature optimizing modifications.

[0070] Evolution operates at multiple levels of biological organization; however, enzymatic mechanisms accompanying adaptive changes seem to be highly conserved. The ability of enzymes to maintain specific chemical reactivities and mechanisms in disparate environments is necessary for the diversification of life. While this ability is exemplified by Trx enzymes, it can also be universal to all proteins (e.g., ubiquitin, RNase, ATPase or other metabolic enzymes that have been maintained in nearly all organisms throughout the history of life). Thus, although some of compositions and methods described herein relate to the activity of resurrected thioredoxin, the paleoenzymological methods described herein can be used to generate polypeptides optimized to have greater stability and/or activity at high temperature and/or low pH. The experimental resurrection of ancestors of these universal proteins together with the sensitivity of single-molecule techniques can be a powerful tool towards understanding the origin and evolution of life on Earth.

[0071] In one aspect, the invention relates to computational methods for determining ancestral sequences. Such methods can be used, for example, to determine ancestral sequences for an extant polypeptide (e.g. thioredoxin). In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for increasing the stability and/or activity of a polypeptide (e.g. a thioredoxin) at low pH or at elevated temperature. Methods for determining ancestral sequences can be based on amino acid sequences or on nucleic acid sequences encoding (or predicted to encode) proteins.

[0072] In some embodiments, the computational methods described herein are based on the principle of maximum likelihood. The sequences of polypeptides used in the methods described herein can be selected on the basis of a common feature (e.g. a threshold sequence identity, common enzymatic activity, or common modular domain architecture). The methods may involve the construction of a phylogeny using an evolutionary model of the probabilities of amino acid or nucleic acid substitutions polypeptide among different organisms.

[0073] Where the sequences differ (e.g. due to mutation), the maximum likelihood methodology can be used to assigns an amino acid or nucleic acid residue to the node a phylogenetic trees (i.e., the branch point of the lineages). Generally, a model of sequence substitutions and then a maximum likelihood phylogeny can be determined for multiple data sets. The sequence at the base node of the maximum likelihood phylogeny is referred to as the ancestral sequence (or most recent common ancestor).

[0074] In certain embodiments, the invention is directed to methods for generating an ancestral polypeptide (e.g. thioredoxin) sequences through reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. The ancestral polypeptide sequence may be any polypeptide sequence which contains at least homolog in another organism.

[0075] In one aspect, the invention described herein relates to a method for increasing the temperature stability of a recombinant polypeptide produced from a nucleic acid in an expression system, the method comprising replacing one or more temperature stability decreasing amino acids of the recombinant polypeptide with one or more

temperature stability increasing amino acids. In another aspect, the invention described herein relates to a method for increasing the pH stability of a recombinant polypeptide produced from a nucleic acid in an expression system, the method comprising replacing one or more temperature pH decreasing amino acids of the recombinant polypeptide with one or more pH stability increasing amino acids.

[0076] In certain aspects, the present invention relates to the finding that it is possible to predict, synthesize and characterize polypeptides from extinct organisms. Thus, one embodiment the stability of a extant polypeptide at low pH (e.g. a pH lower than the pH at which the extant polypeptide is expressed in an organism, or the pH at which the polypeptide displays its greatest stability and/or activity) can be increased by reconstructing an ancestral polypeptide of the extant polypeptide by (a) aligning a plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (b) generating a phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (c) using Bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree, (d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence, (e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position.

[0077] Thus, one embodiment the stability of a extant polypeptide at high temperature (e.g. a temperature higher than the temperature at which the extant polypeptide is expressed in an organism, or the temperature at which the polypeptide displays its greatest stability and/or activity) can be increased by reconstructing an ancestral polypeptide of the extant polypeptide by (a) aligning a plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (b) generating a phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (c) using Bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree, (d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence, (e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position.

[0078] In another embodiment the activity of a extant polypeptide at low pH (e.g. a pH lower than the pH at which the extant polypeptide is expressed in an organism, or the pH at which the polypeptide displays its greatest stability and/or activity) can be increased by reconstructing an ancestral polypeptide of the extant polypeptide by (a) aligning a plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (b) generating a

phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (c) using Bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree, (d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence, (e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position.

[0079] In another embodiment the activity of a extant polypeptide at high temperature (e.g. a temperature higher than the temperature at which the extant polypeptide is expressed in an organism, or the temperature at which the polypeptide displays its greatest stability and/or activity) can be increased by reconstructing an ancestral polypeptide of the extant polypeptide by (a) aligning a plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (b) generating a phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (c) using Bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree, (d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence, (e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position.

[0080] In another embodiment the melting temperature of a extant polypeptide can be increased by reconstructing an ancestral polypeptide of the extant polypeptide by (a) aligning a plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (b) generating a phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide, (c) using Bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree, (d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence, (e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position.

[0081] In one embodiment, the sequence of a reconstructed protein can be generated by contracting a phylogenetic tree from a plurality of extant (modern) sequences of the enzyme to be reconstructed. The phylogenetic tree can be used to predict the sequences corresponding to every node of the tree. In one embodiment, the enzyme to be reconstructed can be a thioredoxin enzyme and the extant enzymes of a plurality of extant thioredoxin enzymes can be used to construct a phylogenetic tree and predict the sequences of every node of the tree.

[0082] Generally, polypeptide sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide can be obtained from publicly available databases (e.g., GenBank). Sequence comparison and alignment can be performed according to different analytical parameters. For example, in some cases, one sequence can be used are a reference against which all other sequences are compared. In the case of sequence comparison algorithms, test and reference sequences can be input into a computer and sequence algorithm program parameters can be designate for analysis. Alignment of the sequences can be performed using any method, algorithm or program known in the art. Examples of suitable alignment programs include, but are not limited to, MUSCLE (Edgar, Nucleic Acids Res 32, 1792-7 (2004)), Clustal W, the BioEdit program available from North Carolina State University (available at http://www mbio.ncsu.edu/BioEdit/bioedit.html), and the SegEd program.

[0083] The terms "homologous" or "homologue" refer to related sequences that share a common ancestor or arise from gene duplication and are determined based on degree of sequence identity. Alternatively, a related sequence may be a sequence having homology, which has arisen by convergent evolution. These terms describe the relationship between a gene found in one species, subspecies, variety, cultivar or strain and the corresponding or equivalent gene in another species, subspecies, variety, cultivar or strain or, in the case of paralogous genes, two related sequences within a species, subspecies, variety, cultivar or strain. "Homologous sequences" are thought, believed, or known to be functionally related. A functional relationship may be indicated in a number of ways, including, but not limited to: (a) the degree of sequence identity; and/or (b) the same or similar biological function.

Homology can be determined using software programs readily available in the art, such as those discussed in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (F. M. Ausubel et al, eds., 1987).

[0084] The term "homolog" is also used to refer to proteins with amino acid sequences sharing at least about 60%, 70%, 80%>, 90%> or more identity with the amino acid sequences of an ancestral protein, such as the ancestral Trx proteins described herein. The term "homolog" is also used to refer to gene sequences with nucleic acid sequences sharing at least about 60%>, 70%>, 80%>, 90%> or more identity with nucleic acid sequences capable of encoding an ancestral protein, such as the ancestral Trx proteins described herein.

[0085] In certain embodiments of the methods described herein, the sequences and/or sequence alignments can be further subjected to manual correction. Other suitable alignment algorithms include, but are not limited to the local homology algorithm of Smith and Waterman (Adv. Appl. Math. 2:482 (1981)), by the homology alignment algorithm of Needleman and Wunsch (J. Mol. Biol. 48:443 (1970)), by the search for identity method of Pearson and Lipman (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:2444 (1988)), by the progressive alignment method of Feng and Doolittle (J. Mol. Evol. 35:351-60 (1987)) (e.g. PILUP), by the CLUSTAL method described by Higgins and Sharp (Gene 73:237-44 (1988); CABIOS 5: 151-53 (1989)), by computerized implementations of these algorithms (GAP, BESTFIT, FASTA, and TFASTA in the Wisconsin Genetics Software Package, Genetics Computer Group, 575 Science Dr., Madison, Wis.), or by visual inspection (see, generally Ausubel et al, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1996)).

Analysis of the percent sequence identity between the test sequence(s) and the reference sequence can be performed on the basis of designated program parameters. For example, a reference sequence can be compared to other test sequences to determine the percent sequence identity relationship using the following parameters different gap weights, different gap length weights, and weighted end gaps. Appropriate parameters can be identified by one skilled in the art. In some embodiments, the number of sequences can also be reduced by treating conservative substitutions occupying a position in a sequence as being identical to a single residue occupying that position. The choice of residue representing the members of one or more conservative substitution groups may be selected based on the physio-chemical properties of the amino acid, the frequency of occurrence in the sequence alignment or any other criteria known in the art.

[0086] A "conservative substitution," when describing a protein, refers to a change in the amino acid composition of the protein that is less likely to substantially alter the protein's activity. Thus, "conservatively modified variations" of a particular amino acid sequence refers to amino acid substitutions of those amino acids that are less likely to be critical for protein activity or substitution of amino acids with other amino acids having similar properties (e.g., acidic, basic, positively or negatively charged, polar or non-polar, etc.) such that the substitutions of even critical amino acids do not substantially alter activity. Conservative substitution tables providing amino acids that are often functionally similar are well known in the art (see, e.g., Creighton, Proteins, W. H. Freeman and Company (1984)). Conservative amino acid substitutions can be made at one or more non-essential amino acid residues. A conservative amino acid substitution can be a substitution in which an amino acid residue is replaced with an amino acid residue having a similar side chain. Families of amino acid residues having similar side chains have been defined in the art, including basic side chains (e.g., lysine, arginine, histidine), acidic side chains (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid), uncharged polar side chains (e.g., glycine, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, cysteine), nonpolar side chains (e.g., alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline,

phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophan), beta-branched side chains (e.g., threonine, valine, isoleucine), aromatic side chains (e.g., tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine), aliphatic side chains (e.g., glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine), and sulfur-containing side chains (methionine, cysteine). Substitutions can also be made between acidic amino acids and their respective amides (e.g., asparagine and aspartic acid, or glutamine and glutamic acid).

[0087] Conservative amino acid substitutions can be utilized in making variants of the Trx enzymes described herein. For example, replacement of a leucine with an isoleucine or valine, an aspartate with a glutamate, a threonine with a serine, or a similar replacement of an amino acid with a structurally related amino acid, may not have a major effect on the properties of the resulting polypeptide or fusion polypeptide. Whether an amino acid change results in a functional polypeptide or fusion polypeptide can readily be determined by assaying the specific activity of the polypeptide or fusion polypeptide.

[0088] One skilled in the art will also be able to remove sequences below a particular size cut-off, subject the sequences to split decomposition analysis to remove any phylogenetic noise. A phylogenetic tree can then be constructed by heuristic search using a maximum likelihood (ML) approach. In one embodiment, one or more phylogenetic trees can be generated a suitable program known in the art. Examples of suitable programs include, but are not limited to PAUP (e.g. PAUP 4.0 beta) and PHYML. In one embodiment, the phylogenetic analysis and the phylogenetic tree can be performed using PAUP by the minimum evolution distance criterion with 1000 bootstrap replicates. Once phylogenetic trees are generated, one skilled in the art will appreciate that such tree can be rooted according to different parameters. In certain embodiments, the phylogenetic tree can be used to predict the sequences corresponding to every node of the tree. Parameters suitable for use with the methods described herein include, but are not limited to, strict or relaxed molecular clock model (Lai, Microbiol. Rev., 56:61-79, 1992; Lee et al, J. Virol, 73: 11-18, 1999), nonreversible models of substitution, midpoint rooting, and/or outgroup criterion (Gao et al, J. Virol, 79: 1154-1163, 2005; Higgins and Sharp, Gene, 73:237-244, 1988; Lai, Microbiol. Rev., 56:61-79, 1992; Lee et al, J. Virol, 73: 11-18, 1999; Logvinoffet al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101 : 10149-10154, 2004; Mink et al, Virology, 200:246-255, 1994). The rooted tree can then be used as a template to simulate an ancestral sequence. Simulation of ancestral sequences at internal nodes as well as at common ancestor can be inferred using a

reconstruction program using Bayesian statistical analysis. An exemplary reconstruction program for Bayesian statistical analysis is PAML (e.g. PAML version 3.14). In one embodiment, the Bayesian statistical analysis is performed using PAML and the gamma distribution for variable replacement rates across sites is incorporated (Yang, Comput Appl Biosci 13, 555-556 (1997)). In another embodiment, the Bayesian statistical analysis is performed using MrBayes (mrbayes csit.fsu.edu). For each site of the inferred sequences, posterior probabilities can be calculated for all 20 amino acids and the amino acid residue with the highest posterior probability can be assigned at each site of an inferred sequence.

[0089] Sequences corresponding homologues of the recombinant polypeptide can be nucleic acid sequences, amino acid sequences, confirmed sequences, predicted sequences or hypothetical sequences. Where conversion of nucleic acid sequences to amino acid sequences is required (e.g. for alignment purposes), one skilled in the art will readily be able to convert the nucleic acid sequences to amino acid sequences using appropriate codon translation tables and/or algorithms for identifying protein coding regions in nucleic acids. In certain embodiments, the sequences corresponding homologues of the recombinant polypeptide can be selected such that at least one sequence is from an organism of the archaea domain, at least one sequence is from an organism of the bacteria domain and at least one sequence is from an organism of the eukarya domain.

[0090] Phylogenetically related sequences may be divided according to any criteria known to a person of skill in the art. Exemplary subdivisions include, but are not limited to subdivisions according to phylogenetic distance, function, motif organization, or the like.

[0091] The methods of the present invention can be performed using a computer. In one embodiment, the invention involves the use of a computer system which is adapted to allow input of one or more sequences and which includes computer code for performing one or more of the steps of the various methods described herein. For example, the present invention encompasses a computer program that includes code for performing one or more of generating protein sequences, generating gene sequences, aligning gene or polypeptide sequences, generating phylogenetic relationships, performing maximum likelihood and/or Bayesian statistical analysis and for computing any of the methods described herein sequentially or simultaneously.

[0092] The computer systems of the invention can comprise a means for inputting data such as the sequence of proteins, a processor for performing the various calculations described herein, and a means for outputting or displaying the result of the calculations. [0093] One of skill in the art can readily create computer code for executing the methods of the invention, using any suitable computer code language or system known in the art, such as "C" for example.

[0094] Thioredoxins belong to a broad family of oxidoreductase enzymes ubiquitous in all living organisms (Holmgren, Thioredoxin. Annu Rev Biochem 54, 237-71 (1985)). In one aspect, the methods described herein relate to the evolution of thioredoxin (Trx) enzymes. In certain aspects, the methods and compositions described herein relate to the finding that the chemical mechanisms of reduction by thioredoxin enzymes have evolved over time and where the earliest forms thioredoxin enzymes had capabilities that were only comparable to those of simple reducing agents like glutathione or cysteine (Figure IE) (Ainavarapu et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2008. 130(20): p. 6479-6487). Such evolutionary pressures can have driven the enzymes towards developing unique and efficient mechanisms of reduction (Wiita, A.P., et al, Nature, 2007. 450(7166): p. 124-7).

[0095] The archetypical active site (CXXC) and the Trx fold are well conserved throughout evolution, indicating that Trxs enzymes were present in primitive forms of life. By using single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy the chemical mechanisms of disulfide reduction by Trx enzymes can be examined in detail at the sub-Angstrom scale (Wiita et al., Nature 450, 124-7 (2007); Perez-Jimenez et al, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)).

Hence, the combination of single-molecule force spectroscopy and the resurrection of ancestral proteins can reveal novel insights into the reductase activity of these sulfur-based enzymes. Thioredoxin (Trx) enzymes reduce disulfide bonds in a myriad of target proteins in both intracellular and extracellular compartments (Arner and Holmgren, Eur J Biochem, 2000. 267(20): p. 6102-9; Kumar et al, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2004. 101(11): p. 3759- 64; Powis and Montfort, Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 2001. 30: p. 421-55). In addition to its role as an important cellular antioxidant, the reduction of disulfide bonds by Trx can activate signaling cascades by triggering conformational changes in transcription factors (e.g. NF-KB) (Lillig and Holmgren, Antioxid Redox Signal, 2007. 9(1): p. 25-47) or ion channel activation (Xu et al., TRPC channel activation by extracellular thioredoxin. Nature, 2008. 451(7174): p. 69-72). Trx plays essential roles in the life cycle of viruses (Holmgren, A., Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. J Biol Chem, 1989. 264(24): p. 13963-6) and can be an activator of viral entry into cells. Trx catalyzes the reduction of disulfide bonds in the second domain of the extracellular receptor CD4 as an important step in HIV entry into cells (Matthias, et al., Nat Immunol, 2002. 3(8): p. 727-32; Matthias and Hogg, Antioxid Redox Signal, 2003. 5(1): p. 133-8). Trx is also involved in DNA replication and repair by keeping the essential enzyme ribonucleotide reductase in its reduced state (Awal and Holmgren, J Biol Chem, 2009. 284(13): p. 8233-40). Trx enzymes share a highly conserved amino acid motif, Cys-X-X-Cys, in their active sites as well as a characteristic structural motif called the Trx fold (Figure 2). There are over 5,000 known DNA sequences that contain this motif and are classified as Trxs by Pfam database (http:// pfam.sanger.ac.uk/).

[0096] Thioredoxin enzymes have structural features that help positioning the participating sulfur atoms, such that an attack through an SN2 reaction is favored, resulting in disulfide bond reduction. An important structural feature in the Trx family of enzymes is the presence of a hydrophobic binding groove that abuts the active site of the enzyme (Figure 2A).

[0097] The mode of action of Trx catalysis occurs through two conserved cysteine residues of the active site which play complementary roles during the reduction of a target disulfide bond. First, the catalytic Cys32 attacks the target disulfide bond resulting in a mixed disulfide between the enzyme and the substrate. Catalysis is resolved by a subsequent nucleophilic attack by Cys35 (Carvalho, et al, J Phys Chem B, 2008. 112(8): p. 2511-23; Chivers and Raines, Biochemistry, 1997. 36(50): p. 15810-6). After this cycle, the two cysteines in the active site are disulfide bonded and the enzyme is rendered inactive. Another enzyme called Trx reductase (TrxR) draws electrons from NADPH to reduce and reactivate Trx, allowing this cycle to be repeated indefinitely (Williams et al., Eur J Biochem, 2000. 267(20): p. 6110-7; Mustacich, Powis, Biochem J, 2000. 346 Pt 1 : p. 1-8). The catalytic activity of Trx enzymes relies on an active cysteine thiolate (Figure 2; Cys32) that reduces target disulfide bonds by acting as a potent nucleophile.

[0098] A structural feature of thioredoxin enzymes is a polypeptide binding groove adjacent to the active site of the enzyme. The groove also serves to orient the substrate with respect to the catalytic cysteine, creating signatures that can be detected by force-clamp spectroscopy. The target binds into the binding groove and the target is then reduced by the exposed thiol of the catalytic cysteine. At least four different types of force-dependent reactions can be distinguished. As described herein, a variety of extant and ancient thioredoxins with different groove characteristics, like depth and width, can be used to examine how groove characteristics determine the force-dependency of the reaction. In certain embodiments, the methods described herein can be used to identify groove-free forms of thioredoxin by using evolutionary trees to resuscitate ancient forms of the enzyme and study their catalytic mechanisms. As described herein, molecular dynamics simulations can be used to examine the relationship between the groove characteristics and the mechanisms observed.

[0099] A fundamental step in the evolution of thioredoxin chemistry may have been the formation of this binding groove. Thus, by resurrecting ancient forms of

thioredoxins, the methods described herein can be used to identify early versions of these enzymes where groove binding was either absent or shallow and poorly evolved (Figure 4C). Such findings can be used to establish a detailed correlate between the binding groove and the observed force-dependent catalysis.

[00100] Several structural features of the binding groove can be directly measured from X-ray or NMR structures of Trx enzymes and by correlating them with observed chemical mechanisms of action. For example, structural axes can be defined to measure the depth and width of the binding groove in the region surrounding the catalytic cysteine (Figure 3A) (Perez- Jimenez, et al, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2009. 16(8): p. 890- U120). Figure 3B shows the depth of the groove of three Eukaryotic Trx: spinach Trxf (PDB code: lf9m) (Capitani et al, J Mol Biol, 2000. 302: p. 135-154), human Trx (lmdi) (Qin et al, Structure, 1995. 3: p. 289-297), A. thaliana Trxhl (lxfi) (Peterson et al, Protein Sci., 2005. 14: p. 2195-2200); and three bacterial-origin Trx: human Trx2 (luvz) (Smeets et al., Protein Sci., 2005. 14: p. 2610-2621), C. reinhardtii Trxm (ldby) (Lancelin et al., Proteins 2000. 41 : p. 334-349), and E. coli Trx (2trx) (Katti et al, J Mol Biol, 1990. 212(1): p. 167- 84). A difference in the structural characteristics of the groove is apparent between these selected prokaryotic and eukaryotic Trx enzymes. Trx enzymes with deeper grooves may limit the mobility of the substrate, and thereby restrict the type of chemical mechanisms available for reduction of the substrate, resulting in different force dependencies of catalysis (Figure 3C).

[00101] The binding groove becomes evident by studying mixed disulfide complexes between a mutant form of Trx lacking C35 and disulfide bonded target such as Nf-kB and Ref-1 derived polypeptides (Figure 2B) (Qin et al, Structure, 1995. 3: p. 289-297; Qin et al., Structure 1996. 4: p. 613-620). The enzyme can be prevented from resolving the mixed disulfide stage by mutating C35 and the substrate gets trapped in the groove, disulfide bonded to the catalytic cysteine. The structure of such mixed disulfide complexes indicates that both van der Waals contacts and specific intermolecular hydrogen bonds play roles in the recognition and binding of substrates in the Trx groove (Maeda et al. Structure, 2006. 14(11): p. 1701-10).

[00102] As described herein, ancient thioredoxin enzymes can be reconstructed that are functional and show greatly altered properties. Further, as described herein, Trx enzymes from different kingdoms can be reconstructed to identify thioredoxin enzymes showing unique features in their force-dependent rate of catalysis. Such findings can be related to their binding groove. Many x-ray structures of Trx enzymes are known (e.g. PDB: 1ZZY, 2FCH, 2FD3, etc). Similarly, x-ray structures of resurrected enzymes can also be resolved (e.g. LBCA; Figure 4) and the characteristics of the groove can be correlated with observed force- dependent catalysis data. The methods described herein can also be used to develop detailed molecular models for the substrate-enzyme interactions for the thioredoxin family. These models can be tested by completing molecular dynamic simulations of the studied enzyme- substrate complexes (Wiita, A.P., et al, Nature, 2007. 450(7166): p. 124-7). Such analysis can be used to gain information about the mobility of the substrate disulfide related to the different chemical mechanisms (Perez- Jimenez, et al., Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2009. 16(8): p. 890-U120).

[00103] In on aspect, the invention relates to Trx ancestral proteins having the Trx amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Such ancestor proteins include, for example, full- length protein, polypeptides, fragments, derivatives and analogs thereof. In one aspect, the invention provides amino acid sequences of ancestor proteins in SEQ ID NOs: 1-7. In some embodiments, the ancestor protein is functionally active.

[00104] In one embodiment, the invention is directed to a last bacterial common ancestor (LBCA) Trx amino acid having the sequence

MSVIEINDENFEEEVLKSDKPVLVDFWAPWCGPCRMIAPIIEELAEEYEGKVKFAKVN VDENPETAAKYGIMSIPTLLLFKNGEVVDKLVGARPKEALKERIEKHL (SEQ ID NO:

1).

[00105] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to a last archaeal common ancestor (LACA) Trx amino acid having the sequence

MSVVQLNDENFDEVIKKNNKVVVVDFWAEWCGPCRMIAPIIEELAKEYAGKVVFGK LNVDENPETAAKYGIMSIPTLLFFKNGKVVDQLVGAMPKEALKERIK YL (SEQ ID NO: 2).

[00106] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to an archaeal/eukaryotic common ancestor (AECA) Trx amino acid having the sequence

MSVIEINDENFDEVIK SDKVVVVDFWAEWCGPCRMIAPIIEELAEEYAGKVVFGKV NVDENPEIAAKYGIMSIPTLLFFKNGKVVDQLVGARPKEALKERIK YL (SEQ ID NO: 3).

[00107] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to a last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) Trx amino acid having the sequence

MVIQVTNKEEFEAILSEADKLVVVDFFATWCGPCKMIAPFFEELSEEYPDKVVFIKVD VDEVPDVAAKYGITSMPTFKFFKNGK VDELVGANQEKLKQMILKHAP (SEQ ID NO: 4).

[00108] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to a last common ancestor of cyanobacterial and deinococcus/thermus groups (LPBCA) Trx amino acid having the sequence

MSVIEVTDENFEQEVLKSDKPVLVDFWAPWCGPCRMIAPIIEELAKEYEGKVKVVKV NVDENPNTAAQYGIRSIPTLLLFKNGQVVDRLVGAQPKEALKERIDKHL (SEQ ID NO: 5).

[00109] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to the last common ancestor of γ-proteobacteria, -1.61 Gyr old (LGPCA) Trx amino acid having the sequence MSIIHVTDDSFDQDVLKADKPVLVDFWAEWCGPCKMIAPILDEIAEEYEGKLKVAKV NIDENPETAAKYGIRGIPTLMLFKNGEVAATKVGALSKSQLKEFLDANL (SEQ ID NO: 6).

[00110] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to the last common ancestor of animals and fungi (LAFCA) Trx amino acid having the sequence

MVIQVTNKDEFESILSEADKLVVVDFTATWCGPCKMIAPKFEELSEEYPDNVVFLKV DVDEVEDVAAEYGISAMPTFQFFKNGK VDELTGANQEKLKAMIKKHAA (SEQ ID NO: 7).

[00111] A specific embodiment relates to an ancestor protein, fragment, derivative or analog that can be bound by an antibody. Such ancestor proteins, fragments, derivatives or analogs can be tested for the desired immunogenicity by procedures known in the art. (See e.g., Harlow and Lane).

[00112] In another aspect, a polypeptide is provided which consists of or comprises a fragment that has at least 8-10 contiguous amino acids of the Trx amino acid sequence as provided in any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In other embodiments, the fragment comprises at least 20 or 50 contiguous amino acids of the Trx amino acid sequence as provided in any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[00113] In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptide variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Contemplated variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide sequences having at least from about 50% to about 55% identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Contemplated variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide sequences having at least from about 55.1 % to about 60%> identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Contemplated variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide sequences having at least from about 60.1% to about 65% identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Contemplated variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide sequences having at least from about 65.1 % to about 70% identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

Contemplated variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide having at least from about 70.1% to about 75% identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Contemplated variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide sequences having at least from about 75.1% to about 80%> identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Contemplated variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide sequences having at least from about 80.1% to about 85% identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Contemplated variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide sequences having at least from about 85.1% to about 90% identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Contemplated variant of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide sequences having at least from about 90.1% to about 95% identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

Contemplated variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide sequences having at least from about 95.1% to about 97% identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Contemplated variant of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include but are not limited to polypeptide sequences having at least from about 97.1% to about 99% identity to that of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[00114] In certain aspects, the invention is directed to a Trx amino acid sequence as provided in any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In another embodiment of the above aspect of the invention, the nucleic acid comprises consecutive nucleotides having a sequence substantially identical to any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[00115] In certain aspects, the invention is directed to an isolated nucleic acid encoding, or capable of encoding, a Trx amino acid sequence as provided in any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In certain aspects, the invention is directed to an isolated nucleic acid

complementary to an isolated nucleic acid encoding, or capable of encoding, Trx amino acid sequences as provided in any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[00116] In certain aspects, the invention is directed to isolated amino acid sequence variants of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 50% to about 55% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 55.1 % to about 60% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1- 7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 60.1% to about 65% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 65.1 % to about 70% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 70.1% to about 75% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 75.1% to about 80% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 80.1% to about 85% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 85.1% to about 90% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 90.1% to about 95% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 95.1% to about 97% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. Variants of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 include, but are not limited to, amino acid sequences having at least from about 97.1% to about 99% identity to that of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[00117] In one embodiment invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 50 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 15 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 20 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 25 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 30 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 35 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 40 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 45 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 50 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 55 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 60 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 65 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is directed to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 10 to about 70 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[00118] The invention is further directed to polypeptide sequences having from about 50%) to about 99% identity to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 8 to about 75 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is further directed to polypeptide sequences having from about 50%> to about 99% identity to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 8 to about 80 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is further directed to polypeptide sequences having from about 50%> to about 99% identity to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 8 to about 85 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is further directed to polypeptide sequences having from about 50% to about 99% identity to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 8 to about 90 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is further directed to polypeptide sequences having from about 50%> to about 99% identity to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 8 to about 95 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is further directed to polypeptide sequences having from about 50% to about 99% identity to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 8 to about 80 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is further directed to polypeptide sequences having from about 50% to about 99% identity to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 8 to about 85 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The invention is further directed to polypeptide sequences having from about 50% to about 99% identity to a polypeptide sequence comprising from about 8 to about 110 consecutive amino acids from any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[00119] In one embodiment, the invention is directed to an isolated nucleic acid sequence comprising from about 10 to about 50 consecutive nucleotides of a nucleic acid encoding, or capable of encoding any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In another embodiment, the invention is directed to an isolated nucleic acid sequence comprising from about 10 to about 100 consecutive nucleotides of a nucleic acid encoding, or capable of encoding any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In another embodiment, the invention is directed to an isolated nucleic acid sequence comprising from about 10 to about 200 consecutive nucleotides of a nucleic acid encoding, or capable of encoding any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In another embodiment, the invention is directed to an isolated nucleic acid sequence comprising from about 10 to about 300 consecutive nucleotides of a nucleic acid encoding, or capable of encoding any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. In another embodiment, the invention is directed to an isolated nucleic acid sequence comprising from about 10 to about 320 consecutive nucleotides of a nucleic acid encoding, or capable of encoding any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

[00120] In other aspects the invention is directed to isolated nucleic acid sequences such as primers and probes, comprising nucleic acid sequences derived from of a nucleic acid encoding, or capable of encoding any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7. The isolated nucleic acids which can be used as primer and/probes are of sufficient length to allow hybridization with, i.e. formation of duplex with a corresponding target nucleic acid sequence, or a nucleic acid encoding, or capable of encoding any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7, or a variant thereof.

[00121] To be expressed, the DNA segment encoding a gene can be coupled to one or more cis acting regulatory elements that regulate the expression profile of the gene. Such regulatory elements comprise, but are not limited to, elements that promote transcription, enhance transcription, silence transcription, modulate transcription such that it is responsive to extracellular and intracellular cues, regulate stability of the encoded RNA, regulate splicing of the encoded RNA, regulate export of the encoded RNA, regulate localization of the encoded RNA, regulate translation from the encoded RNA. Also apparent to those skilled in the art is that the expression profile of a given gene in one organism is frequently a reliable indicator of the expression pattern of homo logs in phylogenetically related organisms.

[00122] Ancestor protein derivatives and analogs can be produced by various methods known in the art. The manipulations which result in their production can occur at the gene or protein level. For example, a nucleic acid encoding an ancestor protein can be modified by any of numerous strategies known in the art (see, e.g., Sambrook), such as by making conservative substitutions, deletions, insertions, and the like. The nucleic acid sequence can be cleaved at appropriate sites with restriction endonuclease(s), followed by further enzymatic modification, if desired, isolated, and ligated in vitro. In the production of nucleic acids encoding a fragment, derivative or analog of an ancestor protein, the modified nucleic acid typically remains in the proper translational reading frame, so that the reading frame is not interrupted by translational stop signals or other signals that interfere with the synthesis of the fragment, derivative or analog. The ancestral sequence nucleic acid can also be mutated in vitro or in vivo to create and/or destroy translation, initiation and/or termination sequences. The ancestral sequence-encoding nucleic acid can also be mutated to create variations in coding regions and/or to form new restriction endonuclease sites or destroy preexisting ones and to facilitate further in vitro

modification. Any technique for mutagenesis known in the art can be used, including but not limited to chemical mutagenesis, in vitro site-directed mutagenesis, and the like. In one embodiment, genes encoding the ancestral Trxs enzymes can be synthesized and codon- optimized for expression in an expression system (e.g. E. coli cells). One skilled in the art will be able generate codon-optimized variants of the nucleic acid sequences encoding the ancestral Trx proteins described herein for expression in a desired expression system..

[00123] The ancestral polypeptides described herein can be produced in a host expression system. Exemplary host expression systems include but not limited to, eukaryotic expression systems, prokaryotic expression systems, plant expression systems, animal expression systems, bacterial expression systems, yeast cell expression systems, insect cell expression systems, mammalian cell expression systems, primate cell expression systems, human cell expression systems, hamster cell expression systems, mouse cell expression systems, goat cell expression systems, sheep cell expression systems, bird cell expression systems, chicken cell expression systems, and the like. The host expression system may also be any cell line suitable for recombinant protein expression, including, but not limited to, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, mouse myeloma NS0 cells, baby hamster kidney cells (BHK), human embryo kidney 293 cells (HEK-293), human C6 cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) and Sf9 insect cells. The expression system may also be an entire organism, such as a transgenic plant or animal. For example, the expression system may be a transgenic sheep or cow that capable of expression of recombinant proteins that are secreted into the milk, or a recombinant plant capable of expressing recombinant proteins. Any suitable host system for recombinant protein expression known in the art can be used in accordance with the methods of the present invention.

[00124] Expression of nucleic acid sequences can be regulated by a second nucleic acid sequence so that the encoded nucleic acid is expressed in a host transformed with the recombinant DNA molecule. For example, expression of an ancestral sequence can be controlled by any suitable promoter/enhancer element known in the art. Suitable promoters include, for example, the SV40 early promoter region (Benoist and Chambon, Nature 290:304-10 (1981)), the promoter contained in the 3' long terminal repeat of Rous sarcoma virus (Yamamoto et al, Cell 22:787-97 (1980)), the herpes thymidine kinase promoter (Wagner et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 1441-45 (1981)), the Cytomegalovirus promoter, the translational elongation factor EF-1. alpha, promoter, the regulatory sequences of the metallothionein gene (Brinster et al., Nature 296:39-42 (1982)), prokaryotic promoters such as, for example, the .beta. -lactamase promoter (Villa-Komaroff et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:3727-31 (1978)) or the tac promoter (deBoer et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:21-25 (1983)), plant expression vectors including the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter (Gardner et al, Nucl. Acids Res. 9:2871-88 (1981)), and the promoter of the photosynthetic enzyme ribulose biphosphate carboxylase (Herrera-Estrella et al., Nature 310: 115-20 (1984)), promoter elements from yeast or other fungi such as the GAL7 and GAL4 promoters, the ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) promoter, the PGK (phosphoglycerol kinase) promoter, the alkaline phosphatase promoter, and the like.

[00125] In a specific embodiment, a vector is used that comprises a promoter operably linked to the ancestral sequence encoding nucleic acid, one or more origins of replication, and, optionally, one or more selectable markers (e.g., an antibiotic resistance gene). Suitable selectable markers include, for example, those conferring resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, neomycin, G418, and the like. An expression construct can be made, for example, by subcloning a nucleic acid encoding an ancestral sequence into a restriction site of the pRSECT expression vector. Such a construct allows for the expression of the ancestral sequence under the control of the T7 promoter with a histidine amino terminal flag sequence for affinity purification of the expressed polypeptide.

[00126] Expression systems suitable for use with the methods described herein include, but are not limited to in-vitro expression systems and in vivo expression systems. Exemplary in vitro expression systems include, but are not limited to, cell-free

transcription/translation systems (e.g. ribosome based protein expression systems). Several such systems are known in the art (see, for example, Tymms (1995) In vitro Transcription and Translation Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology Volume 37, Garland Publishing, NY).

[00127] Exemplary in vivo expression systems include, but are not limited to prokaryotic expression systems such as bacteria (e.g., E. coli and B. subtilis), yeast expression systems (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae), worm expression systems (e.g.

Caenorhabditis elegans), insect expression systems (e.g. Sf9 cells), plant expression systems, and amphibian expression systems (e.g. melanophore cells).

[00128] Manipulations of the ancestral sequence can also be made at the protein level. Included within the scope of the invention are ancestor protein fragments, derivatives or analogs that are differentially modified during or after synthesis (e.g., in vivo or in vitro translation). Such modifications include conservative substitution, glycosylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, amidation, derivatization by known protecting/blocking groups, proteolytic cleavage, linkage to an antibody molecule or other cellular ligand, and the like. Any of numerous chemical modifications can be carried out by known techniques, including, but not limited to, specific chemical cleavage (e.g., by cyanogen bromide); enzymatic cleavage (e.g., by trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, V8 protease, and the like); modification by, for example, NaBH.sub.4 acetylation, formylation, oxidation and reduction; metabolic synthesis in the presence of tunicamycin; and the like. Amino acids can be modified, for example, co-translationally or post-translationally during recombinant production (e.g., N-linked glycosylation at N-X-S/T motifs during expression in mammalian cells) or modified by synthetic means. Examples of modified amino acids suitable for use with the methods described herein include, but are not limited to, glycosylated amino acids, sulfated amino acids, prenlyated (e.g., farnesylated,

geranylgeranylated) amino acids, acetylated amino acids, PEG-ylated amino acids, biotinylated amino acids, carboxylated amino acids, phosphorylated amino acids, and the like. Exemplary protocol and additional amino acids can be found in Walker (1998) Protein Protocols on CD-ROM Human Press, Towata, N.J.

[00129] In addition, fragments, derivatives and analogs of ancestor proteins can be chemically synthesized. For example, a peptide corresponding to a portion, or fragment, of an ancestor protein, which comprises a desired domain, can be synthesized by use of chemical synthetic methods using, for example, an automated peptide synthesizer. (See also

Hunkapiller et al, Nature 310: 105-11 (1984); Stewart and Young, Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis, 2nd ed., Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, III, (1984).) Furthermore, if desired, nonclassical amino acids or chemical amino acid analogs can be introduced as a substitution or addition into the polypeptide sequence. Non-classical amino acids include, but are not limited to, the D-isomers of the common amino acids, .alpha. -amino isobutyric acid, 4- aminobutyric acid, 2-amino butyric acid, 6-amino hexanoic acid, 2-amino isobutyric acid, 3- amino propionic acid, ornithine, norleucine, norvaline, hydroxyproline, sarcosine, citrulline, cysteic acid, t-butylglycine, t-butylalanine, phenylglycine, cyclohexylalanine, .beta. -alanine, selenocysteine, fluoro-amino acids, designer amino acids such as .beta.-methyl amino acids, C .alpha.-methyl amino acids, N .alpha.-methyl amino acids, and other amino acid analogs. Furthermore, the amino acid can be D (dextrorotary) or L (levorotary).

[00130] The ancestral protein, fragment, derivative or analog can also be a chimeric, or fusion, protein-comprising an ancestor protein, fragment, derivative or analog thereof (typically consisting of at least a domain or motif of the ancestor protein, or at least 10 contiguous amino acids of the ancestor protein) joined at its amino- or carboxy-terminus via a peptide bond to an amino acid sequence of a different protein. In one embodiment, such a chimeric protein is produced by recombinant expression of nucleic acid encoding the chimeric protein. The chimeric nucleic acid can be made by ligating the appropriate nucleic acid sequences to each other in the proper reading frame and expressing the chimeric product by methods commonly known in the art. Alternatively, the chimeric protein can be made by protein synthetic techniques (e.g., by use of an automated peptide synthesizer).

[00131] The nucleic acids encoding ancestral sequences can be inserted into an appropriate expression vector (i.e., a vector which contains the necessary elements for the transcription and translation of the inserted polypeptide-coding sequence). A variety of host- vector systems can be utilized to express the polypeptide-coding sequence(s). These include, for example, mammalian cell systems infected with virus (e.g., vaccinia virus, adenovirus, sindbis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus, and the like), insect cell systems infected with virus (e.g., baculovirus), microorganisms such as yeast containing yeast vectors, or bacteria transformed with bacteriophage DNA, plasmid DNA, or cosmid DNA. The expression elements of vectors vary in their strengths and specificities. Depending on the host-vector system utilized, any one of a number of suitable transcription and translation elements can be used. In specific embodiments, the ancestral sequence is expressed in human cells, other mammalian cells, yeast or bacteria. In yet another embodiment, a fragment of an ancestral sequence comprising an immunologically active region of the sequence is expressed. In one embodiment, the ancestral genes can be cloned into a pQE80L vector and transformed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. For expression, the cells can be incubated overnight in LB medium at 37 °C and protein expression can be induced with ImM IPTG. Expressed protein can be recovered by pelleting and sonicated the cells.

[00132] Upon expression, ancestral proteins can be isolated and purified by standard methods including chromatography (e.g., ion exchange, affinity, sizing column

chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography), centrifugation, differential solubility, or by any other standard technique for the purification of proteins. In one embodiment, the ancestral proteins can be His 6-tagged. Upon recovery, the proteins can be purified by loading cell lysates onto a His GraviTrap affinity column. The purified protein can be verified by SDS-PAGE. The proteins can then loaded into PD-10 desalting column and finally dialyzed against a buffer (e.g. 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.0 buffer). [00133] Conditions for Trx enzymatic activity can vary according to the Trx enzyme because thioredoxins are in a reduced state to be active. Reduced state Trx enzymes can be generated by any method known in the art, including but not limited to the use of a complementary bacterial or eukaryotic Trx reductase (TrxR) enzyme. Where Trx enzymes are from extant sources or are resurrected enzymes, their accompanying reductases may be unknown or unavailable. In such cases small amounts of dithiothreitol (DTT) (e.g. 50-100 μΜ) or Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine HC1 (TCEP hydrochloride) can be used to maintain the enzymes in the reduced state. The amount of DTT of TCEP can be selected such that it is sufficient to maintain the enzymes in the reduced state but low enough as to not trigger the reduction of disulfide bonds by themselves. Such conditions can to be established for each individual enzyme.

[00134] Enzymes can be exceptional catalysts useful for accelerating chemical reaction rates by several orders of magnitude. The mechanisms of numerous enzymatic reactions can be studied using any number of protein biochemistry as well as structural biology approaches, including, but not limited to X-ray crystallography and NMR. Such studies can be used to identify structural features and conformational changes necessary for the catalytic activity of enzymes. Single molecule techniques can also be useful for studying enzyme dynamics in solution at the Angstrom scale. In certain aspects, single molecule techniques are useful where observation of rearrangements in the participating atoms necessary for catalysis is important. Such approaches generate data that, combined together with structural information as well as molecular dynamics simulations, can provide a more complete view of enzyme dynamics.

[00135] Several methods, some of which are based on spectrophotometry, can be used to determine the activity of Trx enzymes. Exemplary methods include, but are not limited to monitoring the oxidation of NADPH in the presence of Trx reductase or ribonucleotide reductase (Holmgren, J Biol Chem, 1979. 254(18): p. 9113-9; Holmgren, J Biol Chem, 1979. 254(19): p. 9627-32); the observation of the turbidity of solutions containing insulin, which readily aggregates after reduction of its disulfide bonds (Holmgren, J Biol Chem, 1979. 254(19): p. 9627-32) or the use of EUman's reagent (DTNB), where upon reduction by thiol groups generates products that can be easily detected with a

spectrophotometer (Holmgren, Thioredoxin. Annu Rev Biochem, 1985. 54: p. 237-71).

Changes in tryptophan fluorescence have also been used to measure rates of Trx oxidation and reduction (Holmgren, J Biol Chem, 1972. 247(7): p. 1992-8). Although effective in monitoring the overall activity of thioredoxin, these methods are not sensitive enough to probe the substrate-enzyme interactions that take place in the binding groove of the enzyme. Such methods can be important because binding grooves are common in enzymes and enzymatic reactions. In such cases, examination of the enzymatic mechanisms and/or activity can be facilitated by single molecule techniques.

[00136] Described herein is a force-clamp spectrometer built on top of a "through the lens" Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscope. This experimental setup enables the application of force to a single protein while at the same time measuring a fluorescent signal. The force-spectrometer can be either an AFM (Sarkar et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2004. 101(35): p. 12882-6), or an electromagnet (Liu et al, Biophysical Journal, 2009. 96(9): p. 3810-3821). Both of these can readily pick up and stretch a single engineered polypeptide. The design takes advantage of the stability and high spatial sensitivity of the evanescent field of the TIRF microscope. As a result of total internal reflection, an evanescent wave is formed on the surface of the microscope slide. The amplitude of the evanescent wave decays exponentially, with a space constant that can be set to be as short as ~90 nm and up to -300 nm. The evanescent wave can excite any fluorophore that enters this field, and its fluorescence can readily be measured by a high performance CCD camera. The rapidly decaying evanescent field on the surface of the microscope slide can be used either to measure displacement in the z direction or to capture single molecule fluorescence without any background emanating from the solution buffer. The combined AFM/TIRF microscope to can be used to demonstrate that a calibrated evanescent field can be used to track the mechanical unfolding of a single polypeptide with sub-nanometer resolution (Sarkar et al, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2004. 101(35): p. 12882-6). The same TIRF microscope equipped with magnetic tweezers can track the unfolding of a polypeptide at very low forces and for very long periods of time (Liu et al, Biophysical Journal, 2009. 96(9): p. 3810-3821). However, the simplest application of the AFM/TIRF microscope is in detecting fluorescence over a very short distance of a mechanically stretched protein, without interference from the bulk. This technique has been demonstrated by mechanically stretching and unfolding the protein talin, a key player in coupling the cytoskeleton of a cell to the extracellular matrix (del Rio et al., Science, 2009. 323(5914): p. 638-41). These experiments demonstrate the versatility of combining force-spectroscopy with TIRF microscopy. As described herein, this technique can be used to monitor the association/dissociation reactions of single thioredoxin enzymes as they reduce disulfide bonds in substrate proteins. Trx enzymes can be labeled while remaining active, for example, exposed lysines of Trx enzymes can be labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 fluorophore such to allow monitoring when the enzyme binds to the exposed disulfide bond. The experimental design is shown in Figure 5. This approach can be used to measure the time course of association and dissociation of fluorescently labeled thioredoxins, while simultaneously observing the reduction of the substrate and to characterize the dynamics of the enzyme-substrate interactions at the single molecule level and develop kinetic models for catalysis (Wiita, A.P., et al, Nature, 2007. 450(7166): p. 124-7).

[00137] The association and dissociation of fluorescently labeled thioredoxin enzymes can be measured while simultaneously monitoring reduction events using force- spectroscopy/TIRF instrumentation. The force dependency of association and dissociation can also be measured as can the dwell times between association and reduction. These data can be used to examine the mechanisms by which thioredoxin enzymes find their target disulfide bonds. As described herein, the single molecule AFM detection of disulfide bond reduction can be combined with simultaneous Total Internal Reflection (TIRF) detection of fluorescently labeled thioredoxin enzymes to follow them as they bind and unbind to the disulfide bond being reduced. This instrument enables real time visualization of the entire association, reduction and dissociation cycle of a single enzyme as it catalyzes the reduction of its target. The combined AFM/TIRF instrument can be used to study the search

mechanism, and to measure association and dissociation rates as a function of the mechanical force applied to the substrate.

[00138] In one aspect, the invention described herein relates to the use of single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy techniques for investigating the chemical mechanisms of catalysis of thioredoxins, a broad class of enzymes that specialize in reducing disulfide bonds and that can also function as oxidases and isomerases. Thioredoxin enzymes are present in all known organisms from bacteria to human and play crucial roles in a wide variety of cellular functions. Thioredoxins have been implicated in pathological processes such as vascular damage caused by oxidative injury, virus entry into cells, and a wide variety of immune related disorders, but also have found practical use in biotechnology.

[00139] The single molecule assay for the reduction of disulfide bonds by thioredoxin can be performed by detecting the step elongation of a protein under force, which results from the cleavage of a covalent bond (Figure 6). This scheme can be generalized to other types of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of covalent bonds such as proteases.

Proteases are a vast group of proteins that efficiently catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds (Beynon and Bond, Proteolytic enzymes: a practical approach. 2001, New York: Oxford University Press). Alterations in their physiological activities are responsible for the occurrence or exacerbation of numerous pathologies, such as cancer or inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases (Lopez-Otin and Bond, J Biol Chem, 2008. 283(45): p. 30433-7). Proteases are regarded as potential drug targets or biomarkers by the pharmaceutical industry (Turk, Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2006. 5(9): p. 785-99). Pharmacological interventions on protease activity benefit from detailed knowledge of their mechanism of catalysis (Walker and Lynas Cell Mol Life Sci, 2001. 58(4): p. 596-624). Single molecule techniques to study protease enzymes and uncover substrate dynamics during proteolysis, thereby enabling pharmacological intervention on protease activity from detailed knowledge of their mechanism of catalysis.

[00140] By applying a calibrated force the conformations of a disulfide bond substrate can be controlled, and the effect of this restriction on the activity of thioredoxin enzymes can be measured. This assay is a highly sensitive probe of the sub-Angstrom level rearrangement of the sulfur atoms at the catalytic center of Trx enzymes (Wiita, A.P., et al., Nature, 2007. 450(7166): p. 124-7). By combining this new form of spectroscopy together with structural data and molecular dynamics simulations we obtain novel insights into catalysis. These studies can be generalized and understood in relation to the structure of other enzymes to evaluate of the range of chemical mechanisms available to thioredoxin as well as other enzymes and how such mechanisms can be controlled by structural features such as binding grooves.

[00141] Single molecule assays can also be used to detect the oxidase activity of thioredoxin enzymes. For example, if the stretching force is quenched after a substrate disulfide bond has been reduced, the substrate protein folds, however the disulfide bond does not reform spontaneously. By introducing a mutant form of thioredoxin, efficient re-oxidation can be obtained during folding.

[00142] Force spectroscopy can also be used to examine other covalent bond cleaving enzymes. For example, proteases share structural features in common with thioredoxins such as a binding groove adjacent to the catalytic nucleophile. A steric-switch approach, where a bond cleavage event is translated into an easily identified stepwise elongation of the substrate protein, can be adapted to detect the activity of proteases, and study their catalytic mechanisms.

[00143] As described herein, single molecule force-spectroscopy experiments demonstrate that the application of a mechanical force to a substrate disulfide bond can regulate the catalytic activity of thioredoxin enzymes, thereby revealing distinct chemical mechanisms of reduction that can be distinguished by their sensitivity to an applied force. Thus, single molecule assay of thioredoxin catalysis provides with a novel and useful new approach to study the chemical mechanisms of catalysis in this important class of enzymes.

[00144] One advantage of the single molecule approach is that individual conformations, which can otherwise be averaged out in bulk experiments, can be observed directly and then correlated with the known structural features of the molecule. This approach can also be used for ion channels, where it was possible to provide a detailed account of the structure-function relationship for this class of membrane proteins. As described herein, single molecule assays for substrate dynamics in thioredoxin and protease catalysis can be used to study enzyme dynamics.

[00145] In single molecule force clamp spectroscopy experiments, a mechanical force is applied to a substrate protein containing a target disulfide bond, and the effect of the resulting stiffening on the rate of reduction or oxidation by thioredoxin enzymes is measured. The applied force restricts the movement of the enzymatic substrate in the binding groove of the enzyme, acting as a form of spectroscopy that can be used to investigate the types of substrate motions that occur during enzymatic catalysis. As described herein, this form of spectroscopy can be used to study the catalytic mechanisms of enzymes, including, but not limited to thioredoxin enzymes and proteases.

[00146] The application of force to a substrate disulfide bond can be used to modulate conformational dynamics in the binding groove of Trx (Figure 6), thereby regulating the catalytic activity of the enzyme (Wiita, A.P., et al., Nature, 2007. 450(7166): p. 124-7). This form of molecular spectroscopy can resolve substrate motions in the active site of the Trx enzyme with sub-Angstrom resolution. Force-spectroscopy of Trx catalysis indicates that the chemical mechanism of reduction is characterized by its rapid inhibition by a force applied to the substrate disulfide bond. When compared with other reducing agents, this chemical mechanism is specific to Trx enzymes. After binding to the enzymatic groove, the reaction occurs by rotation of the target disulfide bond against the pulling force in order to acquire the correct geometry for the S 2 chemical reaction to occur (Figure 6B). Other chemical mechanisms of reduction also operate simultaneously (Perez- Jimenez, et al., Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2009. 16(8): p. 890-U120). The force-clamp spectroscopy approach is validated by the fact that the rates of reduction extrapolated to zero force agree with those measured using spectrophotometric methods (Perez- Jimenez, et al, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2009. 16(8): p. 890-U120). Hence, force spectroscopy of Trx catalysis can be used to study the dynamics of a substrate in the binding groove of an enzyme. Indeed, the single molecule reduction assay (as shown in Figure 6A) is readily able to distinguish the chemistry of simple nucleophiles, such as cysteine and glutathione, from more elaborate pathways for the reduction of disulfide bonds, which are unique to groove based thioredoxin enzymes (Figure IE) (Wiita, A.P., et al, Nature, 2007. 450(7166): p. 124- 7; Perez- Jimenez, et al, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2009. 16(8): p. 890-U120; Ainavarapu et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2008. 130(20): p. 6479-6487). Furthermore, the force-clamp spectroscopy assay is able to combine the observation of protein folding, together with reduction-oxidation cycles.

[00147] During protein disulfide bond reduction, thioredoxin binds to the substrate in a catalytically favorable configuration (Qin et al., Structure, 1995. 3 : p. 289-297). The mechanisms by which thioredoxin finds a substrate disulfide bond can be examined by measuring the association and dissociation of single enzymes as they find and reduce a disulfide bond. Thioredoxin enzymes may find and position the two bonded sulfur atoms out of the thousands of atoms of the host protein by utilizing a "reduced dimensionality" approach (Adam and Delbruck, Structural Chemistry and Molecular Biology, ed. A. Rich and N. Davidson. 1968, New York: W. H. Freeman and Co. 198-215; von Hippel and Berg, J Biol Chem, 1989. 264(2): p. 675-8), similar to enzymes that target DNA (Gorman et al, Mol Cell, 2007. 28(3): p. 359-70; Stanford et al, Embo J, 2000. 19(23): p. 6546-57). A reduced dimensionality search consists of at least two distinct steps: a nonspecific association with the substrate macromolecule followed by some form of processivity along the coordinates of the substrate (Riggs, et al, Lac Repressor-Operator Interaction .3. Kinetic Studies. Journal of Molecular Biology, 1970. 53(3): p. 401-7).

[00148] In the case of DNA binding enzymes, the principle of reduced

dimensionality has been well established as a widespread mechanism (Halford et al., Nucleic Acids Res, 2004. 32(10): p. 3040-52). For enzymes acting on macromolecular substrates, reduced dimensionality may be important for facilitating the target search (Adam and Delbruck, Structural Chemistry and Molecular Biology, ed. A. Rich and N. Davidson. 1968, New York: W. H. Freeman and Co. 198-215; Riggs, et al, Lac Repressor-Operator

Interaction .3. Kinetic Studies. Journal of Molecular Biology, 1970. 53(3): p. 401-7; Berg and Blomberg, Biophysical Chemistry, 1978. 8(4): p. 271-280; Berg et al, Biochemistry, 1981. 20(24): p. 6929-6948; von Hippel and Berg, J Biol Chem, 1989. 264(2): p. 675-8). In the case of Trx enzymes, Trx enzymes may first bind to a substrate and then diffusing along the extended polypeptide until finding the disulfide bond. The polypeptide stays loosely bound to the enzymatic groove, and slides randomly towards the disulfide. The simplest expression for the mean time to target is given by (Λ « ' s 1 , where D is the diffusion coefficient for the

1 2D

enzyme sliding along the polypeptide and dsi is the sliding distance between the place where Trx was first bound to the polypeptide and the exposed disulfide bond (Figure 7). This simple scenario can be examined by directly measuring the distribution of dwell times between binding and reduction. The time to target can depend on the square of the sliding distance dsi, which we will vary using protein engineering (Stanford et al, Embo Journal, 2000. 19(23): p. 6546-6557; Halford et al, Nucleic Acids Research, 2004. 32(10): p. 3040-3052).

[00149] Although several different ancestral Trx polypeptides are described herein, one of skill in the art will recognize that other types of ancestral polypeptides can also be produced using the methods described herein. Ancestral sequences can be generated for any polypeptide using the methods described herein, including, but not limited to therapeutic proteins and proteins susceptible to industrial use.

[00150] The stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature can be modified according to the methods described herein. Polypeptides having increased stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature that can be produced according to the methods described herein can be from any source or origin and can include a polypeptide found in prokaryotes, viruses, and eukaryotes, including fungi, plants, yeasts, insects, and animals, including mammals (e.g. humans). Polypeptides having increased stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature that can be produced according to the methods described herein include, but are not limited to any polypeptide sequences, known or hypothetical or unknown, which can be identified using common sequence repositories. Example of such sequence repositories include, but are not limited to GenBank EMBL, DDBJ and the NCBI. Other repositories can easily be identified by searching on the internet. Polypeptides that can be produced using the methods described herein also include polypeptides have at least about 60%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 90%, 95%, or at least about 99% or more identity to any known or available polypeptide (e.g., a therapeutic polypeptide, a diagnostic polypeptide, an industrial enzyme, or portion thereof, and the like).

[00151] Polypeptides having increased stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature that can be produced according to the methods described herein also include polypeptides comprising one or more non-natural amino acids. As used herein, a non-natural amino acid can be, but is not limited to, an amino acid comprising a moiety where a chemical moiety is attached, such as an aldehyde- or keto-derivatized amino acid, or a non-natural amino acid that includes a chemical moiety. A non-natural amino acid can also be an amino acid comprising a moiety where a saccharide moiety can be attached, or an amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety.

[00152] Polypeptides having increased stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature can also comprise peptide derivatives (for example, that contain one or more non-naturally occurring amino acids). In specific embodiments, the library members contain one or more non-natural or non-classical amino acids or cyclic peptides. Non-classical amino acids include but are not limited to the D-isomers of the common amino acids, -amino isobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, Abu, 2-amino butyric acid;. -Abu, -Ahx, 6-amino hexanoic acid; Aib, 2-amino isobutyric acid; 3-amino propionic acid; ornithine; norleucine; norvaline, hydroxyproline, sarcosine, citrulline, cysteic acid, t- butylglycine, t-butylalanine, phenylglycine, cyclohexylalanine, .beta.-alanine, designer amino acids such as .beta.-methyl amino acids, C-methyl amino acids, N-methyl amino acids, fluoro-amino acids and amino acid analogs in general. Furthermore, the amino acid can be D (dextrorotary) or L (levorotary).

[00153] Also inclusive are derivative polypeptides having an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of a polypeptide of SEQ ID NOs: 1-7 and which has been acetylated, carboxylated, phosphorylated, glycosylated, ubiquitinated or other post- translational modifications. In another embodiment, the derivative has been labeled with,

125 32 35 3

e.g., radioactive isotopes such as I, P, S, and H. In another embodiment, the derivative has been labeled with fluorophores, chemiluminescent agents, enzymes, and antiligands that can serve as specific binding pair members for a labeled ligand.

[00154] Polypeptide modifications are well known to those of skill and have been described in detail in the scientific literature. Several common modifications, such as glycosylation, lipid attachment, sulfation, gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues, hydroxylation and ADP-ribosylation, for instance, are described in most basic texts, such as, for instance Creighton, Protein Structure and Molecular Properties, 2nd ed., W. H. Freeman and Company (1993). Many detailed reviews are available on this subject, such as, for example, those provided by Wold, in Johnson (ed.), Posttranslational Covalent Modification of Proteins, pgs. 1-12, Academic Press (1983); Seifter et al, Meth. Enzymol. 182: 626-646 (1990) and Rattan et al, Ann. N. Y Acad. Sci. 663: 48-62 (1992).

[00155] One can determine whether a polypeptide of the invention will be post- translationally modified by analyzing the sequence of the polypeptide to determine if there are peptide motifs indicative of sites for post-translational modification. There are a number of computer programs that permit prediction of post-translational modifications. See, e.g., expasy with the extension .org of the world wide web (accessed Nov. 11 , 2002), which includes PSORT, for prediction of protein sorting signals and localization sites, SignalP, for prediction of signal peptide cleavage sites, MITOPROT and Predotar, for prediction of mitochondrial targeting sequences, NetOGlyc, for prediction of type O-glycosylation sites in mammalian proteins, big-PI Predictor and DGPI, for prediction of prenylation-anchor and cleavage sites, and NetPhos, for prediction of Ser, Thr and Tyr phosphorylation sites in eukaryotic proteins. Other computer programs, such as those included in GCG, also can be used to determine post-translational modification peptide motifs.

[00156] Examples of types of post-translational modifications include, but are not limited to: (Z)-dehydrobutyrine; 1-chondroitin sulfate-L-aspartic acid ester; l'-glycosyl-L- tryptophan; Γ-phospho-L-histidine; 1-thioglycine; 2'-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-histidine; 2'-[3- carboxamido (trimethylammonio)propyl]-L-histidine; 2'-alpha-mannosyl-L-tryptophan; 2- methyl-L-glutamine; 2-oxobutanoic acid; 2-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid; 3'-(l'-L-histidyl)-L- tyrosine; 3'-(8alpha-FAD)-L-histidine; 3'-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-tyrosine; 3', 3", 5'-triiodo-L- thyronine; 3'-4'-phospho-L-tyrosine; 3-hydroxy-L-proline; 3'-methyl-L-histidine; 3-methyl-L- lanthionine; 3'-phospho-L-histidine; 4'-(L-tryptophan)-L-tryptophyl quinone; 42 N-cysteinyl- glycosylphosphatidylinositolethanolamine; 43-(T-L-histidyl)-L-tyrosine; 4-hydroxy-L- arginine; 4-hydroxy-L-lysine; 4-hydroxy-L-proline; 5'-(N6-L-lysine)-L-topaquinone; 5- hydroxy-L-lysine; 5-methyl-L-arginine; alpha- 1-microglobulin-Ig alpha complex

chromophore; bis-L-cysteinyl bis-L-histidino diiron disulfide; bis-L-cysteinyl-L-N3'- histidino-L-serinyl tetrairon' tetrasulfide; chondroitin sulfate D-glucuronyl-D-galactosyl-D- galactosyl-D-xylosyl-L-serine; D-alanine; D-allo-isoleucine; D-asparagine; dehydroalanine; dehydrotyrosine; dermatan 4-sulfate D-glucuronyl-D-galactosyl-D-galactosyl-D-xylosyl-L- serine; D-glucuronyl-N-glycine; dipyrrolylmethanemethyl-L-cysteine; D-leucine; D- methionine; D-phenylalanine; D-serine; D-tryptophan; glycine amide; glycine

oxazolecarboxylic acid; glycine thiazolecarboxylic acid; heme P450-bis-L-cysteine-L- tyrosine; heme-bis-L-cysteine; hemediol-L-aspartyl ester-L-glutamyl ester; hemediol-L- aspartyl ester-L-glutamyl ester-L-methionine sulfonium; heme-L-cysteine; heme-L-histidine; heparan sulfate D-glucuronyl-D-galactosyl-D-galactosyl-D-xylosyl-L-serine; heme P450-bis- L-cysteine-L-lysine; hexakis-L-cysteinyl hexairon hexasulfide; keratan sulfate D-glucuronyl- D-galactosyl-D-galactosyl-D-xylosyl-L-threonine; L oxoalanine- lactic acid; L phenyllactic acid; l'-(8alpha-FAD)-L-histidine; L-2'.4',5'-topaquinone; L-3',4'-dihydroxyphenylalanine; L- 3'.4'.5'-trihydroxyphenylalanine; L-4'-bromophenylalanine; L-6'-bromotryptophan; L-alanine amide; L-alanyl imidazolinone glycine; L-allysine; L-arginine amide; L-asparagine amide; L- aspartic 4-phosphoric anhydride; L-aspartic acid 1 -amide; L-beta-methylthioaspartic acid; L- bromohistidine; L-citrulline; L-cysteine amide; L-cysteine glutathione disulfide; L-cysteine methyl disulfide; L-cysteine methyl ester; L-cysteine oxazolecarboxylic acid; L-cysteine oxazolinecarboxylic acid; L-cysteine persulfide; L-cysteine sulfenic acid; L-cysteine sulfinic acid; L-cysteine thiazolecarboxylic acid; L-cysteinyl homocitryl molybdenum-heptairon- nonasulfide; L-cysteinyl imidazolinone glycine; L-cysteinyl molybdopterin; L-cysteinyl molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide; L-cystine; L-erythro-beta-hydroxyasparagine; L- erythro-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid; L-gamma-carboxyglutarnic acid; L-glutamic acid 1- amide; L-glutamic acid 5 -methyl ester; L-glutamine amide; L-glutamyl 5- glycerylphosphorylethanolarnine; L-histidine amide; L-isoglutamyl-polyglutamic acid; L- isoglutamyl-polyglycine; L-isoleucine amide; L-lanthionine; L-leucine amide; L-lysine amide; L-lysine thiazolecarboxylic acid; L-lysinoalanine; L-methionine amide; L-methionine sulfone; L-phenyalanine thiazolecarboxylic acid; L-phenylalanine amide; L-proline amide; L- selenocysteine; L-selenocysteinyl molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide; L-serine amide; L- serine thiazolecarboxylic acid; L-seryl imidazolinone glycine; L-T-bromophenylalanine; L-T- bromophenylalanine; L-threonine amide; L-thyroxine; L-tryptophan amide; L-tryptophyl quinone; L-tyrosine amide; L-valine amide; meso-lanthionine; N-(L-glutamyl)-L-tyrosine; N- (L-isoaspartyl)-glycine; N-(L-isoaspartyl)-L-cysteine; N,N,N-trimethyl-L-alanine; N,N- dimethyl-L-proline; N2-acetyl-L-lysine; N2-succinyl-L-tryptophan; N4-(ADP-ribosyl)-L- asparagine; N4-glycosyl-L-asparagine; N4-hydroxymethyl-L-asparagine; N4-methyl-L- asparagine; N5-methyl-L-glutamine; N6-l-carboxyethyl-L-lysine; N6-(4-amino

hydroxybutyl)-L-lysine; N6-(L-isoglutamyl)-L-lysine; N6-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-lysine; N6-(phospho-5'-guanosine)-L-lysine; N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine; N6,N6-dimethyl-L- lysine; N6-acetyl-L-lysine; N6-biotinyl-L-lysine; N6-carboxy-L-lysine; N6-formyl-L-lysine; N6-glycyl-L-lysine; N6-lipoyl-L-lysine; N6-methyl-L-lysine; N6-methyl-N6-poly(N-methyl- propylamine)-L-lysine; N6-mureinyl-L-lysine; N6-myristoyl-L-lysine; N6-palmitoyl-L- lysine; N6-pyridoxal phosphate-L-lysine; N6-pyruvic acid 2-iminyl-L-lysine; N6-retinal-L- lysine; N-acetylglycine; N-acetyl-L-glutamine; N-acetyl-L-alanine; N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid; N-acetyl-L-cysteine; N-acetyl-L-glutamic acid; N-acetyl-L-isoleucine; N-acetyl-L- methionine; N-acetyl-L-proline; N-acetyl-L-serine; N-acetyl-L-threonine; N-acetyl-L- tyrosine; N-acetyl-L-valine; N-alanyl-glycosylphosphatidylinositolethanolamine; N- asparaginyl-glycosylphosphatidylinositolethanolamine; N-aspartyl- glycosylphosphatidylinositolethanolamine; N-formylglycine; N-formyl-L-methionine; N- glycyl-glycosylphosphatidylinositolethanolamine; N-L-glutamyl-poly-L-glutamic acid; N- methylglycine; N-methyl-L-alanine; N-methyl-L-methionine; N-methyl-L-phenylalanine; N- myristoyl-glycine; N-palmitoyl-L-cysteine; N-pyruvic acid 2-iminyl-L-cysteine; N-pyruvic acid 2-iminyl-L-valine; N-seryl-glycosylphosphatidylinositolethanolamine; N-seryl- glycosyOSPhingolipidinositolethanolamine; 0-(ADP-ribosyl)-L-serine; 0-(phospho-5'- adenosine)-L-threonine; 0-(phospho-5'-DNA)-L-serine; 0-(phospho-5'-DNA)-L-threonine; 0-(phospho-5'rRNA)-L-serine; 0-(phosphoribosyl dephospho-coenzyme A)-L-serine; 0-(sn- 1 -glycerophosphoryl)-L-serine; 04'-(8alpha-FAD)-L-tyrosine; 04'-(phospho-5'-adenosine)- L-tyrosine; 04'-(phospho-5'-DNA)-L-tyrosine; 04'-(phospho-5'-RNA)-L-tyrosine; 04'- (phospho-5'-uridine)-L-tyrosine; 04-glycosyl-L-hydroxyproline; 04'-glycosyl-L-tyrosine; 04'-sulfo-L-tyrosine; 05-glycosyl-L-hydroxylysine; O-glycosyl-L-serine; O-glycosyl-L- threonine; omega-N-(ADP-ribosyl)-L-arginine; omega-N-omega-N'-dimethyl-L-arginine; omega-N-methyl-L-arginine; omega-N-omega-N-dimethyl-L-arginine; omega-N-phospho-L- arginine; O'octanoyl-L-serine; O-palmitoyl-L-serine; O-palmitoyl-L-threonine; O-phospho-L- serine; O-phospho-L-threonine; O-phosphopantetheine-L-serine; phycoerythrobilin-bis-L- cysteine; phycourobilin-bis-L-cysteine; pyrroloquinoline quinone; pyruvic acid; S hydroxycinnamyl-L-cysteine; S-(2-aminovinyl)methyl-D-cysteine; S-(2-aminovinyl)-D- cysteine; S-(6-FW-L-cysteine; S-(8alpha-FAD)-L-cysteine; S-(ADP-ribosyl)-L-cysteine; S- (L-isoglutamyl)-L-cysteine; S-12-hydroxyfamesyl-L-cysteine; S-acetyl-L-cysteine; S- diacylglycerol-L-cysteine; S-diphytanylglycerot diether-L-cysteine; S-famesyl-L-cysteine; S- geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine; S-glycosyl-L-cysteine; S-glycyl-L-cysteine; S-methyl-L-cysteine; S-nitrosyl-L-cysteine; S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine; S-phospho-L-cysteine; S-phycobiliviolin-L- cysteine; S-phycocyanobilin-L-cysteine; S-phycoerythrobilin-L-cysteine; S- phytochromobilin-L-cysteine; S-selenyl-L-cysteine; S-sulfo-L-cysteine; tetrakis-L-cysteinyl diiron disulfide; tetrakis-L-cysteinyl iron; tetrakis-L-cysteinyl tetrairon tetrasulfide; trans-2,3- cis 4-dihydroxy-L-proline; tris-L-cysteinyl triiron tetrasulfide; tris-L-cysteinyl triiron trisulfide; tris-L-cysteinyl-L-aspartato tetrairon tetrasulfide; tris-L-cysteinyl-L-cysteine persulfido-bis-L-glutamato-L-histidino tetrairon disulfide trioxide; tris-L-cysteinyl-L-N3'- histidino tetrairon tetrasulfide; tris-L-cysteinyl-L-NM'-histidino tetrairon tetrasulfide; and tris-L-cysteinyl-L-serinyl tetrairon tetrasulfide.

[00157] Additional examples of post translational modifictions can be found in web sites such as the Delta Mass database based on Krishna, R. G. and F. Wold (1998).

Posttranslational Modifications. Proteins—Analysis and Design. R. H. Angeletti. San Diego, Academic Press. 1 : 121-206.; Methods in Enzymo logy, 193, J. A. McClosky (ed) (1990), pages 647-660; Methods in Protein Sequence Analysis edited by Kazutomo Imahori and Fumio Sakiyama, Plenum Press, (1993) "Post-translational modifications of proteins" R. G. Krishna and F. Wold pages 167-172; "GlycoSuiteDB: a new curated relational database of glycoprotein glycan structures and their biological sources" Cooper et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 29; 332-335 (2001) "O-GLYCBASE version 4.0: a revised database of O-glycosylated proteins" Gupta et al. Nucleic Acids Research, 27: 370-372 (1999); and "PhosphoBase, a database of phosphorylation sites: release 2.O.", Kreegipuu et al. Nucleic Acids Res

27(l):237-239 (1999) see also, WO 02/21 1 39A2, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00158] Exemplary polypeptides having increased stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature that can be produced according to the methods described herein include but are not limited to, cytokines, inflammatory molecules, growth factors, their receptors, and oncogene products or portions thereof. Examples of cytokines, inflammatory molecules, growth factors, their receptors, and oncogene products include, but are not limited to e.g., alpha-1 antitrypsin, Angiostatin, Antihemolytic factor, antibodies (including an antibody or a functional fragment or derivative thereof selected from: Fab, Fab', F(ab)2, Fd, Fv, ScFv, diabody, tribody, tetrabody, dimer, trimer or minibody), angiogenic molecules, angiostatic molecules, Apolipopolypeptide, Apopolypeptide, Asparaginase, Adenosine deaminase, Atrial natriuretic factor, Atrial natriuretic polypeptide, Atrial peptides, Angiotensin family members, Bone Morphogenic Polypeptide (BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-8a, BMP-8b, BMP-10, BMP-15, etc.); C-X-C chemokines (e.g., T39765, NAP-2, ENA-78, Gro-a, Gro-b, Gro-c, IP-10, GCP-2, NAP-4, SDF-1, PF4, MIG), Calcitonin, CC chemokines (e.g., Monocyte chemoattractant polypeptide- 1, Monocyte chemoattractant polypeptide-2, Monocyte chemoattractant polypeptide-3, Monocyte inflammatory polypeptide- 1 alpha, Monocyte inflammatory polypeptide- 1 beta, RANTES, 1309, R83915, R91733, HCC1, T58847, D31065, T64262), CD40 ligand, C-kit Ligand, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor, Collagen, Colony stimulating factor (CSF),

Complement factor 5a, Complement inhibitor, Complement receptor 1, cytokines, (e.g., epithelial Neutrophil Activating Peptide-78, GRO alpha/MGSA, GRO beta , GRO gamma , MIP-1 alpha , MIP-1 delta, MCP-1), deoxyribonucleic acids, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Erythropoietin ("EPO", representing a preferred target for modification by the incorporation of one or more non-natural amino acid), Exfoliating toxins A and B, Factor IX, Factor VII, Factor VIII, Factor X, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Fibrinogen, Fibronectin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, Glucocerebrosidase, Gonadotropin, growth factors, Hedgehog

polypeptides (e.g., Sonic, Indian, Desert), Hemoglobin, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), Hepatitis viruses, Hirudin, Human serum albumin, Hyalurin-CD44, Insulin, Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF -I, IGF -II), interferons (e.g., interferon-alpha, interferon-beta, interferon- gamma, interferon-epsilon, interferon-zeta, interferon-eta, interferon-kappa, interferon- lambda, interferon-T, interferon-zeta, interferon-omega), glucagon- like peptide (GLP-1), GLP-2, GLP receptors, glucagon, other agonists of the GLP-1 R, natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, and CNP), Fuzeon and other inhibitors of HIV fusion, Hurudin and related

anticoagulant peptides, Prokineticins and related agonists including analogs of black mamba snake venom, TRAIL, RANK ligand and its antagonists, calcitonin, amylin and other glucoregulatory peptide hormones, and Fc fragments, exendins (including exendin-4), exendin receptors, interleukins (e.g., IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL- 10, IL-11, IL-12, etc.), I-CAM-l/LFA-1, Keratinocyte Growth Factor (KGF), Lactoferrin, leukemia inhibitory factor, Luciferase, Neurturin, Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF), oncostatin M, Osteogenic polypeptide, Parathyroid hormone, PD-ECSF, PDGF, peptide hormones (e.g., Human Growth Hormone), Oncogene products (Mos, Rel, Ras, Raf, Met, etc.), Pleiotropin, Polypeptide A, Polypeptide G, Pyrogenic exotoxins A, B, and C, Relaxin, Renin, ribonucleic acids, SCF/c-kit, Signal transcriptional activators and suppressors (p53, Tat, Fos, Myc, Jun, Myb, etc.), Soluble complement receptor 1, Soluble I-CAM 1, Soluble interleukin receptors (IL-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15), soluble adhesion molecules, Soluble TNF receptor, Somatomedin, Somatostatin, Somatotropin, Streptokinase, Superantigens, i.e., Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC1, SEC2, SEC3, SED, SEE), Steroid hormone receptors (such as those for estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, aldosterone, LDL receptor ligand and corticosterone), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Toll-like receptors (such as Flagellin), Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1), Thymosin a 1, Tissue plasminogen activator, transforming growth factor (TGF- alpha, TGF- beta), Tumor necrosis factor beta (TNF beta), Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), Tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF alpha), transcriptional modulators (for example, genes and transcriptional modular polypeptides that regulate cell growth, differentiation and/or cell regulation), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), virus-like particle, VLA-4/VCAM-1,

Urokinase, signal transduction molecules, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, aldosterone, LDL, corticosterone.

[00159] Additional polypeptides having increased stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature that can be produced according to the methods described herein include but are not limited to enzymes (e.g., industrial enzymes) or portions thereof. Examples of enzymes include, but are not limited to amidases, amino acid racemases, acylases, dehalogenases, dioxygenases, diarylpropane peroxidases, epimerases, epoxide hydrolases, esterases, isomerases, kinases, glucose isomerases, glycosidases, glycosyl transferases, haloperoxidases, monooxygenases (e.g., p450s), lipases, lignin peroxidases, nitrile hydratases, nitrilases, proteases, phosphatases, subtilisins, transaminase, and nucleases.

[00160] Other polypeptides having increased stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature that can be produced according to the methods described herein include, but are not limited to, agriculturally related polypeptides such as insect resistance polypeptides (e.g., Cry polypeptides), starch and lipid production enzymes, plant and insect toxins, toxin-resistance polypeptides, Mycotoxin detoxification polypeptides, plant growth enzymes (e.g., Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase),

lipoxygenase, and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.

[00161] Polypeptides having increased stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature that can be produced according to the methods described herein include, but are not limited to, antibodies, immunoglobulin domains of antibodies and their fragments. Examples of antibodies include, but are not limited to antibodies, antibody fragments, antibody derivatives, Fab fragments, Fab' fragments, F(ab)2 fragments, Fd fragments, Fv fragments, single-chain Fv fragments (scFv), diabodies, tribodies, tetrabodies, dimers, trimers, and minibodies.

[00162] In another embodiment, the invention is directed to a composition comprising a recombinant polypeptide having increased stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature produced according to the methods described herein, and an additional component selected from the group consisting of pharmaceutically acceptable diluents, carriers, excipients and adjuvants.

[00163] Polypeptides having increased stability and/or activity of any polypeptide at low pH or elevated temperature that can be produced according to the methods described herein can also further comprise a chemical moiety selected from the group consisting of: cytotoxins, pharmaceutical drugs, dyes or fluorescent labels, a nucleophilic or electrophilic group, a ketone or aldehyde, azide or alkyne compounds, photocaged groups, tags, a peptide, a polypeptide, a polypeptide, an oligosaccharide, polyethylene glycol with any molecular weight and in any geometry, polyvinyl alcohol, metals, metal complexes, polyamines, imidizoles, carbohydrates, lipids, biopolymers, particles, solid supports, a polymer, a targeting agent, an affinity group, any agent to which a complementary reactive chemical group can be attached, biophysical or biochemical probes, isotypically-labeled probes, spin- label amino acids, fluorophores, aryl iodides and bromides.

[00164] In some embodiments, the present invention involves mutating nucleotide sequences to add/create or remove/disrupt sequences. Such mutations can me made using any suitable mutagenesis method known in the art, including, but not limited to, site-directed mutagenesis, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, positive antibiotic selection methods, unique restriction site elimination (USE), deoxyuridine incorporation, phosphorothioate incorporation, and PCR-based mutagenesis methods. Details of such methods can be found in, for example, Lewis et al. (1990) Nucl. Acids Res. 18, p3439; Bohnsack et al. (1996) Meth. Mol. Biol. 57, pi; Vavra et al. (1996) Promega Notes 58, 30; Altered SitesII in vitro

Mutagenesis Systems Technical Manual #TM001, Promega Corporation; Deng et al.. (1992) Anal. Biochem. 200, p81; Kunkel et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, p488; Kunke et al. (1987) Meth. Enzymol. 154, p367; Taylor et al. (1985) Nucl. Acids Res. 13, p8764; Nakamaye et al. (1986) Nucl. Acids Res. 14, p9679; Higuchi et al. (1988) Nucl. Acids Res. 16, p7351; Shimada et al. (1996) Meth. Mol. Biol. 57, pl57; Ho et al. (1989) Gene 77, p51; Horton et al. (1989) Gene 77, p61; and Sarkar et al. (1990) BioTechniques 8, p404.

Numerous kits for performing site-directed mutagenesis are commercially available, such as the QuikChange II Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit and the Altered Sites II in vitro

mutagenesis system. Such commercially available kits may also be used to optimize sequences. Other techniques that can be used to generate modified nucleic acid sequences are well known to those of skill in the art. See for example Sambrook et al. (2001) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 3rd Ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y

[00165] The following examples illustrate the present invention, and are set forth to aid in the understanding of the invention, and should not be construed to limit in any way the scope of the invention as defined in the claims which follow thereafter.

[00166] EXAMPLES

[00167] Example 1: Paleoenzymology at the single-molecule level: probing the chemistry of resurrected enzymes

[00168] A highly articulated phylogenetic tree encompassing over 200 diverse Trx sequences from the three domains of life was constructed (Fig. 8). Several biologically relevant nodes for sequence reconstruction and laboratory resurrection were sampled from this tree. Divergence dates estimates were applied to nodes in the tree assuming the root of the tree lies between bacteria and the common ancestor of archaea/eukaryotes (Hedges and Kumar, The Timetree of life, xxi, 551 p. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009)). In particular, Trx enzymes belonging to the last bacterial common ancestor (LBCA in Fig. 9), the last archaeal common ancestor (LAC A) and the archaeal/eukaryotic common ancestor (AECA) (Fig. 9) were resurrected. These organisms are thought to have inhabited Earth 4.2- 3.5 Gyr ago (Fig. 9 A) after diverging from the last universal common ancestor (LUC A) (Boussau et al, Nature 456, 942-5 (2008); Hedges and Kumar, The Timetree of life, xxi, 551 p. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009)). A node corresponding to the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that lived in the Proterozoic, -1.60 Gyr ago was also selected. Two other internal nodes in the bacterial lineages were selected; the last common ancestor of cyanobacterial and deinococcus/thermus groups (LPBCA) which existed -2.50 Gyr ago and represents the origin of photosynthetic bacteria, and the last common ancestor of γ- proteobacteria, -1.61 Gyr old (LGPCA). Finally, the last common ancestor of animals and fungi (LAFCA) that lived -1.37 Gyr ago (Fig. 9A) was also chosen.

[00169] The sequences of the ancestral Trx enzymes were reconstructed using statistical methods based on maximum likelihood (Liberies, Ancestral sequence

reconstruction, xiii, 252 p. (Oxford University Press, Oxford ; New York, 2007; Gaucher et al, Nature 425, 285-8 (2003)). For a given node in the tree, the posterior probability values for all 20 amino acids were calculated considering each site of the inferred sequence. These values represent the probability that a certain residue occupied a specific position in the sequence at a particular point in the phylogeny. The posterior probabilities were calculated on the basis of an amino acid replacement matrix (Yang et al., Genetics 141, 1641-50 (1995)). The most probabilistic ancestral sequence (M-PAS) at a specific node was then reconstructed by assigning to each site the residue with the highest posterior probability. Fig. 9B shows the posterior probability distribution of the inferred amino acids across 106 sites for the selected sequences. The M-PASs of interest are summarized in Fig. 10. The genes encoding these sequences were synthesized and the proteins were expressed and purified from E. coli cells.

[00170] Table 1

[00171] List of Thioredoxin sequences used for ancestral sequences reconstruction. The following GI numbers were accessed from GenBank. The names of the hosting organisms are also provided:

57164261 1620905 15894825 15807833

Ovis Fagopyrum Clostridium Deinococcus

27806783 46226985 15896334 46199687

Bos Cryptosporidium Clostridium Thermus

47523692 68350806 20807685 15805968

Sus Theileria Thermoanaerobacter Deinococcus

126352340 148804689 76789276 147669275

Equus Plasmodium Chlamydia Dehalococcoides

6755911 11498883 15836191 118047160

Mus Archaeoglobus Chlamydophila Chloroflexus

16758644 116754023 119357517 118048687

Rattus Methanosaeta Chlorobium Chloroflexus

146291083 91773622 119357012 118046691

Rabbit Methanococcoides Chlorobium Chloroflexus 135773 154149646 29345629 15606934

Human Candidatus Bacteroides Aquifex

67461921 88603734 150024368 42521808

Ponab Methano spirillum Flavobacterium Bdellovibrio

267126 48477193 34539910 39998535

Macmu Picrophilus Porphyromonas Geobacter

13560979 150401020 29347639 42523902

Callithrix Methanococcus Bacteroides Bdellovibrio

126339826 124485138 29346087 120602368

Monodelphis Methanocorpusculum Bacteroides Desulfovibrio

149412981 116754438 34540117 39998370

Ornithorhynchus Methanosaeta Porphyromonas Geobacter

45382053 76802488 29346866 116619824

Gallus Natronomonas Bacteroides Solibacter

29373131 110667588 29345628 116619449

Melopsittacus Haloquadratum Bacteroides Solibacter

12958636 55380304 32477354 94970094

Ophiophagus Haloarcula Rhodopirellula Acidobacteria

194332745 76802694 32476401 34556879

Xenopus Natronomonas Rhodopirellula Wolinella

47215756 16120325 15608608 15645443

Tetraodon Halobacterium Mycobacterium Helicobacter

9837585 11499727 57116870 57237155

Ictalurus Archaeoglobus Mycobacterium Campylobacter

50539990 13541608 62391823 15646067

Danio Thermoplasma Corynebacterium Helicobacter

194160556 119720035 72163169 34557886

Drosophila Thermofilum Thermobifida Wolinella

17648013 159040636 21219405 34556999

Drosophila Caldivirga Streptomyces Wolinella

194141429 70607552 72160576 159184127

Drosophila Sulfolobus Thermobifida Agrobacterium

48104680 15899007 15607956 150398433

Apis Sulfolobus Mycobacterium Sinorhizobium

91084205 15922449 21219599 17988305

Tribolium Sulfolobus Streptomyces Brucella

148298796 124027987 62391938 15603883

Bombyx Hyperthermus Corynebacterium Rickettsia

90819972 118431868 21223797 108935910

Graphocephala Aeropyrum Streptomyces Bovin Mitochondrio

169639275 146304377 15611050 194226778

Litopenaeus Metallosphaera Mycobacterium Equus

30580603 70607229 72163508 21361403

Geocy Sulfolobus Thermobifida Homo Mitochondrion

115401922 15897303 21222296 16758038

Aspergillus Sulfolobus Streptomyces Rattus Mitochondrio

119479067 126465005 16329883 9903609

Neosartorya Staphylothermus Synechocystis Mus Mitochondrion

40746887 118431901 17229833 74318624

Aspergillus Aeropyrum Nostoc Thiobacillus

115401518 15894111 17229385 121635072

Aspergillus Clostridium Nostoc Neisseria 150951554 20808289 16331440 74316054

Pichia Thermoanaerobacter Synechocystis Thiobacillus

46441186 16079205 22299829 126454139

Candida Bacillus Thermosynechococcus Burkholderia

126213085 16077522 22297898 33602206

Pichia Bacillus Thermosynechococcus Bordetella

50309357 15901736 16329237 74318419

Kluyveromyces Streptococcus Synechocystis Thiobacillus

151943486 29377495 22299630 74316241

Saccharomyces Enterococcus Thermosynechococcus Thiobacillus

50291653 153181008 17229697 33602001

Candida Listeria Nostoc Bordetella

151941211 28377165 17229859 66043570

Saccharomyces Lactobacillus Nostoc Pseudomonas

19114764 28379765 22298354 27364380

Schizosaccharomyces Lactobacillus Thermosynechococcus Vibrio

167537844 150393692 17229358 16124003

Monosiga Staphylococcus Nostoc Yersinia

67479051 138896249 126696505 16767191

Entamoeba Geobacillus Prochlorococcus Salmonella

165988451 30264587 16331825 30064924

Dictyostelium Bacillus Synechocystis Shigella

15236327 16079902 17227548 67005950

Arabidopsis Bacillus Nostocl Escherichia

15232567 28378864 1351239 16130507

Arabidopsis Lactobacillus Pea Chloroplast Escherichia

154721452 153179313 2507458 30063983

Limonium Listeria Spiol Chloroplast Shigella

162461510 29375972 11135474 16765969

Zea Enterococcus Wheat Chloroplast Salmonella

157335070 15901605 15594012 16123427

Vitis Streptococcus Pisum Chloroplast Yersinia

145351136 110798962 11135407 27366792

Ostreococcus Clostridium Brana Chloroplast Vibrio

53801490 110800418 46199419

Helicosporidium Clostridium Thermus

[00172] Thermal stability of ancient Trx enzymes

[00173] As a first step toward investigating the physico-chemical properties of these resurrected enzymes, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure their thermal stabilities. The denaturation temperature (Tm) can provide an idea about the temperature range in which the proteins are operative. Fig. 9C shows a plot of the Tm of the resurrected enzymes against geological time. A Tm of -113 °C was measured for LBCA, AECA and LACA Trx. As observed in Fig. 9C (inset), LBCA Trx maintains a highly populated native state up to -105 °C, where the thermal transition begins. By contrast, a Tm for modern E. coli and human Trxs of 88.8 and 93.3 °C respectively, was determined. The ATm between the oldest and modern Trx is ~25 °C, a similar value than that determined for bacterial EF (Gaucher et al, Nature 451, 704-7 (2008)), which corroborates the hypothesis of the thermophilic nature of LBCA, AECA and LACA (Boussau et al., Nature 456, 942-5 (2008)). In Fig. 9C shows a paleotemperature trend yielding a decrease in the Tm of 5.8 ±1.8 K/Gyr. These results show that, in early life, Trx enzymes functioned in hot environments and that these environments have progressively cooled from 4 to 0.5 Gyr ago (Nisbet and Sleep, Nature 409, 1083-91 (2001); Gaucher et al, Nature 451, 704-7 (2008); Knauth and Lowe, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 115, 566-580 (2003); Schulte, M. The Emergence of Life on Earth. Oceanography 20, 42-49 (2007)). Although the thermodynamic denaturation temperatures determined for the ancestral Trxs follow a similar cooling trend that the ancient oceans, the actual values are about 50 degrees higher than the ocean temperatures inferred from maximum δ180 (Gaucher et al, Nature 451, 704-7 (2008)). Accordingly, Trx evolution may operate primarily on kinetic stability and this could be reflected in thermodynamic stability (Godoy-Ruiz et al, JMol Biol 362, 966-78 (2006)). However, other than loss of function upon denaturation, the particular way in which the value of Tm is related to Trx enzyme fitness is still unknown.

[00174] Force-dependent chemical kinetics of disulfide reduction

[00175] It is also of great interest to examine the chemical mechanisms of disulfide bond reduction utilized by the resurrected enzymes. Given the ancient origin of the resurrected thioredoxin enzymes, with some of them predating the buildup of atmospheric oxygen, it can be assumed that chemical mechanisms of disulfide bond reduction utilized by the resurrected enzymes are closer to that of simple sulfur based molecules. Simple sulfur based molecules utilize a straightforward collision-driven substitution nucleophilic bimolecular (SN2) mechanism of reduction (Kice et al, Progress in Inorganic Chemistry (ed. Edwards, J.O.) 147-206 (2007)). By contrast, Trx enzymes utilize a complex mixture of chemical mechanisms including a critical substrate binding and rearrangement reaction that accounts for the vast increase in the efficiency of Trx over the simpler sulfur compounds that were available in early geochemistry (Wiita et al., Nature 450, 124-7 (2007); Perez- Jimenez et al, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)).

[00176] A single molecule force-spectroscopy based assay can be used to measure the effect of applying a well-controlled force to a disulfide bonded substrate, on its rate of reduction by a nucleophile. This assay can be used to distinguish the simple SN2 chemistry of nucleophiles (e.g. hydroxide, glutathione and L-Cys), from the more complex reduction chemistry of the Trx enzymes (Wiita et al., Nature 450, 124-7 (2007); Perez- Jimenez et al., Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009); Wiita et al, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 7222-7 (2006); Koti Ainavarapu et al, J Am Chem Soc 130, 6479-87 (2008); Garcia-Manyes et al, Nature Chemistry 1, 236-242 (2009); Liang and Fernandez, Mechanochemistry: One Bond at a Time. ACS Nano (2009)). This feature makes this assay a good system to probe the chemistry of the resurrected enzymes.

[00177] This approach is described in Figure 11. Although different types of substrates can be used in this approach, in one embodiment, the substrate is an engineered polypeptide made of eight repeats of the 127 immunoglobulin-like protein modified by mutating to Cys positions 32nd and 75Λ(Ι27ο32θ-Α75θ)8· The cysteines oxidize spontaneously, forming disulfide bonds that are hidden within each folded 127 protein in the chain. Single polypeptides are picked up and stretched in solutions containing the desired nucleophile using an AFM. In a typical experiment, a constant force is applied to the polypeptide (175-185 pN, 0.2-0.3 s). This rapidly unfolds the I27G32C-A75C modules up to the disulfide bond. The unfolding events result in a stepwise increase in the length of the polypeptide where each module contributes with ~11 nm in length (Fig. 11A, Fig. 12). After unfolding, every disulfide bond becomes exposed to the solvent. If active Trx enzymes are present in the solution, single reduction events of -14 nm per module can be observed (Fig. 11A„ B; Fig. 12, Fig. 13). All the ancestral enzymes resurrected using the methods described herein were able to trigger staircases of reduction events (Fig 11B and Fig. 12, Fig. 13) indicating that they were all active. In order to measure the reduction rate, 15 to 80 reduction staircases similar to the one shown in Fig. 11B can be summed and the resulting average can be fit with a single exponential. This procedure can be fitted for different pulling forces (Fig. 11C). The resulting set of data measures the force-dependency of the rate of reduction of the disulfide bond (Fig. 11D).

[00178] The chemical mechanisms of disulfide reduction can be distinguished by their sensitivity to the force applied to the substrate (Perez -Jimenez et al., Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)). Simple thiol reducing agents show a force-dependency where the rate always increased exponentially with the applied force (Wiita et al, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 7222-7 (2006); Koti Ainavarapu et al, J Am Chem Soc 130, 6479-87 (2008)). By contrast, modern Trx enzymes show a negative force dependency in the range of 30-200 pN (Perez- Jimenez et al, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)). This mechanism is consistent with a Michaelis-Menten binding reaction followed by a force-inhibited reorientation of the substrate disulfide bond, necessary for an SN2 reaction to occur (Wiita et al, Nature 450, 124-7 (2007)). In a second mechanism, the rate of reduction increases exponentially at forces above 200 pN. This mechanism can be described by a simple SN2 reaction and is found only in Trx enzymes of bacterial origin. Present in all thioredoxin enzymes, there is a force- independent mechanism of reduction that can be ascribed to single electron transfer reaction (Perez- Jimenez et al, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)).

[00179] Surprisingly, the same three reduction mechanisms can be observed in the ancient enzymes with similar patterns to those found in extant Trxs (Fig. 11D, Fig. 14).

Indeed, the force-dependency of the reduction rate measured from the resurrected enzymes can be fit using the three-state kinetic model used with modern Trxs (Wiita et al., Nature 450, 124-7 (2007); Perez- Jimenez et al, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)) (Table 2).

Table 2. Kinetic parameters for Ancestral Trxs.

The parameters were obtained using the kinetic model previously described (see methods section and references 14 and 15 in the main text). They are the result of numeric optimization of the global fit using the downhill simplex method. The errors correspond to the standard deviation. E. coli and human Trxs are also included, obtained from refs 14 and 15 (*).

[00180] One might expect that Trx enzymes from primitive forms of life should have less-developed chemical mechanisms. For instance, one of the main factors controlling the chemistry of Trx catalysis is the geometry of the binding groove. In the case of modern bacterial-origin Trxs, the binding groove is less pronounced than in eukaryotic Trxs (Perez- Jimenez et al, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)). This structural difference is responsible for the different chemical behavior observed in eukaryotic versus bacterial Trxs. If ancient enzymes had a less-structured groove, it could make their chemistry more similar to that of simple reducing agents like L-Cys or TCEP (Ainavarapu et al, J Am Chem Soc 130, 436-7 (2008)). However, the chemistry of Trx enzymes seems to have been established very early in evolution, about 4 Gyr ago, in the same manner that it is observed today. This observation shows that the step from simple reducing compounds to well-structured and functional enzymes occurred early in molecular evolution (Nisbet and Sleep, Nature 409, 1083-91 (2001)).

[00181] Nevertheless, several aspects of the catalytic mechanisms of some ancestral Trxs are intriguing. For example, high activity is observed for AECA and LACA Trxs when the substrate is pulled at forces below 200 pN (Fig 11D and 14B). From the fitting of the reduction rate versus force data to the three-state kinetic model, an extrapolation to zero force yields rate constants of 30 105 M"1 s"1 for AECA Trx and 29 105 M"1 s"1 for LACA Trx. The extrapolation to zero force in the rest of ancestral Trxs predicts rate constants ranging from 3.7x 10s M"1 s"1 to 6.6x 10s M"1 s"1 (Fig. 15). These latter values are similar to those found in extant Trx enzymes (Perez -Jimenez et al., Nat Struct Mo I Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)). Another interesting feature is the small upward slope observed at low forces for LBCA Trx with a maximum at -100 pN (Fig. 14A). Although structural information would be needed to fully address this point, it seems possible that the binding between substrate and enzyme is not optimum at zero force. A better conformation can be achieved by applying force to the substrate.

[00182] Activity of ancestral Trxs in acidic conditions (pH 5)

[00183] LBCA, AECA and LACA lived in an anoxygenic environment likely rich in sulfur compounds and C02 whereas LPBCA, LECA, LGPCA and LAFCA lived in an oxygenic environment (Nisbet and Sleep, Nature 409, 1083-91 (2001)) (Fig. 9A). The high level of C02 in the Hadean was partly responsible for the proposed low pH of the ancient oceans (-5.5) (Walker, Nature 302, 518-520 (1983); Russell and Hall, J Geol Soc Lond 154, 377-402 (1997)). Therefore, following the hypothesis that early life lived in seawater, the natural habitat in which LBCA, AECA and LACA lived was likely to have been acidic in addition to hot. This is especially important given that the reactivity of modern Trx enzymes is due, in part, to the low pKa value of the reactive Cys: 6.7 vs. 8.0 for L-Cys (Holmgren, Thioredoxin. Annu Rev Biochem 54, 237-71 (1985)). This low pKa is needed to maintain the reactive thiolate anion form of the catalytic cysteine in the active site of the enzyme

(Holmgren, Thioredoxin. Annu Rev Biochem 54, 237-71 (1985)) and is a consequence of complex electrostatic interactions between several residues that stabilize the deprotonated form of the reactive cysteine (Dyson, H.J. et al, Biochemistry 36, 2622-36 (1997). Thus, Trx activity is highly sensitive to pH and modern enzymes would not work well at low pH because the catalytic thiol would be protonated and inactive. To examine these considerations the reactivity of LAC A, AECA and LBCA enzymes were compared with the extant human and E. coli Trx enzymes at pH 5. This analysis showed that the resurrected enzymes operate in low pH environments. The force dependency of reduction for AECA, LACA and LBCA at pH 5 was measured, over the 50-150 pN force range (Fig.l6A). For AECA Trx, an extrapolation to zero force gives a reduction rate constant of 19x 105 M"1 s"1 (Fig. 16A, solid line); similarly for LACA, a rate constant of 6.2x 105 M"1 s"1 is estimated, whereas for LBCA Trx the reduction rates observed at pH 5 are strikingly similar to those measured at pH 7.2 (Fig. 16A). These are very high values similar to those measured for some modern Trx enzymes at neutral pH (Perez- Jimenez et al, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)). Fig. 16B shows a comparison of the rate constants of reduction measured at 100 pN for LBCA, LACA and AECA with modern E. coli and human Trxs also measured at pH 5. It is clear from these data that ancient Trx enzymes were well adapted to function under acidic conditions and that Trx enzymes were able to maintain similar reduction rate constants as they evolved into more alkaline environments.

[00184] Methods Summary

[00185] Thioredoxin sequences were retrieved from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence reconstructions were performed using MrBayes, PAUP and PAML as previously described (Gaucher et al, Nature 451, 704-7 (2008)). The reconstructed sequences were synthesized, cloned into pQE80L vector and expressed in E. coli cells. Protein engineering and purification was carried as described in Wiita et al, Nature 450, 124-7 (2007). Thermal stabilities were measured using a VP-Capillary DSC calorimeter from MicroCal. The heat capacity vs. temperature profiles were analyzed following the two-state thermodynamic model (Ibarra-Molero et al, Biochemistry 38, 8138-49 (1999)). AFM experiments were performed in a custom-made apparatus in its force-clamp mode (Fernandez and Li, Science 303, 1674-8 (2004)). Silicon nitride cantilevers were used with a typical spring constant of 0.02 N/m. The buffer used in the experiments contained lOmM HEPES, 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 2 niM NADPH, pH 7.2. Individual (I27G32C-AV5C)8 proteins are stretched at a constant force of 175-185 pN during 0.2-0.3 s. This pulse unfolds the modules up to the disulfide bond. The test-pulse force is then applied during several seconds to allow capturing all the possible reduction events. Trx reductase 50 nM (eukaryotic or bacterial) or DTE 200 μΜ was used to keep Trx enzymes in their reduced state. The traces containing reduction events are summated, normalized and fitted with a single exponential obtaining thus the reduction rate (r = l/τ). A kinetic model containing two force-dependent rate constants was applied. The kinetic parameters were solved using matrix analysis and the errors were estimated using the bootstrap method. Igor software was used for data collection and analysis.

[00186] Phylogenetic analysis and ancestral sequence reconstruction.

[00187] A total of 203 thioredoxin sequences from the three domains of life were retrieved from GenBank (Table 1). Sequences were aligned using MUSCLE (Edgar, Nucleic Acids Res 32, 1792-7 (2004)) and further corrected manually. The phylogenetic analysis was carried out by the minimum evolution distance criterion with 1000 bootstrap replicates using PAUP* 4.0 beta. Ancestral sequences were reconstructed using PAML version 3.14 and incorporated the gamma distribution for variable replacement rates across sites (Yang, Comput Appl Biosci 13, 555-556 (1997)). For each site of the inferred sequences, posterior probabilities were calculated for all 20 amino acids. The amino acid residue with the highest posterior probability was then assigned at each site.

[00188] Protein Expression and Purification.

[00189] Genes encoding the ancestral Trxs enzymes were synthesized and codon- optimized for expression in E. coli cells. The genes were cloned into pQE80L vector

(Qiagen) and transformed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells (Invitrogen). Cells were incubated overnight in LB medium at 37 °C and protein expression was induced with ImM IPTG. Cell pellets were sonicated and the His 6-tagged proteins were loaded onto His GraviTrap affinity column (GE Healthcare). The purified protein was verified by SDS-PAGE. The proteins were then loaded into PD-10 desalting column (GE Healthcare) and finally dialyzed against 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.0 buffer. The preparation of (I27G32C-A75C)S was carried out as follows: mutations Gly32Cys and Ala75Cys are introduced into the 127 module using the

QuickChange site-directed mutagenesis protocol. Multi-step cloning was performed to produce an N-C-linked eight-domain polypeptide. The gene encoding the polypeptide was cloned into a pQE80L and the protein was expressed at 37 °C for 4 hours in E. coli BLR (DE3) cells. Cell pellet was lysed using a French press. The polypeptide with a His 6-tagged was purified using Talon-Co2+ resin. The protein was further purified by size exclusion chromatography on a Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column. The protein was eluted in 10 mM HEPES, 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.2.

[00190] DSC experiments

[00191] Thermal stabilities of ancestral and modern Trx enzymes were measured with a VP-Capillary DSC (MicroCal). Protein solutions were dialyzed into a buffer of 50 mM HEPES, pH 7. The scan speed was set to 1.5 K/min. Several buffer-buffer baselines were first obtained for proper equilibration of the calorimeter. Concentrations were 0.3-0.7 mg/mL and were determined spectrophotometrically at 280 nm using theoretical extinction coefficients and molecular weights. The experimental traces were analyzed following the two-state thermodynamic model (Ibarra-Molero et al., Biochemistry 38, 8138-49 (1999)).

[00192] AFM experiments

[00193] The atomic force microscope used is a custom-made design (Fernandez and Li, Science 303, 1674-8 (2004)). Data acquisition is controlled by two PCI cards 6052E and 6703 (National Instruments). Cantilever model MLCT of silicon nitride were used. We calibrate the cantilever using the equipartition theorem (Florin et al, Biosensors &

Bio electronics 10, 895-901 (1995)) giving rise to a typical spring constant of 0.02 N/m. The AFM works in the force-clamp mode with length resolution of 0.5 nm. The feedback response can reach 5 ms. The buffer used in the experiment is 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.2, 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 2mM NADPH. Trx enzymes are added to a desired concentration. The buffer also contains Trx reductase 50nM (prokaryotic or eukaryotic) to keep Trx enzymes in their reduced state. E. coli Trx reductase works well with bacterial-origin Trx enzymes whereas eukaryotic Trx reductase works with Archaea/Eukaryote Trx enzymes. Similar results are obtained when using DTE 200 μΜ to keep Trx enzymes reduced, thus demonstrating that modern Trx reductases maintain fully reduced ancestral Trx enzymes. For the experiments at pH 5, 20 mM sodium acetate buffer and 200 μΜ DTE was used.

[00194] To perform the experiment 3-6 μΐ of substrate at ~0.1 mg/mL was deposited on a gold-covered coverslide. A drop of -100 μΐ containing the Trx solution was then added. The force-clamp protocol consists of three pulses of force. In the first pulse the cantilever tip was pressed against the surface at 800 pN for 2s. In the second pulse the attached (I27G32C- A75c)8 is stretched at 175-185 pN for 0.2-0.3s. The third pulse is the test force where the reduction events are captured. This pulse is applied at different forces 30-500 pN time enough to capture all the possible reduction events.

[00195] The traces were collected and analyzed using custom- written software in Igor Pro 6.03. The traces containing the reduction events at each force were summated, normalized and fitted with a single exponential. From the fitting we can obtain a time constant, τ, and thus the reduction rate at a given force (r = l/τ). Bootstrapping method was used to obtain the error of the reduction rates. The bootstrapping was run 1000 times for each reduction rate obtaining a distribution from where the s.e.m. can be calculated.

[00196] AFM data analysis

[00197] The data were fitted following a three-state kinetic model previously described (Wiita et al, Nature 450, 124-7 (2007); Perez -Jimenez et al, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)). In this model three different chemical mechanisms are taken into account. The rate constants used in the kinetic model are: km = «o[Trx] kn= βο exp (FAxn/kBT) + λ0 γο [Trx] exp ( Ax feT) + λ0 kw = δ0

[00198] Rate constants km and &02 depend on Trx concentration in a linear manner. ku and &02 exponentially depend on force. The kinetic model is solved using matrix analysis and parameters OE0, βο, Δχ12, γο, Ax02, λ and <¾ can be obtained for each ancestral enzyme. The optimal kinetic parameters are calculated by numerical optimization using the downhill simplex method (Nelder and Mead, Computer Journal 7, 308-313 (1965) (Table 2).

[00199] A brief explanation of the different chemical mechanisms is as follows: when the substrate is stretched at low force (below 200 pN) km and 12 dominate. The negative force dependence observed in all Trx enzymes (ancestral and modern) gives rise to a negative value of Δχι2. This is consistent with a shortening of the polypeptide chain. This shortening was explained by a force-inhibited rotation of the disulfide bond necessary for the correct alignment of the S-S bond (180°) for an SN2 reaction to occur. This mechanism is similar to a Michaelis-Menten reaction in which the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex is crucial. A second reduction mechanism occurs at forces over 200 pN where k02 dominates. In the case of bacterial-origin Trxs, the rate of reduction is exponentially accelerated. This is consistent with a simple SN2 reaction with an elongation of the disulfide bond at the transition state, Δ ο2· This elongation, -0.18 A, is only observed in bacterial- origin Trxs. In the case of eukaryotic-origin Trxs the rate of disulfide bond reduction when the substrate is pulled at forces over 200 pN is essentially force-independent. In this case &02= -o.This force-independent mechanism is explained by a single-electron transfer reaction accounted for the parameter λο in the kinetic model. This mechanism seems to be ubiquitous to all Trx enzymes but is certainly remarkable in eukaryotic-origin Trxs. The origin of this diversity of chemical mechanisms was explained on the basis of the structural features of the binding groove (Perez -Jimenez et al, Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)).

[00200] Example 2: Reconstruction of Ancient Thioredoxin Enzymes

[00201] Described herein is data demonstrating the feasibility of reconstructing ancient thioredoxin enzymes from predicted nodes. For example, the predicted DNA sequence of a Trx enzyme from the node corresponding to the Last Bacterial Common Ancestor, dated about 4 billion years ago, was selected for gene synthesis and protein expression in our laboratory (Figure 4).

[00202] The resuscitated LBCA Trx showed a 26 °C higher denaturation

temperature than that of modern E. coli Trx. Higher denaturation temperatures have also been reported for resuscitated elongation factor proteins (Gaucher et al, Nature, 2008. 451(7179): p. 704-U2; Gaucher et al, Nature, 2003. 425(6955): p. 285-8). The LBCA thioredoxin enzyme also showed a high rate of catalysis at pH 5, where extant enzymes are largely inactive (Figure 4B). While this ancestral enzyme showed the typical biphasic force- dependent catalysis of the extant enzymes (Wiita, A.P., et al, Nature, 2007. 450(7166): p. 124-7), its peak activity was measured at 100 pN, suggesting a less well developed binding groove (Figure 4C).

[00203] Results with the last bacterial common ancestor Trx enzyme show the feasibility of resurrecting active enzymes that disappeared from Earth millions of years ago. This approach can be used to uncover variations in the chemical mechanisms of thioredoxin catalysis (Figure 4) and correlate them with the structure of these enzymes. These methods can also be used to generate one or more thioredoxin enzymes with characteristics not present in the extant enzymes (e.g. the absence of a binding groove).

[00204] The force-dependent rate of reduction shows that human Trx, which has a much deeper groove than that of E. coli, excludes the force accelerated mechanism of reduction (type III in Figure 3C). In addition to depth and length, another characteristic of the binding groove that can be examined is the mean hydrophobicity per residue of a Trx enzyme. These parameters can be measured directly from over one hundred Trx structures currently available in PDB. Extreme examples of each groove parameter can be identified. These specific Trxs can be expressed to complete the force-spectroscopy experiments. The relative amplitude of each chemical mechanism of reduction measured using force spectroscopy, and the measured features of the binding groove can be correlated and calculated from the structure.

[00205] Example 3: Single Molecule Assays to Examine Other Bond Cleaving Enzymes

[00206] Any enzyme that cleaves covalent bonds can be investigated using the single molecule force spectroscopy assay described herein. Exemplary molecules that can be examined using the methods described herein include but are not limited to proteases.

Proteases are a vast group of proteins with highly important physiological functions (Lopez - Otin and Bond, J Biol Chem, 2008. 283(45): p. 30433-7). The fact that their catalytic mechanisms have been thoroughly studied by traditional techniques facilitates interpretation of the single-molecule results (Frey and Hegeman, Enzymatic reaction mechanisms. 2007, Oxford: Oxford University Press). The high substrate specificity shown by some proteases can be used to design substrates suitable for single-molecule force spectroscopy. The proteolysis of those substrates can be studied under force. The catalytic activity of proteases will a complex force dependency because proteases have substrate -binding grooves that are similar to those found in thioredoxin enzymes and because the chemical mechanism of proteolysis can involve geometric rearrangements at the transition state (Frey and Hegeman, Enzymatic reaction mechanisms. 2007, Oxford: Oxford University Press). As in the case of thioredoxins, the molecular interpretation of the force dependency of proteases will shed light into the sub-Angstrom contortions of the substrate atoms as they are cleaved by the protease during catalysis. [00207] To determine the force-dependency of protease catalysis, an appropriate substrate that can detect single protease cleavage events will be constructed. Because simply cleaving the backbone of a mechanically stretched protein would be the end the experiment because the polypeptide would loose its mechanical continuity, a substrate which retains its mechanical integrity upon cleavage and which also extends sufficiently to provide an unmistakable fingerprint will be constructed.

[00208] An exemplary substrate, as set forth in Figure 19, can be designed by introducing two cysteines in a given protein (e.g. the 127 protein). The cysteines can be placed at a distance from one another so that they do not form a disulfide bond (residues A and B, Figure 19A). The free cysteines can be used as specific conjugation points for a polypeptide containing the protease recognition sequence. The use of cysteines to specifically label proteins is commonplace in modern molecular biology (Wynn et al., Methods Enzymol, 1995. 251 : p. 351-6; Crankshaw and Grant, Curr Protoc Protein Sci, 2001. Chapter 15: p. Unitl5 1; Corey, Methods Mol Biol, 2004. 283: p. 197-206). Typically, maleimide (Ji, Methods Enzymol, 1983. 91 : p. 580-609) or sulfhydryl reagents (Cecconi et al, Eur Biophys J, 2008. 37(6): p. 729-38)) are employed. Indeed, a variety of bifunctional reagents (Green et al, Protein Sci, 2001. 10(7): p. 1293-304) can be employed to trap proteins in specific conformations (Milanesi et al., Biochemistry, 2008. 47(51): p. 13620-34; Cipriano et al., Proteins, 2008. 73(2): p. 458-67). Cysteine residues were introduced in positions 27 and 55 of the 127 protein (Figure 19A), and bridged with the bifunctional reagent BMDB to creating a covalent bridge between positions 27 and 55 of the 127 protein. Mechanical unfolding of an 127 protein gives a normal extension of AL=29 nm (Figure 19B). When mutant 127 proteins are reacted with the bifunctional reagent BMDB, the unfolding is now limited to only AL=20 nm due to the presence of a covalent bridge formed by the BMDB (Figure 19C). Bifunctional bridges with short polypeptides that can be cleaved by a protease (e.g. enterokinase) can be created. For example, 127 polypeptides that serve as substrates for the enzyme enterokinase can be generated. This enzyme is readily available and of wide commercial use and specifically cleaves the sequence Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys-X after the Lys, as long as X is not a proline (Light and H. Janska Trends Biochem Sci, 1989. 14(3): p. 110-2). In such cases, cleavage of the covalent bridge will result into a further extension by AL=9 nm which uniquely identifies the cleavage reaction (Figure 19D). As in the case of thioredoxin activity, the rate of appearance of the 9 nm steps measures the rate of catalysis at different forces. [00209] Although the covalent bridge design works (Figure 19A, B,C), the efficiency of the bridging reaction is in the range of 30-40%, leaving open the remaining 127 proteins of a polypeptide. This limits the number of cleavage events that can be detected per polypeptide. A variety of additional bifunctional enterokinase substrates either with thiols or maleimides can be constructed and those that have the highest bridging efficiency can be selected for additional analysis.

[00210] Short polypeptides containing a cleavage sequence and terminated by either thiols or maleimides (to covalently link the short polypeptide to the exposed cysteines) can also be generated. Because the intra-molecular conjugation scheme described herein is also dependent on the distance between the reactive groups, the position of the exposed cysteines conjugating bifunctional reagents (recognition sequences) can be varied among different lengths until optimal constructs are identified. The force dependency of the catalytic activity of enterokinase can be studied using these substrates. Given that enterokinase contains a substrate-binding groove (Lu et al, J Mol Biol, 1999. 292(2): p. 361-73), and that the chemistry of proteolysis involves structural rearrangements of the participating atoms (e.g. formation of a tetrahedral intermediate), these substrates can be used to determine whether force exerts a complex effect on enterokinase activity. Once the force-dependency of protease catalysis is measured, kinetic models can be developed to explain the data. In particular, the measured force dependency can be used to formulate activity models as a series of chemical mechanisms that require bond rotations/elongation of the recognition sequence. The effect of width, depth and hydrophobicity of the binding groove can be studies as functions of the measured force dependent mechanisms. This approach can also be extended to study other specific proteases such as factor Xa and thrombin as well as the role of substrate

conformations in enzymatic catalysis. This approach can also be important for the

development of drug targets given the medical importance of protease inhibitors.

[00211] Example 4 : A single molecule assay for thioredoxin catalysis

[00212] An octamer of the 127 module can be mutated to incorporate two cysteine residues (G32C, A75C; Figure 1, gold labeled residues). The two cysteine residues spontaneously form a stable disulfide bond that is buried in the β-sandwich fold of the 127 protein. This is polypeptide (I27s-s)s. The disulfide bond mechanically separates the 127 protein into two parts (Figure 1 A). The unsequestered amino acids that readily unfold and extend under a stretching force are depicted in red. The blue region marks 43 amino acids which are trapped behind the disulfide bond (Figure IB) and can be extended if the disulfide bond is reduced by a nucleophile such as the enzyme Trx (Figure 1C). Force-clamp AFM can be used to extend single (I27s-s)s polypeptides. The constant force causes individual 127 proteins in the chain to unfold, resulting in stepwise increases in length of the molecule following each unfolding event. After unfolding, the stretching force is directly applied to the now solvent exposed disulfide bond, and if a reducing agent is present in the bathing solution, the bond can be chemically reduced giving rise to a new stepwise increase in length of the polypeptide (Figure ID). The size of the step increases in length observed during these force clamp experiments corresponds to the number of amino acids released, serving as a precise fingerprint to identify the reduction events. The rate of disulfide bond reduction can be measured at a given force by fitting a single exponential to an ensemble average of many reduction traces (Wiita, A.P., et al, Nature, 2007. 450(7166): p. 124-7; Perez- Jimenez, et al, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2009. 16(8): p. 890-U120; Ainavarapu et al, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2008. 130(20): p. 6479-6487). Figure IE shows a plot of the rate of reduction as a function of force for experiments done in the presence of human Trx, E. Coli Trx and the simpler nucleophile L-Cysteine. From these data, at least three different types of force-dependencies can be distinguished. These force dependencies may be related to the particular arrangement of the substrate in the binding groove of the enzymes (Perez- Jimenez, et al, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2009. 16(8): p. 890-U120). In the case of L-Cys, the force dependency can arise from the much simpler SN2 arrangement of a simple nucleophile (Ainavarapu et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2008. 130(20): p. 6479-6487; Wiita et al, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006. 103(19): p. 7222-7). The classical assays for disulfide bond reduction would only show bulk rates at zero force. The increased detail observed in the enzymatic mechanisms can now be interpreted at the molecular/atomic level (Perez- Jimenez, et al., Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2009. 16(8): p. 890-U120).

[00213] Example 5: Simultaneous Measurement of Association/Dissociation and Reduction Reactions in Single Thioredoxin Enzymes.

[00214] The methods described herein can be used to detect when the enzyme reduces a target disulfide bond. To determine when Trx enzymes bind to a substrate, how long it takes to reduce the substrate after binding and how long the enzyme remains attached to the substrate after the reduction event, force-clamp assays of disulfide bond reduction can be combined with single molecule fluorescence detection of enzyme binding to the exposed substrate using our newly developed AFM/TIRF instrument (Figure 5). To observe enzymatic binding to a mechanically extended substrate, Trx enzymes can be labeled with a fluorophore (e.g. Alexa Fluor 488 fluorophore). Fluorophores, such as Alexa Fluor 488 dye, can readily be ligated to the exposed primary amines of a protein. A Trx enzyme may contain up to 12 lysine residues with varying degrees of exposure to the solvent. Force-clamp experiments show that labeled E. coli Trx enzymes are bright and reduce the substrate disulfide bonds at a rate of 0.3 s"1, which is only about half of the rate measured with the unlabeled enzyme (Figure 17A).

[00215] The labeled enzymes can be observed in the TIRF microscope. Figure 17B shows a labeled enzyme visiting the evanescent field of a TIRF microscope driven by Brownian motion. Single enzymes are brightly fluorescent and can be monitored as a function of time using an efficient CCD camera (Andor Technology). These capabilities can be used to follow the binding and dissociation of labeled Trx enzymes interacting with their target disulfide bonds, while at the same time assaying their reduction using force-clamp spectroscopy. Such analysis can be used to measure directly the rates of association and dissociation of single enzymes as they bind and reduce single disulfide bonds in an extended protein. Data sets, such as those shown in Figure 5B can be collected using the methods described herein. The methods described herein can also be used to determine whether the rates of association and dissociation are force-dependent and to refine simplified models of binding and reduction (Wiita, A.P., et al, Nature, 2007. 450(7166): p. 124-7).

[00216] The dissociation dwell time of the enzyme after a disulfide bond has been reduced can be measured from the combined AFM/TIRF experiments (Figure 5). Since Trx is covalently linked to the substrate immediately after the catalytic reaction (Holmgren, A., Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. J Biol Chem, 1989. 264(24): p. 13963-6), this dwell time depends on both an intermolecular reduction event and the off-rate of the non-covalently bound enzyme. As a control experiment, the WT Trx can be switched for a C35A mutant Trx that is redox active but incapable of detaching from the substrate after reducing it (Wynn et al., Methods Enzymol, 1995. 251 : p. 351-6). In this case, the Trx enzyme catalyzing the reaction will remain stationary and visible in the evanescent excitation field until it is photobleached. Such methods can be used to capture the association and dissociation reaction of a single thioredoxin enzyme with its target during disulfide bond reduction. Every step involved in the activity of single thioredoxin enzymes can be separated and measured independently, allowing for the development of detailed kinetic model for this enzyme and the mechanisms by which it finds its target.

[00217] Example 6: Detecting the oxidase activity of thioredoxin enzymes.

[00218] The single molecule assay described herein can also be used to study oxidative folding by thioredoxin enzymes. In vivo, thiol-disulfide exchange reactions are catalyzed by a number of enzymes belonging to the thioredoxin (Trx) superfamily. All of these enzymes share the thioredoxin fold and most feature a CXXC active site motif (Martin, Structure, 1995. 3(3): p. 245-50). In humans and other eukaryotes, thioredoxin catalyzes the cleavage of disulfide bonds whereas PDI enzymes catalyze their oxidation and isomerization. However the function of PDI as an oxidase is not unique given that, in S. cerevisiae, deletion strains lacking the essential gene encoding PDI can be rescued by a gene encoding for a simple thioredoxin C35S mutant (Chivers et al, EMBO J, 1996. 15(11): p. 2659-67). This thioredoxin variant has a CXXS active site, meaning that the conventional pathway for substrate reduction is not possible. In addition, PDI-like enzymes with CXXS active sites have also been shown to complement this yeast deletion strain (Tachibana et al., Mol Cell Biol, 1992. 12 (10): p. 4601-11; LaMantia et al, Cell, 1993. 74(5): p. 899-908). In certain aspects, the new single molecule oxidative folding assay described herein (e.g. Figure 18) can be used to determine whether (1) the requirements for catalysis of oxidative folding are the same as those for disulfide bond reduction, (2) whether the C-terminal cysteine functions as a switch between these processes, and (3) the binding groove play a key role in oxidative folding.

[00219] As shown in Figure 18, a protein made of eight disulfide bonded repeats (I27s-s) can be picked up and stretched. In one embodiment, the protein is in a buffer containing 10 μΜ of wild type human Trx enzyme. The polypeptide is then exposed to a pulling force of 110-150 pN (denature), which results into a number of stepwise extensions. As shown in Figures 1A-1D, steps of 11 nm correspond to unfolding events where a single domain extends up to the disulfide bond. This exposes the disulfide and enables its reduction by the thioredoxin enzyme. Reduction of the disulfide in turn releases an additional 14 nm of the polypeptide chain. These precise step lengths serve as a fingerprint identifier that unambiguously verify these events. When all domains are unfolded and reduced, the force is switched off and the protein is allowed to refold for some time (Δί=5 s; Figure 18). The force is then again switched on (probe) triggering again a series of stepwise elongations if any refolding had taken place. As soon as the force is switched on, folding is abruptly stopped and the folded status of each substrate domain can be probed at a time At after refolding was initiated. During the probe pulse, the protein extends in steps of 25 nm. This step size corresponds to the sum of unfolding (11 nm) and reduction (14 nm) steps and thus marks the unfolding of a domain without a formed disulfide bond. While not all the domains refolded during the folding period, none of the refolded domains formed a disulfide bond, indicating that the wild type form of thioredoxin does not catalyze reoxidation (Figure 18B). By contrast if the experiment shown in Figure 18A,B is repeated in the presence of the C35S human thioredoxin mutant (hTrx ), the step sizes during the probe pulse are now entirely composed of 11 and 14 nm steps, indicating the full reoxidation of all the disulfide bonds (Figure 18C).

[00220] Shown in Figure 18 is a demonstration of the sensitivity of the oxidative folding assay described herein. As shown, in Figure 18, the assay enables detection that that the replacement of a single atom in the catalytic site of the enzyme (from sulfur to oxygen) in human thioredoxin is sufficient for hTrx to gain the oxidase function, in addition to keeping intact its reductase activity. These results explain why hTrx can rescue PDI deletion strains of S. cerevisiae (Chivers et al, EMBO J, 1996. 15(11): p. 2659-67).

[00221] To study the oxidase mechanisms of thioredoxin, the value of At can ne varied in order to determine the rate of reoxidation by hTrx . The force dependency of the rate of reoxidation can be measured by quenching the force to different values during the folding/reoxidation period At. The methods described herein may also reveal a complex force dependency from substrate-enzyme interactions during oxidative folding. To study the role played by the binding groove in the reoxidation of the substrate, the C35S mutation will be engineered into E. coli thioredoxin enzymes. E. coli thioredoxin enzymes that have a much shallower groove than human Trx and show different mechanisms in its force dependency (Figure 3). The properties of the binding groove can be an important factor in reoxidation. To determine whether the full folding of the host 127 protein is a necessary condition for reoxidation the number of 11 nm steps (unfolding of a natively folded protein) will be compared with the number of 14 nm steps (reduction of re-oxidized bonds) observed during the probe pulse (Figure 18A). For example, if folding is not necessary, then there will be more steps of 14 nm than steps of 11 nm, etc. These results can be used to determine how the association and dissociation cycles are affected by the C35S mutation in single thioredoxin enzymes and to correlate the reoxidation events with the binding/unbinding reactions of fluorescently labeled Trx enzymes (Figure 5). The combined folding/reoxidation assay shown in Figure 18 together with experiments similar to those highlighted in Figure 5, can be used to reveal the dynamics of a single thioredoxin enzyme as it oxidizes a target disulfide bond during the folding of the host protein.

[00222] The single molecule assays described herein have the ability to identify and separate the different stages of protein folding (Garcia-Manyes et al, PNAS, 2009. 106(26): p. 10534-10539; Garcia-Manyes et al, PNAS, 2009. 106(26): p. 10540-10545), and can thus be used to determine at what stage of folding a thioredoxin enzyme is capable of oxidizing a substrate. Although the finding described herein show that the human thioredoxin mutant fiTrx gains oxidase activity, the methods described herein can also be used to determine whether the C35S mutation can have a similar effect on other members of the thioredoxin family with different groove depths.

[00223] Example 7: Other Activities of Resurrected Enzymes

[00224] Fig. 20 shows the rate constants for disulfide bond reduction by ancestral and modern Trxs enzymes. Although these latter values are within the same range of those found in extant Trx enzymes using AFM (Fig. 14 and Perez- Jimenez et al., Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 890-6 (2009)) and bulk experiments (Holmgren et al, J Biol Chem 254, 9113-9 (1979)), there was a trend in the reconstructed enzymes to show higher reduction rates at forces below 200 pN (Fig.14). It is speculated that this trend may be related to substrate specificity of the enzymes. Ancient enzymes may be less substrate specific than modern ones, and therefore, might be more efficient with generic substrates such as those used herein.

[00225] The activity of the ancestral enzymes was measured using the conventional insulin assay (Fig. 21) The values of insulin precipitation rates obtained with this assay are similar to those previously determined for E. coli Trx (Suarez, M. et al, Biophys Chem 147, 13-9 (2010); Holmgren, A., J Biol Chem 254, 9627-32 (1979)).

[00226] Fig. 22 shows a comparison of the rate of reduction measured at 100 pN for LBCA, LACA and AECA with the rates of some modern Trx enzymes also measured at pH 5. [00227] Due to spontaneous precipitation of insulin at pH below 6, DTNB was used as a substrate for disulfide reduction to further verify the ability of the oldest enzymes to work at pH 5 (Fig. 23). This analysis of reconstructed enzymes indicated that ancient Trx enzymes were well adapted to function under acidic conditions and that Trx enzymes could maintain similar reduction rate constants as they evolved in more alkaline environments. A feature of the thioredoxin family of enzymes is that many of them are secreted to the extracellular environment where most disulfide-bonded proteins are found (Xu, S.Z. et al, Nature 451, 69-72 (2008); Windle, H.J., Fox, A., Ni Eidhin, D. & Kelleher, D., J Biol Chem 275, 5081-9 (2000). From this perspective, thioredoxin enzymes are perhaps one of the few types of enzymes for which a correlate can be established between their pH sensitivity and the environmental conditions found outside cells (Xu, S.Z. et al, Nature 451, 69-72 (2008); Windle, H.J., Fox, A., Ni Eidhin, D. & Kelleher, D., J Biol Chem 275, 5081-9 (2000). It is informative to compare the acid tolerance of the resurrected enzymes with enzymes from extant extremophiles. For example, Trx from Sulfolobus tokodaii (thermophilic archaea (Ming, H. et al, Proteins 69, 204-8 (2007)), with a melting temperature of 122° C (Fig. 24), is active at pH 7 (0.12x 105 IVT1 s_1 at 50 pN), but does not show detectable activity at pH 5 (Fig. 22) which is not surprising given that Sulfolobus regulates its cytosolic pH (Baker- Austin, C. & Dopson, M., Trends Microbiol 15, 165-71 (2007). By contrast, Trx from Acetobacter aceti (acidophilic bacteria (Starks, CM., Francois, J.A., MacArthur, K.M., Heard, B.Z. & Kappock, T.J. Protein Sci 16, 92-8 (2007) that grows at pH 4) is active at pH 5 (0.6x l05 M_1 s_1 at 100 pN), reflecting its acidic cytosol (Starks, CM., Francois, J.A., MacArthur, K.M., Heard, B.Z. & Kappock, T.J., Protein Sci 16, 92-8 (2007); Menzel, U. & Gottschalk, G., Archives of Microbiology 143, 47-51 (1985).

[00228] Method Summary

[00229] Thioredoxin bulk enzymatic measurements. Bulk- solvent oxidoreductase activity for ancestral thioredoxins was determined using the insulin precipitation assay as described (Suarez, M. et al, Biophys Chem 147, 13-9 (2010); Holmgren, A., J Biol Chem 254, 9627-32 (1979); Perez- Jimenez et al, J. Biol. Chem., 283: 27121-27129 (2008)). In order to further verify the activity of ancestral Trxs enzymes at acidic pH, DTNB (5,5'- dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) was used as a substrate at pH 5. In this assay, Trxs enzymes were preactivated by incubation with 1 mM DTT. The reaction was initiated by adding active Trx to a final concentration of 4 μΜ to the cuvette containing ImM DTNB in 20 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5. Change in absorbance at 412 nm due to the formation of TNB was followed during 1 min. Activity was determined from the slope dAA4i2/dt. A control experiment lacking Trx was registered and subtracted as baseline.

[00230] Example 8: Crystal Structure of Ancestral Enzyme Thioredoxin AECA

[00231] The crystal structure of the ancestral enzyme thioredoxin AECA is depicted in Figure 25.

[00232] Table 3 : Refinement Summary of Crystal Structure of Ancestral Enzyme Thioredoxin AECA

REMARK ******************** REFINEMENT SUMMARY: QUICK FACTS ******************* REMARK Start: r_work = 0.3754 r_free = 0.3753 bonds = 0.001 angles = 0.295 REMARK Final: r_work = 0.2284 r_free = 0.3032 bonds = 0.009 angles = 1.278 REMARK ************************************************************************

REMARK

REMARK Rigid body refinement target: auto

REMARK Information about total rigid body shift of selected groups:

REMARK rotation (deg) translation

(A)

REMARK xyz total xyz total

REMARK group 1: 0.066 -0.035 0.032 0.08 0.02 -2.19 0.01 2.19

REMARK ****************** REFINEMENT STATISTICS STEP BY STEP ****************** REMARK leading digit, like 1_, means number of macro-cycle

REMARK 0 : statistics at the very beginning when nothing is done yet

REMARK l_bss: bulk solvent correction and/or (anisotropic) scaling

REMARK l_xyz : refinement of coordinates

REMARK l_adp : refinement of ADPs (Atomic Displacement Parameters)

REMARK l_sar : simulated annealing refinement of x,y,z

REMARK l_wat : ordered solvent update (add / remove)

REMARK l_rbr : rigid body refinement

REMARK l_gbr : group B-factor refinement

REMARK l_occ : refinement of occupancies

REMARK REMARK R-factors, x-ray target values and norm of gradient of x-ray target REMARK stage r-work r-free xray_target_w xray_target_t

REMARK 0 : 0.4439 0.4580 3.996716e+00 4.056539e+00

REMARK l_bss: 0.3754 0.3753 3.859379e+00 3.906067e+00

REMARK l_rbr: 0.3755 0.3716 3.857346e+00 3.906505e+00

REMARK l_bss: 0.3754 0.3715 3.856606e+00 3.901563e+00

REMARK l_fit: 0.3543 0.3590 3.816897e+00 3.875086e+00

REMARK l_xyz: 0.2973 0.3436 3.698549e+00 3.866009e+00

REMARK l_adp: 0.2655 0.3319 3.619059e+00 3.822724e+00

REMARK l_occ: 0.2694 0.3249 3.623934e+00 3.822419e+00

REMARK 2_bss: 0.2644 0.3224 3.616364e+00 3.822741e+00

REMARK 2_sar: 0.2463 0.3110 3.584169e+00 3.805693e+00

REMARK 2_fit: 0.2584 0.3092 3.610219e+00 3.800907e+00

REMARK 2_xyz: 0.2367 0.3132 3.560169e+00 3.782447e+00

REMARK 2_adp: 0.2325 0.3113 3.548015e+00 3.770248e+00

REMARK 2_occ: 0.2325 0.3113 3.548015e+00 3.770248e+00

REMARK 3_bss: 0.2308 0.3100 3.546772e+00 3.769120e+00

REMARK 3_fit: 0.2364 0.3034 3.546495e+00 3.757393e+00

REMARK 3_xyz: 0.2281 0.3097 3.544193e+00 3.770737e+00 REMARK 3 adp : 0.2281 0.3080 3.542285e+00 3.767369e+00

REMARK 3" occ : 0.2281 0. 3080 3.542285e+00 3.767369e+00

REMARK 3" bss : 0.2284 0. 3032 3.536917e+00 3.762045e+00

REMARK

REMARK stage k sol b sol bll b22 b33 bl2 bl3 b23

REMARK 0 0.000 0 .000 0.000 0 000 0.000 0 000 0 000 0 000

REMARK 1 bss : 0.277 22 .223 - 8.643 18 065 -9.422 0 000 -7 697 -0 000

REMARK 1 rbr : 0.278 22 .363 - 8.344 18 129 -9.095 0 000 -7 927 0 000

REMARK 1 bss : 0.278 22 .363 - 8.344 18 129 -9.095 0 000 -7 927 0 000

REMARK 1 _fit: 0.278 22 .363 - 8.344 18 129 -9.095 0 000 -7 927 0 000

REMARK 1 xyz : 0.278 22 .363 - 8.344 18 129 -9.095 0 000 -7 927 0 000

REMARK l" adp : 0.278 22 .363 - 8.344 18 129 -9.095 0 000 -7 927 0 000

REMARK 1 occ : 0.278 22 .363 - 8.344 18 129 -9.095 0 000 -7 927 0 000

REMARK 2 bss : 0.288 39 .551 - 7.348 16 799 -9.450 0 000 -6 425 0 000

REMARK 2 sar : 0.288 39 .551 - 7.348 16 799 -9.450 0 000 -6 425 0 000

REMARK 2 _fit: 0.288 39 .551 - 7.348 16 799 -9.450 0 000 -6 425 0 000

REMARK 2 xyz : 0.288 39 .551 - 7.348 16 799 -9.450 0 000 -6 425 0 000

REMARK 2 adp : 0.288 39 .551 - 7.348 16 799 -9.450 0 000 -6 425 0 000

REMARK 2 occ : 0.288 39 .551 - 7.348 16 799 -9.450 0 000 -6 425 0 000

REMARK 3 bss : 0.285 38 .678 - 7.408 16 497 -9.089 0 000 -5 848 0 000

REMARK 3 _fit: 0.285 38 .678 - 7.408 16 497 -9.089 0 000 -5 848 0 000

REMARK 3 xyz : 0.285 38 .678 - 7.408 16 497 -9.089 0 000 -5 848 0 000

REMARK 3 adp : 0.285 38 .678 - 7.408 16 497 -9.089 0 000 -5 848 0 000

REMARK 3 occ : 0.285 38 .678 - 7.408 16 497 -9.089 0 000 -5 848 0 000

REMARK 3 bss : 0.288 38 .710 - 7.489 16 446 -8.957 0 000 -5 560 0 000

REMARK

REMARK stage <pher> fom alpha beta

REMARK 0 60.971 0. 3860 0 .1586 1494 .490

REMARK 1 bss : 46.439 0. 5699 0 .2434 752 .240

REMARK l" rbr : 47.128 0. 5609 0 .2407 740 .986

REMARK 1 bss : 46.772 0. 5654 0 .2416 735 .017

REMARK 1 _fit: 45.218 0. 5844 0 .2462 662 .267

REMARK 1 xyz : 43.306 0. 6062 0 .2590 574 .043

REMARK 1 adp : 42.094 0. 6195 0 .2520 517 .705

REMARK l" occ : 41.821 0. 6230 0 .2563 519 .536

REMARK 2 bss : 41.744 0. 6240 0 .2583 520 .022

REMARK 2 sar : 40.876 0. 6348 0 .2599 513 .188

REMARK 2 _fit: 41.440 0. 6281 0 .2520 517 .930

REMARK 2 xyz : 39.351 0. 6534 0 .2654 487 .068

REMARK 2 adp : 38.723 0. 6608 0 .2688 470 .384

REMARK 2 occ : 38.723 0. 6608 0 .2688 470 .384

REMARK 3 bss : 38.607 0. 6623 0 .2642 464 .464

REMARK 3 _fit: 37.684 0. 6736 0 .2655 444 .291

REMARK 3 xyz : 38.693 0. 6609 0 .2638 456 .285

REMARK 3 adp : 38.508 0. 6631 0 .2638 447 .088

REMARK 3 occ : 38.508 0. 6631 0 .2638 447 .088

REMARK 3 bss : 38.000 0. 6692 0 .2653 431 .262

REMARK

REMARK stage angl bond chir dihe 3lan repu geom target

REMARK 0 0.295 0 .001 0 .015 6.225 0 .001 4 .112 1 3106e-02

REMARK 1 bss : 0.295 0 .001 0 .015 6.225 0 .001 4 .112 1 3106e-02

REMARK 1 rbr : 0.295 0 .001 0 .015 6.225 0 .001 4 .112 1 3115e-02

REMARK 1 bss : 0.295 0 .001 0 .015 6.225 0 .001 4 .112 1 3115e-02

REMARK 1 _fit: 1.503 0 .051 0 .100 13.094 0 .011 4 .094 9 7914e-01

REMARK l" xyz : 1.386 0 .012 0 .087 15.419 0 .006 4 .124 1 4517e-01

REMARK 1 adp : 1.386 0 .012 0 .087 15.419 0 .006 4 .124 1 4517e-01

REMARK l" occ : 1.386 0 .012 0 .087 15.419 0 .006 4 .124 1 4517e-01

REMARK 2 bss : 1.386 0 .012 0 .087 15.419 0 .006 4 .124 1 4517e-01

REMARK 2 sar : 1.599 0 .017 0 .103 17.177 0 .007 4 .104 2 0875e-01

REMARK 2 _fit: 1.663 0 .026 0 .115 17.316 0 .008 4 .100 3 0113e-01

REMARK 2 xyz : 1.293 0 .010 0 .085 18.112 0 .006 4 .121 1 3492e-01

REMARK 2 adp : 1.293 0 .010 0 .085 18.112 0 .006 4 .121 1 3492e-01

REMARK 2 occ : 1.293 0 .010 0 .085 18.112 0 .006 4 .121 1 3492e-01 REMARK 3 bss : 1 ,.293 0 ,.010 0..085 18 ,.112 0 ,.006 4 ,.121 1 ,.3492e- 01

REMARK 3~ _fit: 1 , .371 0 , .031 0. .094 18 , .520 0 , .007 4 , .105 4 , .1601e- 01

REMARK 3~ xyz : 1 , .278 0 , .009 0. .083 18 , .495 0 , .005 4 , .117 1 , .3388e- 01

REMARK 3~ adp : 1 , .278 0 , .009 0. .083 18 , .495 0 , .005 4 , .117 1 , .3388e- 01

REMARK 3~ occ : 1 , .278 0 , .009 0. .083 18 , .495 0 , .005 4 , .117 1 , .3388e- 01

REMARK 3~ bss : 1 , .278 0 , .009 0. .083 18 , .495 0 , .005 4 , .107 1 , .3469e- 01

REMARK REMARK Maximal deviations :

REMARK stage angl bond chir dihe plan repu 1 grad |

REMARK 0 4 .887 0 .010 0 .095 73 .272 0 .012 2 .601 1 0739e- 02

REMARK 1 bss : 4 .887 0 .010 0 .095 73 .272 0 .012 2 .601 1 0739e- 02

REMARK l" rbr : 4 .887 0 .010 0 .095 73 .272 0 .012 2 .601 1 0756e- 02

REMARK 1 bss : 4 .887 0 .010 0 .095 73 .272 0 .012 2 .601 1 0756e- 02

REMARK 1 _fit: 26 .860 1 .956 0 .443 89 .447 0 .084 0 .469 7 0512e- 01

REMARK 1 xyz : 9 .306 0 .066 0 .366 89 .866 0 .061 2 .069 8 9770e- 02

REMARK 1 adp : 9 .306 0 .066 0 .366 89 .866 0 .061 2 .069 8 9770e- 02

REMARK 1 occ : 9 .306 0 .066 0 .366 89 .866 0 .061 2 .069 8 9770e- 02

REMARK 2 bss : 9 .306 0 .066 0 .366 89 .866 0 .061 2 .069 8 9770e- 02

REMARK 2 sar : 12 .521 0 .195 0 .728 83 .560 0 .052 2 .138 2 7433e- 01

REMARK 2 _fit: 12 .521 0 .578 0 .728 83 .560 0 .052 1 .860 3 1580e- 01

REMARK 2 xyz : 11 .987 0 .076 0 .408 83 .948 0 .055 2 .214 7 0435e- 02

REMARK 2 adp : 11 .987 0 .076 0 .408 83 .948 0 .055 2 .214 7 0435e- 02

REMARK 2 occ : 11 .987 0 .076 0 .408 83 .948 0 .055 2 .214 7 0435e- 02

REMARK 3 bss : 11 .987 0 .076 0 .408 83 .948 0 .055 2 .214 7 0435e- 02

REMARK 3 _fit: 11 .987 1 .408 0 .458 87 .325 0 .055 0 .460 3 6860e- 01

REMARK 3 xyz : 12 .449 0 .051 0 .412 85 .180 0 .047 2 .165 6 7907e- 02

REMARK 3 adp : 12 .449 0 .051 0 .412 85 .180 0 .047 2 .165 6 7907e- 02

REMARK 3 occ : 12 .449 0 .051 0 .412 85 .180 0 .047 2 .165 6 7907e- 02

REMARK 3 bss : 12 .449 0 .051 0 .412 85 .180 0 .047 2 .165 6 8308e- 02

REMARK

REMARK 1 - -overall- -- 1 - macromolecule-- — 1- --solvent-- — 1

REMARK stage b max fa min b ,ave b max b min b ave b max b min b ,ave

REMARK 0 88 .25 20 .00 56 .09 163 .22 25 .82 69 .41 78 .07 44 .85 59 .47

REMARK 1 bss : 99 .53 31 .28 67 .37 163 .22 25 .82 69 .41 78 .07 44 .85 59 .47

REMARK 1 rbr : 99 .53 31 .28 67 .37 163 .22 25 .82 69 .41 78 .07 44 .85 59 .47

REMARK 1 bss : 99 .53 31 .28 67 .37 173 .50 27 .46 69 .36 98 .66 39 .86 55 .15

REMARK l" _fit: 99 .53 31 .28 67 .37 173 .50 27 .46 69 .36 98 .66 39 .86 55 .15

REMARK 1 xyz : 99 .53 31 .28 67 .37 172 .62 26 .59 68 .49 97 .79 38 .99 54 .28

REMARK 1 adp : 163 .67 26 .26 69 .86 172 .62 26 .59 68 .49 66 .68 35 .89 52 .10

REMARK l" occ : 163 .67 26 .26 69 .86 172 .62 26 .59 68 .49 66 .68 35 .89 52 .10

REMARK 2 bss : 163 .22 25 .82 69 .41 174 .53 26 .64 68 .49 61 .07 38 .80 50 .33

REMARK 2 sar : 163 .22 25 .82 69 .37 174 .53 26 .64 68 .49 61 .07 38 .80 50 .33

REMARK 2 fit: 163 .22 25 .82 69 .37 174 .56 26 .67 68 .52 61 .10 38 .83 46 .66

REMARK REMARK stage Deviation of refined

REMARK model from start model

REMARK max min mean

REMARK 0 0 , .000 0, .000 0 .000

REMARK 1 bss : 0 , .000 0, .000 0 .000

REMARK 1 rbr : 2 , .222 2 , .150 2 .188

REMARK 1 bss : 2 , .222 2 , .150 2 .188

REMARK 1 _fit: 8 , .290 0, .420 2 .307

REMARK 1 xyz : 8 , .288 0, .507 2 .324

REMARK 1 adp : 8 , .288 0, .507 2 .324

REMARK l" occ : 8 , .288 0, .507 2 .324

REMARK 2 bss : 8 , .288 0, .507 2 .324

REMARK 2 sar : 9, .001 0, .493 2 .411

REMARK 2 _fit: 9, .001 0, .480 2 .412

REMARK 2 xyz : 9, .178 0, .518 2 .422

REMARK 2 adp : 9, .178 0, .518 2 .422

REMARK 2 occ : 9, .178 0, .518 2 .422

REMARK 3 bss : 9, .178 0, .518 2 .422

REMARK 3 fit: 9, .178 0, .518 2 .423 REMARK 3_xyz : 9.175 0.593 2.433

REMARK 3_adp : 9.175 0.593 2.433

REMARK 3_occ : 9.175 0.593 2.433

REMARK 3 bss : 9.175 0.593 2.433

REMARK REMARK stage number of ordered solvent

REMARK 0 : 0

REMARK 1 bss : 0

REMARK 1 rbr : 0

REMARK 1 bss : 0

REMARK 1 fit: 0

REMARK 1 xyz : 0

REMARK 1 adp : 0

REMARK 1 occ : 0

REMARK 2 bss : 0

REMARK 2 sar : 11

REMARK 2 fit: 11

REMARK 2 xyz : 11

REMARK 2 adp : 11

REMARK 2 occ : 11

REMARK 3 bss : 11

REMARK 3_fit: 8

REMARK 3 xyz : 8

REMARK 3 adp : 8

REMARK 3 occ : 8

REMARK 3 bss : 5

REMARK REMARK MODEL CONTENT.

REMARK ELEMENT ATOM RECORD COUNT OCCUPANCY SUM REMARK C 1640 1621.00

REMARK S 12 12.00

REMARK O 470 464.00

REMARK N 402 397.00

REMARK TOTAL 2524 2494.00

REMARK REMARK r_free_flags .md5.hexdigest 130536f97c5a634ble93427cc8887fla

REMARK REMARK REFINEMENT .

REMARK PROGRAM PHENIX (phenix. refine: 1.6.1_357)

REMARK AUTHORS Adams , Afonine , Chen , Davis , Echols , Gopal ,

REMARK Grosse-Kunstleve , Headd, Hung, Immormino , loerger , McCoy, REMARK McKee , Moriarty, Pai , Read, Richardson, Richardson, Romo, REMARK Sacchettini , Sauter, Smith, Storoni, Terwilliger , Zwart REMARK REMARK REFINEMENT TARGET ML REMARK REMARK DATA USED IN REFINEMENT.

REMARK RESOLUTION RANGE HIGH (ANGSTROMS) 2.485

REMARK RESOLUTION RANGE LOW (ANGSTROMS) 45.444

REMARK MIN (FOBS/SIGMA_FOBS) 0.01

REMARK COMPLETENESS FOR RANGE (%) 91.17

REMARK NUMBER OF REFLECTIONS 10755

REMARK REMARK FIT TO DATA USED IN REFINEMENT.

REMARK R VALUE (WORKING + TEST SET) 0.2322

REMARK R VALUE (WORKING SET) 0.2284

REMARK FREE R VALUE 0.3032

REMARK FREE R VALUE TEST SET SIZE (%) 4.71

REMARK FREE R VALUE TEST SET COUNT 507

REMARK REMARK FIT TO DATA USED IN REFINEMENT (IN BINS) .

REMARK BIN RESOLUTION RANGE COMPL . NWORK NFREE RWORK RFREE REMARK 1 45.4520 - 3.9441 0.98 2804 151 0.1900 0.2596 REMARK 3.9441 3.1308 0.97 2713 132 2293 0.3307 REMARK 3.1308 2.7351 0.89 2519 110 2902 0.3834 REMARK 2.7351 2.4850 0.80 2212 114 3442 0.4128 REMARK REMARK BULK SOLVENT MODELLING.

REMARK METHOD USED : FLAT BULK SOLVENT MODEL

REMARK SOLVENT RADIUS : 1.11

REMARK SHRINKAGE RADIUS : 0.90

REMARK GRID STEP FACTOR : 4.00

REMARK K_SOL : 0.288

REMARK B SOL : 38.710

REMARK REMARK ERROR ESTIMATES.

REMARK COORDINATE ERROR (MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD BASED) .45 REMARK PHASE ERROR (DEGREES, MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD BASED) 8.00 REMARK REMARK OVERALL SCALE FACTORS .

REMARK SCALE = SUM ( I F_OBS I * I F_MODEL I ) /SUM ( I F_MODEL I **2) : 0.3065 REMARK ANISOTROPIC SCALE MATRIX ELEMENTS (IN CARTESIAN BAS IS) . REMARK Bll -7.4891

REMARK B22 16.4458

REMARK B33 -8.9567

REMARK B12 0.0000

REMARK B13 -5.5598

REMARK B23 0.0000

REMARK REMARK R FACTOR FORMULA.

REMARK R = SUM ( I I F OBS | SCALE* I F MODEL | | ) /SUM ( | F OBS | )

REMARK REMARK TOTAL MODEL STRUCTURE FACTOR (F_MODEL) .

REMARK F_MODEL = FB_CART * (F_CALC_ATOMS + F_BULK)

REMARK F_BULK = K_SOL * EXP(-B_SOL * S**2 / 4) * F_MASK

REMARK F_CALC_ATOMS = ATOMIC MODEL STRUCTURE FACTORS

REMARK FB_CART = EXP(-H(t) * A(-l) * B * A (-It) * H)

REMARK A = orthogonalization matrix, H = MILLER INDEX

REMARK (t) = TRANSPOSE, (-1) = INVERSE

REMARK REMARK STRUCTURE FACTORS CALCULATION ALGORITHM FFT REMARK REMARK DEVIATIONS FROM IDEAL REMARK RMSD MAX COUNT REMARK BOND 0.009 051 2574

REMARK ANGLE .278 449 3478

REMARK CHIRALITY .083 412 388

REMARK PLANARITY .005 047 446

REMARK DIHEDRAL .495 180 982

REMARK MIN NONBONDED DISTANCE : 2 165

REMARK REMARK ATOMIC DISPLACEMENT PARAMETERS.

REMARK WILSON B : None

REMARK RMS (B ISO OR EQUIVALENT BONDED) 7.4£

REMARK ATOMS NUMBER OF ATOMS REMARK ISO. ANISO.

REMARK ALL 2524 0

REMARK ALL (NO H) 2524 0

REMARK SOLVENT 5 0

REMARK NON-SOLVENT 2519 0

REMARK HYDROGENS 0 0

REMARK [00233] Table 4: Atomic Coordinates for Residues of a Crystal Structure of Ancestral Enzyme Thioredoxin AECA

CRYSTl 37. , 573 48 , .783 91. 033 90.00 ! 93.22 90.00 p : 1 21 . 1

SCALE1 0.026615 0. 000000 0 001500 0 00000

SCALE2 0.000000 0. 020499 0 000000 0 00000

SCALE3 0.000000 0. 000000 0 011002 0 00000

ATOM 1 N SER A 1 18 .325 18 .563 30 .461 1 .00 93. .03 N

ATOM 2 CA SER A 1 17 .742 17 .660 31 .452 1 .00 95. .56 C

ATOM 3 CB SER A 1 16 .427 17 .069 30 .946 1 .00 89. .37 C

ATOM 4 OG SER A 1 15 .755 16 .394 31 .990 1 .00 98. .90 0

ATOM 5 C SER A 1 18 .726 16 .551 31 .847 1 .00 93. .26 c

ATOM 6 O SER A 1 19 .647 16 .804 32 .621 1 .00 94. .14 0

ATOM 7 N VAL A 2 18 .536 15 .335 31 .331 1 .00 63. .44 N

ATOM 8 CA VAL A 2 19 .472 14 .237 31 .601 1 .00 64. .27 c

ATOM 9 CB VAL A 2 19 .418 13 .136 30 .509 1 .00 54. .51 c

ATOM 10 CGI VAL A 2 20 .456 12 .086 30 .797 1 .00 54. .85 c

ATOM 11 CG2 VAL A 2 18 .056 12 .486 30 .449 1 .00 57. .38 c

ATOM 12 C VAL A 2 20 .923 14 .719 31 .729 1 .00 60. .52 c

ATOM 13 O VAL A 2 21 .687 14 .680 30 .769 1 .00 61. .25 0

ATOM 14 N ILE A 3 21 .297 15 .182 32 .914 1 .00 76. .52 N

ATOM 15 CA ILE A 3 22 .631 15 .739 33 .111 1 .00 82. .49 c

ATOM 16 CB ILE A 3 22 .777 16 .448 34 .488 1 .00 75. .29 c

ATOM 17 CGI ILE A 3 24 .249 16 .775 34 .797 1 .00 81. .94 c

ATOM 18 CD1 ILE A 3 24 .866 17 .886 33 .926 1 .00 82. .01 c

ATOM 19 CG2 ILE A 3 22 .182 15 .603 35 .588 1 .00 74. .23 c

ATOM 20 C ILE A 3 23 .693 14 .664 32 .953 1 .00 77. .76 c

ATOM 21 O ILE A 3 23 .445 13 .493 33 .221 1 .00 79. .68 0

ATOM 22 N GLU A 4 24 .869 15 .072 32 .497 1 .00 68. .06 N

ATOM 23 CA GLU A 4 25 .980 14 .160 32 .314 1 .00 67. .25 c

ATOM 24 CB GLU A 4 26 .657 14 .414 30 .970 1 .00 78. .88 c

ATOM 25 CG GLU A 4 26 .798 15 .892 30 .611 1 .00 88. .69 c

ATOM 26 CD GLU A 4 25 .528 16 .489 30 .011 1 .00 87. .15 c

ATOM 27 OE1 GLU A 4 25 .146 16 .067 28 .896 1 .00 82. .96 0

ATOM 28 OE2 GLU A 4 24 .915 17 .378 30 .651 1 .00 79. .79 0

ATOM 29 C GLU A 4 26 .950 14 .411 33 .433 1 .00 78. .75 c

ATOM 30 O GLU A 4 27 .749 15 .343 33 .380 1 .00 89. .72 0

ATOM 31 N ILE A 5 26 .876 13 .589 34 .465 1 .00 61. .04 N

ATOM 32 CA ILE A 5 27 .680 13 .846 35 .641 1 .00 58. .02 c

ATOM 33 CB ILE A 5 26 .984 13 .325 36 .915 1 .00 59. .29 c

ATOM 34 CGI ILE A 5 27 .476 11 .924 37 .269 1 .00 61. .82 c

ATOM 35 CD1 ILE A 5 28 .652 11 .900 38 .232 1 .00 65. .42 c

ATOM 36 CG2 ILE A 5 25 .474 13 .315 36 .751 1 .00 54. .50 c

ATOM 37 C ILE A 5 29 .083 13 .236 35 .512 1 .00 61. .60 c

ATOM 38 O ILE A 5 29 .248 12 .142 34 .960 1 .00 49. .59 0

ATOM 39 N ASN A 6 30 .079 13 .960 36 .029 1 .00 73. .16 N

ATOM 40 CA ASN A 6 31 .471 13 .506 36 .097 1 .00 71. .38 c

ATOM 41 CB ASN A 6 32 .326 14 .337 35 .156 1 .00 72. .01 c

ATOM 42 CG ASN A 6 32 .189 15 .818 35 .425 1 .00 77. .59 c

ATOM 43 OD1 ASN A 6 32 .898 16 .370 36 .270 1 .00 81. .58 0

ATOM 44 ND2 ASN A 6 31 .259 16 .470 34 .725 1 .00 69. .66 N

ATOM 45 C ASN A 6 32 .026 13 .649 37 .510 1 .00 74. .67 c

ATOM 46 O ASN A 6 31 .438 14 .338 38 .349 1 .00 72. .89 0

ATOM 47 N ASP A 7 33 .175 13 .022 37 .758 1 .00 96. .40 N

ATOM 48 CA ASP A 7 33 .815 12 .995 39 .090 1 .00102. .57 c

ATOM 49 CB ASP A 7 35 .270 12 .508 38 .978 1 .00 90. .00 c

ATOM 50 CG ASP A 7 35 .411 11 .225 38 .150 1 .00 96. .84 c

ATOM 51 OD1 ASP A 7 35 .570 11 .312 36 .908 1 .00 93. .02 0

ATOM 52 OD2 ASP A 7 35 .387 10 .125 38 .744 1 .00 96. .83 0

ATOM 53 C ASP A 7 33 .788 14 .302 39 .910 1 .00 98. .35 c ATOM 54 O ASP A 7 33..919 14.266 41.132 1.00 99.35 O

ATOM 55 N GLU A 8 33. .624 15.439 39.240 1.00 94.34 N

ATOM 56 CA GLU A 8 33. .701 16.747 39.892 1.00 93.93 C

ATOM 57 CB GLU A 8 34. .539 17.708 39.045 1.00104.22 C

ATOM 58 CG GLU A 8 35. .984 17.849 39.531 1.00109.88 C

ATOM 59 CD GLU A 8 36. .678 16.502 39.713 1.00112.71 C

ATOM 60 OE1 GLU A 8 36. .910 16.108 40.878 1.00110.85 O

ATOM 61 OE2 GLU A 8 36. .992 15.846 38.691 1.00115.09 O

ATOM 62 C GLU A 8 32. .355 17.374 40.243 1.00 89.65 C

ATOM 63 O GLU A 8 32. .095 17.682 41.410 1.00 84.85 O

ATOM 64 N ASN A 9 31. .504 17.569 39.238 1.00 70.09 N

ATOM 65 CA ASN A 9 30. .125 17.996 39.496 1.00 68.14 C

ATOM 66 CB ASN A 9 29. .423 18.422 38.203 1.00 69.98 C

ATOM 67 CG ASN A 9 28. .974 17.231 37.340 1.00 70.02 C

ATOM 68 OD1 ASN A 9 28. .025 17.342 36.557 1.00 65.59 O

ATOM 69 ND2 ASN A 9 29. .652 16.097 37.482 1.00 65.99 N

ATOM 70 C ASN A 9 29. .277 16.953 40.248 1.00 62.48 C

ATOM 71 O ASN A 9 28. .146 17.229 40.618 1.00 62.41 O

ATOM 72 N PHE A 10 29. .834 15.770 40.498 1.00 73.47 N

ATOM 73 CA PHE A 10 29. .079 14.673 41.116 1.00 71.62 C

ATOM 74 CB PHE A 10 29. .983 13.519 41.562 1.00 70.83 C

ATOM 75 CG PHE A 10 29. .223 12.402 42.240 1.00 74.73 C

ATOM 76 CD2 PHE A 10 28. .534 11.456 41.484 1.00 75.00 C

ATOM 77 CE2 PHE A 10 27. .816 10.435 42.086 1.00 66.17 C

ATOM 78 CZ PHE A 10 27. .767 10.352 43.473 1.00 72.89 C

ATOM 79 CE1 PHE A 10 28. .434 11.289 44.243 1.00 68.64 C

ATOM 80 CD1 PHE A 10 29. .154 12.319 43.623 1.00 71.79 C

ATOM 81 C PHE A 10 28. .210 15.053 42.301 1.00 76.07 C

ATOM 82 O PHE A 10 27. .230 14.376 42.602 1.00 81.66 O

ATOM 83 N ASP A 11 28. .577 16.113 43.001 1.00 93.76 N

ATOM 84 CA ASP A 11 27. .897 16.415 44.250 1.00 86.23 C

ATOM 85 CB ASP A 11 28. .820 17.152 45.203 1.00 90.97 C

ATOM 86 CG ASP A 11 30. .026 16.311 45.582 1.00 96.54 C

ATOM 87 OD1 ASP A 11 30. .474 15.501 44.738 1.00 95.75 O

ATOM 88 OD2 ASP A 11 30. .523 16.442 46.718 1.00103.21 O

ATOM 89 C ASP A 11 26. .579 17.129 44.034 1.00 89.66 C

ATOM 90 O ASP A 11 26. .232 18.057 44.755 1.00 87.34 O

ATOM 91 N AGLU A 12 25. .859 16.671 43.011 1.00 95.44 N

ATOM 92 CA AGLU A 12 24. .486 17.080 42.746 1.00 96.77 C

ATOM 93 CB AGLU A 12 24. .349 17.496 41.292 1.00 93.86 C

ATOM 94 CG AGLU A 12 25. .441 18.483 40.919 1.00 99.84 C

ATOM 95 CD AGLU A 12 25. .920 19.307 42.128 1.00102.33 C

ATOM 96 OE1AGLU A 12 27. .153 19.363 42.381 1.00 96.27 O

ATOM 97 OE2AGLU A 12 25. .056 19.889 42.830 1.00 98.47 O

ATOM 98 C AGLU A 12 23. .618 15.891 43.081 1.00 92.75 C

ATOM 99 O AGLU A 12 22. .412 15.878 42.872 1.00 87.89 O

ATOM 100 N BGLU A 12 25. .846 16.698 43.014 0.00 95.31 N

ATOM 101 CA BGLU A 12 24. .475 17.142 42.827 0.00 96.51 C

ATOM 102 CB BGLU A 12 24. .205 17.518 41.368 0.00 93.89 C

ATOM 103 CG BGLU A 12 23. .983 16.344 40.436 0.00 90.85 C

ATOM 104 CD BGLU A 12 25. .275 15.800 39.866 0.00 91.65 C

ATOM 105 OE1BGLU A 12 25. .838 16.450 38.962 0.00 92.17 O

ATOM 106 OE2BGLU A 12 25. .728 14.727 40.317 0.00 92.30 O

ATOM 107 C BGLU A 12 23. .609 15.975 43.272 0.00 92.78 C

ATOM 108 O BGLU A 12 22. .383 16.053 43.301 0.00 89.36 O

ATOM 109 N VAL A 13 24. .291 14.889 43.624 1.00 82.34 N

ATOM 110 CA VAL A 13 23. .678 13.726 44.207 1.00 82.59 C

ATOM 111 CB VAL A 13 24. .518 12.487 43.847 1.00 78.66 C

ATOM 112 CGI VAL A 13 24. .043 11.276 44.614 1.00 74.13 C

ATOM 113 CG2 VAL A 13 24. .488 12.238 42.346 1.00 77.77 C

ATOM 114 C VAL A 13 23. .709 13.934 45.729 1.00 85.18 C

ATOM 115 O VAL A 13 22. .894 13.369 46.474 1.00 77.97 O

ATOM 116 N ILE A 14 24. .654 14.768 46.171 1.00 80.06 N ATOM 117 CA ILE A 14 24..880 15..035 47..597 1 ,.00 84..88 C

ATOM 118 CB ILE A 14 26. .403 14. .894 48. .015 1 , .00 80. .37 C

ATOM 119 CGI ILE A 14 27. .000 13. .556 47. .575 1 , .00 69. .92 C

ATOM 120 CD1 ILE A 14 28. .332 13. .228 48. .239 1 , .00 64. .35 C

ATOM 121 CG2 ILE A 14 26. .571 14. .985 49. .514 1 , .00 91. .17 C

ATOM 122 C ILE A 14 24. .339 16. .409 48. .045 1 , .00 88. .80 C

ATOM 123 O ILE A 14 24. .547 16. .825 49. .189 1 , .00 93. .22 O

ATOM 124 N LYS A 15 23. .641 17. .115 47. .159 1 , .00 84. .90 N

ATOM 125 CA LYS A 15 23. .075 18. .413 47. .537 1 , .00 84. .96 C

ATOM 126 CB LYS A 15 24. .014 19. .548 47. .117 1 , .00 92. .62 C

ATOM 127 CG LYS A 15 25. .493 19. .251 47. .346 1 , .00 91. .34 c

ATOM 128 CD LYS A 15 26. .381 20. .084 46. .441 1 , .00 83. .09 c

ATOM 129 CE LYS A 15 26. .775 21. .400 47. .069 1 , .00 87. .11 c

ATOM 130 NZ LYS A 15 27. .702 22. .143 46. .153 1 , .00 74. .02 N

ATOM 131 C LYS A 15 21. .667 18. .645 46. .967 1 , .00 82. .89 c

ATOM 132 O LYS A 15 21. .323 19. .759 46. .552 1 , .00 77. .76 0

ATOM 133 N LYS A 16 20. .852 17. .596 46. .956 1 , .00 80. .48 N

ATOM 134 CA LYS A 16 19. .491 17. .713 46. .456 1 , .00 81. .00 c

ATOM 135 CB LYS A 16 19. .392 17. .217 45. .007 1 , .00 79. .63 c

ATOM 136 CG LYS A 16 18. .033 17. .485 44. .339 1 , .00 76. .94 c

ATOM 137 CD LYS A 16 17. .866 18. .938 43. .819 1 , .00 78. .71 c

ATOM 138 CE LYS A 16 17. .916 20. .013 44. .931 1 , .00 80. .92 c

ATOM 139 NZ LYS A 16 16. .731 20. .030 45. .865 1 , .00 78. .45 N

ATOM 140 C LYS A 16 18. .509 16. .944 47. .317 1 , .00 78. .57 c

ATOM 141 O LYS A 16 18. .801 15. .837 47. .778 1 , .00 73. .23 0

ATOM 142 N ASP A 17 17. .336 17. .533 47. .518 1 , .00 68. .38 N

ATOM 143 CA ASP A 17 16. .276 16. .859 48. .248 1 , .00 62. .15 c

ATOM 144 CB ASP A 17 15. .275 17. .883 48. .797 1 , .00 68. .54 c

ATOM 145 CG ASP A 17 15. .684 18. .464 50. .148 1 , .00 67. .94 c

ATOM 146 OD1 ASP A 17 14. .774 18. .876 50. .905 1 , .00 58. .95 0

ATOM 147 OD2 ASP A 17 16. .898 18. .513 50. .447 1 , .00 76. .04 0

ATOM 148 C ASP A 17 15. .557 15. .875 47. .323 1 , .00 73. .48 c

ATOM 149 O ASP A 17 14. .738 15. .073 47. .779 1 , .00 72. .90 0

ATOM 150 N LYS A 18 15. .877 15. .947 46. .025 1 , .00 72. .08 N

ATOM 151 CA LYS A 18 15. .144 15. .237 44. .963 1 , .00 64. .54 c

ATOM 152 CB LYS A 18 14. .957 16. .153 43. .739 1 , .00 57. .20 c

ATOM 153 CG LYS A 18 13. .611 16. .856 43. .685 1 , .00 59. .65 c

ATOM 154 CD LYS A 18 13. .261 17. .513 45. .023 1 , .00 76. .14 c

ATOM 155 CE LYS A 18 11. .780 17. .941 45. .115 1 , .00 68. .61 c

ATOM 156 NZ LYS A 18 11. .439 18. .690 46. .391 1 , .00 46. .87 N

ATOM 157 C LYS A 18 15. .819 13. .936 44. .531 1 , .00 58. .93 c

ATOM 158 O LYS A 18 17. .034 13. .892 44. .352 1 , .00 64. .80 0

ATOM 159 N VAL A 19 15. .030 12. .881 44. .361 1 , .00 46. .98 N

ATOM 160 CA VAL A 19 15. .556 11. .609 43. .882 1 , .00 48. .15 c

ATOM 161 CB VAL A 19 14. .424 10. .613 43. .613 1 , .00 51. .03 c

ATOM 162 CGI VAL A 19 14. .988 9. .218 43. .324 1 , .00 44. .51 c

ATOM 163 CG2 VAL A 19 13. .493 10. .565 44. .788 1 , .00 54. .70 c

ATOM 164 C VAL A 19 16. .390 11. .760 42. .607 1 , .00 47. .76 c

ATOM 165 O VAL A 19 15. .907 12. .203 41. .568 1 , .00 52. .65 0

ATOM 166 N VAL A 20 17. .649 11. .372 42. .692 1 , .00 42. .79 N

ATOM 167 CA VAL A 20 18. .532 11. .390 41. .542 1 , .00 38. .05 c

ATOM 168 CB VAL A 20 19. .954 11. .887 41. .911 1 , .00 38. .95 c

ATOM 169 CGI VAL A 20 20. .823 11. .924 40. .690 1 , .00 43. .85 c

ATOM 170 CG2 VAL A 20 19. .901 13. .273 42. .532 1 , .00 34. .16 c

ATOM 171 C VAL A 20 18. .617 9. .974 40. .995 1 , .00 32. .43 c

ATOM 172 O VAL A 20 18. .954 9. .016 41. .704 1 , .00 29. .51 0

ATOM 173 N VAL A 21 18. .272 9. .830 39. .730 1 , .00 45. .32 N

ATOM 174 CA VAL A 21 18. .428 8. .552 39. .080 1 , .00 46. .21 c

ATOM 175 CB VAL A 21 17. .229 8. .203 38. .223 1 , .00 43. .66 c

ATOM 176 CGI VAL A 21 17. .588 7. .049 37. .299 1 , .00 36. .41 c

ATOM 177 CG2 VAL A 21 16. .049 7. .872 39. .114 1 , .00 43. .66 c

ATOM 178 C VAL A 21 19. .634 8. .658 38. .193 1 , .00 40. .45 c

ATOM 179 O VAL A 21 19. .712 9. .548 37. .349 1 , .00 43. .66 0 ATOM 180 N VAL A 22 20..584 7..760 38..390 1 ,.00 34..03 N

ATOM 181 CA VAL A 22 21. .810 7. .815 37. .612 1 , .00 42. .77 C

ATOM 182 CB VAL A 22 23. .049 8. .363 38. .417 1 , .00 36. .79 C

ATOM 183 CGI VAL A 22 23. .152 7. .715 39. .732 1 , .00 37. .85 c

ATOM 184 CG2 VAL A 22 24. .357 8. .161 37. .636 1 , .00 38. .48 c

ATOM 185 C VAL A 22 22. .088 6. .501 36. .894 1 , .00 34. .67 c

ATOM 186 O VAL A 22 21. .996 5. .416 37. .462 1 , .00 36. .22 0

ATOM 187 N ASP A 23 22. .437 6. .646 35. .626 1 , .00 27. .78 N

ATOM 188 CA ASP A 23 22. .554 5. .555 34. .701 1 , .00 29. .29 c

ATOM 189 CB ASP A 23 21. .702 5. .905 33. .474 1 , .00 40. .54 c

ATOM 190 CG ASP A 23 21. .840 4. .910 32. .346 1 , .00 46. .95 c

ATOM 191 OD1 ASP A 23 22. .114 3. .709 32. .595 1 , .00 50. .35 0

ATOM 192 OD2 ASP A 23 21. .648 5. .332 31. .187 1 , .00 59. .45 0

ATOM 193 C ASP A 23 24. .020 5. .400 34. .336 1 , .00 32. .65 c

ATOM 194 O ASP A 23 24. .677 6. .354 33. .930 1 , .00 34. .36 0

ATOM 195 N PHE A 24 24. .543 4. .195 34. .495 1 , .00 40. .40 N

ATOM 196 CA PHE A 24 25. .948 3. .955 34. .225 1 , .00 41. .68 c

ATOM 197 CB PHE A 24 26. .553 3. .093 35. .335 1 , .00 47. .07 c

ATOM 198 CG PHE A 24 26. .608 3. .780 36. .668 1 , .00 48. .84 c

ATOM 199 CD2 PHE A 24 27. .632 4. .678 36. .968 1 , .00 54. .62 c

ATOM 200 CE2 PHE A 24 27. .674 5. .329 38. .205 1 , .00 52. .58 c

ATOM 201 CZ PHE A 24 26. .694 5. .084 39. .144 1 , .00 50. .65 c

ATOM 202 CE1 PHE A 24 25. .669 4. .191 38. .859 1 , .00 51. .01 c

ATOM 203 CD1 PHE A 24 25. .630 3. .544 37. .622 1 , .00 48. .65 c

ATOM 204 C PHE A 24 26. .043 3. .226 32. .913 1 , .00 41. .92 c

ATOM 205 O PHE A 24 25. .516 2. .130 32. .786 1 , .00 42. .21 0

ATOM 206 N TRP A 25 26. .719 3. .818 31. .935 1 , .00 40. .66 N

ATOM 207 CA TRP A 25 26. .711 3. .270 30. .577 1 , .00 43. .71 c

ATOM 208 CB TRP A 25 25. .732 4. .069 29. .712 1 , .00 39. .40 c

ATOM 209 CG TRP A 25 26. .231 5. .477 29. .562 1 , .00 38. .20 c

ATOM 210 CD1 TRP A 25 26. .342 6. .413 30. .557 1 , .00 43. .71 c

ATOM 211 NE1 TRP A 25 26. .876 7. .571 30. .055 1 , .00 44. .68 N

ATOM 212 CE2 TRP A 25 27. .139 7. .400 28. .721 1 , .00 38. .78 c

ATOM 213 CD2 TRP A 25 26. .751 6. .086 28. .378 1 , .00 33. .04 c

ATOM 214 CE3 TRP A 25 26. .917 5. .657 27. .060 1 , .00 35. .02 c

ATOM 215 CZ3 TRP A 25 27. .449 6. .540 26. .136 1 , .00 37. .50 c

ATOM 216 CH2 TRP A 25 27. .829 7. .845 26. .511 1 , .00 43. .16 c

ATOM 217 CZ2 TRP A 25 27. .683 8. .287 27. .799 1 , .00 43. .79 c

ATOM 218 C TRP A 25 28. .104 3. .388 29. .961 1 , .00 46. .18 c

ATOM 219 O TRP A 25 29. .066 3. .811 30. .625 1 , .00 40. .29 0

ATOM 220 N ALA A 26 28. .191 3. .045 28. .675 1 , .00 33. .67 N

ATOM 221 CA ALA A 26 29. .414 3. .205 27. .929 1 , .00 32. .26 c

ATOM 222 CB ALA A 26 30. .515 2. .283 28. .497 1 , .00 41. .42 c

ATOM 223 C ALA A 26 29. .198 2. .935 26. .465 1 , .00 31. .60 c

ATOM 224 O ALA A 26 28. .469 2. .018 26. .087 1 , .00 38. .72 0

ATOM 225 N GLU A 27 29. .866 3. .723 25. .638 1 , .00 34. .85 N

ATOM 226 CA GLU A 27 29. .734 3. .614 24. .205 1 , .00 36. .73 c

ATOM 227 CB GLU A 27 30. .776 4. .481 23. .520 1 , .00 38. .76 c

ATOM 228 CG GLU A 27 30. .297 5. .037 22. .179 1 , .00 52. .02 c

ATOM 229 CD GLU A 27 29. .128 5. .996 22. .328 1 , .00 59. .51 c

ATOM 230 OE1 GLU A 27 29. .331 7. .122 22. .838 1 , .00 58. .26 0

ATOM 231 OE2 GLU A 27 27. .995 5. .608 21. .957 1 , .00 66. .32 0

ATOM 232 C GLU A 27 29. .732 2. .186 23. .640 1 , .00 43. .36 c

ATOM 233 O GLU A 27 29. .006 1. .891 22. .674 1 , .00 47. .24 0

ATOM 234 N TRP A 28 30. .531 1. .298 24. .215 1 , .00 38. .70 N

ATOM 235 CA TRP A 28 30. .633 -0. .061 23. .665 1 , .00 40. .05 c

ATOM 236 CB TRP A 28 31. .995 -0. .685 24. .006 1 , .00 39. .35 c

ATOM 237 CG TRP A 28 32. .297 -0. .554 25. .466 1 , .00 36. .23 c

ATOM 238 CD1 TRP A 28 33. .007 0. .453 26. .074 1 , .00 36. .47 c

ATOM 239 NE1 TRP A 28 33. .045 0. .237 27. .440 1 , .00 43. .64 N

ATOM 240 CE2 TRP A 28 32. .344 -0. .905 27. .734 1 , .00 38. .86 c

ATOM 241 CD2 TRP A 28 31. .862 -1. .435 26. .515 1 , .00 30. .95 c

ATOM 242 CE3 TRP A 28 31. .098 -2. .608 26. .543 1 , .00 42. .18 c ATOM 243 CZ3 TRP A 28 30..851 -3..219 27..778 1 ,.00 41..80 C

ATOM 244 CH2 TRP A 28 31. .348 -2. .665 28. .967 1 , .00 38. .31 C

ATOM 245 CZ2 TRP A 28 32. .089 -1. .509 28. .966 1 , .00 33. .73 C

ATOM 246 C TRP A 28 29. .516 -0. .971 24. .171 1 , .00 35. .51 C

ATOM 247 O TRP A 28 29. .500 -2. .157 23. .883 1 , .00 43. .56 O

ATOM 248 N CYS A 29 28. .575 -0. .439 24. .932 1 , .00 38. .50 N

ATOM 249 CA CYS A 29 27. .582 -1. .316 25. .552 1 , .00 44. .43 C

ATOM 250 CB CYS A 29 27. .392 -0. .947 27. .024 1 , .00 44. .93 C

ATOM 251 SG CYS A 29 26. .007 -1. .798 27. .803 1 , .00 50. .55 s

ATOM 252 C CYS A 29 26. .240 -1. .364 24. .812 1 , .00 44. .88 c

ATOM 253 O CYS A 29 25. .497 -0. .370 24. .753 1 , .00 43. .32 0

ATOM 254 N GLY A 30 25. .943 -2. .532 24. .258 1 , .00 52. .78 N

ATOM 255 CA GLY A 30 24. .747 -2. .721 23. .468 1 , .00 55. .23 c

ATOM 256 C GLY A 30 23. .499 -2. .497 24. .284 1 , .00 56. .80 c

ATOM 257 O GLY A 30 22. .715 -1. .588 23. .986 1 , .00 54. .84 0

ATOM 258 N PRO A 31 23. .305 -3. .336 25. .310 1 , .00 48. .40 N

ATOM 259 CA PRO A 31 22. .186 -3. .256 26. .253 1 , .00 48. .15 c

ATOM 260 CB PRO A 31 22. .612 -4. .201 27. .370 1 , .00 43. .17 c

ATOM 261 CG PRO A 31 23. .353 -5. .277 26. .658 1 , .00 42. .21 c

ATOM 262 CD PRO A 31 24. .057 -4. .594 25. .466 1 , .00 45. .02 c

ATOM 263 C PRO A 31 21. .960 -1. .860 26. .798 1 , .00 50. .22 c

ATOM 264 O PRO A 31 20. .826 -1. .514 27. .131 1 , .00 52. .28 0

ATOM 265 N CYS A 32 23. .008 -1. .056 26. .868 1 , .00 38. .97 N

ATOM 266 CA CYS A 32 22. .851 0. .298 27. .377 1 , .00 43. .30 c

ATOM 267 CB CYS A 32 24. .219 0. .949 27. .599 1 , .00 50. .17 c

ATOM 268 SG CYS A 32 25. .334 -0. .040 28. .648 1 , .00 58. .61 s

ATOM 269 C CYS A 32 22. .047 1. .136 26. .401 1 , .00 47. .60 c

ATOM 270 O CYS A 32 21. .446 2. .146 26. .771 1 , .00 49. .30 0

ATOM 271 N ARG A 33 22. .057 0. .718 25. .139 1 , .00 51. .00 N

ATOM 272 CA ARG A 33 21. .318 1. .417 24. .100 1 , .00 46. .52 c

ATOM 273 C ARG A 33 19. .815 1. .196 24. .257 1 , .00 45. .22 c

ATOM 274 O ARG A 33 19. .016 1. .997 23. .783 1 , .00 48. .76 0

ATOM 275 CB ARG A 33 21. .782 0. .965 22. .723 1 , .00 45. .56 c

ATOM 276 CG ARG A 33 23. .195 1. .373 22. .411 1 , .00 46. .47 c

ATOM 277 CD ARG A 33 23. .806 0. .573 21. .258 1 , .00 39. .31 c

ATOM 278 NE ARG A 33 25. .171 1. .023 21. .055 1 , .00 47. .75 N

ATOM 279 CZ ARG A 33 26. .187 0. .249 20. .707 1 , .00 49. .20 c

ATOM 280 NH1 ARG A 33 26. .008 -1. .041 20. .467 1 , .00 47. .25 N

ATOM 281 NH2 ARG A 33 27. .384 0. .790 20. .590 1 , .00 50. .60 N

ATOM 282 N MET A 34 19. .422 0. .117 24. .921 1 , .00 44. .44 N

ATOM 283 CA MET A 34 18. .007 -0. .054 25. .222 1 , .00 55. .68 C

ATOM 284 C MET A 34 17. .455 1. .069 26. .113 1 , .00 53. .24 c

ATOM 285 O MET A 34 16. .485 1. .723 25. .746 1 , .00 53. .05 0

ATOM 286 CB MET A 34 17. .712 -1. .456 25. .767 1 , .00 51. .44 c

ATOM 287 CG MET A 34 17. .687 -2. .508 24. .663 1 , .00 43. .70 c

ATOM 288 SD MET A 34 18. .086 -4. .175 25. .212 1 , .00 62. .13 s

ATOM 289 CE MET A 34 16. .486 -4. .717 25. .777 1 , .00 57. .11 c

ATOM 290 N ILE A 35 18. .080 1. .338 27. .252 1 , .00 41. .35 N

ATOM 291 CA ILE A 35 17. .477 2. .311 28. .161 1 , .00 45. .25 c

ATOM 292 CB ILE A 35 17. .625 1. .905 29. .617 1 , .00 57. .49 c

ATOM 293 CGI ILE A 35 19. .096 1. .858 30. .020 1 , .00 48. .32 c

ATOM 294 CD1 ILE A 35 19. .306 0. .990 31. .288 1 , .00 40. .60 c

ATOM 295 CG2 ILE A 35 16. .915 0. .559 29. .867 1 , .00 60. .05 c

ATOM 296 C ILE A 35 17. .837 3. .784 28. .000 1 , .00 47. .14 c

ATOM 297 O ILE A 35 17. .153 4. .661 28. .552 1 , .00 40. .82 0

ATOM 298 N ALA A 36 18. .905 4. .054 27. .257 1 , .00 47. .27 N

ATOM 299 CA ALA A 36 19. .294 5. .432 26. .958 1 , .00 43. .95 c

ATOM 300 CB ALA A 36 20. .377 5. .456 25. .916 1 , .00 43. .77 c

ATOM 301 C ALA A 36 18. .104 6. .294 26. .505 1 , .00 44. .39 c

ATOM 302 O ALA A 36 17. .889 7. .382 27. .032 1 , .00 44. .41 0

ATOM 303 N PRO A 37 17. .326 5. .806 25. .523 1 , .00 39. .47 N

ATOM 304 CA PRO A 37 16. .149 6. .543 25. .044 1 , .00 44. .55 c

ATOM 305 CB PRO A 37 15. .601 5. .632 23. .948 1 , .00 40. .58 c ATOM 306 CG PRO A 37 16..147 4..254 24..284 1 ,.00 42..38 C

ATOM 307 CD PRO A 37 17. .499 4. .524 24. .812 1 , .00 38. .01 C

ATOM 308 C PRO A 37 15. .072 6. .723 26. .121 1 , .00 42. .99 C

ATOM 309 O PRO A 37 14. .384 7. .756 26. .107 1 , .00 35. .37 O

ATOM 310 N ILE A 38 14. .938 5. .726 27. .005 1 , .00 37. .72 N

ATOM 311 CA ILE A 38 13. .970 5. .709 28. .111 1 , .00 43. .02 C

ATOM 312 CB ILE A 38 13. .783 4. .289 28. .656 1 , .00 43. .66 C

ATOM 313 CGI ILE A 38 13. .147 3. .382 27. .605 1 , .00 42. .38 c

ATOM 314 CD1 ILE A 38 12. .943 1. .953 28. .095 1 , .00 42. .09 c

ATOM 315 CG2 ILE A 38 12. .971 4. .307 29. .947 1 , .00 35. .62 c

ATOM 316 C ILE A 38 14. .332 6. .607 29. .307 1 , .00 45. .32 c

ATOM 317 O ILE A 38 13. .458 7. .199 29. .965 1 , .00 38. .85 0

ATOM 318 N ILE A 39 15. .614 6. .686 29. .636 1 , .00 55. .36 N

ATOM 319 CA ILE A 39 15. .987 7. .617 30. .684 1 , .00 54. .74 c

ATOM 320 CB ILE A 39 17. .488 7. .528 31. .081 1 , .00 50. .42 c

ATOM 321 CGI ILE A 39 17. .707 6. .418 32. .111 1 , .00 47. .26 c

ATOM 322 CD1 ILE A 39 17. .695 5. .035 31. .522 1 , .00 55. .04 c

ATOM 323 CG2 ILE A 39 17. .948 8. .819 31. .697 1 , .00 47. .52 c

ATOM 324 C ILE A 39 15. .602 8. .991 30. .163 1 , .00 51. .78 c

ATOM 325 O ILE A 39 15. .035 9. .792 30. .889 1 , .00 55. .74 0

ATOM 326 N GLU A 40 15. .867 9. .231 28. .881 1 , .00 51. .45 N

ATOM 327 CA GLU A 40 15. .653 10. .546 28. .271 1 , .00 57. .83 c

ATOM 328 CB GLU A 40 16. .241 10. .588 26. .854 1 , .00 58. .08 c

ATOM 329 CG GLU A 40 17. .765 10. .442 26. .786 1 , .00 68. .61 c

ATOM 330 CD GLU A 40 18. .542 11. .730 27. .122 1 , .00 80. .83 c

ATOM 331 OE1 GLU A 40 17. .926 12. .829 27. .167 1 , .00 78. .79 0

ATOM 332 OE2 GLU A 40 19. .781 11. .630 27. .329 1 , .00 71. .59 0

ATOM 333 C GLU A 40 14. .191 11. .047 28. .282 1 , .00 55. .84 c

ATOM 334 O GLU A 40 13. .945 12. .214 28. .577 1 , .00 50. .91 0

ATOM 335 N GLU A 41 13. .227 10. .181 27. .976 1 , .00 59. .10 N

ATOM 336 CA GLU A 41 11. .818 10. .598 27. .996 1 , .00 62. .42 c

ATOM 337 CB GLU A 41 10. .979 9. .844 26. .947 1 , .00 70. .65 c

ATOM 338 CG GLU A 41 10. .362 8. .593 27. .480 1 , .00 73. .03 c

ATOM 339 CD GLU A 41 11. .367 7. .824 28. .277 1 , .00 74. .65 c

ATOM 340 OE1 GLU A 41 12. .529 7. .813 27. .828 1 , .00 76. .53 0

ATOM 341 OE2 GLU A 41 11. .024 7. .279 29. .352 1 , .00 75. .48 0

ATOM 342 C GLU A 41 11. .166 10. .520 29. .382 1 , .00 68. .27 c

ATOM 343 O GLU A 41 10. .053 10. .997 29. .567 1 , .00 67. .91 0

ATOM 344 N LEU A 42 11. .856 9. .917 30. .350 1 , .00 60. .11 N

ATOM 345 CA LEU A 42 11. .400 9. .973 31. .734 1 , .00 50. .89 c

ATOM 346 CB LEU A 42 11. .890 8. .773 32. .546 1 , .00 50. .48 c

ATOM 347 CG LEU A 42 11. .289 7. .365 32. .359 1 , .00 51. .90 c

ATOM 348 CD1 LEU A 42 12. .166 6. .317 33. .041 1 , .00 51. .41 c

ATOM 349 CD2 LEU A 42 9. .882 7. .256 32. .891 1 , .00 47. .33 c

ATOM 350 C LEU A 42 11. .847 11. .292 32. .361 1 , .00 56. .20 c

ATOM 351 O LEU A 42 11. .141 11. .866 33. .183 1 , .00 61. .90 0

ATOM 352 N ALA A 43 13. .013 11. .785 31. .953 1 , .00 61. .33 N

ATOM 353 CA ALA A 43 13. .491 13. .095 32. .402 1 , .00 58. .95 c

ATOM 354 CB ALA A 43 14. .847 13. .405 31. .801 1 , .00 58. .44 c

ATOM 355 C ALA A 43 12. .489 14. .185 32. .037 1 , .00 66. .39 c

ATOM 356 O ALA A 43 12. .115 15. .007 32. .872 1 , .00 71. .98 0

ATOM 357 N GLU A 44 12. .041 14. .169 30. .787 1 , .00102. .79 N

ATOM 358 CA GLU A 44 11. .005 15. .087 30. .316 1 , .00104. .45 c

ATOM 359 CB GLU A 44 10. .829 14. .949 28. .802 1 , .00101. .94 c

ATOM 360 CG GLU A 44 9. .495 15. .455 28. .284 1 , .00104. .58 c

ATOM 361 CD GLU A 44 9. .264 16. .932 28. .555 1 , .00114. .25 c

ATOM 362 OE1 GLU A 44 9. .492 17. .384 29. .701 1 , .00107. .52 0

ATOM 363 OE2 GLU A 44 8. .845 17. .640 27. .612 1 , .00113. .75 0

ATOM 364 C GLU A 44 9. .665 14. .856 31. .015 1 , .00100. .58 c

ATOM 365 O GLU A 44 9. .031 15. .790 31. .496 1 , .00108. .77 0

ATOM 366 N GLU A 45 9. .245 13. .600 31. .052 1 , .00 61. .49 N

ATOM 367 CA GLU A 45 8. .012 13. .182 31. .703 1 , .00 58. .65 c

ATOM 368 CB GLU A 45 7. .876 11. .665 31. .552 1 , .00 60. .06 c ATOM 369 CG GLU A 45 6..478 11..111 31..635 1 ,.00 68..80 C

ATOM 370 CD GLU A 45 5. .992 10. .957 33. .060 1 , .00 79. .02 C

ATOM 371 OE1 GLU A 45 6. .760 11. .299 33. .992 1 , .00 84. .33 O

ATOM 372 OE2 GLU A 45 4. .842 10. .492 33. .252 1 , .00 72. .78 O

ATOM 373 C GLU A 45 7. .935 13. .582 33. .190 1 , .00 68. .45 C

ATOM 374 O GLU A 45 6. .852 13. .804 33. .712 1 , .00 70. .96 O

ATOM 375 N TYR A 46 9. .074 13. .662 33. .874 1 , .00 76. .24 N

ATOM 376 CA TYR A 46 9. .091 13. .983 35. .304 1 , .00 76. .56 C

ATOM 377 CB TYR A 46 10. .020 13. .038 36. .071 1 , .00 72. .55 C

ATOM 378 CG TYR A 46 9. .428 11. .708 36. .466 1 , .00 64. .06 c

ATOM 379 CD1 TYR A 46 8. .379 11. .633 37. .357 1 , .00 73. .18 c

ATOM 380 CE1 TYR A 46 7. .849 10. .411 37. .734 1 , .00 72. .99 c

ATOM 381 CZ TYR A 46 8. .377 9. .253 37. .223 1 , .00 67. .54 c

ATOM 382 OH TYR A 46 7. .857 8. .032 37. .608 1 , .00 72. .25 0

ATOM 383 CE2 TYR A 46 9. .424 9. .309 36. .341 1 , .00 62. .50 c

ATOM 384 CD2 TYR A 46 9. .951 10. .526 35. .979 1 , .00 64. .36 c

ATOM 385 C TYR A 46 9. .569 15. .400 35. .565 1 , .00 79. .28 c

ATOM 386 O TYR A 46 9. .575 15. .852 36. .709 1 , .00 79. .41 0

ATOM 387 N ALA A 47 10. .008 16. .079 34. .513 1 , .00 90. .53 N

ATOM 388 CA ALA A 47 10. .575 17. .424 34. .632 1 , .00 94. .35 c

ATOM 389 CB ALA A 47 10. .109 18. .305 33. .477 1 , .00 94. .31 c

ATOM 390 C ALA A 47 10. .293 18. .101 35. .978 1 , .00 90. .88 c

ATOM 391 O ALA A 47 9. .147 18. .440 36. .284 1 , .00 84. .10 0

ATOM 392 N GLY A 48 11. .345 18. .282 36. .777 1 , .00 97. .59 N

ATOM 393 CA GLY A 48 11. .248 18. .998 38. .036 1 , .00 99. .33 c

ATOM 394 C GLY A 48 10. .733 18. .158 39. .190 1 , .00104. .25 c

ATOM 395 O GLY A 48 10. .209 18. .690 40. .172 1 , .00108. .99 0

ATOM 396 N LYS A 49 10. .867 16. .842 39. .068 1 , .00 99. .69 N

ATOM 397 CA LYS A 49 10. .507 15. .933 40. .148 1 , .00 94. .06 c

ATOM 398 CB LYS A 49 9. .346 15. .036 39. .742 1 , .00 94. .57 c

ATOM 399 CG LYS A 49 8. .019 15. .743 39. .599 1 , .00 96. .63 c

ATOM 400 CD LYS A 49 6. .983 14. .780 39. .051 1 , .00 94. .95 c

ATOM 401 CE LYS A 49 5. .582 15. .373 39. .080 1 , .00100. .99 c

ATOM 402 NZ LYS A 49 4. .567 14. .369 38. .640 1 , .00 96. .64 N

ATOM 403 C LYS A 49 11. .711 15. .067 40. .444 1 , .00 92. .39 c

ATOM 404 O LYS A 49 12. .290 15. .138 41. .527 1 , .00 99. .57 0

ATOM 405 N VAL A 50 12. .078 14. .247 39. .467 1 , .00 62. .39 N

ATOM 406 CA VAL A 50 13. .270 13. .433 39. .561 1 , .00 56. .12 c

ATOM 407 CB VAL A 50 12. .991 11. .990 39. .117 1 , .00 52. .89 c

ATOM 408 CGI VAL A 50 14. .238 11. .134 39. .280 1 , .00 47. .70 c

ATOM 409 CG2 VAL A 50 11. .826 11. .408 39. .910 1 , .00 55. .45 c

ATOM 410 C VAL A 50 14. .327 14. .026 38. .660 1 , .00 58. .14 c

ATOM 411 O VAL A 50 14. .033 14. .509 37. .560 1 , .00 54. .59 0

ATOM 412 N VAL A 51 15. .556 14. .001 39. .151 1 , .00 56. .06 N

ATOM 413 CA VAL A 51 16. .710 14. .437 38. .391 1 , .00 54. .13 c

ATOM 414 CB VAL A 51 17. .748 15. .076 39. .334 1 , .00 54. .20 c

ATOM 415 CGI VAL A 51 18. .970 15. .568 38. .569 1 , .00 44. .70 c

ATOM 416 CG2 VAL A 51 17. .108 16. .202 40. .131 1 , .00 55. .34 c

ATOM 417 C VAL A 51 17. .314 13. .196 37. .751 1 , .00 52. .68 c

ATOM 418 O VAL A 51 17. .424 12. .151 38. .400 1 , .00 49. .82 0

ATOM 419 N PHE A 52 17. .709 13. .298 36. .487 1 , .00 44. .22 N

ATOM 420 CA PHE A 52 18. .283 12. .141 35. .808 1 , .00 45. .68 c

ATOM 421 CB PHE A 52 17. .374 11. .692 34. .655 1 , .00 41. .91 c

ATOM 422 CG PHE A 52 16. .031 11. .212 35. .101 1 , .00 39. .09 c

ATOM 423 CD2 PHE A 52 15. .776 9. .853 35. .233 1 , .00 42. .63 c

ATOM 424 CE2 PHE A 52 14. .535 9. .392 35. .650 1 , .00 38. .82 c

ATOM 425 CZ PHE A 52 13. .517 10. .296 35. .939 1 , .00 46. .06 c

ATOM 426 CE1 PHE A 52 13. .762 11. .666 35. .818 1 , .00 52. .73 c

ATOM 427 CD1 PHE A 52 15. .023 12. .112 35. .405 1 , .00 47. .52 c

ATOM 428 C PHE A 52 19. .696 12. .424 35. .302 1 , .00 48. .32 c

ATOM 429 O PHE A 52 19. .924 13. .415 34. .613 1 , .00 53. .51 0

ATOM 430 N GLY A 53 20. .636 11. .542 35. .630 1 , .00 44. .13 N

ATOM 431 CA GLY A 53 22. .032 11. .738 35. .266 1 , .00 46. .50 c ATOM 432 C GLY A 53 22..720 10..505 34..698 1 ,.00 47..50 C

ATOM 433 O GLY A 53 22. .436 9. .374 35. .099 1 , .00 46. .48 O

ATOM 434 N LYS A 54 23. .637 10. .725 33. .762 1 , .00 43. .69 N

ATOM 435 CA LYS A 54 24. .380 9. .641 33. .146 1 , .00 46. .23 C

ATOM 436 CB LYS A 54 24. .305 9. .750 31. .619 1 , .00 48. .25 C

ATOM 437 CG LYS A 54 22. .898 9. .819 31. .064 1 , .00 59. .49 c

ATOM 438 CD LYS A 54 22. .904 9. .871 29. .535 1 , .00 62. .01 c

ATOM 439 CE LYS A 54 23. .287 8. .522 28. .941 1 , .00 63. .95 c

ATOM 440 NZ LYS A 54 22. .511 7. .412 29. .558 1 , .00 62. .92 N

ATOM 441 C LYS A 54 25. .836 9. .681 33. .579 1 , .00 45. .36 c

ATOM 442 O LYS A 54 26. .397 10. .755 33. .774 1 , .00 47. .64 0

ATOM 443 N VAL A 55 26. .446 8. .506 33. .692 1 , .00 38. .19 N

ATOM 444 CA VAL A 55 27. .850 8. .386 34. .061 1 , .00 33. .44 c

ATOM 445 CB VAL A 55 28. .018 7. .946 35. .528 1 , .00 44. .45 c

ATOM 446 CGI VAL A 55 29. .493 7. .646 35. .858 1 , .00 34. .00 c

ATOM 447 CG2 VAL A 55 27. .458 9. .007 36. .475 1 , .00 39. .10 c

ATOM 448 C VAL A 55 28. .598 7. .373 33. .201 1 , .00 36. .90 c

ATOM 449 O VAL A 55 28. .381 6. .167 33. .320 1 , .00 39. .80 0

ATOM 450 N ASN A 56 29. .510 7. .871 32. .369 1 , .00 41. .37 N

ATOM 451 CA ASN A 56 30. .322 7. .039 31. .488 1 , .00 40. .98 c

ATOM 452 CB ASN A 56 30. .999 7. .922 30. .432 1 , .00 43. .39 c

ATOM 453 CG ASN A 56 31. .533 7. .129 29. .248 1 , .00 56. .82 c

ATOM 454 OD1 ASN A 56 32. .252 6. .147 29. .422 1 , .00 58. .12 0

ATOM 455 ND2 ASN A 56 31. .168 7. .552 28. .025 1 , .00 55. .17 N

ATOM 456 C ASN A 56 31. .360 6. .209 32. .250 1 , .00 47. .59 c

ATOM 457 O ASN A 56 32. .392 6. .699 32. .702 1 , .00 56. .82 0

ATOM 458 N VAL A 57 31. .088 4. .931 32. .380 1 , .00 35. .23 N

ATOM 459 CA VAL A 57 31. .937 4. .065 33. .165 1 , .00 38. .26 c

ATOM 460 CB VAL A 57 31. .213 2. .751 33. .344 1 , .00 35. .80 c

ATOM 461 CGI VAL A 57 32. .169 1. .599 33. .536 1 , .00 49. .63 c

ATOM 462 CG2 VAL A 57 30. .221 2. .897 34. .503 1 , .00 32. .54 c

ATOM 463 C VAL A 57 33. .392 3. .935 32. .645 1 , .00 56. .19 c

ATOM 464 O VAL A 57 34. .306 3. .509 33. .373 1 , .00 54. .69 0

ATOM 465 N ASP A 58 33. .610 4. .342 31. .401 1 , .00 56. .01 N

ATOM 466 CA ASP A 58 34. .962 4. .470 30. .874 1 , .00 61. .21 c

ATOM 467 CB ASP A 58 34. .964 4. .525 29. .341 1 , .00 59. .67 c

ATOM 468 CG ASP A 58 34. .598 3. .193 28. .710 1 , .00 66. .87 c

ATOM 469 OD1 ASP A 58 34. .975 2. .138 29. .275 1 , .00 62. .78 0

ATOM 470 OD2 ASP A 58 33. .919 3. .200 27. .655 1 , .00 78. .46 0

ATOM 471 C ASP A 58 35. .614 5. .722 31. .433 1 , .00 67. .99 c

ATOM 472 O ASP A 58 36. .644 5. .649 32. .091 1 , .00 78. .17 0

ATOM 473 N GLU A 59 34. .994 6. .870 31. .196 1 , .00 65. .81 N

ATOM 474 CA GLU A 59 35. .532 8. .137 31. .676 1 , .00 67. .13 c

ATOM 475 CB GLU A 59 34. .695 9. .301 31. .124 1 , .00 68. .72 c

ATOM 476 CG GLU A 59 34. .163 9. .059 29. .691 1 , .00 71. .52 c

ATOM 477 CD GLU A 59 33. .552 10. .309 29. .021 1 , .00 79. .95 c

ATOM 478 OE1 GLU A 59 32. .885 11. .108 29. .718 1 , .00 79. .67 0

ATOM 479 OE2 GLU A 59 33. .736 10. .488 27. .790 1 , .00 72. .91 0

ATOM 480 C GLU A 59 35. .648 8. .218 33. .216 1 , .00 77. .98 c

ATOM 481 O GLU A 59 36. .376 9. .062 33. .736 1 , .00 76. .37 0

ATOM 482 N ASN A 60 34. .950 7. .337 33. .942 1 , .00 67. .37 N

ATOM 483 CA ASN A 60 34. .921 7. .407 35. .412 1 , .00 60. .51 c

ATOM 484 CB ASN A 60 33. .711 8. .214 35. .890 1 , .00 46. .14 c

ATOM 485 CG ASN A 60 33. .282 9. .282 34. .886 1 , .00 60. .40 c

ATOM 486 OD1 ASN A 60 33. .563 10. .473 35. .052 1 , .00 64. .54 0

ATOM 487 ND2 ASN A 60 32. .590 8. .854 33. .838 1 , .00 53. .67 N

ATOM 488 C ASN A 60 34. .913 6. .042 36. .103 1 , .00 59. .53 c

ATOM 489 O ASN A 60 33. .963 5. .710 36. .813 1 , .00 52. .80 0

ATOM 490 N PRO A 61 35. .996 5. .265 35. .930 1 , .00 72. .66 N

ATOM 491 CA PRO A 61 36. .143 3. .863 36. .375 1 , .00 69. .61 c

ATOM 492 CB PRO A 61 37. .554 3. .477 35. .898 1 , .00 63. .03 c

ATOM 493 CG PRO A 61 37. .995 4. .586 34. .989 1 , .00 69. .75 c

ATOM 494 CD PRO A 61 37. .249 5. .808 35. .383 1 , .00 69. .43 c ATOM 495 C PRO A 61 36..075 3..648 37..891 1 ,.00 73..17 C

ATOM 496 O PRO A 61 35. .811 2. .521 38. .340 1 , .00 64. .06 O

ATOM 497 N GLU A 62 36. .331 4. .708 38. .656 1 , .00 84. .34 N

ATOM 498 CA GLU A 62 36. .444 4. .615 40. .110 1 , .00 93. .89 C

ATOM 499 CB GLU A 62 37. .537 5. .555 40. .636 1 , .00 84. .86 C

ATOM 500 CG GLU A 62 37. .250 7. .031 40. .410 1 , .00 92. .10 c

ATOM 501 CD GLU A 62 36. .924 7. .346 38. .949 1 , .00 93. .85 c

ATOM 502 OE1 GLU A 62 37. .863 7. .557 38. .153 1 , .00 94. .51 0

ATOM 503 OE2 GLU A 62 35. .728 7. .377 38. .590 1 , .00 93. .66 0

ATOM 504 C GLU A 62 35. .104 4. .874 40. .808 1 , .00 88. .68 c

ATOM 505 O GLU A 62 34. .675 4. .068 41. .626 1 , .00 78. .72 0

ATOM 506 N ILE A 63 34. .451 5. .992 40. .486 1 , .00 74. .77 N

ATOM 507 CA ILE A 63 33. .091 6. .252 40. .969 1 , .00 77. .65 c

ATOM 508 CB ILE A 63 32. .531 7. .531 40. .355 1 , .00 65. .68 c

ATOM 509 CGI ILE A 63 31. .035 7. .633 40. .587 1 , .00 65. .15 c

ATOM 510 CD1 ILE A 63 30. .475 8. .968 40. .147 1 , .00 68. .07 c

ATOM 511 CG2 ILE A 63 32. .758 7. .515 38. .893 1 , .00 68. .04 c

ATOM 512 C ILE A 63 32. .241 5. .045 40. .595 1 , .00 66. .12 c

ATOM 513 O ILE A 63 31. .450 4. .529 41. .386 1 , .00 62. .36 0

ATOM 514 N ALA A 64 32. .454 4. .570 39. .383 1 , .00 48. .98 N

ATOM 515 CA ALA A 64 31. .961 3. .258 39. .018 1 , .00 52. .44 c

ATOM 516 CB ALA A 64 32. .567 2. .814 37. .683 1 , .00 49. .52 c

ATOM 517 C ALA A 64 32. .291 2. .259 40. .134 1 , .00 47. .56 c

ATOM 518 O ALA A 64 31. .393 1. .709 40. .772 1 , .00 47. .94 0

ATOM 519 N ALA A 65 33. .582 2. .057 40. .390 1 , .00 76. .11 N

ATOM 520 CA ALA A 65 34. .043 1. .109 41. .414 1 , .00 77. .00 c

ATOM 521 CB ALA A 65 35. .537 0. .858 41. .267 1 , .00 75. .70 c

ATOM 522 C ALA A 65 33. .713 1. .532 42. .850 1 , .00 66. .64 c

ATOM 523 O ALA A 65 33. .484 0. .678 43. .701 1 , .00 61. .04 0

ATOM 524 N LYS A 66 33. .696 2. .837 43. .114 1 , .00 44. .96 N

ATOM 525 CA LYS A 66 33. .328 3. .336 44. .433 1 , .00 51. .42 c

ATOM 526 CB LYS A 66 33. .148 4. .852 44. .413 1 , .00 53. .94 c

ATOM 527 CG LYS A 66 32. .494 5. .390 45. .701 1 , .00 59. .24 c

ATOM 528 CD LYS A 66 32. .471 6. .934 45. .774 1 , .00 62. .72 c

ATOM 529 CE LYS A 66 33. .814 7. .565 45. .381 1 , .00 70. .11 c

ATOM 530 NZ LYS A 66 34. .074 7. .548 43. .891 1 , .00 73. .37 N

ATOM 531 C LYS A 66 32. .017 2. .710 44. .854 1 , .00 57. .94 c

ATOM 532 O LYS A 66 31. .956 1. .915 45. .797 1 , .00 59. .93 0

ATOM 533 N TYR A 67 30. .972 3. .081 44. .122 1 , .00 60. .30 N

ATOM 534 CA TYR A 67 29. .635 2. .589 44. .346 1 , .00 51. .39 c

ATOM 535 CB TYR A 67 28. .639 3. .549 43. .719 1 , .00 48. .16 c

ATOM 536 CG TYR A 67 28. .561 4. .916 44. .374 1 , .00 50. .71 c

ATOM 537 CD1 TYR A 67 27. .942 5. .085 45. .611 1 , .00 52. .64 c

ATOM 538 CE1 TYR A 67 27. .848 6. .349 46. .214 1 , .00 50. .96 c

ATOM 539 CZ TYR A 67 28. .372 7. .462 45. .570 1 , .00 54. .02 c

ATOM 540 OH TYR A 67 28. .277 8. .721 46. .157 1 , .00 48. .49 0

ATOM 541 CE2 TYR A 67 28. .987 7. .313 44. .331 1 , .00 49. .25 c

ATOM 542 CD2 TYR A 67 29. .078 6. .044 43. .746 1 , .00 48. .30 c

ATOM 543 C TYR A 67 29. .437 1. .184 43. .776 1 , .00 54. .82 c

ATOM 544 O TYR A 67 28. .310 0. .766 43. .515 1 , .00 56. .39 0

ATOM 545 N GLY A 68 30. .536 0. .466 43. .574 1 , .00 56. .40 N

ATOM 546 CA GLY A 68 30. .482 -0. .950 43. .254 1 , .00 55. .05 c

ATOM 547 C GLY A 68 29. .645 -1. .348 42. .056 1 , .00 67. .16 c

ATOM 548 O GLY A 68 28. .865 -2. .312 42. .113 1 , .00 64. .48 0

ATOM 549 N ILE A 69 29. .816 -0. .617 40. .959 1 , .00 60. .21 N

ATOM 550 CA ILE A 69 29. .095 -0. .923 39. .733 1 , .00 64. .12 c

ATOM 551 CB ILE A 69 29. .036 0. .286 38. .769 1 , .00 65. .56 c

ATOM 552 CGI ILE A 69 28. .344 1. .460 39. .460 1 , .00 60. .89 c

ATOM 553 CD1 ILE A 69 26. .968 1. .108 39. .974 1 , .00 52. .49 c

ATOM 554 CG2 ILE A 69 28. .291 -0. .088 37. .491 1 , .00 53. .30 c

ATOM 555 C ILE A 69 29. .735 -2. .120 39. .040 1 , .00 68. .87 c

ATOM 556 O ILE A 69 30. .838 -2. .029 38. .498 1 , .00 56. .10 0

ATOM 557 N MET A 70 29. .025 -3. .240 39. .062 1 , .00 96. .40 N ATOM 558 CA MET A 70 29..536 -4..486 38..519 1 ,.00 91..03 C

ATOM 559 CB MET A 70 28. .636 -5. .641 38. .952 1 , .00 92. .70 C

ATOM 560 CG MET A 70 28. .511 -5. .796 40. .462 1 , .00110. .83 C

ATOM 561 SD MET A 70 30. .035 -6. .383 41. .252 1 , .00131. .58 S

ATOM 562 CE MET A 70 30. .629 -4. .890 42. .043 1 , .00107. .40 C

ATOM 563 C MET A 70 29. .578 -4. .434 37. .005 1 , .00 94. .80 C

ATOM 564 O MET A 70 30. .609 -4. .117 36. .413 1 , .00 94. .51 O

ATOM 565 N ASER A 71 28. .444 -4. .755 36. .403 1 , .00 66. .34 N

ATOM 566 CA ASER A 71 28. .257 -4. .705 34. .972 1 , .00 60. .37 C

ATOM 567 CB ASER A 71 27. .592 -5. .995 34. .517 1 , .00 62. .84 C

ATOM 568 OG ASER A 71 26. .418 -6. .218 35. .276 1 , .00 60. .95 0

ATOM 569 C ASER A 71 27. .327 -3. .561 34. .670 1 , .00 56. .56 c

ATOM 570 O ASER A 71 26. .519 -3. .190 35. .496 1 , .00 60. .71 0

ATOM 571 N BSER A 71 28. .455 -4. .756 36. .382 0 , .00 66. .65 N

ATOM 572 CA BSER A 71 28. .339 -4. .711 34. .932 0 , .00 59. .78 c

ATOM 573 CB BSER A 71 28. .094 -6. .109 34. .360 0 , .00 60. .66 c

ATOM 574 OG BSER A 71 29. .157 -6. .993 34. .676 0 , .00 61. .36 0

ATOM 575 C BSER A 71 27. .208 -3. .773 34. .530 0 , .00 57. .10 c

ATOM 576 O BSER A 71 26. .156 -3. .743 35. .160 0 , .00 56. .96 0

ATOM 577 N ILE A 72 27. .437 -3. .003 33. .476 1 , .00 46. .79 N

ATOM 578 CA ILE A 72 26. .457 -2. .046 32. .998 1 , .00 44. .17 c

ATOM 579 CB ILE A 72 27. .123 -0. .807 32. .385 1 , .00 39. .94 c

ATOM 580 CGI ILE A 72 28. .158 -1. .201 31. .325 1 , .00 30. .91 c

ATOM 581 CD1 ILE A 72 28. .853 0. .020 30. .721 1 , .00 35. .85 c

ATOM 582 CG2 ILE A 72 27. .713 0. .064 33. .487 1 , .00 33. .09 c

ATOM 583 C ILE A 72 25. .540 -2. .738 31. .980 1 , .00 42. .80 c

ATOM 584 O ILE A 72 25. .865 -3. .833 31. .516 1 , .00 45. .02 0

ATOM 585 N PRO A 73 24. .364 -2. .139 31. .681 1 , .00 45. .08 N

ATOM 586 CA PRO A 73 23. .842 -0. .898 32. .275 1 , .00 42. .17 c

ATOM 587 CB PRO A 73 22. .685 -0. .538 31. .352 1 , .00 40. .79 c

ATOM 588 CG PRO A 73 22. .118 -1. .894 30. .988 1 , .00 44. .40 c

ATOM 589 CD PRO A 73 23. .324 -2. .840 30. .894 1 , .00 48. .45 c

ATOM 590 C PRO A 73 23. .287 -1. .187 33. .661 1 , .00 41. .24 c

ATOM 591 O PRO A 73 22. .857 -2. .311 33. .931 1 , .00 41. .06 0

ATOM 592 N THR A 74 23. .272 -0. .168 34. .506 1 , .00 34. .88 N

ATOM 593 CA THR A 74 22. .797 -0. .297 35. .859 1 , .00 36. .45 c

ATOM 594 CB THR A 74 23. .935 -0. .797 36. .765 1 , .00 46. .44 c

ATOM 595 OG1 THR A 74 23. .949 -2. .232 36. .738 1 , .00 43. .67 0

ATOM 596 CG2 THR A 74 23. .781 -0. .283 38. .210 1 , .00 44. .52 c

ATOM 597 C THR A 74 22. .294 1. .059 36. .300 1 , .00 33. .11 c

ATOM 598 O THR A 74 22. .888 2. .086 35. .977 1 , .00 34. .58 0

ATOM 599 N LEU A 75 21. .178 1. .076 37. .011 1 , .00 36. .36 N

ATOM 600 CA LEU A 75 20. .620 2. .336 37. .476 1 , .00 38. .78 c

ATOM 601 C LEU A 75 20. .703 2. .435 38. .988 1 , .00 38. .71 c

ATOM 602 O LEU A 75 20. .427 1. .463 39. .678 1 , .00 40. .16 0

ATOM 603 CB LEU A 75 19. .170 2. .431 37. .056 1 , .00 33. .84 c

ATOM 604 CG LEU A 75 18. .827 3. .192 35. .790 1 , .00 36. .18 c

ATOM 605 CD1 LEU A 75 19. .805 2. .879 34. .700 1 , .00 44. .96 c

ATOM 606 CD2 LEU A 75 17. .427 2. .779 35. .397 1 , .00 34. .75 c

ATOM 607 N LEU A 76 21. .048 3. .610 39. .502 1 , .00 35. .54 N

ATOM 608 CA LEU A 76 21. .203 3. .805 40. .942 1 , .00 35. .11 c

ATOM 609 CB LEU A 76 22. .633 4. .274 41. .254 1 , .00 43. .47 c

ATOM 610 CG LEU A 76 23. .510 3. .459 42. .201 1 , .00 39. .70 c

ATOM 611 CD1 LEU A 76 23. .430 1. .980 41. .853 1 , .00 37. .85 c

ATOM 612 CD2 LEU A 76 24. .945 3. .951 42. .112 1 , .00 45. .25 c

ATOM 613 C LEU A 76 20. .256 4. .888 41. .377 1 , .00 35. .01 c

ATOM 614 O LEU A 76 20. .291 5. .982 40. .830 1 , .00 37. .73 0

ATOM 615 N PHE A 77 19. .399 4. .611 42. .353 1 , .00 48. .58 N

ATOM 616 CA PHE A 77 18. .599 5. .696 42. .910 1 , .00 48. .57 c

ATOM 617 CB PHE A 77 17. .170 5. .259 43. .240 1 , .00 48. .66 c

ATOM 618 CG PHE A 77 16. .444 4. .633 42. .079 1 , .00 51. .12 c

ATOM 619 CD1 PHE A 77 17. .073 4. .469 40. .857 1 , .00 57. .06 c

ATOM 620 CE1 PHE A 77 16. .428 3. .885 39. .789 1 , .00 48. .27 c ATOM 621 CZ PHE A 77 15..131 3..466 39..921 1 ,.00 55..24 C

ATOM 622 CE2 PHE A 77 14. .479 3. .633 41. .125 1 , .00 64. .99 C

ATOM 623 CD2 PHE A 77 15. .139 4. .216 42. .201 1 , .00 59. .20 C

ATOM 624 C PHE A 77 19. .307 6. .247 44. .139 1 , .00 50. .97 C

ATOM 625 O PHE A 77 19. .667 5. .506 45. .060 1 , .00 46. .84 O

ATOM 626 N PHE A 78 19. .521 7. .558 44. .122 1 , .00 50. .78 N

ATOM 627 CA PHE A 78 20. .211 8. .260 45. .182 1 , .00 49. .34 C

ATOM 628 CB PHE A 78 21. .293 9. .164 44. .597 1 , .00 49. .00 C

ATOM 629 CG PHE A 78 22. .602 8. .474 44. .329 1 , .00 55. .83 c

ATOM 630 CD2 PHE A 78 22. .878 7. .942 43. .083 1 , .00 57. .57 c

ATOM 631 CE2 PHE A 78 24. .099 7. .320 42. .834 1 , .00 56. .85 c

ATOM 632 CZ PHE A 78 25. .059 7. .241 43. .825 1 , .00 54. .28 c

ATOM 633 CE1 PHE A 78 24. .799 7. .772 45. .065 1 , .00 51. .56 c

ATOM 634 CD1 PHE A 78 23. .580 8. .391 45. .312 1 , .00 59. .69 c

ATOM 635 C PHE A 78 19. .208 9. .138 45. .893 1 , .00 54. .17 c

ATOM 636 O PHE A 78 18. .461 9. .863 45. .249 1 , .00 51. .45 0

ATOM 637 N LYS A 79 19. .204 9. .097 47. .217 1 , .00 63. .44 N

ATOM 638 CA LYS A 79 18. .310 9. .947 47. .986 1 , .00 64. .82 c

ATOM 639 CB LYS A 79 17. .132 9. .125 48. .525 1 , .00 62. .83 c

ATOM 640 CG LYS A 79 16. .005 9. .963 49. .076 1 , .00 57. .94 c

ATOM 641 CD LYS A 79 15. .606 11. .011 48. .078 1 , .00 64. .26 c

ATOM 642 CE LYS A 79 14. .563 11. .945 48. .646 1 , .00 64. .13 c

ATOM 643 NZ LYS A 79 15. .199 13. .174 49. .167 1 , .00 67. .89 N

ATOM 644 C LYS A 79 19. .094 10. .592 49. .127 1 , .00 60. .03 c

ATOM 645 O LYS A 79 19. .835 9. .913 49. .844 1 , .00 62. .59 0

ATOM 646 N ASN A 80 18. .941 11. .902 49. .284 1 , .00 46. .36 N

ATOM 647 CA ASN A 80 19. .639 12. .617 50. .347 1 , .00 57. .29 c

ATOM 648 CB ASN A 80 19. .017 12. .305 51. .721 1 , .00 54. .52 c

ATOM 649 CG ASN A 80 17. .672 12. .980 51. .922 1 , .00 56. .75 c

ATOM 650 OD1 ASN A 80 17. .488 14. .149 51. .562 1 , .00 55. .42 0

ATOM 651 ND2 ASN A 80 16. .720 12. .246 52. .498 1 , .00 52. .91 N

ATOM 652 C ASN A 80 21. .128 12. .286 50. .375 1 , .00 54. .15 c

ATOM 653 O ASN A 80 21. .720 12. .210 51. .442 1 , .00 59. .64 0

ATOM 654 N GLY A 81 21. .722 12. .070 49. .204 1 , .00 46. .36 N

ATOM 655 CA GLY A 81 23. .153 11. .855 49. .089 1 , .00 37. .03 c

ATOM 656 C GLY A 81 23. .558 10. .402 49. .131 1 , .00 40. .71 c

ATOM 657 O GLY A 81 24. .663 10. .053 48. .713 1 , .00 46. .00 0

ATOM 658 N LYS A 82 22. .678 9. .543 49. .631 1 , .00 40. .79 N

ATOM 659 CA LYS A 82 23. .013 8. .121 49. .717 1 , .00 45. .83 c

ATOM 660 CB LYS A 82 22. .887 7. .605 51. .161 1 , .00 51. .57 c

ATOM 661 CG LYS A 82 21. .467 7. .575 51. .741 1 , .00 51. .54 c

ATOM 662 CD LYS A 82 21. .505 7. .293 53. .262 1 , .00 47. .42 c

ATOM 663 CE LYS A 82 20. .107 7. .116 53. .849 1 , .00 58. .79 c

ATOM 664 NZ LYS A 82 19. .113 8. .117 53. .333 1 , .00 57. .60 N

ATOM 665 C LYS A 82 22. .218 7. .239 48. .742 1 , .00 53. .14 c

ATOM 666 O LYS A 82 21. .035 7. .495 48. .453 1 , .00 45. .11 0

ATOM 667 N VAL A 83 22. .882 6. .201 48. .238 1 , .00 57. .57 N

ATOM 668 CA VAL A 83 22. .258 5. .242 47. .325 1 , .00 47. .88 c

ATOM 669 CB VAL A 83 23. .292 4. .241 46. .806 1 , .00 42. .21 c

ATOM 670 CGI VAL A 83 24. .342 4. .002 47. .879 1 , .00 72. .41 c

ATOM 671 CG2 VAL A 83 22. .618 2. .935 46. .380 1 , .00 46. .97 c

ATOM 672 C VAL A 83 21. .072 4. .512 47. .983 1 , .00 57. .40 c

ATOM 673 O VAL A 83 21. .165 4. .056 49. .126 1 , .00 52. .23 0

ATOM 674 N VAL A 84 19. .955 4. .401 47. .258 1 , .00 55. .17 N

ATOM 675 CA VAL A 84 18. .708 3. .932 47. .866 1 , .00 50. .27 c

ATOM 676 CB VAL A 84 17. .729 5. .132 48. .079 1 , .00 55. .25 c

ATOM 677 CGI VAL A 84 16. .433 4. .967 47. .298 1 , .00 51. .31 c

ATOM 678 CG2 VAL A 84 17. .470 5. .338 49. .559 1 , .00 48. .68 c

ATOM 679 C VAL A 84 18. .047 2. .739 47. .157 1 , .00 45. .69 c

ATOM 680 O VAL A 84 17. .122 2. .142 47. .679 1 , .00 47. .56 0

ATOM 681 N ASP A 85 18. .557 2. .381 45. .986 1 , .00 48. .47 N

ATOM 682 CA ASP A 85 18. .022 1. .284 45. .181 1 , .00 49. .86 c

ATOM 683 CB ASP A 85 16. .589 1. .590 44. .721 1 , .00 49. .28 c ATOM 684 CG ASP A 85 15..822 0..339 44..322 1 ,.00 59..16 C

ATOM 685 OD1 ASP A 85 16. .341 -0. .779 44. .565 1 , .00 58. .58 O

ATOM 686 OD2 ASP A 85 14. .696 0. .471 43. .781 1 , .00 62. .86 O

ATOM 687 C ASP A 85 18. .933 1. .083 43. .968 1 , .00 50. .64 C

ATOM 688 O ASP A 85 19. .682 1. .985 43. .598 1 , .00 41. .86 O

ATOM 689 N GLN A 86 18. .856 -0. .085 43. .340 1 , .00 46. .27 N

ATOM 690 CA GLN A 86 19. .793 -0. .421 42. .284 1 , .00 49. .48 C

ATOM 691 CB GLN A 86 21. .074 -1. .028 42. .875 1 , .00 49. .78 C

ATOM 692 CG GLN A 86 22. .111 -1. .422 41. .853 1 , .00 51. .92 c

ATOM 693 CD GLN A 86 23. .285 -2. .173 42. .453 1 , .00 59. .84 c

ATOM 694 OE1 GLN A 86 24. .215 -1. .567 42. .995 1 , .00 58. .16 0

ATOM 695 NE2 GLN A 86 23. .248 -3. .506 42. .360 1 , .00 52. .42 N

ATOM 696 C GLN A 86 19. .158 -1. .397 41. .328 1 , .00 52. .56 c

ATOM 697 O GLN A 86 18. .871 -2. .534 41. .700 1 , .00 52. .85 0

ATOM 698 N LEU A 87 18. .928 -0. .943 40. .097 1 , .00 51. .65 N

ATOM 699 CA LEU A 87 18. .352 -1. .793 39. .063 1 , .00 43. .49 c

ATOM 700 CB LEU A 87 17. .211 -1. .095 38. .310 1 , .00 50. .83 c

ATOM 701 CG LEU A 87 16. .283 -0. .033 38. .925 1 , .00 58. .10 c

ATOM 702 CD1 LEU A 87 14. .878 -0. .165 38. .333 1 , .00 55. .28 c

ATOM 703 CD2 LEU A 87 16. .215 -0. .073 40. .446 1 , .00 56. .98 c

ATOM 704 C LEU A 87 19. .456 -2. .191 38. .094 1 , .00 49. .58 c

ATOM 705 O LEU A 87 20. .049 -1. .337 37. .428 1 , .00 49. .69 0

ATOM 706 N VAL A 88 19. .748 -3. .488 38. .021 1 , .00 46. .19 N

ATOM 707 CA VAL A 88 20. .809 -3. .938 37. .129 1 , .00 47. .56 c

ATOM 708 CB VAL A 88 21. .862 -4. .821 37. .826 1 , .00 50. .30 c

ATOM 709 CGI VAL A 88 22. .759 -5. .486 36. .782 1 , .00 40. .02 c

ATOM 710 CG2 VAL A 88 22. .689 -3. .981 38. .767 1 , .00 37. .73 c

ATOM 711 C VAL A 88 20. .274 -4. .678 35. .930 1 , .00 44. .65 c

ATOM 712 O VAL A 88 19. .534 -5. .636 36. .067 1 , .00 46. .30 0

ATOM 713 N GLY A 89 20. .685 -4. .230 34. .746 1 , .00 47. .50 N

ATOM 714 CA GLY A 89 20. .172 -4. .749 33. .494 1 , .00 38. .50 c

ATOM 715 C GLY A 89 19. .080 -3. .855 32. .922 1 , .00 35. .81 c

ATOM 716 O GLY A 89 18. .469 -3. .057 33. .636 1 , .00 36. .36 0

ATOM 717 N ALA A 90 18. .841 -3. .987 31. .621 1 , .00 58. .32 N

ATOM 718 CA ALA A 90 17. .763 -3. .255 30. .952 1 , .00 62. .38 c

ATOM 719 CB ALA A 90 17. .927 -3. .352 29. .441 1 , .00 48. .77 c

ATOM 720 C ALA A 90 16. .378 -3. .765 31. .378 1 , .00 51. .30 c

ATOM 721 O ALA A 90 16. .197 -4. .964 31. .602 1 , .00 56. .70 0

ATOM 722 N ARG A 91 15. .417 -2. .850 31. .508 1 , .00 47. .07 N

ATOM 723 CA ARG A 91 14. .019 -3. .212 31. .763 1 , .00 52. .53 c

ATOM 724 CB ARG A 91 13. .800 -3. .542 33. .244 1 , .00 62. .63 c

ATOM 725 CG ARG A 91 14. .097 -2. .384 34. .191 1 , .00 62. .42 c

ATOM 726 CD ARG A 91 14. .445 -2. .868 35. .591 1 , .00 70. .13 c

ATOM 727 NE ARG A 91 15. .411 -3. .967 35. .569 1 , .00 68. .83 N

ATOM 728 CZ ARG A 91 15. .690 -4. .740 36. .616 1 , .00 67. .30 c

ATOM 729 NH1 ARG A 91 15. .079 -4. .531 37. .782 1 , .00 46. .68 N

ATOM 730 NH2 ARG A 91 16. .578 -5. .725 36. .488 1 , .00 65. .15 N

ATOM 731 C ARG A 91 13. .066 -2. .093 31. .326 1 , .00 57. .03 C

ATOM 732 O ARG A 91 13. .449 -0. .918 31. .345 1 , .00 55. .46 0

ATOM 733 N PRO A 92 11. .823 -2. .461 30. .925 1 , .00 57. .44 N

ATOM 734 CA PRO A 92 10. .780 -1. .584 30. .364 1 , .00 53. .47 C

ATOM 735 CB PRO A 92 9. .520 -2. .441 30. .476 1 , .00 44. .62 c

ATOM 736 CG PRO A 92 10. .018 -3. .806 30. .212 1 , .00 49. .42 c

ATOM 737 CD PRO A 92 11. .387 -3. .871 30. .892 1 , .00 56. .99 c

ATOM 738 C PRO A 92 10. .563 -0. .267 31. .084 1 , .00 51. .47 c

ATOM 739 O PRO A 92 10. .686 -0. .212 32. .299 1 , .00 58. .71 0

ATOM 740 N LYS A 93 10. .219 0. .773 30. .326 1 , .00 44. .84 N

ATOM 741 CA LYS A 93 9. .884 2. .080 30. .891 1 , .00 40. .64 c

ATOM 742 CB LYS A 93 9. .434 3. .040 29. .787 1 , .00 34. .36 c

ATOM 743 CG LYS A 93 8. .944 4. .408 30. .224 1 , .00 33. .81 c

ATOM 744 CD LYS A 93 8. .691 5. .313 28. .991 1 , .00 33. .35 c

ATOM 745 CE LYS A 93 8. .075 6. .643 29. .434 1 , .00 49. .53 c

ATOM 746 NZ LYS A 93 7. .792 7. .616 28. .346 1 , .00 58. .07 N ATOM 747 C LYS A 93 8..846 2..000 32..023 1 ,.00 52..11 C

ATOM 748 O LYS A 93 9. .012 2. .645 33. .058 1 , .00 53. .14 O

ATOM 749 N GLU A 94 7. .795 1. .202 31. .851 1 , .00 59. .73 N

ATOM 750 CA GLU A 94 6. .747 1. .121 32. .878 1 , .00 61. .21 C

ATOM 751 CB GLU A 94 5. .506 0. .370 32. .374 1 , .00 58. .21 C

ATOM 752 CG GLU A 94 5. .787 -0. .599 31. .226 1 , .00 69. .25 c

ATOM 753 CD GLU A 94 5. .912 0. .080 29. .856 1 , .00 64. .98 c

ATOM 754 OE1 GLU A 94 4. .948 0. .767 29. .453 1 , .00 58. .73 0

ATOM 755 OE2 GLU A 94 6. .973 -0. .068 29. .193 1 , .00 56. .11 0

ATOM 756 C GLU A 94 7. .250 0. .521 34. .191 1 , .00 62. .23 c

ATOM 757 O GLU A 94 6. .772 0. .881 35. .267 1 , .00 66. .11 0

ATOM 758 N ALA A 95 8. .223 -0. .381 34. .101 1 , .00 46. .59 N

ATOM 759 CA ALA A 95 8. .789 -0. .997 35. .291 1 , .00 49. .78 c

ATOM 760 CB ALA A 95 9. .497 -2. .281 34. .939 1 , .00 48. .29 c

ATOM 761 C ALA A 95 9. .730 -0. .039 36. .034 1 , .00 54. .56 c

ATOM 762 O ALA A 95 9. .744 -0. .005 37. .262 1 , .00 49. .49 0

ATOM 763 N LEU A 96 10. .512 0. .742 35. .296 1 , .00 56. .16 N

ATOM 764 CA LEU A 96 11. .303 1. .802 35. .916 1 , .00 58. .31 c

ATOM 765 CB LEU A 96 12. .123 2. .562 34. .870 1 , .00 60. .94 c

ATOM 766 CG LEU A 96 13. .495 1. .992 34. .509 1 , .00 61. .66 c

ATOM 767 CD1 LEU A 96 13. .378 0. .533 34. .148 1 , .00 64. .27 c

ATOM 768 CD2 LEU A 96 14. .138 2. .764 33. .364 1 , .00 60. .70 c

ATOM 769 C LEU A 96 10. .394 2. .772 36. .653 1 , .00 57. .57 c

ATOM 770 O LEU A 96 10. .743 3. .269 37. .717 1 , .00 56. .98 0

ATOM 771 N LYS A 97 9. .227 3. .042 36. .074 1 , .00 67. .97 N

ATOM 772 CA LYS A 97 8. .277 3. .981 36. .656 1 , .00 65. .41 c

ATOM 773 CB LYS A 97 7. .199 4. .351 35. .646 1 , .00 73. .77 c

ATOM 774 CG LYS A 97 7. .665 5. .274 34. .556 1 , .00 74. .08 c

ATOM 775 CD LYS A 97 7. .110 6. .667 34. .758 1 , .00 71. .53 c

ATOM 776 CE LYS A 97 5. .611 6. .691 34. .580 1 , .00 80. .59 c

ATOM 777 NZ LYS A 97 5. .069 8. .053 34. .847 1 , .00 91. .82 N

ATOM 778 C LYS A 97 7. .615 3. .407 37. .888 1 , .00 71. .95 c

ATOM 779 O LYS A 97 7. .095 4. .149 38. .712 1 , .00 81. .45 0

ATOM 780 N GLU A 98 7. .614 2. .084 37. .999 1 , .00 65. .39 N

ATOM 781 CA GLU A 98 7. .033 1. .424 39. .159 1 , .00 73. .85 c

ATOM 782 CB GLU A 98 6. .702 -0. .041 38. .843 1 , .00 69. .72 c

ATOM 783 CG GLU A 98 5. .233 -0. .406 39. .107 1 , .00 72. .59 c

ATOM 784 CD GLU A 98 4. .771 -1. .638 38. .336 1 , .00 81. .27 c

ATOM 785 OE1 GLU A 98 3. .776 -1. .519 37. .583 1 , .00 76. .85 0

ATOM 786 OE2 GLU A 98 5. .391 -2. .719 38. .485 1 , .00 80. .46 0

ATOM 787 C GLU A 98 8. .010 1. .522 40. .329 1 , .00 71. .10 c

ATOM 788 O GLU A 98 7. .617 1. .557 41. .498 1 , .00 69. .60 0

ATOM 789 N ARG A 99 9. .290 1. .607 39. .987 1 , .00 66. .73 N

ATOM 790 CA ARG A 99 10. .376 1. .529 40. .956 1 , .00 58. .23 c

ATOM 791 CB ARG A 99 11. .594 0. .897 40. .287 1 , .00 52. .06 c

ATOM 792 CG ARG A 99 12. .685 0. .471 41. .226 1 , .00 73. .40 c

ATOM 793 CD ARG A 99 12. .531 -0. .973 41. .685 1 , .00 73. .80 c

ATOM 794 NE ARG A 99 13. .804 -1. .481 42. .202 1 , .00 71. .07 N

ATOM 795 CZ ARG A 99 14. .251 -2. .718 42. .017 1 , .00 72. .57 c

ATOM 796 NH1 ARG A 99 13. .521 -3. .600 41. .342 1 , .00 74. .25 N

ATOM 797 NH2 ARG A 99 15. .428 -3. .072 42. .511 1 , .00 72. .33 N

ATOM 798 C ARG A 99 10. .702 2. .919 41. .504 1 , .00 62. .05 C

ATOM 799 O ARG A 99 11. .247 3. .058 42. .595 1 , .00 63. .69 0

ATOM 800 N ILE A 100 10. .319 3. .946 40. .752 1 , .00 56. .12 N

ATOM 801 CA ILE A 100 10. .591 5. .336 41. .118 1 , .00 52. .23 C

ATOM 802 CB ILE A 100 10. .609 6. .250 39. .870 1 , .00 47. .29 c

ATOM 803 CGI ILE A 100 11. .885 6. .013 39. .075 1 , .00 45. .49 c

ATOM 804 CD1 ILE A 100 11. .943 6. .842 37. .826 1 , .00 47. .64 c

ATOM 805 CG2 ILE A 100 10. .570 7. .710 40. .244 1 , .00 43. .48 c

ATOM 806 C ILE A 100 9. .607 5. .915 42. .129 1 , .00 59. .82 c

ATOM 807 O ILE A 100 9. .983 6. .741 42. .959 1 , .00 59. .68 0

ATOM 808 N LYS A 101 8. .344 5. .509 42. .046 1 , .00 79. .70 N

ATOM 809 CA LYS A 101 7. .317 6. .043 42. .940 1 , .00 76. .96 c ATOM 810 CB LYS A 101 5..938 5..598 42..465 1 ,.00 82..89 C

ATOM 811 CG LYS A 101 5. .803 4. .091 42. .343 1 , .00 80. .32 C

ATOM 812 CD LYS A 101 4. .356 3. .683 42. .139 1 , .00 86. .67 C

ATOM 813 CE LYS A 101 4. .218 2. .172 42. .011 1 , .00 87. .56 C

ATOM 814 NZ LYS A 101 4. .712 1. .456 43. .229 1 , .00 87. .65 N

ATOM 815 C LYS A 101 7. .537 5. .607 44. .388 1 , .00 74. .25 C

ATOM 816 O LYS A 101 7. .328 6. .377 45. .325 1 , .00 71. .03 O

ATOM 817 N LYS A 102 7. .959 4. .361 44. .562 1 , .00 77. .52 N

ATOM 818 CA LYS A 102 8. .247 3. .833 45. .884 1 , .00 77. .12 C

ATOM 819 C LYS A 102 9. .395 4. .604 46. .531 1 , .00 80. .30 C

ATOM 820 O LYS A 102 9. .802 4. .300 47. .650 1 , .00 85. .37 0

ATOM 821 CB LYS A 102 8. .572 2. .338 45. .808 1 , .00 86. .43 c

ATOM 822 CG LYS A 102 9. .894 1. .982 45. .119 1 , .00 88. .05 c

ATOM 823 CD LYS A 102 10. .096 0. .464 45. .091 1 , .00 89. .96 c

ATOM 824 CE LYS A 102 11. .524 0. .062 45. .477 1 , .00 92. .22 c

ATOM 825 NZ LYS A 102 11. .553 -1. .174 46. .334 1 , .00 94. .05 N

ATOM 826 N TYR A 103 9. .911 5. .591 45. .801 1 , .00 79. .35 N

ATOM 827 CA TYR A 103 10. .954 6. .497 46. .270 1 , .00 85. .72 c

ATOM 828 CB TYR A 103 12. .336 6. .078 45. .758 1 , .00 82. .75 c

ATOM 829 CG TYR A 103 12. .917 4. .897 46. .481 1 , .00 76. .37 c

ATOM 830 CD1 TYR A 103 13. .259 4. .988 47. .817 1 , .00 76. .14 c

ATOM 831 CE1 TYR A 103 13. .787 3. .901 48. .496 1 , .00 81. .23 c

ATOM 832 CZ TYR A 103 13. .978 2. .709 47. .826 1 , .00 85. .28 c

ATOM 833 OH TYR A 103 14. .502 1. .620 48. .494 1 , .00 77. .89 0

ATOM 834 CE2 TYR A 103 13. .637 2. .602 46. .489 1 , .00 80. .80 c

ATOM 835 CD2 TYR A 103 13. .115 3. .690 45. .830 1 , .00 73. .41 c

ATOM 836 C TYR A 103 10. .652 7. .864 45. .717 1 , .00 87. .35 c

ATOM 837 O TYR A 103 11. .529 8. .518 45. .163 1 , .00 91. .19 0

ATOM 838 N LEU A 104 9. .402 8. .287 45. .834 1 , .00 99. .12 N

ATOM 839 CA LEU A 104 8. .986 9. .539 45. .220 1 , .00104. .27 c

ATOM 840 CB LEU A 104 7. .620 9. .379 44. .541 1 , .00 95. .39 c

ATOM 841 CG LEU A 104 7. .483 10. .111 43. .204 1 , .00101. .70 c

ATOM 842 CD1 LEU A 104 8. .861 10. .305 42. .566 1 , .00 92. .92 c

ATOM 843 CD2 LEU A 104 6. .530 9. .362 42. .268 1 , .00 87. .83 c

ATOM 844 C LEU A 104 8. .972 10. .683 46. .234 1 , .00114. .63 c

ATOM 845 O LEU A 104 9. .117 11. .851 45. .868 1 , .00109. .80 0

ATOM 846 OXT LEU A 104 8. .828 10. .466 47. .442 1 , .00117. .02 0

TER

ATOM 847 N SER B 1 -0. .577 -26. .412 26. .761 1 , .00105. .17 N

ATOM 848 CA SER B 1 -0. .553 -25. .853 25. .415 1 , .00101. .88 c

ATOM 849 CB SER B 1 -1. .921 -25. .273 25. .050 1 , .00 98. .08 c

ATOM 850 OG SER B 1 -2. .578 -26. .089 24. .089 1 , .00102. .28 0

ATOM 851 C SER B 1 0. .521 -24. .784 25. .291 1 , .00 97. .18 c

ATOM 852 O SER B 1 1. .470 -24. .920 24. .518 1 , .00 97. .53 0

ATOM 853 N VAL B 2 0. .363 -23. .721 26. .068 1 , .00 95. .24 N

ATOM 854 CA VAL B 2 1. .298 -22. .609 26. .053 1 , .00 90. .10 c

ATOM 855 CB VAL B 2 0. .544 -21. .265 25. .957 1 , .00 91. .49 c

ATOM 856 CGI VAL B 2 -0. .568 -21. .208 27. .007 1 , .00 93. .18 c

ATOM 857 CG2 VAL B 2 1. .507 -20. .099 26. .091 1 , .00 88. .83 c

ATOM 858 C VAL B 2 2. .196 -22. .664 27. .285 1 , .00 91. .82 c

ATOM 859 O VAL B 2 1. .712 -22. .725 28. .410 1 , .00 95. .00 0

ATOM 860 N ILE B 3 3. .504 -22. .619 27. .050 1 , .00 75. .97 N

ATOM 861 CA ILE B 3 4. .518 -23. .056 28. .012 1 , .00 69. .74 c

ATOM 862 CB ILE B 3 5. .629 -23. .779 27. .249 1 , .00 69. .49 c

ATOM 863 CGI ILE B 3 5. .104 -25. .083 26. .668 1 , .00 67. .00 c

ATOM 864 CD1 ILE B 3 6. .057 -25. .728 25. .717 1 , .00 64. .77 c

ATOM 865 CG2 ILE B 3 6. .829 -24. .023 28. .142 1 , .00 77. .43 c

ATOM 866 C ILE B 3 5. .229 -21. .946 28. .786 1 , .00 71. .35 c

ATOM 867 O ILE B 3 5. .940 -21. .134 28. .187 1 , .00 70. .42 0

ATOM 868 N GLU B 4 5. .096 -21. .928 30. .112 1 , .00 74. .48 N

ATOM 869 CA GLU B 4 5. .899 -20. .991 30. .881 1 , .00 77. .86 c

ATOM 870 CB GLU B 4 5. .808 -21. .218 32. .389 1 , .00 81. .96 c

ATOM 871 CG GLU B 4 6. .914 -20. .455 33. .138 1 , .00 85. .95 c ATOM 872 CD GLU B 4 6..794 -20.518 34.664 1.00 97.96 C

ATOM 873 OE1 GLU B 4 5. .676 -20.806 35.157 1.00 90.44 O

ATOM 874 OE2 GLU B 4 7. .815 -20.264 35.363 1.00 74.71 O

ATOM 875 C GLU B 4 7. .334 -21.178 30.424 1.00 79.85 C

ATOM 876 O GLU B 4 7. .807 -22.304 30.274 1.00 86.78 O

ATOM 877 N ILE B 5 8. .020 -20.072 30.176 1.00 59.31 N

ATOM 878 CA ILE B 5 9. .414 -20.119 29.768 1.00 60.43 C

ATOM 879 CB ILE B 5 9. .588 -19.668 28.303 1.00 59.16 C

ATOM 880 CGI ILE B 5 9. .065 -20.730 27.335 1.00 53.06 C

ATOM 881 CD1 ILE B 5 9. .234 -20.316 25.872 1.00 41.17 C

ATOM 882 CG2 ILE B 5 11. .043 -19.349 27.988 1.00 55.00 C

ATOM 883 C ILE B 5 10. .230 -19.216 30.691 1.00 57.22 C

ATOM 884 O ILE B 5 9. .790 -18.123 31.051 1.00 43.81 O

ATOM 885 N ASN B 6 11. .420 -19.680 31.066 1.00 69.05 N

ATOM 886 CA ASN B 6 12. .307 -18.951 31.976 1.00 66.62 C

ATOM 887 CB ASN B 6 12. .015 -19.335 33.432 1.00 63.10 C

ATOM 888 CG ASN B 6 11. .629 -20.793 33.583 1.00 66.21 C

ATOM 889 OD1 ASN B 6 12. .439 -21.687 33.348 1.00 73.63 O

ATOM 890 ND2 ASN B 6 10. .389 -21.039 33.989 1.00 72.15 N

ATOM 891 C ASN B 6 13. .773 -19.199 31.645 1.00 65.85 C

ATOM 892 O ASN B 6 14. .100 -20.171 30.962 1.00 64.29 O

ATOM 893 N ASP B 7 14. .645 -18.322 32.136 1.00 86.42 N

ATOM 894 CA ASP B 7 16. .083 -18.444 31.902 1.00 98.58 C

ATOM 895 CB ASP B 7 16. .890 -17.596 32.900 1.00 87.77 C

ATOM 896 CG ASP B 7 16. .026 -16.648 33.719 1.00 91.48 C

ATOM 897 OD1 ASP B 7 15. .779 -15.512 33.245 1.00 86.27 O

ATOM 898 OD2 ASP B 7 15. .617 -17.035 34.845 1.00 86.15 O

ATOM 899 C ASP B 7 16. .564 -19.900 31.961 1.00102.54 C

ATOM 900 O ASP B 7 17. .521 -20.282 31.279 1.00 95.68 O

ATOM 901 N GLU B 8 15. .887 -20.703 32.775 1.00 93.37 N

ATOM 902 CA GLU B 8 16. .221 -22.109 32.938 1.00 90.14 C

ATOM 903 CB GLU B 8 15. .522 -22.661 34.173 1.00 98.10 C

ATOM 904 CG GLU B 8 16. .004 -22.044 35.468 1.00112.15 C

ATOM 905 CD GLU B 8 15. .239 -22.557 36.667 1.00124.79 C

ATOM 906 OE1 GLU B 8 14. .001 -22.707 36.557 1.00114.62 O

ATOM 907 OE2 GLU B 8 15. .879 -22.815 37.712 1.00137.10 O

ATOM 908 C GLU B 8 15. .860 -22.959 31.730 1.00 92.49 C

ATOM 909 O GLU B 8 16. .725 -23.590 31.133 1.00 96.60 O

ATOM 910 N ASN B 9 14. .581 -22.978 31.372 1.00 91.20 N

ATOM 911 CA ASN B 9 14. .114 -23.859 30.303 1.00 93.39 C

ATOM 912 CB ASN B 9 12. .707 -24.396 30.609 1.00 89.12 C

ATOM 913 CG ASN B 9 11. .639 -23.308 30.575 1.00 94.54 C

ATOM 914 OD1 ASN B 9 11. .928 -22.130 30.805 1.00 91.22 O

ATOM 915 ND2 ASN B 9 10. .397 -23.701 30.286 1.00 88.21 N

ATOM 916 C ASN B 9 14. .146 -23.222 28.917 1.00 95.07 C

ATOM 917 O ASN B 9 13. .634 -23.792 27.957 1.00 99.72 O

ATOM 918 N PHE B 10 14. .765 -22.051 28.805 1.00 81.25 N

ATOM 919 CA PHE B 10 14. .684 -21.284 27.560 1.00 78.84 C

ATOM 920 CB PHE B 10 15. .344 -19.918 27.685 1.00 71.60 C

ATOM 921 CG PHE B 10 15. .207 -19.089 26.452 1.00 68.18 C

ATOM 922 CD1 PHE B 10 13. .967 -18.577 26.093 1.00 76.57 C

ATOM 923 CE1 PHE B 10 13. .808 -17.809 24.944 1.00 67.39 C

ATOM 924 CZ PHE B 10 14. .898 -17.548 24.129 1.00 66.06 C

ATOM 925 CE2 PHE B 10 16. .152 -18.058 24.472 1.00 81.01 C

ATOM 926 CD2 PHE B 10 16. .299 -18.830 25.637 1.00 79.21 C

ATOM 927 C PHE B 10 15. .265 -21.989 26.352 1.00 86.33 C

ATOM 928 O PHE B 10 14. .567 -22.192 25.364 1.00 81.53 O

ATOM 929 N ASP B 11 16. .548 -22.336 26.436 1.00100.81 N

ATOM 930 CA ASP B 11 17. .284 -22.965 25.337 1.00 99.39 C

ATOM 931 CB ASP B 11 18. .611 -23.503 25.848 1.00101.34 C

ATOM 932 CG ASP B 11 18. .432 -24.567 26.912 1.00110.25 C

ATOM 933 OD2 ASP B 11 19. .357 -25.396 27.070 1.00111.74 O

ATOM 934 OD1 ASP B 11 17. .372 -24.574 27.588 1.00100.69 O ATOM 935 C ASP B 11 16..533 -24.074 24.588 1.00106.68 C

ATOM 936 O ASP B 11 17. .053 -24.623 23.616 1.00108.36 O

ATOM 937 N GLU B 12 15. .328 -24.407 25.052 1.00 96.91 N

ATOM 938 CA GLU B 12 14. .396 -25.249 24.301 1.00 99.82 C

ATOM 939 CB GLU B 12 13. .186 -25.596 25.157 1.00 94.57 C

ATOM 940 CG GLU B 12 12. .264 -24.406 25.382 1.00 94.67 C

ATOM 941 CD GLU B 12 10. .992 -24.774 26.123 1.00 91.32 C

ATOM 942 OE1 GLU B 12 10. .058 -25.299 25.476 1.00 90.27 O

ATOM 943 OE2 GLU B 12 10. .924 -24.524 27.349 1.00 85.22 O

ATOM 944 C GLU B 12 13. .909 -24.532 23.035 1.00 99.22 C

ATOM 945 O GLU B 12 12. .918 -24.922 22.423 1.00 88.70 O

ATOM 946 N VAL B 13 14. .598 -23.460 22.667 1.00108.98 N

ATOM 947 CA VAL B 13 14. .391 -22.831 21.373 1.00112.79 C

ATOM 948 CB VAL B 13 14. .660 -21.308 21.414 1.00 99.59 C

ATOM 949 CGI VAL B 13 13. .493 -20.565 22.055 1.00 81.14 C

ATOM 950 CG2 VAL B 13 15. .967 -21.015 22.148 1.00 98.96 C

ATOM 951 C VAL B 13 15. .346 -23.481 20.370 1.00124.68 C

ATOM 952 O VAL B 13 14. .929 -23.972 19.314 1.00119.14 O

ATOM 953 N ILE B 14 16. .627 -23.500 20.731 1.00169.10 N

ATOM 954 CA ILE B 14 17. .688 -23.980 19.851 1.00172.43 C

ATOM 955 CB ILE B 14 19. .076 -23.486 20.335 1.00174.56 C

ATOM 956 CGI ILE B 14 20. .126 -23.628 19.224 1.00174.32 C

ATOM 957 CD1 ILE B 14 20. .735 -22.301 18.771 1.00162.43 C

ATOM 958 CG2 ILE B 14 19. .476 -24.191 21.631 1.00170.25 C

ATOM 959 C ILE B 14 17. .693 -25.501 19.785 1.00171.95 C

ATOM 960 O ILE B 14 18. .152 -26.097 18.808 1.00172.20 O

ATOM 961 N LYS B 15 17. .176 -26.123 20.836 1.00117.60 N

ATOM 962 CA LYS B 15 17. .145 -27.569 20.913 1.00118.01 C

ATOM 963 CB LYS B 15 17. .407 -28.011 22.346 1.00114.54 C

ATOM 964 CG LYS B 15 18. .072 -29.358 22.442 1.00107.96 C

ATOM 965 CD LYS B 15 18. .619 -29.593 23.833 1.00100.90 C

ATOM 966 CE LYS B 15 18. .017 -30.839 24.449 1.00 91.85 C

ATOM 967 NZ LYS B 15 18. .863 -31.357 25.549 1.00 85.25 N

ATOM 968 C LYS B 15 15. .800 -28.087 20.431 1.00110.32 C

ATOM 969 O LYS B 15 15. .615 -29.289 20.245 1.00111.28 O

ATOM 970 N LYS B 16 14. .863 -27.169 20.230 1.00139.88 N

ATOM 971 CA LYS B 16 13. .550 -27.529 19.723 1.00140.00 C

ATOM 972 CB LYS B 16 12. .636 -26.304 19.654 1.00138.11 C

ATOM 973 CG LYS B 16 11. .186 -26.586 20.016 1.00125.86 C

ATOM 974 CD LYS B 16 11. .081 -27.192 21.405 1.00130.26 C

ATOM 975 CE LYS B 16 9. .635 -27.294 21.865 1.00126.28 C

ATOM 976 NZ LYS B 16 9. .514 -27.922 23.213 1.00119.19 N

ATOM 977 C LYS B 16 13. .700 -28.155 18.346 1.00136.26 C

ATOM 978 O LYS B 16 14. .334 -29.195 18.205 1.00141.73 O

ATOM 979 N ASP B 17 13. .122 -27.515 17.333 1.00109.86 N

ATOM 980 CA ASP B 17 13. .114 -28.057 15.980 1.00105.60 C

ATOM 981 CB ASP B 17 12. .647 -29.517 16.006 1.00109.33 C

ATOM 982 CG ASP B 17 11. .488 -29.756 16.983 1.00114.87 C

ATOM 983 OD1 ASP B 17 11. .755 -30.089 18.160 1.00122.12 O

ATOM 984 OD2 ASP B 17 10. .310 -29.633 16.573 1.00108.52 O

ATOM 985 C ASP B 17 12. .184 -27.249 15.092 1.00108.34 C

ATOM 986 O ASP B 17 12. .600 -26.585 14.140 1.00106.04 O

ATOM 987 N LYS B 18 10. .906 -27.332 15.427 1.00111.78 N

ATOM 988 CA LYS B 18 9. .853 -26.655 14.696 1.00 99.36 C

ATOM 989 CB LYS B 18 8. .592 -27.510 14.707 1.00 80.93 C

ATOM 990 CG LYS B 18 7. .321 -26.758 14.777 1.00 84.98 C

ATOM 991 CD LYS B 18 6. .200 -27.725 14.499 1.00 95.91 C

ATOM 992 CE LYS B 18 5. .179 -27.154 13.532 1.00 96.56 C

ATOM 993 NZ LYS B 18 5. .667 -26.386 12.308 1.00 83.38 N

ATOM 994 C LYS B 18 9. .623 -25.278 15.314 1.00 95.51 C

ATOM 995 O LYS B 18 10. .154 -24.972 16.389 1.00 93.84 O

ATOM 996 N VAL B 19 8. .857 -24.447 14.616 1.00 81.27 N

ATOM 997 CA VAL B 19 8. .782 -23.024 14.917 1.00 79.25 C ATOM 998 CB VAL B 19 8..163 -22..241 13..743 1 ,.00 80..30 C

ATOM 999 CGI VAL B 19 6. .661 -22. .296 13. .803 1 , .00 75. .87 C

ATOM 1000 CG2 VAL B 19 8. .635 -20. .801 13. .766 1 , .00 82. .15 C

ATOM 1001 C VAL B 19 8. .077 -22. .673 16. .232 1 , .00 80. .13 C

ATOM 1002 O VAL B 19 6. .993 -23. .192 16. .560 1 , .00 72. .36 O

ATOM 1003 N VAL B 20 8. .712 -21. .756 16. .959 1 , .00 74. .87 N

ATOM 1004 CA VAL B 20 8. .283 -21. .384 18. .294 1 , .00 66. .27 C

ATOM 1005 CB VAL B 20 9. .371 -21. .662 19. .314 1 , .00 66. .59 C

ATOM 1006 CGI VAL B 20 8. .972 -21. .117 20. .666 1 , .00 64. .65 c

ATOM 1007 CG2 VAL B 20 9. .625 -23. .143 19. .398 1 , .00 75. .54 c

ATOM 1008 C VAL B 20 7. .877 -19. .920 18. .384 1 , .00 62. .49 c

ATOM 1009 O VAL B 20 8. .608 -19. .012 17. .966 1 , .00 55. .20 0

ATOM 1010 N VAL B 21 6. .695 -19. .715 18. .953 1 , .00 53. .78 N

ATOM 1011 CA VAL B 21 6. .098 -18. .401 19. .096 1 , .00 49. .56 c

ATOM 1012 CB VAL B 21 4. .649 -18. .468 18. .615 1 , .00 46. .98 c

ATOM 1013 CGI VAL B 21 3. .974 -17. .100 18. .697 1 , .00 48. .40 c

ATOM 1014 CG2 VAL B 21 4. .626 -18. .988 17. .203 1 , .00 49. .53 c

ATOM 1015 C VAL B 21 6. .151 -17. .962 20. .561 1 , .00 46. .23 c

ATOM 1016 O VAL B 21 5. .605 -18. .642 21. .426 1 , .00 48. .59 0

ATOM 1017 N VAL B 22 6. .796 -16. .831 20. .843 1 , .00 50. .79 N

ATOM 1018 CA VAL B 22 7. .003 -16. .405 22. .234 1 , .00 55. .45 c

ATOM 1019 CB VAL B 22 8. .513 -16. .390 22. .612 1 , .00 51. .44 c

ATOM 1020 CGI VAL B 22 8. .699 -15. .963 24. .051 1 , .00 37. .20 c

ATOM 1021 CG2 VAL B 22 9. .143 -17. .749 22. .383 1 , .00 51. .37 c

ATOM 1022 C VAL B 22 6. .395 -15. .047 22. .605 1 , .00 49. .52 c

ATOM 1023 O VAL B 22 6. .863 -14. .001 22. .146 1 , .00 49. .62 0

ATOM 1024 N ASP B 23 5. .387 -15. .076 23. .474 1 , .00 46. .70 N

ATOM 1025 CA ASP B 23 4. .746 -13. .867 23. .988 1 , .00 46. .13 c

ATOM 1026 CB ASP B 23 3. .273 -14. .163 24. .328 1 , .00 50. .01 c

ATOM 1027 CG ASP B 23 2. .434 -12. .894 24. .565 1 , .00 66. .21 c

ATOM 1028 OD1 ASP B 23 2. .999 -11. .786 24. .740 1 , .00 68. .81 0

ATOM 1029 OD2 ASP B 23 1. .186 -13. .015 24. .579 1 , .00 73. .34 0

ATOM 1030 C ASP B 23 5. .456 -13. .328 25. .232 1 , .00 47. .10 c

ATOM 1031 O ASP B 23 5. .420 -13. .933 26. .314 1 , .00 43. .31 0

ATOM 1032 N PHE B 24 6. .078 -12. .170 25. .083 1 , .00 47. .25 N

ATOM 1033 CA PHE B 24 6. .665 -11. .475 26. .217 1 , .00 44. .68 c

ATOM 1034 CB PHE B 24 7. .865 -10. .651 25. .748 1 , .00 49. .34 c

ATOM 1035 CG PHE B 24 9. .039 -11. .485 25. .331 1 , .00 48. .06 c

ATOM 1036 CD2 PHE B 24 10. .181 -11. .526 26. .104 1 , .00 51. .49 c

ATOM 1037 CE2 PHE B 24 11. .264 -12. .311 25. .730 1 , .00 48. .77 c

ATOM 1038 CZ PHE B 24 11. .210 -13. .052 24. .581 1 , .00 51. .16 c

ATOM 1039 CE1 PHE B 24 10. .075 -13. .022 23. .795 1 , .00 53. .41 c

ATOM 1040 CD1 PHE B 24 8. .995 -12. .242 24. .171 1 , .00 51. .72 c

ATOM 1041 C PHE B 24 5. .643 -10. .581 26. .914 1 , .00 46. .41 c

ATOM 1042 O PHE B 24 5. .231 -9. .551 26. .385 1 , .00 52. .44 0

ATOM 1043 N TRP B 25 5. .251 -10. .958 28. .122 1 , .00 49. .55 N

ATOM 1044 CA TRP B 25 4. .166 -10. .248 28. .810 1 , .00 50. .21 c

ATOM 1045 CB TRP B 25 2. .917 -11. .126 28. .853 1 , .00 38. .06 c

ATOM 1046 CG TRP B 25 3. .125 -12. .338 29. .694 1 , .00 36. .57 c

ATOM 1047 CD1 TRP B 25 3. .812 -13. .467 29. .352 1 , .00 43. .51 c

ATOM 1048 NE1 TRP B 25 3. .794 -14. .368 30. .385 1 , .00 47. .39 N

ATOM 1049 CE2 TRP B 25 3. .104 -13. .823 31. .434 1 , .00 53. .97 c

ATOM 1050 CD2 TRP B 25 2. .659 -12. .541 31. .032 1 , .00 49. .97 c

ATOM 1051 CE3 TRP B 25 1. .918 -11. .762 31. .933 1 , .00 41. .36 c

ATOM 1052 CZ3 TRP B 25 1. .644 -12. .284 33. .178 1 , .00 41. .49 c

ATOM 1053 CH2 TRP B 25 2. .102 -13. .568 33. .551 1 , .00 33. .48 c

ATOM 1054 CZ2 TRP B 25 2. .824 -14. .345 32. .699 1 , .00 36. .37 c

ATOM 1055 C TRP B 25 4. .520 -9. .803 30. .230 1 , .00 47. .79 c

ATOM 1056 O TRP B 25 5. .602 -10. .078 30. .722 1 , .00 42. .92 0

ATOM 1057 N ALA B 26 3. .581 -9. .119 30. .875 1 , .00 46. .23 N

ATOM 1058 CA ALA B 26 3. .747 -8. .649 32. .243 1 , .00 46. .32 c

ATOM 1059 CB ALA B 26 4. .668 -7. .423 32. .285 1 , .00 46. .20 c

ATOM 1060 C ALA B 26 2. .402 -8. .328 32. .878 1 , .00 49. .68 c ATOM 1061 O ALA B 26 1..490 -7..832 32..202 1 ,.00 49..52 O

ATOM 1062 N GLU B 27 2. .284 -8. .601 34. .176 1 , .00 55. .10 N

ATOM 1063 CA GLU B 27 1. .053 -8. .320 34. .910 1 , .00 47. .35 C

ATOM 1064 CB GLU B 27 1. .115 -8. .847 36. .360 1 , .00 47. .60 C

ATOM 1065 CG GLU B 27 1. .030 -10. .402 36. .512 1 , .00 50. .82 c

ATOM 1066 CD GLU B 27 2. .314 -11. .069 37. .075 1 , .00 69. .56 c

ATOM 1067 OE1 GLU B 27 3. .443 -10. .633 36. .735 1 , .00 73. .38 0

ATOM 1068 OE2 GLU B 27 2. .195 -12. .043 37. .861 1 , .00 59. .42 0

ATOM 1069 C GLU B 27 0. .650 -6. .837 34. .837 1 , .00 48. .74 c

ATOM 1070 O GLU B 27 -0. .537 -6. .525 34. .872 1 , .00 57. .81 0

ATOM 1071 N TRP B 28 1. .613 -5. .926 34. .696 1 , .00 42. .43 N

ATOM 1072 CA TRP B 28 1. .281 -4. .495 34. .609 1 , .00 46. .07 c

ATOM 1073 CB TRP B 28 2. .445 -3. .603 35. .044 1 , .00 47. .45 c

ATOM 1074 CG TRP B 28 3. .780 -4. .015 34. .526 1 , .00 53. .22 c

ATOM 1075 CD1 TRP B 28 4. .767 -4. .644 35. .225 1 , .00 58. .40 c

ATOM 1076 NE1 TRP B 28 5. .862 -4. .846 34. .422 1 , .00 57. .59 N

ATOM 1077 CE2 TRP B 28 5. .594 -4. .343 33. .180 1 , .00 54. .43 c

ATOM 1078 CD2 TRP B 28 4. .296 -3. .801 33. .208 1 , .00 52. .87 c

ATOM 1079 CE3 TRP B 28 3. .781 -3. .223 32. .047 1 , .00 58. .66 c

ATOM 1080 CZ3 TRP B 28 4. .569 -3. .205 30. .910 1 , .00 56. .83 c

ATOM 1081 CH2 TRP B 28 5. .859 -3. .740 30. .921 1 , .00 54. .72 c

ATOM 1082 CZ2 TRP B 28 6. .382 -4. .312 32. .040 1 , .00 56. .31 c

ATOM 1083 C TRP B 28 0. .801 -4. .050 33. .230 1 , .00 44. .67 c

ATOM 1084 O TRP B 28 0. .530 -2. .878 33. .000 1 , .00 40. .25 0

ATOM 1085 N CYS B 29 0. .683 -4. .994 32. .318 1 , .00 41. .27 N

ATOM 1086 CA CYS B 29 0. .408 -4. .660 30. .942 1 , .00 47. .77 c

ATOM 1087 CB CYS B 29 1. .359 -5. .461 30. .050 1 , .00 49. .44 c

ATOM 1088 SG CYS B 29 0. .923 -5. .573 28. .315 1 , .00 54. .33 s

ATOM 1089 C CYS B 29 -1. .060 -4. .929 30. .579 1 , .00 46. .98 c

ATOM 1090 O CYS B 29 -1. .463 -6. .083 30. .396 1 , .00 47. .42 0

ATOM 1091 N GLY B 30 -1. .853 -3. .862 30. .478 1 , .00 32. .22 N

ATOM 1092 CA GLY B 30 -3. .271 -3. .982 30. .144 1 , .00 39. .33 c

ATOM 1093 C GLY B 30 -3. .574 -4. .867 28. .940 1 , .00 41. .54 c

ATOM 1094 O GLY B 30 -4. .165 -5. .936 29. .115 1 , .00 39. .21 0

ATOM 1095 N PRO B 31 -3. .150 -4. .445 27. .721 1 , .00 39. .76 N

ATOM 1096 CA PRO B 31 -3. .418 -5. .185 26. .472 1 , .00 35. .11 c

ATOM 1097 CB PRO B 31 -2. .670 -4. .393 25. .384 1 , .00 30. .68 c

ATOM 1098 CG PRO B 31 -1. .772 -3. .406 26. .103 1 , .00 43. .17 c

ATOM 1099 CD PRO B 31 -2. .306 -3. .248 27. .513 1 , .00 40. .78 c

ATOM 1100 C PRO B 31 -2. .882 -6. .598 26. .518 1 , .00 41. .34 c

ATOM 1101 O PRO B 31 -3. .345 -7. .476 25. .782 1 , .00 44. .92 0

ATOM 1102 N CYS B 32 -1. .892 -6. .827 27. .368 1 , .00 43. .72 N

ATOM 1103 CA CYS B 32 -1. .439 -8. .194 27. .587 1 , .00 46. .16 c

ATOM 1104 CB CYS B 32 -0. .264 -8. .224 28. .572 1 , .00 41. .98 c

ATOM 1105 SG CYS B 32 1. .277 -7. .564 27. .865 1 , .00 44. .15 s

ATOM 1106 C CYS B 32 -2. .579 -9. .148 28. .004 1 , .00 47. .57 c

ATOM 1107 O CYS B 32 -2. .584 -10. .320 27. .628 1 , .00 43. .74 0

ATOM 1108 N ARG B 33 -3. .552 -8. .631 28. .752 1 , .00 61. .53 N

ATOM 1109 CA ARG B 33 -4. .694 -9. .434 29. .205 1 , .00 71. .74 c

ATOM 1110 CB ARG B 33 -5. .498 -8. .694 30. .285 1 , .00 73. .19 c

ATOM 1111 CG ARG B 33 -4. .725 -8. .433 31. .573 1 , .00 59. .71 c

ATOM 1112 CD ARG B 33 -5. .361 -7. .276 32. .360 1 , .00 73. .59 c

ATOM 1113 NE ARG B 33 -4. .756 -6. .965 33. .667 1 , .00 88. .65 N

ATOM 1114 CZ ARG B 33 -3. .522 -7. .286 34. .070 1 , .00 78. .95 c

ATOM 1115 NH1 ARG B 33 -2. .674 -7. .949 33. .280 1 , .00 74. .46 N

ATOM 1116 NH2 ARG B 33 -3. .129 -6. .924 35. .285 1 , .00 71. .42 N

ATOM 1117 C ARG B 33 -5. .627 -9. .914 28. .071 1 , .00 68. .14 C

ATOM 1118 O ARG B 33 -6. .235 -10. .976 28. .174 1 , .00 73. .53 0

ATOM 1119 N MET B 34 -5. .726 -9. .158 26. .982 1 , .00 59. .03 N

ATOM 1120 CA MET B 34 -6. .558 -9. .590 25. .852 1 , .00 65. .04 C

ATOM 1121 CB MET B 34 -6. .949 -8. .396 24. .991 1 , .00 59. .79 c

ATOM 1122 CG MET B 34 -6. .418 -7. .075 25. .521 1 , .00 63. .46 c

ATOM 1123 SD MET B 34 -6. .419 -5. .810 24. .228 1 , .00 85. .43 s ATOM 1124 CE MET B 34 -8..103 -5..956 23..641 1 ,.00 51..55 C

ATOM 1125 C MET B 34 -5. .866 -10. .628 24. .986 1 , .00 59. .71 C

ATOM 1126 O MET B 34 -6. .519 -11. .439 24. .339 1 , .00 59. .98 O

ATOM 1127 N ILE B 35 -4. .538 -10. .585 24. .973 1 , .00 49. .33 N

ATOM 1128 CA ILE B 35 -3. .744 -11. .481 24. .134 1 , .00 53. .69 C

ATOM 1129 CB ILE B 35 -2. .370 -10. .866 23. .776 1 , .00 49. .08 C

ATOM 1130 CGI ILE B 35 -2. .531 -9. .542 23. .043 1 , .00 51. .33 c

ATOM 1131 CD1 ILE B 35 -1. .306 -8. .598 23. .213 1 , .00 51. .09 c

ATOM 1132 CG2 ILE B 35 -1. .566 -11. .812 22. .933 1 , .00 49. .18 c

ATOM 1133 C ILE B 35 -3. .498 -12. .835 24. .802 1 , .00 56. .23 c

ATOM 1134 O ILE B 35 -3. .266 -13. .842 24. .132 1 , .00 57. .30 0

ATOM 1135 N ALA B 36 -3. .524 -12. .859 26. .126 1 , .00 53. .64 N

ATOM 1136 CA ALA B 36 -3. .303 -14. .117 26. .840 1 , .00 55. .57 c

ATOM 1137 CB ALA B 36 -3. .463 -13. .936 28. .361 1 , .00 47. .65 c

ATOM 1138 C ALA B 36 -4. .226 -15. .221 26. .321 1 , .00 56. .96 c

ATOM 1139 O ALA B 36 -3. .747 -16. .286 25. .916 1 , .00 56. .63 0

ATOM 1140 N PRO B 37 -5. .554 -14. .975 26. .345 1 , .00 64. .12 N

ATOM 1141 CA PRO B 37 -6. .522 -15. .985 25. .884 1 , .00 62. .85 c

ATOM 1142 C PRO B 37 -6. .298 -16. .368 24. .438 1 , .00 58. .27 c

ATOM 1143 O PRO B 37 -6. .281 -17. .546 24. .089 1 , .00 64. .00 0

ATOM 1144 CB PRO B 37 -7. .874 -15. .275 26. .017 1 , .00 56. .53 c

ATOM 1145 CG PRO B 37 -7. .541 -13. .803 26. .125 1 , .00 64. .70 c

ATOM 1146 CD PRO B 37 -6. .231 -13. .772 26. .862 1 , .00 58. .90 c

ATOM 1147 N ILE B 38 -6. .122 -15. .368 23. .594 1 , .00 49. .38 N

ATOM 1148 CA ILE B 38 -5. .946 -15. .628 22. .172 1 , .00 50. .32 c

ATOM 1149 CB ILE B 38 -5. .780 -14. .307 21. .404 1 , .00 50. .26 c

ATOM 1150 CGI ILE B 38 -7. .080 -13. .502 21. .547 1 , .00 48. .34 c

ATOM 1151 CD1 ILE B 38 -7. .072 -12. .139 20. .896 1 , .00 46. .09 c

ATOM 1152 CG2 ILE B 38 -5. .445 -14. .558 19. .960 1 , .00 47. .52 c

ATOM 1153 C ILE B 38 -4. .817 -16. .614 21. .888 1 , .00 55. .58 c

ATOM 1154 O ILE B 38 -5. .057 -17. .657 21. .290 1 , .00 60. .38 0

ATOM 1155 N ILE B 39 -3. .597 -16. .297 22. .327 1 , .00 60. .95 N

ATOM 1156 CA ILE B 39 -2. .441 -17. .192 22. .145 1 , .00 54. .32 c

ATOM 1157 CB ILE B 39 -1. .226 -16. .736 22. .973 1 , .00 60. .90 c

ATOM 1158 CGI ILE B 39 -0. .316 -15. .853 22. .126 1 , .00 58. .32 c

ATOM 1159 CD1 ILE B 39 -1. .041 -14. .921 21. .228 1 , .00 57. .66 c

ATOM 1160 CG2 ILE B 39 -0. .414 -17. .936 23. .474 1 , .00 55. .24 c

ATOM 1161 C ILE B 39 -2. .772 -18. .614 22. .544 1 , .00 55. .84 c

ATOM 1162 O ILE B 39 -2. .341 -19. .556 21. .891 1 , .00 56. .53 0

ATOM 1163 N GLU B 40 -3. .524 -18. .755 23. .633 1 , .00 67. .89 N

ATOM 1164 CA GLU B 40 -4. .045 -20. .047 24. .069 1 , .00 71. .72 c

ATOM 1165 CB GLU B 40 -4. .896 -19. .884 25. .323 1 , .00 69. .49 c

ATOM 1166 CG GLU B 40 -4. .114 -19. .907 26. .602 1 , .00 76. .37 c

ATOM 1167 CD GLU B 40 -4. .923 -19. .363 27. .744 1 , .00 85. .01 c

ATOM 1168 OE2 GLU B 40 -4. .316 -19. .017 28. .783 1 , .00 97. .30 0

ATOM 1169 OE1 GLU B 40 -6. .164 -19. .269 27. .588 1 , .00 80. .90 0

ATOM 1170 C GLU B 40 -4. .891 -20. .711 22. .998 1 , .00 73. .56 c

ATOM 1171 O GLU B 40 -4. .647 -21. .867 22. .657 1 , .00 69. .17 0

ATOM 1172 N GLU B 41 -5. .901 -19. .986 22. .503 1 , .00 77. .03 N

ATOM 1173 CA GLU B 41 -6. .799 -20. .497 21. .468 1 , .00 74. .03 c

ATOM 1174 CB GLU B 41 -7. .797 -19. .418 21. .003 1 , .00 67. .29 c

ATOM 1175 CG GLU B 41 -8. .783 -18. .942 22. .095 1 , .00 74. .98 c

ATOM 1176 CD GLU B 41 -9. .725 -17. .840 21. .604 1 , .00 77. .61 c

ATOM 1177 OE1 GLU B 41 -10. .750 -17. .566 22. .275 1 , .00 72. .53 0

ATOM 1178 OE2 GLU B 41 -9. .430 -17. .239 20. .544 1 , .00 68. .23 0

ATOM 1179 C GLU B 41 -5. .963 -21. .019 20. .306 1 , .00 80. .18 c

ATOM 1180 O GLU B 41 -6. .243 -22. .091 19. .762 1 , .00 86. .25 0

ATOM 1181 N LEU B 42 -4. .916 -20. .273 19. .954 1 , .00 58. .10 N

ATOM 1182 CA LEU B 42 -4. .032 -20. .665 18. .865 1 , .00 61. .89 c

ATOM 1183 CB LEU B 42 -3. .186 -19. .481 18. .397 1 , .00 65. .15 c

ATOM 1184 CG LEU B 42 -3. .908 -18. .392 17. .605 1 , .00 70. .91 c

ATOM 1185 CD1 LEU B 42 -2. .932 -17. .298 17. .166 1 , .00 67. .89 c

ATOM 1186 CD2 LEU B 42 -4. .583 -19. .007 16. .408 1 , .00 69. .23 c ATOM 1187 C LEU B 42 -3..131 -21.839 19.247 1.00 65.88 C

ATOM 1188 O LEU B 42 -2. .709 -22.608 18.392 1.00 69.34 O

ATOM 1189 N ALA B 43 -2. .830 -21.977 20.531 1.00 92.93 N

ATOM 1190 CA ALA B 43 -2. .002 -23.090 20.977 1.00 96.49 C

ATOM 1191 CB ALA B 43 -1. .586 -22.917 22.437 1.00 87.63 C

ATOM 1192 C ALA B 43 -2. .769 -24.388 20.783 1.00 98.90 C

ATOM 1193 O ALA B 43 -2. .179 -25.451 20.589 1.00 99.34 O

ATOM 1194 N GLU B 44 -4. .093 -24.287 20.830 1.00 94.24 N

ATOM 1195 CA GLU B 44 -4. .959 -25.441 20.640 1.00 94.43 C

ATOM 1196 CB GLU B 44 -6. .255 -25.275 21.441 1.00 91.68 C

ATOM 1197 CG GLU B 44 -6. .018 -25.073 22.942 1.00102.06 C

ATOM 1198 CD GLU B 44 -7. .241 -25.394 23.793 1.00113.53 C

ATOM 1199 OE1 GLU B 44 -8. .382 -25.204 23.313 1.00111.24 O

ATOM 1200 OE2 GLU B 44 -7. .056 -25.849 24.943 1.00111.95 O

ATOM 1201 C GLU B 44 -5. .234 -25.642 19.155 1.00 95.11 C

ATOM 1202 O GLU B 44 -5. .150 -26.756 18.637 1.00 88.62 O

ATOM 1203 N GLU B 45 -5. .542 -24.549 18.469 1.00 94.20 N

ATOM 1204 CA GLU B 45 -5. .684 -24.583 17.023 1.00 91.51 C

ATOM 1205 CB GLU B 45 -5. .832 -23.165 16.472 1.00 88.51 C

ATOM 1206 CG GLU B 45 -6. .013 -23.099 14.968 1.00 91.15 C

ATOM 1207 CD GLU B 45 -6. .631 -21.788 14.502 1.00 92.61 C

ATOM 1208 OE1 GLU B 45 -7. .329 -21.127 15.303 1.00 86.51 O

ATOM 1209 OE2 GLU B 45 -6. .420 -21.420 13.326 1.00102.52 O

ATOM 1210 C GLU B 45 -4. .480 -25.294 16.393 1.00 92.91 C

ATOM 1211 O GLU B 45 -4. .578 -26.455 15.995 1.00 94.92 O

ATOM 1212 N TYR B 46 -3. .341 -24.610 16.336 1.00 99.92 N

ATOM 1213 CA TYR B 46 -2. .123 -25.177 15.758 1.00102.82 C

ATOM 1214 CB TYR B 46 -1. .180 -24.062 15.334 1.00104.93 C

ATOM 1215 CG TYR B 46 -1. .800 -23.002 14.476 1.00 97.94 C

ATOM 1216 CD2 TYR B 46 -1. .707 -23.070 13.103 1.00102.67 C

ATOM 1217 CE2 TYR B 46 -2. .261 -22.102 12.305 1.00109.54 C

ATOM 1218 CZ TYR B 46 -2. .914 -21.034 12.878 1.00104.52 C

ATOM 1219 OH TYR B 46 -3. .465 -20.069 12.065 1.00103.24 O

ATOM 1220 CE1 TYR B 46 -3. .013 -20.938 14.252 1.00 98.32 C

ATOM 1221 CD1 TYR B 46 -2. .454 -21.921 15.039 1.00 96.54 C

ATOM 1222 C TYR B 46 -1. .333 -26.075 16.700 1.00107.17 C

ATOM 1223 O TYR B 46 -0. .105 -25.973 16.753 1.00103.47 O

ATOM 1224 N ALA B 47 -2. .016 -26.950 17.432 1.00111.29 N

ATOM 1225 CA ALA B 47 -1. .338 -27.823 18.390 1.00113.07 C

ATOM 1226 CB ALA B 47 -2. .307 -28.307 19.459 1.00108.38 C

ATOM 1227 C ALA B 47 -0. .653 -29.011 17.706 1.00110.68 C

ATOM 1228 O ALA B 47 -1. .286 -29.773 16.974 1.00103.96 O

ATOM 1229 N GLY B 48 0. .646 -29.159 17.952 1.00 86.03 N

ATOM 1230 CA GLY B 48 1. .429 -30.205 17.319 1.00 83.47 C

ATOM 1231 C GLY B 48 2. .157 -29.693 16.095 1.00 81.29 C

ATOM 1232 O GLY B 48 3. .154 -30.275 15.670 1.00 77.77 O

ATOM 1233 N LYS B 49 1. .658 -28.597 15.529 1.00 90.65 N

ATOM 1234 CA LYS B 49 2. .282 -27.995 14.354 1.00 94.47 C

ATOM 1235 CB LYS B 49 1. .284 -27.871 13.197 1.00 95.48 C

ATOM 1236 CG LYS B 49 0. .179 -28.885 13.222 1.00 95.02 C

ATOM 1237 CD LYS B 49 -1. .025 -28.370 12.483 1.00 95.05 C

ATOM 1238 CE LYS B 49 -2. .260 -28.636 13.311 1.00 99.74 C

ATOM 1239 NZ LYS B 49 -1. .981 -28.402 14.764 1.00 94.62 N

ATOM 1240 C LYS B 49 2. .871 -26.608 14.611 1.00 88.60 C

ATOM 1241 O LYS B 49 3. .048 -25.841 13.673 1.00 91.68 O

ATOM 1242 N VAL B 50 3. .180 -26.282 15.858 1.00 77.93 N

ATOM 1243 CA VAL B 50 3. .825 -25.013 16.198 1.00 77.88 C

ATOM 1244 CB VAL B 50 3. .130 -23.762 15.600 1.00 82.64 C

ATOM 1245 CGI VAL B 50 3. .147 -22.611 16.607 1.00 72.07 C

ATOM 1246 CG2 VAL B 50 3. .797 -23.327 14.302 1.00 77.07 C

ATOM 1247 C VAL B 50 3. .723 -24.895 17.681 1.00 72.44 C

ATOM 1248 O VAL B 50 2. .640 -25.095 18.240 1.00 68.36 O

ATOM 1249 N VAL B 51 4. .848 -24.560 18.308 1.00 69.10 N ATOM 1250 CA VAL B 51 4..933 -24..515 19..762 1 ,.00 71..66 C

ATOM 1251 CB VAL B 51 6. .173 -25. .296 20. .270 1 , .00 74. .70 C

ATOM 1252 CGI VAL B 51 7. .223 -25. .401 19. .167 1 , .00 72. .04 C

ATOM 1253 CG2 VAL B 51 6. .750 -24. .662 21. .525 1 , .00 66. .82 C

ATOM 1254 C VAL B 51 4. .899 -23. .081 20. .293 1 , .00 68. .23 C

ATOM 1255 O VAL B 51 5. .461 -22. .158 19. .682 1 , .00 62. .46 O

ATOM 1256 N PHE B 52 4. .222 -22. .912 21. .427 1 , .00 84. .28 N

ATOM 1257 CA PHE B 52 3. .961 -21. .597 21. .998 1 , .00 80. .51 C

ATOM 1258 CB PHE B 52 2. .461 -21. .344 22. .068 1 , .00 74. .73 C

ATOM 1259 CG PHE B 52 1. .790 -21. .304 20. .750 1 , .00 75. .32 c

ATOM 1260 CD2 PHE B 52 1. .763 -20. .133 20. .017 1 , .00 80. .85 c

ATOM 1261 CE2 PHE B 52 1. .126 -20. .077 18. .785 1 , .00 83. .29 c

ATOM 1262 CZ PHE B 52 0. .502 -21. .209 18. .281 1 , .00 86. .94 c

ATOM 1263 CE1 PHE B 52 0. .522 -22. .385 19. .013 1 , .00 91. .21 c

ATOM 1264 CD1 PHE B 52 1. .164 -22. .428 20. .243 1 , .00 85. .14 c

ATOM 1265 C PHE B 52 4. .470 -21. .462 23. .416 1 , .00 75. .60 c

ATOM 1266 O PHE B 52 4. .026 -22. .182 24. .312 1 , .00 77. .16 0

ATOM 1267 N GLY B 53 5. .363 -20. .507 23. .634 1 , .00 71. .47 N

ATOM 1268 CA GLY B 53 5. .771 -20. .169 24. .986 1 , .00 70. .87 c

ATOM 1269 C GLY B 53 5. .553 -18. .705 25. .325 1 , .00 67. .68 c

ATOM 1270 O GLY B 53 5. .697 -17. .835 24. .464 1 , .00 71. .11 0

ATOM 1271 N LYS B 54 5. .187 -18. .434 26. .575 1 , .00 57. .51 N

ATOM 1272 CA LYS B 54 5. .186 -17. .068 27. .103 1 , .00 50. .75 c

ATOM 1273 CB LYS B 54 3. .859 -16. .751 27. .790 1 , .00 47. .07 c

ATOM 1274 CG LYS B 54 3. .507 -17. .711 28. .918 1 , .00 57. .82 c

ATOM 1275 CD LYS B 54 2. .023 -17. .635 29. .279 1 , .00 62. .01 c

ATOM 1276 CE LYS B 54 1. .623 -18. .735 30. .251 1 , .00 68. .17 c

ATOM 1277 NZ LYS B 54 0. .148 -18. .757 30. .487 1 , .00 76. .46 N

ATOM 1278 C LYS B 54 6. .313 -16. .904 28. .103 1 , .00 43. .13 c

ATOM 1279 O LYS B 54 6. .665 -17. .846 28. .820 1 , .00 44. .19 0

ATOM 1280 N VAL B 55 6. .871 -15. .703 28. .161 1 , .00 35. .64 N

ATOM 1281 CA VAL B 55 7. .829 -15. .380 29. .214 1 , .00 33. .56 c

ATOM 1282 CB VAL B 55 9. .323 -15. .269 28. .710 1 , .00 35. .61 c

ATOM 1283 CGI VAL B 55 9. .461 -15. .659 27. .268 1 , .00 38. .04 c

ATOM 1284 CG2 VAL B 55 9. .911 -13. .879 28. .938 1 , .00 30. .88 c

ATOM 1285 C VAL B 55 7. .412 -14. .131 29. .980 1 , .00 35. .37 c

ATOM 1286 O VAL B 55 7. .279 -13. .061 29. .399 1 , .00 39. .78 0

ATOM 1287 N ASN B 56 7. .157 -14. .270 31. .277 1 , .00 43. .17 N

ATOM 1288 CA ASN B 56 6. .908 -13. .095 32. .096 1 , .00 43. .41 c

ATOM 1289 CB ASN B 56 6. .518 -13. .464 33. .528 1 , .00 40. .96 c

ATOM 1290 CG ASN B 56 5. .988 -12. .281 34. .331 1 , .00 44. .32 c

ATOM 1291 OD1 ASN B 56 6. .453 -11. .149 34. .200 1 , .00 46. .25 0

ATOM 1292 ND2 ASN B 56 5. .012 -12. .552 35. .184 1 , .00 46. .57 N

ATOM 1293 C ASN B 56 8. .198 -12. .315 32. .071 1 , .00 39. .09 c

ATOM 1294 O ASN B 56 9. .255 -12. .852 32. .338 1 , .00 46. .22 0

ATOM 1295 N VAL B 57 8. .102 -11. .050 31. .707 1 , .00 40. .11 N

ATOM 1296 CA VAL B 57 9. .252 -10. .197 31. .483 1 , .00 38. .23 c

ATOM 1297 CB VAL B 57 8. .809 -8. .957 30. .656 1 , .00 41. .82 c

ATOM 1298 CGI VAL B 57 8. .891 -7. .670 31. .477 1 , .00 48. .41 c

ATOM 1299 CG2 VAL B 57 9. .587 -8. .842 29. .386 1 , .00 37. .48 c

ATOM 1300 C VAL B 57 9. .869 -9. .768 32. .813 1 , .00 43. .99 c

ATOM 1301 O VAL B 57 11. .073 -9. .584 32. .908 1 , .00 43. .97 0

ATOM 1302 N ASP B 58 9. .032 -9. .624 33. .836 1 , .00 39. .39 N

ATOM 1303 CA ASP B 58 9. .470 -9. .129 35. .136 1 , .00 44. .62 c

ATOM 1304 CB ASP B 58 8. .272 -8. .663 35. .962 1 , .00 44. .16 c

ATOM 1305 CG ASP B 58 7. .940 -7. .199 35. .728 1 , .00 55. .90 c

ATOM 1306 OD1 ASP B 58 8. .867 -6. .431 35. .388 1 , .00 60. .79 0

ATOM 1307 OD2 ASP B 58 6. .760 -6. .819 35. .888 1 , .00 58. .41 0

ATOM 1308 C ASP B 58 10. .259 -10. .174 35. .917 1 , .00 50. .25 c

ATOM 1309 O ASP B 58 11. .089 -9. .827 36. .753 1 , .00 41. .44 0

ATOM 1310 N GLU B 59 9. .988 -11. .441 35. .611 1 , .00 60. .17 N

ATOM 1311 CA GLU B 59 10. .555 -12. .592 36. .296 1 , .00 56. .54 c

ATOM 1312 CB GLU B 59 9. .434 -13. .592 36. .618 1 , .00 58. .67 c ATOM 1313 CG GLU B 59 8..463 -13.102 37.702 1.00 59.69 C

ATOM 1314 CD GLU B 59 7. .190 -13.951 37.829 1.00 74.62 C

ATOM 1315 OE1 GLU B 59 7. .067 -14.972 37.100 1.00 59.26 O

ATOM 1316 OE2 GLU B 59 6. .310 -13.581 38.664 1.00 77.74 O

ATOM 1317 C GLU B 59 11. .647 -13.251 35.458 1.00 63.18 C

ATOM 1318 O GLU B 59 12. .380 -14.121 35.928 1.00 67.55 O

ATOM 1319 N ASN B 60 11. .744 -12.826 34.204 1.00 46.77 N

ATOM 1320 CA ASN B 60 12. .788 -13.294 33.309 1.00 44.58 C

ATOM 1321 CB ASN B 60 12. .245 -14.349 32.351 1.00 42.72 C

ATOM 1322 CG ASN B 60 11. .783 -15.592 33.069 1.00 50.38 C

ATOM 1323 OD1 ASN B 60 12. .597 -16.333 33.604 1.00 53.96 O

ATOM 1324 ND2 ASN B 60 10. .472 -15.832 33.084 1.00 45.59 N

ATOM 1325 C ASN B 60 13. .399 -12.115 32.548 1.00 53.55 C

ATOM 1326 O ASN B 60 13. .521 -12.131 31.307 1.00 53.82 O

ATOM 1327 N PRO B 61 13. .822 -11.098 33.304 1.00 53.19 N

ATOM 1328 CA PRO B 61 14. .252 -9.815 32.752 1.00 54.72 C

ATOM 1329 CB PRO B 61 14. .613 -9.009 34.010 1.00 44.21 C

ATOM 1330 CG PRO B 61 15. .069 -10.042 34.976 1.00 51.64 C

ATOM 1331 CD PRO B 61 14. .228 -11.261 34.713 1.00 57.31 C

ATOM 1332 C PRO B 61 15. .472 -9.976 31.848 1.00 63.18 C

ATOM 1333 O PRO B 61 15. .664 -9.162 30.939 1.00 65.32 O

ATOM 1334 N GLU B 62 16. .275 -11.011 32.091 1.00 58.07 N

ATOM 1335 CA GLU B 62 17. .520 -11.184 31.364 1.00 53.43 C

ATOM 1336 CB GLU B 62 18. .441 -12.206 32.040 1.00 60.80 C

ATOM 1337 CG GLU B 62 19. .451 -11.591 33.014 1.00 64.64 C

ATOM 1338 CD GLU B 62 19. .140 -11.933 34.463 1.00 76.08 C

ATOM 1339 OE1 GLU B 62 18. .060 -12.522 34.716 1.00 85.98 O

ATOM 1340 OE2 GLU B 62 19. .970 -11.625 35.345 1.00 70.48 O

ATOM 1341 C GLU B 62 17. .234 -11.593 29.943 1.00 55.62 C

ATOM 1342 O GLU B 62 17. .930 -11.174 29.022 1.00 56.09 O

ATOM 1343 N ILE B 63 16. .204 -12.409 29.759 1.00 42.81 N

ATOM 1344 CA ILE B 63 15. .777 -12.736 28.402 1.00 43.39 C

ATOM 1345 CB ILE B 63 14. .720 -13.819 28.382 1.00 42.88 C

ATOM 1346 CGI ILE B 63 15. .267 -15.100 29.009 1.00 46.88 C

ATOM 1347 CD1 ILE B 63 14. .198 -16.106 29.375 1.00 42.53 C

ATOM 1348 CG2 ILE B 63 14. .260 -14.074 26.948 1.00 49.11 C

ATOM 1349 C ILE B 63 15. .259 -11.509 27.638 1.00 42.65 C

ATOM 1350 O ILE B 63 15. .710 -11.234 26.528 1.00 43.67 O

ATOM 1351 N ALA B 64 14. .324 -10.766 28.219 1.00 65.39 N

ATOM 1352 CA ALA B 64 13. .843 -9.552 27.563 1.00 69.64 C

ATOM 1353 CB ALA B 64 12. .933 -8.756 28.503 1.00 60.36 C

ATOM 1354 C ALA B 64 15. .032 -8.701 27.107 1.00 66.52 C

ATOM 1355 O ALA B 64 15. .119 -8.296 25.936 1.00 61.59 O

ATOM 1356 N ALA B 65 15. .949 -8.475 28.048 1.00 67.05 N

ATOM 1357 CA ALA B 65 17. .155 -7.667 27.848 1.00 68.07 C

ATOM 1358 CB ALA B 65 17. .865 -7.438 29.164 1.00 57.43 C

ATOM 1359 C ALA B 65 18. .129 -8.252 26.834 1.00 73.63 C

ATOM 1360 O ALA B 65 18. .877 -7.512 26.195 1.00 76.90 O

ATOM 1361 N LYS B 66 18. .132 -9.575 26.697 1.00 67.41 N

ATOM 1362 CA LYS B 66 19. .007 -10.231 25.729 1.00 63.61 C

ATOM 1363 CB LYS B 66 19. .112 -11.731 26.007 1.00 62.32 C

ATOM 1364 CG LYS B 66 19. .873 -12.483 24.941 1.00 66.41 C

ATOM 1365 CD LYS B 66 19. .660 -13.985 25.044 1.00 68.88 C

ATOM 1366 CE LYS B 66 20. .333 -14.712 23.878 1.00 74.39 C

ATOM 1367 NZ LYS B 66 21. .815 -14.444 23.763 1.00 69.21 N

ATOM 1368 C LYS B 66 18. .528 -10.014 24.298 1.00 62.69 C

ATOM 1369 O LYS B 66 19. .335 -9.996 23.372 1.00 66.63 O

ATOM 1370 N TYR B 67 17. .218 -9.842 24.121 1.00 57.10 N

ATOM 1371 CA TYR B 67 16. .618 -9.795 22.783 1.00 43.01 C

ATOM 1372 CB TYR B 67 15. .536 -10.869 22.661 1.00 46.50 C

ATOM 1373 CG TYR B 67 16. .097 -12.259 22.482 1.00 54.72 C

ATOM 1374 CD1 TYR B 67 16. .707 -12.620 21.288 1.00 60.24 C

ATOM 1375 CE1 TYR B 67 17. .244 -13.883 21.104 1.00 59.07 C ATOM 1376 CZ TYR B 67 17..162 -14..809 22..119 1 ,.00 59..32 C

ATOM 1377 OH TYR B 67 17. .693 -16. .055 21. .902 1 , .00 58. .97 O

ATOM 1378 CE2 TYR B 67 16. .546 -14. .485 23. .317 1 , .00 54. .78 C

ATOM 1379 CD2 TYR B 67 16. .021 -13. .210 23. .494 1 , .00 46. .66 C

ATOM 1380 C TYR B 67 16. .077 -8. .425 22. .366 1 , .00 41. .54 C

ATOM 1381 O TYR B 67 15. .415 -8. .305 21. .339 1 , .00 51. .20 O

ATOM 1382 N GLY B 68 16. .348 -7. .391 23. .158 1 , .00 49. .99 N

ATOM 1383 CA GLY B 68 15. .949 -6. .042 22. .772 1 , .00 50. .67 C

ATOM 1384 C GLY B 68 14. .503 -5. .683 23. .084 1 , .00 46. .34 C

ATOM 1385 O GLY B 68 14. .074 -4. .548 22. .886 1 , .00 51. .01 0

ATOM 1386 N ILE B 69 13. .770 -6. .666 23. .594 1 , .00 39. .72 N

ATOM 1387 CA ILE B 69 12. .362 -6. .545 23. .930 1 , .00 44. .17 c

ATOM 1388 CB ILE B 69 11. .764 -7. .927 24. .174 1 , .00 39. .48 c

ATOM 1389 CGI ILE B 69 12. .041 -8. .809 22. .960 1 , .00 33. .21 c

ATOM 1390 CD1 ILE B 69 11. .710 -10. .224 23. .186 1 , .00 42. .31 c

ATOM 1391 CG2 ILE B 69 10. .267 -7. .814 24. .485 1 , .00 36. .65 c

ATOM 1392 C ILE B 69 12. .103 -5. .670 25. .152 1 , .00 47. .36 c

ATOM 1393 O ILE B 69 11. .912 -6. .166 26. .272 1 , .00 48. .29 0

ATOM 1394 N MET B 70 12. .082 -4. .364 24. .917 1 , .00 36. .20 N

ATOM 1395 CA MET B 70 11. .853 -3. .391 25. .965 1 , .00 37. .27 c

ATOM 1396 CB MET B 70 12. .869 -2. .263 25. .829 1 , .00 40. .10 c

ATOM 1397 CG MET B 70 14. .223 -2. .611 26. .409 1 , .00 45. .93 c

ATOM 1398 SD MET B 70 14. .030 -3. .287 28. .078 1 , .00 50. .06 s

ATOM 1399 CE MET B 70 14. .320 -5. .052 27. .827 1 , .00 43. .96 c

ATOM 1400 C MET B 70 10. .445 -2. .818 25. .891 1 , .00 47. .22 c

ATOM 1401 O MET B 70 10. .148 -1. .800 26. .496 1 , .00 45. .24 0

ATOM 1402 N SER B 71 9. .580 -3. .486 25. .145 1 , .00 35. .71 N

ATOM 1403 CA SER B 71 8. .271 -2. .959 24. .869 1 , .00 38. .89 c

ATOM 1404 CB SER B 71 8. .330 -2. .079 23. .614 1 , .00 50. .71 c

ATOM 1405 OG SER B 71 7. .230 -2. .312 22. .747 1 , .00 40. .16 0

ATOM 1406 C SER B 71 7. .307 -4. .118 24. .694 1 , .00 37. .69 c

ATOM 1407 O SER B 71 7. .499 -4. .977 23. .843 1 , .00 33. .26 0

ATOM 1408 N ILE B 72 6. .281 -4. .161 25. .530 1 , .00 39. .92 N

ATOM 1409 CA ILE B 72 5. .363 -5. .284 25. .484 1 , .00 42. .55 c

ATOM 1410 CB ILE B 72 5. .526 -6. .245 26. .700 1 , .00 43. .71 c

ATOM 1411 CGI ILE B 72 5. .012 -5. .585 27. .971 1 , .00 47. .17 c

ATOM 1412 CD1 ILE B 72 4. .395 -6. .576 28. .971 1 , .00 48. .94 c

ATOM 1413 CG2 ILE B 72 6. .985 -6. .712 26. .853 1 , .00 35. .49 c

ATOM 1414 C ILE B 72 3. .919 -4. .825 25. .369 1 , .00 39. .41 c

ATOM 1415 O ILE B 72 3. .569 -3. .721 25. .792 1 , .00 31. .99 0

ATOM 1416 N PRO B 73 3. .073 -5. .677 24. .783 1 , .00 41. .55 N

ATOM 1417 CA PRO B 73 3. .464 -7. .010 24. .299 1 , .00 46. .92 c

ATOM 1418 CB PRO B 73 2. .130 -7. .628 23. .886 1 , .00 39. .32 c

ATOM 1419 CG PRO B 73 1. .323 -6. .446 23. .478 1 , .00 43. .11 c

ATOM 1420 CD PRO B 73 1. .669 -5. .379 24. .482 1 , .00 32. .04 c

ATOM 1421 C PRO B 73 4. .405 -7. .025 23. .089 1 , .00 47. .78 c

ATOM 1422 O PRO B 73 4. .523 -6. .055 22. .333 1 , .00 43. .58 0

ATOM 1423 N THR B 74 5. .087 -8. .150 22. .927 1 , .00 47. .82 N

ATOM 1424 CA THR B 74 5. .666 -8. .476 21. .654 1 , .00 48. .72 c

ATOM 1425 CB THR B 74 7. .144 -8. .121 21. .564 1 , .00 54. .30 c

ATOM 1426 OG1 THR B 74 7. .354 -6. .788 22. .040 1 , .00 48. .35 0

ATOM 1427 CG2 THR B 74 7. .618 -8. .243 20. .106 1 , .00 53. .29 c

ATOM 1428 C THR B 74 5. .521 -9. .963 21. .460 1 , .00 54. .24 c

ATOM 1429 O THR B 74 5. .196 -10. .689 22. .397 1 , .00 59. .23 0

ATOM 1430 N LEU B 75 5. .734 -10. .397 20. .224 1 , .00 45. .57 N

ATOM 1431 CA LEU B 75 5. .930 -11. .803 19. .917 1 , .00 50. .43 c

ATOM 1432 C LEU B 75 7. .283 -11. .981 19. .270 1 , .00 44. .61 c

ATOM 1433 O LEU B 75 7. .724 -11. .120 18. .510 1 , .00 45. .35 0

ATOM 1434 CB LEU B 75 4. .888 -12. .267 18. .928 1 , .00 46. .56 c

ATOM 1435 CG LEU B 75 3. .470 -12. .336 19. .431 1 , .00 46. .27 c

ATOM 1436 CD1 LEU B 75 2. .586 -12. .744 18. .240 1 , .00 36. .57 c

ATOM 1437 CD2 LEU B 75 3. .459 -13. .363 20. .549 1 , .00 42. .31 c

ATOM 1438 N LEU B 76 7. .938 -13. .096 19. .555 1 , .00 46. .08 N ATOM 1439 CA LEU B 76 9..137 -13.451 18.811 1.00 45.22 C

ATOM 1440 CB LEU B 76 10. .377 -13.493 19.700 1.00 43.70 C

ATOM 1441 CG LEU B 76 10. .947 -12.105 19.986 1.00 50.29 C

ATOM 1442 CD1 LEU B 76 12. .311 -12.227 20.664 1.00 51.08 C

ATOM 1443 CD2 LEU B 76 11. .026 -11.285 18.700 1.00 38.02 C

ATOM 1444 C LEU B 76 8. .935 -14.785 18.156 1.00 45.16 C

ATOM 1445 O LEU B 76 8. .422 -15.723 18.760 1.00 51.28 O

ATOM 1446 N PHE B 77 9. .349 -14.873 16.908 1.00 51.28 N

ATOM 1447 CA PHE B 77 9. .280 -16.137 16.214 1.00 58.35 C

ATOM 1448 CB PHE B 77 8. .692 -15.964 14.813 1.00 63.75 C

ATOM 1449 CG PHE B 77 7. .233 -15.617 14.819 1.00 57.56 C

ATOM 1450 CD2 PHE B 77 6. .792 -14.433 15.396 1.00 58.07 C

ATOM 1451 CE2 PHE B 77 5. .441 -14.108 15.424 1.00 60.94 C

ATOM 1452 CZ PHE B 77 4. .514 -14.973 14.867 1.00 63.33 C

ATOM 1453 CE1 PHE B 77 4. .945 -16.158 14.293 1.00 72.32 C

ATOM 1454 CD1 PHE B 77 6. .302 -16.479 14.281 1.00 66.36 C

ATOM 1455 C PHE B 77 10. .664 -16.711 16.167 1.00 53.90 C

ATOM 1456 O PHE B 77 11. .620 -16.027 15.815 1.00 53.13 O

ATOM 1457 N PHE B 78 10. .752 -17.968 16.571 1.00 61.37 N

ATOM 1458 CA PHE B 78 11. .994 -18.715 16.550 1.00 64.37 C

ATOM 1459 CB PHE B 78 12. .331 -19.201 17.957 1.00 58.40 C

ATOM 1460 CG PHE B 78 12. .809 -18.108 18.870 1.00 64.52 C

ATOM 1461 CD1 PHE B 78 14. .169 -17.846 19.011 1.00 68.90 C

ATOM 1462 CE1 PHE B 78 14. .628 -16.824 19.846 1.00 43.26 C

ATOM 1463 CZ PHE B 78 13. .725 -16.053 20.550 1.00 45.14 C

ATOM 1464 CE2 PHE B 78 12. .356 -16.296 20.414 1.00 50.61 C

ATOM 1465 CD2 PHE B 78 11. .906 -17.321 19.574 1.00 52.92 C

ATOM 1466 C PHE B 78 11. .843 -19.897 15.599 1.00 74.30 C

ATOM 1467 O PHE B 78 10. .903 -20.690 15.729 1.00 72.40 O

ATOM 1468 N LYS B 79 12. .759 -19.981 14.631 1.00 79.99 N

ATOM 1469 CA LYS B 79 12. .861 -21.108 13.705 1.00 81.26 C

ATOM 1470 CB LYS B 79 12. .570 -20.658 12.264 1.00 77.17 C

ATOM 1471 CG LYS B 79 12. .658 -21.748 11.197 1.00 82.29 C

ATOM 1472 CD LYS B 79 11. .640 -22.858 11.430 1.00 85.56 C

ATOM 1473 CE LYS B 79 11. .744 -23.951 10.380 1.00 73.31 C

ATOM 1474 NZ LYS B 79 11. .107 -25.184 10.896 1.00 70.08 N

ATOM 1475 C LYS B 79 14. .274 -21.667 13.814 1.00 87.80 C

ATOM 1476 O LYS B 79 15. .226 -21.041 13.348 1.00 89.09 O

ATOM 1477 N ASN B 80 14. .403 -22.822 14.464 1.00 92.98 N

ATOM 1478 CA ASN B 80 15. .688 -23.519 14.617 1.00 92.12 C

ATOM 1479 CB ASN B 80 16. .262 -23.918 13.254 1.00 91.38 C

ATOM 1480 CG ASN B 80 15. .234 -24.597 12.367 1.00 89.52 C

ATOM 1481 OD1 ASN B 80 14. .184 -25.043 12.838 1.00 91.37 O

ATOM 1482 ND2 ASN B 80 15. .529 -24.673 11.072 1.00 92.24 N

ATOM 1483 C ASN B 80 16. .750 -22.781 15.426 1.00 89.02 C

ATOM 1484 O ASN B 80 17. .902 -22.701 15.014 1.00 84.72 O

ATOM 1485 N GLY B 81 16. .357 -22.253 16.579 1.00 82.82 N

ATOM 1486 CA GLY B 81 17. .293 -21.642 17.505 1.00 85.38 C

ATOM 1487 C GLY B 81 17. .628 -20.189 17.201 1.00 78.57 C

ATOM 1488 O GLY B 81 18. .407 -19.565 17.921 1.00 70.97 O

ATOM 1489 N ALYS B 82 17. .026 -19.650 16.144 1.00 96.32 N

ATOM 1490 CA ALYS B 82 17. .306 -18.286 15.724 1.00 96.56 C

ATOM 1491 CB ALYS B 82 18. .232 -18.294 14.505 1.00100.32 C

ATOM 1492 CG ALYS B 82 19. .627 -18.860 14.794 1.00101.24 C

ATOM 1493 CD ALYS B 82 20. .232 -19.551 13.572 1.00107.58 C

ATOM 1494 CE ALYS B 82 19. .888 -21.037 13.538 1.00107.81 C

ATOM 1495 NZ ALYS B 82 20. .635 -21.806 14.591 1.00108.32 N

ATOM 1496 C ALYS B 82 16. .026 -17.510 15.434 1.00 89.39 C

ATOM 1497 O ALYS B 82 15. .122 -18.010 14.778 1.00 88.12 O

ATOM 1498 N BLYS B 82 17. .046 -19.647 16.138 0.00 96.38 N

ATOM 1499 CA BLYS B 82 17. .317 -18.269 15.756 0.00 96.47 C

ATOM 1500 CB BLYS B 82 18. .274 -18.216 14.562 0.00100.17 C

ATOM 1501 CG BLYS B 82 19. .566 -18.985 14.772 0.00101.64 C ATOM 1502 CD BLYS B 82 20..476 -18.274 15.762 0.00102.96 C

ATOM 1503 CE BLYS B 82 21. .117 -17.046 15.130 0.00105.77 C

ATOM 1504 NZ BLYS B 82 22. .212 -16.489 15.975 0.00112.72 N

ATOM 1505 C BLYS B 82 16. .030 -17.512 15.450 0.00 89.32 C

ATOM 1506 O BLYS B 82 15. .128 -18.022 14.796 0.00 88.08 O

ATOM 1507 N VAL B 83 15. .962 -16.281 15.940 1.00 70.50 N

ATOM 1508 CA VAL B 83 14. .815 -15.406 15.716 1.00 68.94 C

ATOM 1509 CB VAL B 83 14. .990 -14.073 16.466 1.00 65.36 C

ATOM 1510 CGI VAL B 83 14. .127 -12.994 15.850 1.00 61.63 C

ATOM 1511 CG2 VAL B 83 14. .644 -14.262 17.926 1.00 63.19 C

ATOM 1512 C VAL B 83 14. .555 -15.090 14.240 1.00 66.41 C

ATOM 1513 O VAL B 83 15. .390 -14.471 13.568 1.00 56.18 O

ATOM 1514 N VAL B 84 13. .381 -15.487 13.753 1.00 79.05 N

ATOM 1515 CA VAL B 84 13. .001 -15.233 12.364 1.00 86.32 C

ATOM 1516 CB VAL B 84 12. .349 -16.475 11.709 1.00 85.25 C

ATOM 1517 CGI VAL B 84 13. .157 -17.703 12.043 1.00 89.52 C

ATOM 1518 CG2 VAL B 84 10. .910 -16.647 12.167 1.00 79.83 C

ATOM 1519 C VAL B 84 12. .080 -14.017 12.190 1.00 86.11 C

ATOM 1520 O VAL B 84 12. .040 -13.410 11.119 1.00 85.53 O

ATOM 1521 N ASP B 85 11. .351 -13.655 13.240 1.00 78.29 N

ATOM 1522 CA ASP B 85 10. .361 -12.587 13.124 1.00 78.64 C

ATOM 1523 CB ASP B 85 9. .117 -13.117 12.383 1.00 66.82 C

ATOM 1524 CG ASP B 85 8. .340 -12.017 11.679 1.00 74.43 C

ATOM 1525 OD1 ASP B 85 8. .954 -11.001 11.273 1.00 83.29 O

ATOM 1526 OD2 ASP B 85 7. .108 -12.172 11.518 1.00 82.00 O

ATOM 1527 C ASP B 85 9. .986 -11.986 14.492 1.00 70.23 C

ATOM 1528 O ASP B 85 9. .995 -12.691 15.499 1.00 65.42 O

ATOM 1529 N GLN B 86 9. .642 -10.696 14.504 1.00 57.50 N

ATOM 1530 CA GLN B 86 9. .254 -9.969 15.723 1.00 56.17 C

ATOM 1531 CB GLN B 86 10. .466 -9.149 16.249 1.00 45.97 C

ATOM 1532 CG GLN B 86 10. .167 -7.937 17.144 1.00 48.87 C

ATOM 1533 CD GLN B 86 11. .376 -7.540 18.002 1.00 68.16 C

ATOM 1534 OE1 GLN B 86 12. .137 -8.402 18.441 1.00 76.49 O

ATOM 1535 NE2 GLN B 86 11. .556 -6.239 18.240 1.00 64.10 N

ATOM 1536 C GLN B 86 7. .992 -9.092 15.467 1.00 51.41 C

ATOM 1537 O GLN B 86 7. .943 -8.326 14.497 1.00 42.63 O

ATOM 1538 N LEU B 87 6. .959 -9.226 16.306 1.00 51.41 N

ATOM 1539 CA LEU B 87 5. .706 -8.461 16.110 1.00 48.41 C

ATOM 1540 CB LEU B 87 4. .523 -9.363 15.714 1.00 41.88 C

ATOM 1541 CG LEU B 87 4. .505 -10.087 14.366 1.00 49.21 C

ATOM 1542 CD1 LEU B 87 5. .682 -11.018 14.257 1.00 55.08 C

ATOM 1543 CD2 LEU B 87 3. .184 -10.883 14.172 1.00 47.17 C

ATOM 1544 C LEU B 87 5. .345 -7.659 17.355 1.00 46.76 C

ATOM 1545 O LEU B 87 4. .829 -8.205 18.338 1.00 46.15 O

ATOM 1546 N VAL B 88 5. .630 -6.362 17.296 1.00 51.16 N

ATOM 1547 CA VAL B 88 5. .438 -5.443 18.416 1.00 49.53 C

ATOM 1548 CB VAL B 88 6. .321 -4.184 18.232 1.00 44.56 C

ATOM 1549 CGI VAL B 88 6. .031 -3.144 19.314 1.00 44.38 C

ATOM 1550 CG2 VAL B 88 7. .774 -4.576 18.232 1.00 43.01 C

ATOM 1551 C VAL B 88 3. .981 -5.007 18.557 1.00 41.29 C

ATOM 1552 O VAL B 88 3. .337 -4.642 17.577 1.00 54.63 O

ATOM 1553 N GLY B 89 3. .467 -5.043 19.779 1.00 35.82 N

ATOM 1554 CA GLY B 89 2. .135 -4.538 20.068 1.00 36.29 C

ATOM 1555 C GLY B 89 1. .015 -5.494 19.681 1.00 39.63 C

ATOM 1556 O GLY B 89 1. .171 -6.319 18.767 1.00 36.00 O

ATOM 1557 N ALA B 90 -0. .120 -5.392 20.380 1.00 35.32 N

ATOM 1558 CA ALA B 90 -1. .260 -6.303 20.148 1.00 41.64 C

ATOM 1559 CB ALA B 90 -2. .455 -5.918 21.030 1.00 34.39 C

ATOM 1560 C ALA B 90 -1. .678 -6.358 18.678 1.00 34.93 C

ATOM 1561 O ALA B 90 -1. .876 -5.318 18.054 1.00 26.67 O

ATOM 1562 N ARG B 91 -1. .785 -7.570 18.137 1.00 49.75 N

ATOM 1563 CA ARG B 91 -2. .217 -7.799 16.749 1.00 55.13 C

ATOM 1564 CB ARG B 91 -1. .115 -8.505 15.943 1.00 55.02 C ATOM 1565 CG ARG B 91 0..259 -7..871 16..020 1 ,.00 51..47 C

ATOM 1566 CD ARG B 91 0. .237 -6. .436 15. .522 1 , .00 57. .35 C

ATOM 1567 NE ARG B 91 1. .565 -5. .832 15. .564 1 , .00 56. .80 N

ATOM 1568 CZ ARG B 91 2. .509 -6. .021 14. .646 1 , .00 59. .60 C

ATOM 1569 NH1 ARG B 91 2. .261 -6. .792 13. .597 1 , .00 61. .33 N

ATOM 1570 NH2 ARG B 91 3. .701 -5. .436 14. .774 1 , .00 47. .41 N

ATOM 1571 C ARG B 91 -3. .461 -8. .688 16. .726 1 , .00 53. .06 C

ATOM 1572 O ARG B 91 -3. .599 -9. .590 17. .550 1 , .00 61. .54 O

ATOM 1573 N PRO B 92 -4. .366 -8. .461 15. .767 1 , .00 55. .10 N

ATOM 1574 CA PRO B 92 -5. .576 -9. .306 15. .674 1 , .00 57. .39 C

ATOM 1575 CB PRO B 92 -6. .317 -8. .735 14. .465 1 , .00 55. .36 C

ATOM 1576 CG PRO B 92 -5. .243 -7. .993 13. .669 1 , .00 52. .14 c

ATOM 1577 CD PRO B 92 -4. .338 -7. .417 14. .729 1 , .00 52. .97 c

ATOM 1578 C PRO B 92 -5. .273 -10. .779 15. .438 1 , .00 51. .84 c

ATOM 1579 O PRO B 92 -4. .349 -11. .107 14. .718 1 , .00 56. .79 0

ATOM 1580 N LYS B 93 -6. .057 -11. .661 16. .035 1 , .00 61. .95 N

ATOM 1581 CA LYS B 93 -5. .827 -13. .094 15. .890 1 , .00 66. .27 c

ATOM 1582 CB LYS B 93 -6. .964 -13. .877 16. .547 1 , .00 69. .50 c

ATOM 1583 CG LYS B 93 -6. .745 -15. .383 16. .631 1 , .00 69. .49 c

ATOM 1584 CD LYS B 93 -7. .968 -16. .096 17. .229 1 , .00 73. .18 c

ATOM 1585 CE LYS B 93 -7. .735 -17. .608 17. .337 1 , .00 79. .39 c

ATOM 1586 NZ LYS B 93 -8. .948 -18. .393 17. .739 1 , .00 71. .25 N

ATOM 1587 C LYS B 93 -5. .647 -13. .546 14. .435 1 , .00 67. .82 c

ATOM 1588 O LYS B 93 -4. .878 -14. .459 14. .160 1 , .00 72. .13 0

ATOM 1589 N GLU B 94 -6. .348 -12. .916 13. .501 1 , .00 60. .92 N

ATOM 1590 CA GLU B 94 -6. .267 -13. .338 12. .098 1 , .00 61. .01 c

ATOM 1591 CB GLU B 94 -7. .475 -12. .841 11. .281 1 , .00 63. .11 c

ATOM 1592 CG GLU B 94 -8. .238 -11. .668 11. .911 1 , .00 64. .32 c

ATOM 1593 CD GLU B 94 -9. .408 -12. .111 12. .758 1 , .00 64. .58 c

ATOM 1594 OE1 GLU B 94 -10. .372 -12. .632 12. .168 1 , .00 58. .04 0

ATOM 1595 OE2 GLU B 94 -9. .358 -11. .951 14. .003 1 , .00 70. .15 0

ATOM 1596 C GLU B 94 -4. .951 -12. .941 11. .416 1 , .00 56. .16 c

ATOM 1597 O GLU B 94 -4. .429 -13. .680 10. .567 1 , .00 50. .41 0

ATOM 1598 N ALA B 95 -4. .416 -11. .779 11. .781 1 , .00 52. .48 N

ATOM 1599 CA ALA B 95 -3. .101 -11. .362 11. .275 1 , .00 52. .05 c

ATOM 1600 CB ALA B 95 -2. .791 -9. .928 11. .684 1 , .00 45. .22 c

ATOM 1601 C ALA B 95 -1. .959 -12. .308 11. .676 1 , .00 53. .20 c

ATOM 1602 O ALA B 95 -1. .036 -12. .540 10. .889 1 , .00 55. .60 0

ATOM 1603 N LEU B 96 -2. .005 -12. .850 12. .891 1 , .00 49. .28 N

ATOM 1604 CA LEU B 96 -1. .002 -13. .850 13. .251 1 , .00 62. .57 c

ATOM 1605 CB LEU B 96 -0. .451 -13. .711 14. .690 1 , .00 63. .49 c

ATOM 1606 CG LEU B 96 -1. .244 -13. .315 15. .936 1 , .00 60. .05 c

ATOM 1607 CD1 LEU B 96 -1. .449 -11. .799 16. .044 1 , .00 55. .99 c

ATOM 1608 CD2 LEU B 96 -2. .559 -14. .075 16. .000 1 , .00 66. .28 c

ATOM 1609 C LEU B 96 -1. .362 -15. .300 12. .887 1 , .00 61. .46 c

ATOM 1610 O LEU B 96 -0. .651 -16. .235 13. .234 1 , .00 64. .83 0

ATOM 1611 N LYS B 97 -2. .451 -15. .489 12. .164 1 , .00 69. .90 N

ATOM 1612 CA LYS B 97 -2. .617 -16. .744 11. .436 1 , .00 73. .60 c

ATOM 1613 CB LYS B 97 -4. .095 -17. .100 11. .251 1 , .00 77. .04 c

ATOM 1614 CG LYS B 97 -4. .855 -17. .368 12. .544 1 , .00 73. .67 c

ATOM 1615 CD LYS B 97 -6. .207 -18. .029 12. .241 1 , .00 82. .49 c

ATOM 1616 CE LYS B 97 -7. .336 -17. .457 13. .108 1 , .00 87. .82 c

ATOM 1617 NZ LYS B 97 -7. .424 -15. .958 13. .027 1 , .00 74. .66 N

ATOM 1618 C LYS B 97 -1. .872 -16. .682 10. .076 1 , .00 67. .25 c

ATOM 1619 O LYS B 97 -1. .305 -17. .680 9. .635 1 , .00 71. .22 0

ATOM 1620 N GLU B 98 -1. .853 -15. .510 9. .432 1 , .00 57. .34 N

ATOM 1621 CA GLU B 98 -1. .103 -15. .317 8. .182 1 , .00 59. .76 c

ATOM 1622 CB GLU B 98 -1. .276 -13. .900 7. .627 1 , .00 53. .73 c

ATOM 1623 CG GLU B 98 -2. .497 -13. .687 6. .759 1 , .00 72. .23 c

ATOM 1624 CD GLU B 98 -2. .493 -14. .478 5. .440 1 , .00 71. .43 c

ATOM 1625 OE1 GLU B 98 -1. .579 -14. .273 4. .587 1 , .00 54. .72 0

ATOM 1626 OE2 GLU B 98 -3. .439 -15. .282 5. .255 1 , .00 67. .60 0

ATOM 1627 C GLU B 98 0. .380 -15. .588 8. .365 1 , .00 70. .75 c ATOM 1628 O GLU B 98 0..967 -16..361 7..612 1 ,.00 72..12 O

ATOM 1629 N ARG B 99 0. .998 -14. .925 9. .339 1 , .00 62. .62 N

ATOM 1630 CA ARG B 99 2. .368 -15. .264 9. .675 1 , .00 59. .67 C

ATOM 1631 CB ARG B 99 2. .970 -14. .245 10. .631 1 , .00 58. .28 C

ATOM 1632 CG ARG B 99 3. .313 -12. .925 9. .977 1 , .00 59. .63 c

ATOM 1633 CD ARG B 99 2. .693 -11. .770 10. .732 1 , .00 60. .38 c

ATOM 1634 NE ARG B 99 2. .944 -10. .481 10. .095 1 , .00 60. .28 N

ATOM 1635 CZ ARG B 99 4. .158 -10. .011 9. .826 1 , .00 65. .01 c

ATOM 1636 NH1 ARG B 99 5. .232 -10. .732 10. .129 1 , .00 60. .06 N

ATOM 1637 NH2 ARG B 99 4. .297 -8. .822 9. .250 1 , .00 77. .41 N

ATOM 1638 C ARG B 99 2. .270 -16. .624 10. .322 1 , .00 63. .68 C

ATOM 1639 O ARG B 99 1. .264 -16. .924 10. .947 1 , .00 61. .27 0

ATOM 1640 N ILE B 100 3. .312 -17. .430 10. .163 1 , .00 75. .54 N

ATOM 1641 CA ILE B 100 3. .314 -18. .854 10. .526 1 , .00 84. .64 C

ATOM 1642 CB ILE B 100 2. .458 -19. .234 11. .786 1 , .00 86. .09 c

ATOM 1643 CGI ILE B 100 0. .982 -19. .437 11. .437 1 , .00 82. .58 c

ATOM 1644 CD1 ILE B 100 0. .107 -19. .504 12. .665 1 , .00 82. .56 c

ATOM 1645 CG2 ILE B 100 2. .668 -18. .254 12. .948 1 , .00 77. .23 c

ATOM 1646 C ILE B 100 2. .930 -19. .736 9. .340 1 , .00 89. .48 c

ATOM 1647 O ILE B 100 3. .314 -20. .899 9. .286 1 , .00 93. .34 0

ATOM 1648 N LYS B 101 2. .175 -19. .190 8. .392 1 , .00 76. .24 N

ATOM 1649 CA LYS B 101 2. .011 -19. .864 7. .108 1 , .00 71. .99 c

ATOM 1650 CB LYS B 101 0. .917 -19. .204 6. .277 1 , .00 75. .08 c

ATOM 1651 CG LYS B 101 -0. .443 -19. .751 6. .599 1 , .00 76. .84 c

ATOM 1652 CD LYS B 101 -0. .503 -20. .028 8. .091 1 , .00 81. .30 c

ATOM 1653 CE LYS B 101 -1. .750 -20. .793 8. .483 1 , .00 87. .45 c

ATOM 1654 NZ LYS B 101 -1. .690 -21. .131 9. .929 1 , .00 80. .07 N

ATOM 1655 C LYS B 101 3. .335 -19. .807 6. .373 1 , .00 67. .99 c

ATOM 1656 O LYS B 101 3. .847 -20. .826 5. .901 1 , .00 65. .13 0

ATOM 1657 N LYS B 102 3. .884 -18. .600 6. .289 1 , .00 70. .37 N

ATOM 1658 CA LYS B 102 5. .244 -18. .413 5. .819 1 , .00 75. .89 c

ATOM 1659 CB LYS B 102 5. .739 -17. .007 6. .167 1 , .00 73. .74 c

ATOM 1660 CG LYS B 102 7. .236 -16. .782 5. .935 1 , .00 81. .11 c

ATOM 1661 CD LYS B 102 7. .551 -16. .428 4. .482 1 , .00 79. .05 c

ATOM 1662 C LYS B 102 6. .143 -19. .451 6. .479 1 , .00 80. .78 c

ATOM 1663 O LYS B 102 7. .019 -20. .026 5. .828 1 , .00 80. .87 0

ATOM 1664 N TYR B 103 5. .890 -19. .705 7. .765 1 , .00 84. .47 N

ATOM 1665 CA TYR B 103 6. .774 -20. .519 8. .607 1 , .00 87. .95 c

ATOM 1666 CB TYR B 103 7. .049 -19. .803 9. .944 1 , .00 84. .27 c

ATOM 1667 CG TYR B 103 7. .702 -18. .456 9. .750 1 , .00 84. .36 c

ATOM 1668 CD2 TYR B 103 9. .056 -18. .361 9. .471 1 , .00 86. .66 c

ATOM 1669 CE2 TYR B 103 9. .661 -17. .135 9. .261 1 , .00 93. .19 c

ATOM 1670 CZ TYR B 103 8. .907 -15. .982 9. .326 1 , .00 88. .00 c

ATOM 1671 OH TYR B 103 9. .517 -14. .765 9. .123 1 , .00 87. .49 0

ATOM 1672 CE1 TYR B 103 7. .556 -16. .048 9. .596 1 , .00 78. .13 c

ATOM 1673 CD1 TYR B 103 6. .960 -17. .284 9. .801 1 , .00 83. .04 c

ATOM 1674 C TYR B 103 6. .282 -21. .946 8. .857 1 , .00 87. .16 c

ATOM 1675 O TYR B 103 6. .984 -22. .756 9. .458 1 , .00 88. .52 0

ATOM 1676 N LEU B 104 5. .078 -22. .262 8. .403 1 , .00 87. .34 N

ATOM 1677 CA LEU B 104 4. .589 -23. .622 8. .560 1 , .00 93. .65 c

ATOM 1678 CB LEU B 104 3. .057 -23. .683 8. .499 1 , .00 93. .72 c

ATOM 1679 CG LEU B 104 2. .354 -24. .161 9. .780 1 , .00 93. .51 c

ATOM 1680 CD1 LEU B 104 2. .397 -23. .100 10. .870 1 , .00 90. .69 c

ATOM 1681 CD2 LEU B 104 0. .912 -24. .574 9. .513 1 , .00 88. .83 c

ATOM 1682 C LEU B 104 5. .222 -24. .504 7. .487 1 , .00100. .89 c

ATOM 1683 O LEU B 104 5. .289 -25. .729 7. .616 1 , .00 98. .15 0

ATOM 1684 OXT LEU B 104 5. .696 -24. .000 6. .464 1 , .00 98. .63 0

TER

ATOM 1685 N SER C 1 21. .966 8. .837 -1. .633 1 , .00 64. .26 N

ATOM 1686 CA SER C 1 21. .381 7. .576 -1. .190 1 , .00 81. .80 c

ATOM 1687 CB SER C 1 21. .451 6. .533 -2. .312 1 , .00 80. .09 c

ATOM 1688 OG SER C 1 20. .604 5. .427 -2. .053 1 , .00 85. .01 0

ATOM 1689 C SER C 1 22. .071 7. .057 0. .085 1 , .00 90. .63 c ATOM 1690 O SER C 1 21..822 7..561 1..185 1 ,.00 85..12 O

ATOM 1691 N VAL C 2 22. .937 6. .057 -0. .063 1 , .00 74. .46 N

ATOM 1692 CA VAL C 2 23. .580 5. .430 1. .090 1 , .00 65. .71 C

ATOM 1693 CB VAL C 2 23. .432 3. .898 1. .073 1 , .00 67. .40 C

ATOM 1694 CGI VAL C 2 24. .017 3. .311 2. .338 1 , .00 67. .52 c

ATOM 1695 CG2 VAL C 2 21. .980 3. .511 0. .956 1 , .00 75. .97 c

ATOM 1696 C VAL C 2 25. .059 5. .802 1. .217 1 , .00 70. .44 c

ATOM 1697 O VAL C 2 25. .943 5. .130 0. .672 1 , .00 68. .67 0

ATOM 1698 N ILE c 3 25. .314 6. .883 1. .942 1 , .00 73. .24 N

ATOM 1699 CA ILE c 3 26. .670 7. .308 2. .242 1 , .00 73. .46 c

ATOM 1700 CB ILE c 3 26. .652 8. .357 3. .351 1 , .00 82. .71 c

ATOM 1701 CGI ILE c 3 25. .635 9. .455 3. .015 1 , .00 79. .03 c

ATOM 1702 CD1 ILE c 3 25. .171 10. .266 4. .227 1 , .00 79. .41 c

ATOM 1703 CG2 ILE c 3 28. .061 8. .899 3. .599 1 , .00 75. .14 c

ATOM 1704 C ILE c 3 27. .548 6. .131 2. .694 1 , .00 71. .31 c

ATOM 1705 O ILE c 3 27. .119 5. .266 3. .454 1 , .00 68. .26 0

ATOM 1706 N GLU c 4 28. .779 6. .080 2. .211 1 , .00 84. .63 N

ATOM 1707 CA GLU c 4 29. .697 5. .069 2. .707 1 , .00 85. .17 c

ATOM 1708 CB GLU c 4 30. .568 4. .517 1. .590 1 , .00 77. .58 c

ATOM 1709 CG GLU c 4 31. .487 3. .393 2. .057 1 , .00 92. .86 c

ATOM 1710 CD GLU c 4 30. .829 2. .020 2. .021 1 , .00 99. .67 c

ATOM 1711 OE1 GLU c 4 30. .276 1. .657 0. .958 1 , .00110. .67 0

ATOM 1712 OE2 GLU c 4 30. .877 1. .305 3. .053 1 , .00 85. .60 0

ATOM 1713 C GLU c 4 30. .554 5. .717 3. .787 1 , .00 79. .62 c

ATOM 1714 O GLU c 4 31. .275 6. .681 3. .517 1 , .00 71. .18 0

ATOM 1715 N ILE c 5 30. .458 5. .206 5. .012 1 , .00 60. .08 N

ATOM 1716 CA ILE c 5 31. .066 5. .895 6. .147 1 , .00 65. .03 c

ATOM 1717 CB ILE c 5 30. .122 5. .993 7. .369 1 , .00 58. .57 c

ATOM 1718 CGI ILE c 5 28. .756 6. .525 6. .964 1 , .00 63. .17 c

ATOM 1719 CD1 ILE c 5 27. .832 6. .822 8. .140 1 , .00 57. .48 c

ATOM 1720 CG2 ILE c 5 30. .710 6. .922 8. .410 1 , .00 66. .63 c

ATOM 1721 C ILE c 5 32. .391 5. .273 6. .588 1 , .00 66. .19 c

ATOM 1722 O ILE c 5 32. .621 4. .059 6. .451 1 , .00 63. .25 0

ATOM 1723 N ASN c 6 33. .251 6. .129 7. .127 1 , .00 58. .23 N

ATOM 1724 CA ASN c 6 34. .556 5. .723 7. .620 1 , .00 60. .85 c

ATOM 1725 CB ASN c 6 35. .507 5. .411 6. .455 1 , .00 65. .81 c

ATOM 1726 CG ASN c 6 36. .063 6. .665 5. .776 1 , .00 67. .62 c

ATOM 1727 OD1 ASN c 6 35. .831 7. .795 6. .218 1 , .00 68. .37 0

ATOM 1728 ND2 ASN c 6 36. .826 6. .458 4. .697 1 , .00 59. .28 N

ATOM 1729 C ASN c 6 35. .180 6. .750 8. .569 1 , .00 64. .42 c

ATOM 1730 O ASN c 6 34. .545 7. .757 8. .923 1 , .00 57. .88 0

ATOM 1731 N ASP c 7 36. .425 6. .481 8. .967 1 , .00 85. .22 N

ATOM 1732 CA ASP c 7 37. .148 7. .292 9. .945 1 , .00 81. .70 c

ATOM 1733 CB ASP c 7 38. .371 6. .530 10. .465 1 , .00 84. .40 c

ATOM 1734 CG ASP c 7 37. .996 5. .325 11. .328 1 , .00 93. .67 c

ATOM 1735 OD1 ASP c 7 37. .969 5. .452 12. .583 1 , .00 87. .03 0

ATOM 1736 OD2 ASP c 7 37. .733 4. .247 10. .744 1 , .00 87. .15 0

ATOM 1737 C ASP c 7 37. .599 8. .631 9. .382 1 , .00 88. .94 c

ATOM 1738 O ASP c 7 38. .773 8. .816 9. .074 1 , .00100. .71 0

ATOM 1739 N GLU c 8 36. .667 9. .566 9. .268 1 , .00 88. .93 N

ATOM 1740 CA GLU c 8 36. .950 10. .896 8. .739 1 , .00 95. .99 c

ATOM 1741 CB GLU c 8 37. .713 10. .828 7. .414 1 , .00 91. .81 c

ATOM 1742 CG GLU c 8 37. .948 12. .208 6. .798 1 , .00 96. .51 c

ATOM 1743 CD GLU c 8 38. .331 12. .160 5. .330 1 , .00113. .79 c

ATOM 1744 OE1 GLU c 8 37. .847 11. .253 4. .614 1 , .00111. .15 0

ATOM 1745 OE2 GLU c 8 39. .115 13. .037 4. .897 1 , .00116. .45 0

ATOM 1746 C GLU c 8 35. .628 11. .598 8. .506 1 , .00 86. .39 c

ATOM 1747 O GLU c 8 35. .493 12. .804 8. .713 1 , .00 85. .44 0

ATOM 1748 N ASN c 9 34. .647 10. .829 8. .061 1 , .00 64. .70 N

ATOM 1749 CA ASN c 9 33. .329 11. .385 7. .842 1 , .00 70. .05 c

ATOM 1750 CB ASN c 9 32. .788 11. .019 6. .447 1 , .00 63. .47 c

ATOM 1751 CG ASN c 9 32. .600 9. .517 6. .248 1 , .00 69. .21 c

ATOM 1752 OD1 ASN c 9 33. .166 8. .709 6. .980 1 , .00 80. .45 0 ATOM 1753 ND2 ASN C 9 31..803 9.143 5.251 1.00 61.36 N

ATOM 1754 C ASN C 9 32. .373 10.977 8.955 1.00 78.58 C

ATOM 1755 O ASN C 9 31. .351 11.623 9.177 1.00 81.76 O

ATOM 1756 N PHE C 10 32. .719 9.916 9.676 1.00 79.97 N

ATOM 1757 CA PHE C 10 31. .831 9.413 10.721 1.00 82.16 C

ATOM 1758 CB PHE C 10 32. .482 8.266 11.501 1.00 76.49 C

ATOM 1759 CG PHE C 10 31. .534 7.556 12.432 1.00 59.53 C

ATOM 1760 CD2 PHE C 10 31. .114 6.266 12.156 1.00 64.35 C

ATOM 1761 CE2 PHE C 10 30. .232 5.608 13.000 1.00 57.56 C

ATOM 1762 CZ PHE C 10 29. .768 6.239 14.138 1.00 59.92 C

ATOM 1763 CE1 PHE C 10 30. .184 7.529 14.433 1.00 62.62 C

ATOM 1764 CD1 PHE C 10 31. .061 8.180 13.576 1.00 67.80 C

ATOM 1765 C PHE C 10 31. .400 10.517 11.691 1.00 83.27 C

ATOM 1766 O PHE C 10 30. .318 10.456 12.268 1.00 75.76 O

ATOM 1767 N ASP C 11 32. .243 11.524 11.886 1.00 91.76 N

ATOM 1768 CA ASP C 11 31. .886 12.570 12.833 1.00 98.24 C

ATOM 1769 CB ASP c 11 33. .019 13.579 13.003 1.00101.70 C

ATOM 1770 CG ASP c 11 32. .930 14.322 14.327 1.00107.93 C

ATOM 1771 OD1 ASP c 11 32. .228 13.814 15.236 1.00 98.14 O

ATOM 1772 OD2 ASP c 11 33. .558 15.400 14.460 1.00106.54 O

ATOM 1773 C ASP c 11 30. .579 13.263 12.441 1.00 96.84 C

ATOM 1774 O ASP c 11 29. .764 13.612 13.305 1.00 89.24 O

ATOM 1775 N GLU c 12 30. .395 13.461 11.137 1.00 94.36 N

ATOM 1776 CA GLU c 12 29. .145 13.979 10.585 1.00 95.64 C

ATOM 1777 CB GLU c 12 29. .106 13.718 9.084 1.00 85.23 C

ATOM 1778 CG GLU c 12 27. .724 13.374 8.563 1.00 94.75 C

ATOM 1779 CD GLU c 12 27. .229 12.014 9.029 1.00 94.48 C

ATOM 1780 OE1 GLU c 12 27. .980 11.024 8.882 1.00 87.80 O

ATOM 1781 OE2 GLU c 12 26. .089 11.939 9.544 1.00 96.99 O

ATOM 1782 C GLU c 12 27. .897 13.362 11.239 1.00 97.26 C

ATOM 1783 O GLU c 12 26. .827 13.974 11.250 1.00 94.53 O

ATOM 1784 N VAL c 13 28. .047 12.143 11.762 1.00107.14 N

ATOM 1785 CA VAL c 13 26. .959 11.400 12.392 1.00 97.21 C

ATOM 1786 CB VAL c 13 27. .451 10.068 12.988 1.00 87.18 C

ATOM 1787 CGI VAL c 13 26. .384 9.462 13.857 1.00 88.32 C

ATOM 1788 CG2 VAL c 13 27. .823 9.101 11.892 1.00 87.20 C

ATOM 1789 C VAL c 13 26. .270 12.200 13.486 1.00100.00 C

ATOM 1790 O VAL c 13 25. .054 12.382 13.457 1.00107.71 O

ATOM 1791 N ILE c 14 27. .044 12.663 14.460 1.00132.86 N

ATOM 1792 CA ILE c 14 26. .496 13.520 15.499 1.00138.62 C

ATOM 1793 CB ILE c 14 27. .522 13.822 16.620 1.00144.97 C

ATOM 1794 CGI ILE c 14 28. .830 14.337 16.016 1.00142.59 C

ATOM 1795 CD1 ILE c 14 29. .745 15.006 17.011 1.00140.56 C

ATOM 1796 CG2 ILE c 14 27. .766 12.584 17.492 1.00136.12 C

ATOM 1797 C ILE c 14 26. .048 14.826 14.857 1.00139.06 C

ATOM 1798 O ILE c 14 24. .910 15.263 15.039 1.00132.27 O

ATOM 1799 N LYS c 15 26. .943 15.423 14.074 1.00 97.81 N

ATOM 1800 CA LYS c 15 26. .711 16.745 13.494 1.00103.23 C

ATOM 1801 CB LYS c 15 28. .042 17.378 13.092 1.00 97.70 C

ATOM 1802 CG LYS c 15 28. .726 18.091 14.228 1.00 88.92 C

ATOM 1803 CD LYS c 15 27. .880 19.264 14.702 1.00 93.45 C

ATOM 1804 CE LYS c 15 27. .496 20.173 13.544 1.00 90.28 C

ATOM 1805 NZ LYS c 15 26. .459 21.167 13.936 1.00 77.54 N

ATOM 1806 C LYS c 15 25. .725 16.810 12.318 1.00100.88 C

ATOM 1807 O LYS c 15 26. .009 17.447 11.300 1.00 98.28 O

ATOM 1808 N LYS c 16 24. .570 16.167 12.474 1.00122.08 N

ATOM 1809 CA LYS c 16 23. .475 16.292 11.514 1.00124.81 C

ATOM 1810 CB LYS c 16 23. .221 14.967 10.788 1.00120.60 C

ATOM 1811 CG LYS c 16 24. .247 14.684 9.693 1.00118.99 C

ATOM 1812 CD LYS c 16 24. .728 16.007 9.078 1.00123.36 C

ATOM 1813 CE LYS c 16 25. .646 15.823 7.871 1.00114.55 C

ATOM 1814 NZ LYS c 16 26. .325 17.101 7.487 1.00103.42 N

ATOM 1815 C LYS c 16 22. .202 16.837 12.163 1.00124.26 C ATOM 1816 O LYS C 16 22..176 17..988 12..608 1 ,.00122..97 O

ATOM 1817 N ASP C 17 21. .158 16. .014 12. .224 1 , .00125. .26 N

ATOM 1818 CA ASP C 17 19. .882 16. .444 12. .796 1 , .00126. .53 C

ATOM 1819 CB ASP C 17 19. .398 17. .726 12. .120 1 , .00126. .59 C

ATOM 1820 CG ASP C 17 19. .161 17. .542 10. .636 1 , .00127. .49 c

ATOM 1821 OD1 ASP C 17 19. .875 16. .727 10. .016 1 , .00127. .15 0

ATOM 1822 OD2 ASP C 17 18. .259 18. .207 10. .091 1 , .00129. .53 0

ATOM 1823 C ASP C 17 18. .810 15. .373 12. .635 1 , .00126. .23 c

ATOM 1824 O ASP C 17 18. .091 15. .041 13. .580 1 , .00118. .87 0

ATOM 1825 N LYS C 18 18. .705 14. .844 11. .422 1 , .00127. .53 N

ATOM 1826 CA LYS C 18 17. .726 13. .818 11. .115 1 , .00118. .25 c

ATOM 1827 CB LYS C 18 17. .571 13. .694 9. .604 1 , .00116. .09 c

ATOM 1828 CG LYS C 18 16. .161 13. .927 9. .103 1 , .00111. .92 c

ATOM 1829 CD LYS C 18 16. .214 14. .379 7. .670 1 , .00109. .70 c

ATOM 1830 CE LYS C 18 17. .228 13. .543 6. .909 1 , .00105. .74 c

ATOM 1831 NZ LYS C 18 17. .451 14. .052 5. .526 1 , .00110. .32 N

ATOM 1832 C LYS C 18 18. .152 12. .479 11. .698 1 , .00115. .56 c

ATOM 1833 O LYS C 18 19. .312 12. .284 12. .069 1 , .00112. .51 0

ATOM 1834 N VAL C 19 17. .208 11. .554 11. .778 1 , .00 86. .34 N

ATOM 1835 CA VAL C 19 17. .535 10. .209 12. .211 1 , .00 81. .95 c

ATOM 1836 CB VAL C 19 16. .287 9. .337 12. .355 1 , .00 78. .41 c

ATOM 1837 CGI VAL C 19 16. .644 8. .005 13. .008 1 , .00 67. .56 c

ATOM 1838 CG2 VAL c 19 15. .240 10. .067 13. .164 1 , .00 86. .51 c

ATOM 1839 C VAL c 19 18. .482 9. .548 11. .214 1 , .00 74. .85 c

ATOM 1840 O VAL c 19 18. .073 9. .121 10. .132 1 , .00 69. .37 0

ATOM 1841 N VAL c 20 19. .756 9. .472 11. .584 1 , .00 77. .40 N

ATOM 1842 CA VAL c 20 20. .704 8. .687 10. .811 1 , .00 64. .56 c

ATOM 1843 CB VAL c 20 22. .115 9. .250 10. .884 1 , .00 53. .98 c

ATOM 1844 CGI VAL c 20 22. .361 9. .920 12. .233 1 , .00 66. .30 c

ATOM 1845 CG2 VAL c 20 23. .103 8. .149 10. .599 1 , .00 53. .87 c

ATOM 1846 C VAL c 20 20. .717 7. .233 11. .255 1 , .00 59. .30 c

ATOM 1847 O VAL c 20 20. .784 6. .934 12. .452 1 , .00 62. .03 0

ATOM 1848 N VAL c 21 20. .622 6. .336 10. .278 1 , .00 53. .04 N

ATOM 1849 CA VAL c 21 20. .697 4. .902 10. .519 1 , .00 48. .71 c

ATOM 1850 CB VAL c 21 19. .419 4. .158 10. .045 1 , .00 44. .74 c

ATOM 1851 CGI VAL c 21 19. .078 4. .518 8. .620 1 , .00 53. .87 c

ATOM 1852 CG2 VAL c 21 19. .592 2. .658 10. .168 1 , .00 48. .21 c

ATOM 1853 C VAL c 21 21. .955 4. .341 9. .838 1 , .00 55. .50 c

ATOM 1854 O VAL c 21 22. .075 4. .333 8. .606 1 , .00 54. .24 0

ATOM 1855 N VAL c 22 22. .902 3. .897 10. .661 1 , .00 59. .83 N

ATOM 1856 CA VAL c 22 24. .165 3. .357 10. .196 1 , .00 48. .17 c

ATOM 1857 CB VAL c 22 25. .306 3. .844 11. .064 1 , .00 48. .09 c

ATOM 1858 CGI VAL c 22 26. .587 3. .876 10. .246 1 , .00 51. .91 c

ATOM 1859 CG2 VAL c 22 24. .985 5. .227 11. .608 1 , .00 55. .30 c

ATOM 1860 C VAL c 22 24. .148 1. .833 10. .232 1 , .00 49. .83 c

ATOM 1861 O VAL c 22 23. .703 1. .218 11. .202 1 , .00 56. .58 0

ATOM 1862 N ASP c 23 24. .649 1. .224 9. .172 1 , .00 50. .94 N

ATOM 1863 CA ASP c 23 24. .622 -0. .222 9. .038 1 , .00 55. .85 c

ATOM 1864 CB ASP c 23 23. .868 -0. .595 7. .748 1 , .00 59. .63 c

ATOM 1865 CG ASP c 23 24. .357 -1. .891 7. .111 1 , .00 70. .01 c

ATOM 1866 OD1 ASP c 23 24. .894 -1. .818 5. .984 1 , .00 78. .00 0

ATOM 1867 OD2 ASP c 23 24. .186 -2. .980 7. .703 1 , .00 62. .63 0

ATOM 1868 C ASP c 23 26. .063 -0. .739 9. .078 1 , .00 55. .02 c

ATOM 1869 O ASP c 23 26. .978 -0. .058 8. .619 1 , .00 53. .05 0

ATOM 1870 N PHE c 24 26. .265 -1. .918 9. .657 1 , .00 49. .12 N

ATOM 1871 CA PHE c 24 27. .611 -2. .449 9. .860 1 , .00 54. .08 c

ATOM 1872 CB PHE c 24 27. .910 -2. .630 11. .352 1 , .00 47. .86 c

ATOM 1873 CG PHE c 24 28. .182 -1. .331 12. .082 1 , .00 49. .85 c

ATOM 1874 CD2 PHE c 24 27. .133 -0. .548 12. .556 1 , .00 43. .22 c

ATOM 1875 CE2 PHE c 24 27. .369 0. .643 13. .214 1 , .00 45. .41 c

ATOM 1876 CZ PHE c 24 28. .689 1. .077 13. .418 1 , .00 48. .74 c

ATOM 1877 CE1 PHE c 24 29. .744 0. .306 12. .949 1 , .00 37. .27 c

ATOM 1878 CD1 PHE c 24 29. .486 -0. .894 12. .282 1 , .00 42. .49 c ATOM 1879 C PHE C 24 27..741 -3..773 9..140 1 ,.00 56..04 C

ATOM 1880 O PHE C 24 27. .046 -4. .727 9. .473 1 , .00 54. .54 O

ATOM 1881 N TRP C 25 28. .642 -3. .837 8. .165 1 , .00 55. .66 N

ATOM 1882 CA TRP C 25 28. .610 -4. .928 7. .198 1 , .00 55. .80 C

ATOM 1883 CB TRP C 25 27. .767 -4. .505 6. .003 1 , .00 58. .74 C

ATOM 1884 CG TRP C 25 28. .465 -3. .451 5. .175 1 , .00 60. .49 c

ATOM 1885 CD1 TRP C 25 28. .636 -2. .129 5. .496 1 , .00 64. .26 c

ATOM 1886 NE1 TRP C 25 29. .338 -1. .488 4. .496 1 , .00 61. .51 N

ATOM 1887 CE2 TRP C 25 29. .630 -2. .387 3. .513 1 , .00 53. .51 c

ATOM 1888 CD2 TRP C 25 29. .107 -3. .640 3. .902 1 , .00 52. .48 c

ATOM 1889 CE3 TRP C 25 29. .280 -4. .742 3. .061 1 , .00 59. .06 c

ATOM 1890 CZ3 TRP c 25 29. .966 -4. .566 1. .866 1 , .00 61. .55 c

ATOM 1891 CH2 TRP c 25 30. .476 -3. .311 1. .505 1 , .00 62. .77 c

ATOM 1892 CZ2 TRP c 25 30. .320 -2. .214 2. .312 1 , .00 59. .11 c

ATOM 1893 C TRP c 25 29. .972 -5. .310 6. .675 1 , .00 57. .07 c

ATOM 1894 O TRP c 25 30. .980 -4. .660 6. .967 1 , .00 52. .56 0

ATOM 1895 N ALA c 26 29. .969 -6. .353 5. .855 1 , .00 55. .09 N

ATOM 1896 CA ALA c 26 31. .176 -6. .844 5. .211 1 , .00 63. .91 c

ATOM 1897 CB ALA c 26 31. .991 -7. .686 6. .183 1 , .00 58. .13 c

ATOM 1898 C ALA c 26 30. .818 -7. .656 3. .974 1 , .00 65. .29 c

ATOM 1899 O ALA c 26 29. .841 -8. .406 3. .982 1 , .00 59. .41 0

ATOM 1900 N GLU c 27 31. .629 -7. .508 2. .928 1 , .00 71. .48 N

ATOM 1901 CA GLU c 27 31. .403 -8. .157 1. .644 1 , .00 61. .11 c

ATOM 1902 CB GLU c 27 32. .582 -7. .872 0. .711 1 , .00 70. .23 c

ATOM 1903 CG GLU c 27 32. .220 -7. .821 -0. .772 1 , .00 85. .45 c

ATOM 1904 CD GLU c 27 31. .488 -6. .541 -1. .176 1 , .00 88. .32 c

ATOM 1905 OE1 GLU c 27 31. .859 -5. .447 -0. .697 1 , .00 83. .38 0

ATOM 1906 OE2 GLU c 27 30. .540 -6. .633 -1. .988 1 , .00 95. .63 0

ATOM 1907 C GLU c 27 31. .162 -9. .668 1. .736 1 , .00 70. .29 c

ATOM 1908 O GLU c 27 30. .540 -10. .251 0. .849 1 , .00 85. .86 0

ATOM 1909 N TRP c 28 31. .634 -10. .308 2. .799 1 , .00 79. .45 N

ATOM 1910 CA TRP c 28 31. .536 -11. .765 2. .891 1 , .00 82. .42 c

ATOM 1911 CB TRP c 28 32. .756 -12. .333 3. .621 1 , .00 82. .22 c

ATOM 1912 CG TRP c 28 32. .769 -12. .008 5. .086 1 , .00 82. .11 c

ATOM 1913 CD1 TRP c 28 31. .969 -12. .547 6. .063 1 , .00 82. .39 c

ATOM 1914 NE1 TRP c 28 32. .276 -11. .993 7. .284 1 , .00 81. .81 N

ATOM 1915 CE2 TRP c 28 33. .280 -11. .096 7. .118 1 , .00 73. .76 c

ATOM 1916 CD2 TRP c 28 33. .627 -11. .068 5. .744 1 , .00 79. .24 c

ATOM 1917 CE3 TRP c 28 34. .640 -10. .224 5. .305 1 , .00 79. .15 c

ATOM 1918 CZ3 TRP c 28 35. .280 -9. .435 6. .233 1 , .00 83. .88 c

ATOM 1919 CH2 TRP c 28 34. .924 -9. .473 7. .592 1 , .00 87. .39 c

ATOM 1920 CZ2 TRP c 28 33. .928 -10. .291 8. .047 1 , .00 70. .20 c

ATOM 1921 C TRP c 28 30. .255 -12. .260 3. .575 1 , .00 84. .57 c

ATOM 1922 O TRP c 28 29. .825 -13. .398 3. .365 1 , .00 89. .52 0

ATOM 1923 N CYS c 29 29. .664 -11. .404 4. .405 1 , .00 66. .24 N

ATOM 1924 CA CYS c 29 28. .488 -11. .755 5. .210 1 , .00 68. .33 c

ATOM 1925 CB CYS c 29 28. .270 -10. .673 6. .284 1 , .00 71. .12 c

ATOM 1926 SG CYS c 29 26. .883 -10. .861 7. .466 1 , .00 64. .13 s

ATOM 1927 C CYS c 29 27. .231 -11. .922 4. .346 1 , .00 72. .44 c

ATOM 1928 O CYS c 29 26. .824 -10. .996 3. .644 1 , .00 77. .46 0

ATOM 1929 N GLY c 30 26. .619 -13. .100 4. .407 1 , .00 85. .61 N

ATOM 1930 CA GLY c 30 25. .427 -13. .389 3. .625 1 , .00 86. .62 c

ATOM 1931 C GLY c 30 24. .290 -12. .417 3. .880 1 , .00 87. .50 c

ATOM 1932 O GLY c 30 23. .877 -11. .685 2. .971 1 , .00 85. .78 0

ATOM 1933 N PRO c 31 23. .764 -12. .414 5. .120 1 , .00 62. .79 N

ATOM 1934 CA PRO c 31 22. .663 -11. .525 5. .515 1 , .00 54. .32 c

ATOM 1935 CB PRO c 31 22. .524 -11. .786 7. .013 1 , .00 43. .61 c

ATOM 1936 CG PRO c 31 22. .960 -13. .198 7. .174 1 , .00 47. .24 c

ATOM 1937 CD PRO c 31 24. .074 -13. .401 6. .169 1 , .00 53. .87 c

ATOM 1938 C PRO c 31 23. .001 -10. .069 5. .278 1 , .00 60. .54 c

ATOM 1939 O PRO c 31 22. .108 -9. .263 5. .037 1 , .00 66. .01 0

ATOM 1940 N CYS c 32 24. .278 -9. .730 5. .352 1 , .00 68. .34 N

ATOM 1941 CA CYS c 32 24. .673 -8. .344 5. .186 1 , .00 74. .16 c ATOM 1942 CB CYS C 32 26..145 -8..150 5..563 1 ,.00 68..53 C

ATOM 1943 SG CYS C 32 26. .568 -8. .861 7. .178 1 , .00 64. .47 S

ATOM 1944 C CYS C 32 24. .422 -8. .012 3. .733 1 , .00 74. .06 C

ATOM 1945 O CYS C 32 24. .146 -6. .862 3. .380 1 , .00 75. .00 O

ATOM 1946 N ARG C 33 24. .495 -9. .046 2. .897 1 , .00 57. .32 N

ATOM 1947 CA ARG C 33 24. .183 -8. .909 1. .483 1 , .00 68. .62 C

ATOM 1948 CB ARG C 33 24. .930 -9. .955 0. .656 1 , .00 63. .33 C

ATOM 1949 CG ARG C 33 26. .180 -9. .427 -0. .031 1 , .00 52. .87 c

ATOM 1950 CD ARG C 33 27. .163 -10. .567 -0. .262 1 , .00 46. .97 c

ATOM 1951 NE ARG C 33 26. .458 -11. .845 -0. .244 1 , .00 61. .48 N

ATOM 1952 CZ ARG C 33 27. .033 -13. .031 -0. .060 1 , .00 68. .09 c

ATOM 1953 NH1 ARG C 33 28. .346 -13. .124 0. .132 1 , .00 72. .02 N

ATOM 1954 NH2 ARG C 33 26. .290 -14. .133 -0. .069 1 , .00 70. .32 N

ATOM 1955 C ARG C 33 22. .680 -9. .005 1. .232 1 , .00 70. .27 C

ATOM 1956 O ARG C 33 22. .152 -8. .293 0. .385 1 , .00 61. .48 0

ATOM 1957 N MET C 34 21. .992 -9. .874 1. .976 1 , .00104. .03 N

ATOM 1958 CA MET C 34 20. .550 -10. .060 1. .783 1 , .00104. .88 C

ATOM 1959 CB MET C 34 20. .071 -11. .406 2. .340 1 , .00 97. .45 c

ATOM 1960 CG MET C 34 19. .071 -12. .113 1. .413 1 , .00115. .64 c

ATOM 1961 SD MET C 34 17. .985 -13. .340 2. .195 1 , .00147. .26 s

ATOM 1962 CE MET C 34 16. .736 -12. .316 2. .992 1 , .00106. .94 c

ATOM 1963 C MET C 34 19. .727 -8. .930 2. .391 1 , .00101. .70 c

ATOM 1964 O MET C 34 18. .544 -9. .092 2. .667 1 , .00 99. .87 0

ATOM 1965 N ILE C 35 20. .360 -7. .784 2. .603 1 , .00 74. .35 N

ATOM 1966 CA ILE c 35 19. .678 -6. .627 3. .170 1 , .00 69. .12 c

ATOM 1967 CB ILE c 35 19. .783 -6. .582 4. .701 1 , .00 66. .74 c

ATOM 1968 CGI ILE c 35 21. .187 -6. .164 5. .136 1 , .00 74. .90 c

ATOM 1969 CD1 ILE c 35 21. .366 -6. .105 6. .644 1 , .00 55. .25 c

ATOM 1970 CG2 ILE c 35 19. .431 -7. .925 5. .324 1 , .00 71. .04 c

ATOM 1971 C ILE c 35 20. .295 -5. .367 2. .611 1 , .00 70. .92 c

ATOM 1972 O ILE c 35 19. .731 -4. .282 2. .731 1 , .00 71. .07 0

ATOM 1973 N ALA c 36 21. .471 -5. .512 2. .011 1 , .00 69. .67 N

ATOM 1974 CA ALA c 36 22. .057 -4. .393 1. .295 1 , .00 79. .08 c

ATOM 1975 CB ALA c 36 23. .270 -4. .825 0. .476 1 , .00 75. .52 c

ATOM 1976 C ALA c 36 20. .972 -3. .774 0. .408 1 , .00 81. .00 c

ATOM 1977 O ALA c 36 20. .647 -2. .594 0. .564 1 , .00 80. .69 0

ATOM 1978 N PRO c 37 20. .378 -4. .576 -0. .497 1 , .00 80. .07 N

ATOM 1979 CA PRO c 37 19. .283 -4. .083 -1. .344 1 , .00 87. .49 c

ATOM 1980 CB PRO c 37 18. .774 -5. .358 -2. .044 1 , .00 84. .80 c

ATOM 1981 CG PRO c 37 19. .318 -6. .500 -1. .241 1 , .00 82. .18 c

ATOM 1982 CD PRO c 37 20. .643 -6. .003 -0. .746 1 , .00 81. .04 c

ATOM 1983 C PRO c 37 18. .142 -3. .407 -0. .561 1 , .00 79. .73 c

ATOM 1984 O PRO c 37 17. .813 -2. .252 -0. .868 1 , .00 69. .36 0

ATOM 1985 N ILE c 38 17. .553 -4. .109 0. .412 1 , .00 61. .47 N

ATOM 1986 CA ILE c 38 16. .492 -3. .532 1. .254 1 , .00 61. .66 c

ATOM 1987 CB ILE c 38 16. .168 -4. .415 2. .458 1 , .00 53. .33 c

ATOM 1988 CGI ILE c 38 15. .565 -5. .750 2. .031 1 , .00 34. .59 c

ATOM 1989 CD1 ILE c 38 16. .601 -6. .761 1. .640 1 , .00 55. .36 c

ATOM 1990 CG2 ILE c 38 15. .227 -3. .673 3. .410 1 , .00 66. .48 c

ATOM 1991 C ILE c 38 16. .813 -2. .143 1. .833 1 , .00 69. .25 c

ATOM 1992 O ILE c 38 16. .019 -1. .205 1. .723 1 , .00 66. .90 0

ATOM 1993 N ILE c 39 17. .960 -2. .020 2. .490 1 , .00 80. .75 N

ATOM 1994 CA ILE c 39 18. .367 -0. .725 3. .010 1 , .00 79. .60 c

ATOM 1995 CB ILE c 39 19. .772 -0. .784 3. .651 1 , .00 85. .93 c

ATOM 1996 CGI ILE c 39 19. .838 -1. .919 4. .674 1 , .00 84. .47 c

ATOM 1997 CD1 ILE c 39 18. .688 -1. .916 5. .653 1 , .00 83. .32 c

ATOM 1998 CG2 ILE c 39 20. .146 0. .557 4. .293 1 , .00 70. .33 c

ATOM 1999 C ILE c 39 18. .348 0. .287 1. .870 1 , .00 75. .91 c

ATOM 2000 O ILE c 39 17. .867 1. .402 2. .027 1 , .00 73. .40 0

ATOM 2001 N GLU c 40 18. .852 -0. .112 0. .710 1 , .00126. .73 N

ATOM 2002 CA GLU c 40 18. .983 0. .821 -0. .403 1 , .00136. .48 c

ATOM 2003 CB GLU c 40 19. .900 0. .252 -1. .490 1 , .00138. .06 c

ATOM 2004 CG GLU c 40 21. .377 0. .652 -1. .356 1 , .00142. .34 c ATOM 2005 CD GLU C 40 22..119 -0.097 -0.255 1.00155.00 C

ATOM 2006 OE1 GLU C 40 21. .568 -0.244 0.858 1.00146.66 O

ATOM 2007 OE2 GLU C 40 23. .263 -0.537 -0.508 1.00150.93 O

ATOM 2008 C GLU C 40 17. .632 1.253 -0.983 1.00136.96 C

ATOM 2009 O GLU C 40 17. .514 2.345 -1.545 1.00134.09 O

ATOM 2010 N GLU C 41 16. .623 0.393 -0.850 1.00107.75 N

ATOM 2011 CA GLU C 41 15. .249 0.761 -1.193 1.00105.66 C

ATOM 2012 CB GLU C 41 14. .312 -0.452 -1.138 1.00102.74 C

ATOM 2013 CG GLU C 41 14. .639 -1.618 -2.056 1.00 99.38 C

ATOM 2014 CD GLU C 41 13. .728 -2.816 -1.796 1.00109.61 C

ATOM 2015 OE1 GLU C 41 13. .994 -3.910 -2.343 1.00110.54 O

ATOM 2016 OE2 GLU C 41 12. .745 -2.663 -1.034 1.00111.88 O

ATOM 2017 C GLU C 41 14. .761 1.771 -0.170 1.00106.25 C

ATOM 2018 O GLU C 41 14. .408 2.902 -0.504 1.00100.33 O

ATOM 2019 N LEU C 42 14. .754 1.339 1.089 1.00 88.35 N

ATOM 2020 CA LEU C 42 14. .297 2.167 2.192 1.00 80.06 C

ATOM 2021 CB LEU C 42 14. .401 1.407 3.516 1.00 83.80 C

ATOM 2022 CG LEU C 42 13. .336 0.331 3.790 1.00 93.85 C

ATOM 2023 CD1 LEU C 42 13. .274 -0.718 2.678 1.00 92.86 C

ATOM 2024 CD2 LEU C 42 13. .549 -0.338 5.163 1.00 88.25 C

ATOM 2025 C LEU C 42 15. .100 3.462 2.218 1.00 79.12 C

ATOM 2026 O LEU C 42 14. .741 4.422 2.904 1.00 79.02 O

ATOM 2027 N ALA C 43 16. .171 3.490 1.431 1.00103.95 N

ATOM 2028 CA ALA C 43 17. .008 4.674 1.306 1.00103.40 C

ATOM 2029 CB ALA c 43 18. .368 4.307 0.730 1.00100.87 C

ATOM 2030 C ALA c 43 16. .331 5.760 0.467 1.00109.15 C

ATOM 2031 O ALA c 43 16. .618 6.949 0.639 1.00107.59 O

ATOM 2032 N GLU c 44 15. .431 5.358 -0.429 1.00 96.88 N

ATOM 2033 CA GLU c 44 14. .668 6.327 -1.212 1.00 94.95 C

ATOM 2034 CB GLU c 44 14. .508 5.881 -2.674 1.00103.63 C

ATOM 2035 CG GLU c 44 13. .945 4.466 -2.880 1.00110.41 C

ATOM 2036 CD GLU c 44 12. .438 4.440 -3.155 1.00111.87 C

ATOM 2037 OE2 GLU c 44 11. .666 4.056 -2.245 1.00112.81 O

ATOM 2038 OE1 GLU c 44 12. .023 4.782 -4.285 1.00102.44 O

ATOM 2039 C GLU c 44 13. .310 6.600 -0.573 1.00 94.85 C

ATOM 2040 O GLU c 44 12. .957 7.756 -0.332 1.00 91.64 O

ATOM 2041 N GLU c 45 12. .560 5.536 -0.286 1.00 75.83 N

ATOM 2042 CA GLU c 45 11. .252 5.672 0.339 1.00 80.99 C

ATOM 2043 CB GLU c 45 10. .699 4.297 0.747 1.00 86.09 C

ATOM 2044 CG GLU c 45 9. .165 4.183 0.775 1.00 90.28 C

ATOM 2045 CD GLU c 45 8. .522 4.812 2.011 1.00 91.99 C

ATOM 2046 OE2 GLU c 45 8. .039 5.965 1.916 1.00 88.00 O

ATOM 2047 OE1 GLU c 45 8. .499 4.156 3.078 1.00 87.14 O

ATOM 2048 C GLU c 45 11. .409 6.604 1.542 1.00 85.18 C

ATOM 2049 O GLU c 45 10. .460 7.264 1.975 1.00 84.68 O

ATOM 2050 N TYR c 46 12. .627 6.652 2.072 1.00 93.10 N

ATOM 2051 CA TYR c 46 12. .976 7.593 3.121 1.00 87.83 C

ATOM 2052 CB TYR c 46 13. .237 6.859 4.429 1.00 86.56 C

ATOM 2053 CG TYR c 46 12. .061 6.025 4.870 1.00 88.69 C

ATOM 2054 CD1 TYR c 46 10. .902 6.623 5.343 1.00 84.82 C

ATOM 2055 CE1 TYR c 46 9. .817 5.864 5.741 1.00 86.73 C

ATOM 2056 CZ TYR c 46 9. .885 4.486 5.663 1.00 93.03 C

ATOM 2057 OH TYR c 46 8. .812 3.715 6.058 1.00 88.79 O

ATOM 2058 CE2 TYR c 46 11. .027 3.871 5.190 1.00 90.00 C

ATOM 2059 CD2 TYR c 46 12. .102 4.639 4.795 1.00 87.39 C

ATOM 2060 C TYR c 46 14. .191 8.379 2.690 1.00 82.88 C

ATOM 2061 O TYR c 46 15. .289 8.168 3.184 1.00 85.71 O

ATOM 2062 N ALA c 47 13. .984 9.260 1.723 1.00 73.83 N

ATOM 2063 CA ALA c 47 15. .049 10.116 1.240 1.00 73.14 C

ATOM 2064 CB ALA c 47 15. .120 10.074 -0.263 1.00 75.07 C

ATOM 2065 C ALA c 47 14. .736 11.516 1.710 1.00 75.13 C

ATOM 2066 O ALA c 47 13. .572 11.919 1.741 1.00 75.12 O

ATOM 2067 N GLY c 48 15. .769 12.264 2.077 1.00 62.09 N ATOM 2068 CA GLY C 48 15..565 13..583 2..649 1 ,.00 61..50 C

ATOM 2069 C GLY C 48 14. .788 13. .520 3. .958 1 , .00 61. .88 C

ATOM 2070 O GLY C 48 14. .425 14. .549 4. .527 1 , .00 59. .02 O

ATOM 2071 N LYS C 49 14. .526 12. .311 4. .440 1 , .00 89. .30 N

ATOM 2072 CA LYS C 49 13. .863 12. .150 5. .729 1 , .00 98. .01 C

ATOM 2073 CB LYS C 49 12. .453 11. .579 5. .549 1 , .00 97. .68 C

ATOM 2074 CG LYS C 49 12. .325 10. .486 4. .496 1 , .00101. .42 c

ATOM 2075 CD LYS C 49 10. .855 10. .151 4. .254 1 , .00 98. .99 c

ATOM 2076 CE LYS c 49 10. .048 11. .409 3. .952 1 , .00 90. .65 c

ATOM 2077 NZ LYS c 49 8. .692 11. .354 4. .552 1 , .00 85. .11 N

ATOM 2078 C LYS c 49 14. .682 11. .299 6. .702 1 , .00100. .75 c

ATOM 2079 O LYS c 49 14. .617 11. .486 7. .920 1 , .00 97. .70 0

ATOM 2080 N VAL c 50 15. .450 10. .365 6. .152 1 , .00 99. .20 N

ATOM 2081 CA VAL c 50 16. .301 9. .508 6. .959 1 , .00 93. .53 c

ATOM 2082 CB VAL c 50 15. .601 8. .195 7. .325 1 , .00 98. .91 c

ATOM 2083 CGI VAL c 50 16. .601 7. .222 7. .945 1 , .00 94. .88 c

ATOM 2084 CG2 VAL c 50 14. .422 8. .456 8. .269 1 , .00101. .35 c

ATOM 2085 C VAL c 50 17. .595 9. .179 6. .237 1 , .00 90. .14 c

ATOM 2086 O VAL c 50 17. .589 8. .888 5. .047 1 , .00 95. .63 0

ATOM 2087 N VAL c 51 18. .705 9. .220 6. .964 1 , .00 62. .53 N

ATOM 2088 CA VAL c 51 20. .001 8. .911 6. .371 1 , .00 59. .94 c

ATOM 2089 CB VAL c 51 21. .131 9. .680 7. .036 1 , .00 46. .71 c

ATOM 2090 CGI VAL c 51 22. .427 9. .368 6. .320 1 , .00 52. .06 c

ATOM 2091 CG2 VAL c 51 20. .834 11. .179 7. .035 1 , .00 43. .27 c

ATOM 2092 C VAL c 51 20. .344 7. .449 6. .529 1 , .00 54. .52 c

ATOM 2093 O VAL c 51 20. .038 6. .857 7. .547 1 , .00 55. .20 0

ATOM 2094 N PHE c 52 20. .977 6. .866 5. .521 1 , .00 66. .58 N

ATOM 2095 CA PHE c 52 21. .508 5. .523 5. .657 1 , .00 67. .85 c

ATOM 2096 CB PHE c 52 20. .813 4. .553 4. .710 1 , .00 65. .84 c

ATOM 2097 CG PHE c 52 19. .361 4. .348 5. .017 1 , .00 73. .14 c

ATOM 2098 CD2 PHE c 52 18. .925 3. .185 5. .626 1 , .00 77. .89 c

ATOM 2099 CE2 PHE c 52 17. .574 2. .992 5. .909 1 , .00 84. .94 c

ATOM 2100 CZ PHE c 52 16. .650 3. .975 5. .582 1 , .00 81. .32 c

ATOM 2101 CE1 PHE c 52 17. .081 5. .142 4. .978 1 , .00 78. .53 c

ATOM 2102 CD1 PHE c 52 18. .425 5. .322 4. .694 1 , .00 76. .89 c

ATOM 2103 C PHE c 52 23. .001 5. .550 5. .385 1 , .00 75. .88 c

ATOM 2104 O PHE c 52 23. .433 5. .726 4. .243 1 , .00 74. .55 0

ATOM 2105 N GLY c 53 23. .789 5. .410 6. .446 1 , .00 69. .77 N

ATOM 2106 CA GLY c 53 25. .224 5. .278 6. .304 1 , .00 59. .28 c

ATOM 2107 C GLY c 53 25. .518 3. .801 6. .340 1 , .00 52. .61 c

ATOM 2108 O GLY c 53 24. .671 2. .997 6. .705 1 , .00 58. .22 0

ATOM 2109 N LYS c 54 26. .712 3. .422 5. .941 1 , .00 51. .28 N

ATOM 2110 CA LYS c 54 27. .121 2. .067 6. .211 1 , .00 54. .13 c

ATOM 2111 CB LYS c 54 26. .710 1. .124 5. .097 1 , .00 48. .13 c

ATOM 2112 CG LYS c 54 27. .343 1. .434 3. .781 1 , .00 50. .56 c

ATOM 2113 CD LYS c 54 26. .991 0. .357 2. .778 1 , .00 53. .71 c

ATOM 2114 CE LYS c 54 27. .604 0. .675 1. .418 1 , .00 70. .19 c

ATOM 2115 NZ LYS c 54 27. .612 2. .155 1. .143 1 , .00 78. .27 N

ATOM 2116 C LYS c 54 28. .610 2. .021 6. .486 1 , .00 52. .48 c

ATOM 2117 O LYS c 54 29. .383 2. .870 6. .020 1 , .00 54. .45 0

ATOM 2118 N VAL c 55 28. .996 1. .032 7. .278 1 , .00 42. .53 N

ATOM 2119 CA VAL c 55 30. .330 1. .011 7. .842 1 , .00 42. .46 c

ATOM 2120 CB VAL c 55 30. .322 1. .252 9. .357 1 , .00 30. .49 c

ATOM 2121 CGI VAL c 55 31. .648 0. .827 9. .962 1 , .00 39. .78 c

ATOM 2122 CG2 VAL c 55 30. .063 2. .716 9. .644 1 , .00 30. .77 c

ATOM 2123 C VAL c 55 30. .853 -0. .348 7. .596 1 , .00 39. .90 c

ATOM 2124 O VAL c 55 30. .352 -1. .302 8. .186 1 , .00 41. .46 0

ATOM 2125 N ASN c 56 31. .827 -0. .439 6. .691 1 , .00 46. .31 N

ATOM 2126 CA ASN c 56 32. .483 -1. .708 6. .423 1 , .00 52. .50 c

ATOM 2127 CB ASN c 56 33. .275 -1. .682 5. .115 1 , .00 45. .91 c

ATOM 2128 CG ASN c 56 33. .782 -3. .056 4. .739 1 , .00 56. .04 c

ATOM 2129 OD1 ASN c 56 34. .504 -3. .671 5. .529 1 , .00 59. .69 0

ATOM 2130 ND2 ASN c 56 33. .364 -3. .579 3. .563 1 , .00 45. .20 N ATOM 2131 C ASN C 56 33..411 -1..995 7..588 1 ,.00 50..45 C

ATOM 2132 O ASN C 56 34. .331 -1. .200 7. .852 1 , .00 41. .60 O

ATOM 2133 N VAL c 57 33. .164 -3. .110 8. .284 1 , .00 39. .33 N

ATOM 2134 CA VAL c 57 33. .858 -3. .388 9. .547 1 , .00 47. .47 C

ATOM 2135 CB VAL c 57 33. .145 -4. .439 10. .415 1 , .00 43. .33 C

ATOM 2136 CGI VAL c 57 31. .744 -3. .936 10. .879 1 , .00 47. .81 c

ATOM 2137 CG2 VAL c 57 33. .073 -5. .762 9. .666 1 , .00 38. .58 c

ATOM 2138 C VAL c 57 35. .278 -3. .881 9. .328 1 , .00 56. .89 c

ATOM 2139 O VAL c 57 36. .016 -4. .107 10. .295 1 , .00 58. .38 0

ATOM 2140 N ASP c 58 35. .646 -4. .061 8. .061 1 , .00 55. .13 N

ATOM 2141 CA ASP c 58 36. .979 -4. .514 7. .689 1 , .00 54. .15 c

ATOM 2142 CB ASP c 58 36. .939 -5. .180 6. .309 1 , .00 59. .24 c

ATOM 2143 CG ASP c 58 36. .766 -6. .690 6. .376 1 , .00 64. .76 c

ATOM 2144 OD1 ASP c 58 36. .534 -7. .230 7. .482 1 , .00 54. .14 0

ATOM 2145 OD2 ASP c 58 36. .843 -7. .332 5. .298 1 , .00 63. .35 0

ATOM 2146 C ASP c 58 37. .952 -3. .351 7. .635 1 , .00 52. .58 c

ATOM 2147 O ASP c 58 39. .093 -3. .458 8. .071 1 , .00 57. .81 0

ATOM 2148 N GLU c 59 37. .491 -2. .248 7. .073 1 , .00 51. .55 N

ATOM 2149 CA GLU c 59 38. .357 -1. .119 6. .834 1 , .00 52. .89 c

ATOM 2150 CB GLU c 59 38. .110 -0. .502 5. .450 1 , .00 59. .39 c

ATOM 2151 CG GLU c 59 38. .312 -1. .475 4. .290 1 , .00 69. .54 c

ATOM 2152 CD GLU c 59 39. .691 -2. .136 4. .300 1 , .00 74. .29 c

ATOM 2153 OE2 GLU c 59 39. .746 -3. .392 4. .355 1 , .00 64. .82 0

ATOM 2154 OE1 GLU c 59 40. .710 -1. .401 4. .259 1 , .00 76. .06 0

ATOM 2155 C GLU c 59 38. .133 -0. .100 7. .913 1 , .00 52. .19 c

ATOM 2156 O GLU c 59 38. .734 0. .972 7. .910 1 , .00 67. .23 0

ATOM 2157 N ASN c 60 37. .243 -0. .422 8. .836 1 , .00 43. .23 N

ATOM 2158 CA ASN c 60 37. .122 0. .381 10. .041 1 , .00 42. .67 c

ATOM 2159 CB ASN c 60 36. .126 1. .552 9. .892 1 , .00 39. .53 c

ATOM 2160 CG ASN c 60 36. .145 2. .198 8. .495 1 , .00 49. .81 c

ATOM 2161 OD1 ASN c 60 36. .509 3. .369 8. .337 1 , .00 49. .02 0

ATOM 2162 ND2 ASN c 60 35. .703 1. .440 7. .484 1 , .00 43. .51 N

ATOM 2163 C ASN c 60 36. .716 -0. .506 11. .196 1 , .00 41. .06 c

ATOM 2164 O ASN c 60 35. .657 -0. .292 11. .786 1 , .00 43. .11 0

ATOM 2165 N PRO c 61 37. .562 -1. .489 11. .531 1 , .00 43. .68 N

ATOM 2166 CA PRO c 61 37. .363 -2. .368 12. .693 1 , .00 40. .85 c

ATOM 2167 CB PRO c 61 38. .539 -3. .344 12. .601 1 , .00 46. .90 c

ATOM 2168 CG PRO c 61 39. .596 -2. .600 11. .856 1 , .00 48. .05 c

ATOM 2169 CD PRO c 61 38. .884 -1. .675 10. .902 1 , .00 52. .02 c

ATOM 2170 C PRO c 61 37. .380 -1. .608 14. .022 1 , .00 40. .26 c

ATOM 2171 O PRO c 61 36. .805 -2. .060 15. .019 1 , .00 42. .23 0

ATOM 2172 N GLU c 62 38. .011 -0. .446 14. .041 1 , .00 37. .89 N

ATOM 2173 CA GLU c 62 38. .011 0. .345 15. .263 1 , .00 41. .07 c

ATOM 2174 CB GLU c 62 39. .132 1. .387 15. .286 1 , .00 45. .15 c

ATOM 2175 CG GLU c 62 39. .009 2. .467 14. .234 1 , .00 53. .87 c

ATOM 2176 CD GLU c 62 39. .409 1. .974 12. .842 1 , .00 66. .10 c

ATOM 2177 OE1 GLU c 62 40. .147 0. .964 12. .743 1 , .00 62. .85 0

ATOM 2178 OE2 GLU c 62 38. .977 2. .588 11. .842 1 , .00 67. .46 0

ATOM 2179 C GLU c 62 36. .691 1. .023 15. .570 1 , .00 49. .39 c

ATOM 2180 O GLU c 62 36. .336 1. .148 16. .733 1 , .00 52. .80 0

ATOM 2181 N ILE c 63 35. .965 1. .475 14. .549 1 , .00 50. .07 N

ATOM 2182 CA ILE c 63 34. .678 2. .132 14. .783 1 , .00 47. .59 c

ATOM 2183 CB ILE c 63 34. .108 2. .714 13. .484 1 , .00 56. .25 c

ATOM 2184 CGI ILE c 63 35. .209 3. .411 12. .690 1 , .00 54. .63 c

ATOM 2185 CD1 ILE c 63 34. .690 4. .469 11. .743 1 , .00 58. .91 c

ATOM 2186 CG2 ILE c 63 32. .957 3. .666 13. .774 1 , .00 48. .01 c

ATOM 2187 C ILE c 63 33. .689 1. .119 15. .353 1 , .00 42. .05 c

ATOM 2188 O ILE c 63 32. .973 1. .380 16. .329 1 , .00 45. .48 0

ATOM 2189 N ALA c 64 33. .664 -0. .052 14. .735 1 , .00 37. .78 N

ATOM 2190 CA ALA c 64 32. .924 -1. .171 15. .274 1 , .00 38. .10 c

ATOM 2191 CB ALA c 64 33. .054 -2. .362 14. .352 1 , .00 30. .52 c

ATOM 2192 C ALA c 64 33. .377 -1. .530 16. .705 1 , .00 41. .18 c

ATOM 2193 O ALA c 64 32. .528 -1. .823 17. .550 1 , .00 37. .48 0 ATOM 2194 N ALA C 65 34..695 -1..512 16..983 1 ,.00 37..79 N

ATOM 2195 CA ALA C 65 35. .183 -1. .780 18. .364 1 , .00 39. .04 C

ATOM 2196 CB ALA C 65 36. .719 -1. .648 18. .516 1 , .00 33. .90 C

ATOM 2197 C ALA C 65 34. .510 -0. .821 19. .317 1 , .00 35. .16 c

ATOM 2198 O ALA C 65 34. .026 -1. .247 20. .357 1 , .00 33. .90 0

ATOM 2199 N LYS C 66 34. .466 0. .461 18. .928 1 , .00 39. .82 N

ATOM 2200 C LYS C 66 32. .459 1. .277 20. .199 1 , .00 47. .86 c

ATOM 2201 O LYS C 66 32. .122 1. .455 21. .360 1 , .00 47. .09 0

ATOM 2202 CA ALYS C 66 33. .911 1. .539 19. .757 1 , .00 42. .27 c

ATOM 2203 CB ALYS C 66 34. .012 2. .868 19. .002 1 , .00 43. .14 c

ATOM 2204 CG ALYS C 66 33. .833 4. .146 19. .831 1 , .00 43. .31 c

ATOM 2205 CD ALYS C 66 34. .353 5. .346 19. .026 1 , .00 45. .93 c

ATOM 2206 CE ALYS C 66 34. .414 6. .633 19. .820 1 , .00 44. .79 c

ATOM 2207 NZ ALYS C 66 33. .119 6. .876 20. .459 1 , .00 52. .79 N

ATOM 2208 CA BLYS C 66 33. .902 1. .532 19. .753 0 , .00 42. .47 c

ATOM 2209 CB BLYS C 66 34. .011 2. .870 19. .011 0 , .00 43. .32 c

ATOM 2210 CG BLYS C 66 33. .579 4. .098 19. .805 0 , .00 43. .74 c

ATOM 2211 CD BLYS C 66 34. .001 5. .381 19. .089 0 , .00 46. .14 c

ATOM 2212 CE BLYS C 66 33. .703 6. .622 19. .919 0 , .00 46. .58 c

ATOM 2213 NZ BLYS C 66 34. .420 7. .830 19. .412 0 , .00 45. .62 N

ATOM 2214 N TYR C 67 31. .604 0. .855 19. .270 1 , .00 41. .70 N

ATOM 2215 CA TYR c 67 30. .190 0. .604 19. .574 1 , .00 42. .10 c

ATOM 2216 CB TYR c 67 29. .282 1. .101 18. .413 1 , .00 40. .46 c

ATOM 2217 CG TYR c 67 29. .451 2. .577 18. .193 1 , .00 36. .76 c

ATOM 2218 CD1 TYR c 67 28. .753 3. .495 18. .958 1 , .00 37. .38 c

ATOM 2219 CE1 TYR c 67 28. .948 4. .848 18. .793 1 , .00 33. .25 c

ATOM 2220 CZ TYR c 67 29. .859 5. .280 17. .871 1 , .00 36. .05 c

ATOM 2221 OH TYR c 67 30. .087 6. .614 17. .698 1 , .00 52. .57 0

ATOM 2222 CE2 TYR c 67 30. .546 4. .399 17. .104 1 , .00 34. .03 c

ATOM 2223 CD2 TYR c 67 30. .349 3. .054 17. .270 1 , .00 35. .02 c

ATOM 2224 C TYR c 67 29. .953 -0. .876 19. .850 1 , .00 44. .78 c

ATOM 2225 O TYR c 67 28. .871 -1. .408 19. .599 1 , .00 39. .42 0

ATOM 2226 N GLY c 68 30. .979 -1. .552 20. .345 1 , .00 40. .15 N

ATOM 2227 CA GLY c 68 30. .867 -2. .983 20. .570 1 , .00 39. .35 c

ATOM 2228 C GLY c 68 29. .913 -3. .666 19. .601 1 , .00 43. .60 c

ATOM 2229 O GLY c 68 28. .904 -4. .214 19. .998 1 , .00 44. .26 0

ATOM 2230 N ILE c 69 30. .222 -3. .643 18. .313 1 , .00 46. .69 N

ATOM 2231 CA ILE c 69 29. .421 -4. .419 17. .379 1 , .00 45. .48 c

ATOM 2232 CB ILE c 69 29. .466 -3. .866 15. .954 1 , .00 44. .44 c

ATOM 2233 CGI ILE c 69 29. .130 -2. .383 15. .957 1 , .00 41. .83 c

ATOM 2234 CD1 ILE c 69 27. .781 -2. .109 16. .539 1 , .00 42. .63 c

ATOM 2235 CG2 ILE c 69 28. .476 -4. .608 15. .087 1 , .00 34. .26 c

ATOM 2236 C ILE c 69 29. .888 -5. .861 17. .379 1 , .00 43. .90 c

ATOM 2237 O ILE c 69 30. .832 -6. .223 16. .679 1 , .00 43. .22 0

ATOM 2238 N MET c 70 29. .208 -6. .688 18. .159 1 , .00 46. .82 N

ATOM 2239 CA MET c 70 29. .577 -8. .093 18. .267 1 , .00 46. .35 c

ATOM 2240 CB MET c 70 29. .263 -8. .610 19. .668 1 , .00 42. .63 c

ATOM 2241 CG MET c 70 29. .900 -7. .765 20. .758 1 , .00 54. .97 c

ATOM 2242 SD MET c 70 31. .665 -7. .406 20. .509 1 , .00 56. .66 s

ATOM 2243 CE MET c 70 32. .323 -9. .066 20. .516 1 , .00 57. .88 c

ATOM 2244 C MET c 70 28. .967 -9. .015 17. .218 1 , .00 50. .60 c

ATOM 2245 O MET c 70 29. .147 -10. .228 17. .289 1 , .00 54. .74 0

ATOM 2246 N SER c 71 28. .241 -8. .451 16. .257 1 , .00 58. .73 N

ATOM 2247 CA SER c 71 27. .664 -9. .254 15. .177 1 , .00 60. .33 c

ATOM 2248 CB SER c 71 26. .575 -10. .184 15. .702 1 , .00 59. .93 c

ATOM 2249 OG SER c 71 25. .440 -9. .431 16. .077 1 , .00 72. .31 0

ATOM 2250 C SER c 71 27. .094 -8. .417 14. .034 1 , .00 62. .52 c

ATOM 2251 O SER c 71 26. .563 -7. .327 14. .241 1 , .00 55. .88 0

ATOM 2252 N ILE c 72 27. .210 -8. .951 12. .824 1 , .00 55. .25 N

ATOM 2253 CA ILE c 72 26. .654 -8. .316 11. .641 1 , .00 54. .91 c

ATOM 2254 CB ILE c 72 27. .767 -7. .872 10. .664 1 , .00 49. .06 c

ATOM 2255 CGI ILE c 72 28. .837 -8. .958 10. .551 1 , .00 49. .61 c

ATOM 2256 CD1 ILE c 72 29. .856 -8. .744 9. .459 1 , .00 47. .30 c ATOM 2257 CG2 ILE C 72 28..408 -6.590 11.139 1.00 50.20 C

ATOM 2258 C ILE C 72 25. .647 -9.248 10.951 1.00 55.19 C

ATOM 2259 O ILE C 72 25. .835 -10.463 10.896 1.00 52.21 O

ATOM 2260 N PRO C 73 24. .559 -8.673 10.431 1.00 71.29 N

ATOM 2261 CA PRO C 73 24. .412 -7.221 10.465 1.00 64.21 C

ATOM 2262 CB PRO C 73 23. .318 -6.968 9.439 1.00 63.93 C

ATOM 2263 CG PRO C 73 22. .439 -8.194 9.563 1.00 68.11 C

ATOM 2264 CD PRO C 73 23. .340 -9.344 9.944 1.00 71.62 C

ATOM 2265 C PRO C 73 23. .915 -6.762 11.811 1.00 54.18 C

ATOM 2266 O PRO C 73 23. .480 -7.548 12.663 1.00 56.58 O

ATOM 2267 N THR C 74 23. .976 -5.455 11.974 1.00 33.44 N

ATOM 2268 CA THR C 74 23. .498 -4.782 13.157 1.00 41.33 C

ATOM 2269 CB THR C 74 24. .619 -4.446 14.221 1.00 45.94 C

ATOM 2270 OG1 THR C 74 25. .076 -5.618 14.911 1.00 36.18 O

ATOM 2271 CG2 THR C 74 24. .090 -3.437 15.253 1.00 41.31 C

ATOM 2272 C THR C 74 23. .170 -3.466 12.551 1.00 42.64 C

ATOM 2273 O THR C 74 24. .043 -2.808 11.989 1.00 42.88 O

ATOM 2274 N LEU c 75 21. .923 -3.060 12.650 1.00 60.43 N

ATOM 2275 CA LEU c 75 21. .596 -1.726 12.236 1.00 61.04 C

ATOM 2276 C LEU c 75 21. .813 -0.873 13.457 1.00 58.74 C

ATOM 2277 O LEU c 75 21. .518 -1.308 14.573 1.00 59.77 O

ATOM 2278 CB LEU c 75 20. .134 -1.672 11.833 1.00 72.15 C

ATOM 2279 CG LEU c 75 19. .867 -0.895 10.557 1.00 74.20 C

ATOM 2280 CD1 LEU c 75 20. .118 -1.816 9.365 1.00 64.99 C

ATOM 2281 CD2 LEU c 75 18. .437 -0.371 10.597 1.00 75.12 C

ATOM 2282 N LEU c 76 22. .324 0.336 13.268 1.00 54.05 N

ATOM 2283 CA LEU c 76 22. .394 1.280 14.385 1.00 62.87 C

ATOM 2284 CB LEU c 76 23. .845 1.610 14.763 1.00 66.29 C

ATOM 2285 CG LEU c 76 24. .281 1.300 16.194 1.00 60.93 C

ATOM 2286 CD1 LEU c 76 24. .068 -0.186 16.467 1.00 53.52 C

ATOM 2287 CD2 LEU c 76 25. .744 1.741 16.466 1.00 46.80 C

ATOM 2288 C LEU c 76 21. .631 2.562 14.075 1.00 69.02 C

ATOM 2289 O LEU c 76 21. .692 3.093 12.958 1.00 61.39 O

ATOM 2290 N PHE c 77 20. .913 3.057 15.079 1.00 66.79 N

ATOM 2291 CA PHE c 77 20. .167 4.297 14.929 1.00 57.13 C

ATOM 2292 CB PHE c 77 18. .717 4.110 15.350 1.00 55.21 C

ATOM 2293 CG PHE c 77 17. .980 3.113 14.529 1.00 51.17 C

ATOM 2294 CD2 PHE c 77 16. .923 3.511 13.723 1.00 48.29 C

ATOM 2295 CE2 PHE c 77 16. .235 2.595 12.966 1.00 55.06 C

ATOM 2296 CZ PHE c 77 16. .596 1.248 13.006 1.00 63.34 C

ATOM 2297 CE1 PHE c 77 17. .645 0.847 13.814 1.00 64.55 C

ATOM 2298 CD1 PHE c 77 18. .331 1.780 14.569 1.00 52.63 C

ATOM 2299 C PHE c 77 20. .761 5.391 15.770 1.00 53.08 C

ATOM 2300 O PHE c 77 20. .617 5.386 16.985 1.00 55.40 O

ATOM 2301 N PHE c 78 21. .424 6.335 15.122 1.00 54.56 N

ATOM 2302 CA PHE c 78 21. .810 7.552 15.810 1.00 60.77 C

ATOM 2303 CB PHE c 78 23. .136 8.093 15.266 1.00 63.12 C

ATOM 2304 CG PHE c 78 24. .307 7.182 15.498 1.00 57.80 C

ATOM 2305 CD2 PHE c 78 25. .465 7.668 16.081 1.00 49.21 C

ATOM 2306 CE2 PHE c 78 26. .563 6.837 16.285 1.00 49.15 C

ATOM 2307 CZ PHE c 78 26. .492 5.498 15.906 1.00 55.56 C

ATOM 2308 CE1 PHE c 78 25. .330 5.005 15.317 1.00 56.96 C

ATOM 2309 CD1 PHE c 78 24. .253 5.844 15.116 1.00 53.92 C

ATOM 2310 C PHE c 78 20. .708 8.596 15.638 1.00 71.43 C

ATOM 2311 O PHE c 78 20. .014 8.628 14.611 1.00 61.31 O

ATOM 2312 N LYS c 79 20. .545 9.433 16.659 1.00 96.54 N

ATOM 2313 CA LYS c 79 19. .738 10.642 16.563 1.00102.07 C

ATOM 2314 CB LYS c 79 18. .312 10.412 17.067 1.00 89.55 C

ATOM 2315 CG LYS c 79 17. .298 11.471 16.613 1.00 99.43 C

ATOM 2316 CD LYS c 79 15. .880 10.887 16.609 1.00102.79 C

ATOM 2317 CE LYS c 79 14. .818 11.883 16.152 1.00 96.69 C

ATOM 2318 NZ LYS c 79 13. .456 11.267 16.207 1.00 87.00 N

ATOM 2319 C LYS c 79 20. .435 11.673 17.420 1.00105.44 C ATOM 2320 O LYS C 79 20..819 11..380 18..552 1 ,.00109..55 O

ATOM 2321 N ASN c 80 20. .619 12. .868 16. .877 1 , .00 80. .61 N

ATOM 2322 CA ASN c 80 21. .246 13. .951 17. .624 1 , .00 86. .90 C

ATOM 2323 CB ASN c 80 20. .345 14. .403 18. .783 1 , .00 88. .32 C

ATOM 2324 CG ASN c 80 18. .944 14. .779 18. .320 1 , .00 83. .69 c

ATOM 2325 OD1 ASN c 80 18. .758 15. .267 17. .204 1 , .00 85. .52 0

ATOM 2326 ND2 ASN c 80 17. .951 14. .548 19. .175 1 , .00 79. .77 N

ATOM 2327 C ASN c 80 22. .652 13. .617 18. .122 1 , .00 82. .58 c

ATOM 2328 O ASN c 80 23. .239 14. .375 18. .890 1 , .00 83. .49 0

ATOM 2329 N GLY c 81 23. .192 12. .488 17. .671 1 , .00 92. .00 N

ATOM 2330 CA GLY c 81 24. .546 12. .093 18. .025 1 , .00 92. .08 c

ATOM 2331 C GLY c 81 24. .603 11. .146 19. .212 1 , .00 80. .18 c

ATOM 2332 O GLY c 81 25. .162 11. .482 20. .249 1 , .00 80. .20 0

ATOM 2333 N LYS c 82 24. .032 9. .959 19. .041 1 , .00 67. .40 N

ATOM 2334 CA LYS c 82 23. .853 9. .004 20. .120 1 , .00 67. .23 c

ATOM 2335 CB LYS c 82 23. .504 9. .732 21. .413 1 , .00 79. .38 c

ATOM 2336 CG LYS c 82 22. .227 10. .565 21. .322 1 , .00 85. .22 c

ATOM 2337 CD LYS c 82 22. .245 11. .686 22. .346 1 , .00 81. .09 c

ATOM 2338 CE LYS c 82 20. .935 11. .772 23. .092 1 , .00 77. .88 c

ATOM 2339 NZ LYS c 82 21. .084 12. .697 24. .249 1 , .00 79. .59 N

ATOM 2340 C LYS c 82 22. .741 8. .015 19. .779 1 , .00 66. .98 c

ATOM 2341 O LYS c 82 21. .649 8. .398 19. .351 1 , .00 68. .27 0

ATOM 2342 N VAL c 83 23. .020 6. .738 19. .998 1 , .00 73. .07 N

ATOM 2343 CA VAL c 83 22. .073 5. .669 19. .695 1 , .00 67. .65 c

ATOM 2344 CB VAL c 83 22. .686 4. .305 20. .055 1 , .00 67. .41 c

ATOM 2345 CGI VAL c 83 21. .844 3. .159 19. .497 1 , .00 70. .44 c

ATOM 2346 CG2 VAL c 83 24. .108 4. .235 19. .506 1 , .00 57. .20 c

ATOM 2347 C VAL c 83 20. .706 5. .841 20. .372 1 , .00 67. .71 c

ATOM 2348 O VAL c 83 20. .551 6. .646 21. .289 1 , .00 73. .66 0

ATOM 2349 N VAL c 84 19. .714 5. .100 19. .885 1 , .00 64. .50 N

ATOM 2350 CA VAL c 84 18. .371 5. .087 20. .469 1 , .00 65. .66 c

ATOM 2351 CB VAL c 84 17. .510 6. .236 19. .941 1 , .00 64. .78 c

ATOM 2352 CGI VAL c 84 17. .964 7. .557 20. .542 1 , .00 64. .18 c

ATOM 2353 CG2 VAL c 84 17. .568 6. .272 18. .426 1 , .00 63. .80 c

ATOM 2354 C VAL c 84 17. .670 3. .779 20. .126 1 , .00 66. .30 c

ATOM 2355 O VAL c 84 16. .612 3. .460 20. .674 1 , .00 60. .94 0

ATOM 2356 N ASP c 85 18. .262 3. .049 19. .183 1 , .00 60. .89 N

ATOM 2357 CA ASP c 85 17. .813 1. .704 18. .842 1 , .00 56. .32 c

ATOM 2358 CB ASP c 85 16. .472 1. .724 18. .112 1 , .00 58. .62 c

ATOM 2359 CG ASP c 85 15. .565 0. .565 18. .522 1 , .00 63. .73 c

ATOM 2360 OD1 ASP c 85 15. .840 -0. .583 18. .105 1 , .00 64. .51 0

ATOM 2361 OD2 ASP c 85 14. .574 0. .797 19. .251 1 , .00 62. .49 0

ATOM 2362 C ASP c 85 18. .864 0. .947 18. .039 1 , .00 50. .54 c

ATOM 2363 O ASP c 85 19. .985 1. .423 17. .855 1 , .00 55. .36 0

ATOM 2364 N GLN c 86 18. .480 -0. .214 17. .533 1 , .00 63. .88 N

ATOM 2365 CA GLN c 86 19. .462 -1. .243 17. .284 1 , .00 71. .44 c

ATOM 2366 CB GLN c 86 20. .174 -1. .500 18. .612 1 , .00 58. .82 c

ATOM 2367 CG GLN c 86 21. .501 -2. .210 18. .562 1 , .00 67. .38 c

ATOM 2368 CD GLN c 86 22. .218 -2. .091 19. .898 1 , .00 73. .25 c

ATOM 2369 OE1 GLN c 86 21. .575 -1. .845 20. .926 1 , .00 66. .33 0

ATOM 2370 NE2 GLN c 86 23. .550 -2. .238 19. .890 1 , .00 61. .66 N

ATOM 2371 C GLN c 86 18. .804 -2. .533 16. .809 1 , .00 71. .58 c

ATOM 2372 O GLN c 86 18. .269 -3. .304 17. .606 1 , .00 79. .93 0

ATOM 2373 N LEU c 87 18. .844 -2. .792 15. .518 1 , .00 55. .92 N

ATOM 2374 CA LEU c 87 18. .318 -4. .069 15. .058 1 , .00 67. .42 c

ATOM 2375 CB LEU c 87 17. .546 -3. .934 13. .743 1 , .00 66. .95 c

ATOM 2376 CG LEU c 87 16. .131 -3. .434 14. .008 1 , .00 75. .43 c

ATOM 2377 CD1 LEU c 87 15. .605 -4. .039 15. .321 1 , .00 69. .09 c

ATOM 2378 CD2 LEU c 87 16. .120 -1. .918 14. .070 1 , .00 72. .19 c

ATOM 2379 C LEU c 87 19. .420 -5. .099 14. .940 1 , .00 64. .87 c

ATOM 2380 O LEU c 87 19. .917 -5. .368 13. .849 1 , .00 66. .46 0

ATOM 2381 N VAL c 88 19. .800 -5. .679 16. .068 1 , .00 58. .03 N

ATOM 2382 CA VAL c 88 20. .835 -6. .701 16. .055 1 , .00 62. .36 c ATOM 2383 CB VAL C 88 21..331 -7..009 17..472 1 ,.00 63..43 C

ATOM 2384 CGI VAL C 88 22. .245 -8. .222 17. .458 1 , .00 65. .75 C

ATOM 2385 CG2 VAL C 88 22. .038 -5. .789 18. .051 1 , .00 54. .87 C

ATOM 2386 C VAL C 88 20. .364 -7. .984 15. .366 1 , .00 66. .90 C

ATOM 2387 O VAL C 88 19. .698 -8. .830 15. .973 1 , .00 68. .64 O

ATOM 2388 N GLY C 89 20. .724 -8. .128 14. .097 1 , .00 56. .20 N

ATOM 2389 CA GLY C 89 20. .304 -9. .274 13. .315 1 , .00 59. .05 C

ATOM 2390 C GLY C 89 19. .596 -8. .846 12. .044 1 , .00 65. .04 C

ATOM 2391 O GLY C 89 18. .898 -7. .830 12. .038 1 , .00 68. .50 0

ATOM 2392 N ALA C 90 19. .781 -9. .610 10. .967 1 , .00 89. .45 N

ATOM 2393 CA ALA C 90 19. .118 -9. .317 9. .698 1 , .00 94. .03 c

ATOM 2394 CB ALA C 90 19. .652 -10. .191 8. .581 1 , .00 87. .47 c

ATOM 2395 C ALA C 90 17. .638 -9. .532 9. .860 1 , .00 93. .83 c

ATOM 2396 O ALA C 90 17. .206 -10. .385 10. .640 1 , .00 90. .85 0

ATOM 2397 N ARG C 91 16. .864 -8. .754 9. .116 1 , .00 91. .05 N

ATOM 2398 CA ARG C 91 15. .414 -8. .786 9. .231 1 , .00 97. .66 c

ATOM 2399 CB ARG C 91 14. .958 -7. .824 10. .333 1 , .00 86. .56 c

ATOM 2400 CG ARG C 91 15. .382 -8. .299 11. .705 1 , .00 81. .24 c

ATOM 2401 CD ARG C 91 15. .044 -7. .317 12. .809 1 , .00 87. .65 c

ATOM 2402 NE ARG C 91 14. .751 -8. .024 14. .058 1 , .00 93. .55 N

ATOM 2403 CZ ARG C 91 15. .608 -8. .811 14. .708 1 , .00 87. .81 c

ATOM 2404 NH1 ARG C 91 16. .830 -9. .008 14. .240 1 , .00 81. .53 N

ATOM 2405 NH2 ARG C 91 15. .241 -9. .405 15. .833 1 , .00 85. .17 N

ATOM 2406 C ARG c 91 14. .755 -8. .447 7. .902 1 , .00 98. .31 C

ATOM 2407 O ARG c 91 15. .388 -7. .858 7. .020 1 , .00 98. .13 0

ATOM 2408 N PRO c 92 13. .485 -8. .844 7. .749 1 , .00 77. .00 N

ATOM 2409 CA PRO c 92 12. .648 -8. .524 6. .580 1 , .00 77. .89 C

ATOM 2410 CB PRO c 92 11. .404 -9. .396 6. .784 1 , .00 83. .19 c

ATOM 2411 CG PRO c 92 11. .399 -9. .744 8. .261 1 , .00 79. .58 c

ATOM 2412 CD PRO c 92 12. .830 -9. .774 8. .688 1 , .00 72. .09 c

ATOM 2413 C PRO c 92 12. .269 -7. .035 6. .475 1 , .00 78. .19 c

ATOM 2414 O PRO c 92 12. .329 -6. .304 7. .473 1 , .00 75. .10 0

ATOM 2415 N LYS c 93 11. .859 -6. .604 5. .279 1 , .00 84. .79 N

ATOM 2416 CA LYS c 93 11. .629 -5. .186 4. .993 1 , .00 79. .09 c

ATOM 2417 CB LYS c 93 11. .009 -4. .999 3. .612 1 , .00 76. .22 c

ATOM 2418 CG LYS c 93 11. .088 -3. .551 3. .138 1 , .00 89. .03 c

ATOM 2419 CD LYS c 93 10. .760 -3. .395 1. .660 1 , .00 94. .28 c

ATOM 2420 CE LYS c 93 9. .254 -3. .314 1. .426 1 , .00 98. .15 c

ATOM 2421 NZ LYS c 93 8. .894 -3. .173 -0. .027 1 , .00 85. .12 N

ATOM 2422 C LYS c 93 10. .814 -4. .389 6. .027 1 , .00 83. .56 c

ATOM 2423 O LYS c 93 11. .316 -3. .420 6. .599 1 , .00 81. .20 0

ATOM 2424 N GLU c 94 9. .561 -4. .772 6. .254 1 , .00112. .68 N

ATOM 2425 CA GLU c 94 8. .685 -3. .975 7. .118 1 , .00117. .30 c

ATOM 2426 CB GLU c 94 7. .211 -4. .308 6. .879 1 , .00115. .74 c

ATOM 2427 CG GLU c 94 6. .864 -5. .755 7. .163 1 , .00123. .33 c

ATOM 2428 CD GLU c 94 7. .563 -6. .714 6. .214 1 , .00125. .67 c

ATOM 2429 OE1 GLU c 94 7. .525 -6. .465 4. .989 1 , .00115. .14 0

ATOM 2430 OE2 GLU c 94 8. .150 -7. .709 6. .693 1 , .00125. .63 0

ATOM 2431 C GLU c 94 9. .025 -4. .088 8. .604 1 , .00111. .21 c

ATOM 2432 O GLU c 94 8. .791 -3. .145 9. .365 1 , .00102. .74 0

ATOM 2433 N ALA c 95 9. .555 -5. .240 9. .015 1 , .00121. .83 N

ATOM 2434 CA ALA c 95 10. .100 -5. .383 10. .362 1 , .00121. .78 c

ATOM 2435 CB ALA c 95 10. .894 -6. .679 10. .487 1 , .00110. .98 c

ATOM 2436 C ALA c 95 11. .006 -4. .186 10. .552 1 , .00112. .84 c

ATOM 2437 O ALA c 95 10. .872 -3. .406 11. .500 1 , .00103. .60 0

ATOM 2438 N LEU c 96 11. .915 -4. .040 9. .597 1 , .00 70. .09 N

ATOM 2439 CA LEU c 96 12. .801 -2. .901 9. .538 1 , .00 76. .22 c

ATOM 2440 CB LEU c 96 13. .767 -3. .062 8. .368 1 , .00 80. .81 c

ATOM 2441 CG LEU c 96 14. .833 -1. .971 8. .271 1 , .00 87. .57 c

ATOM 2442 CD1 LEU c 96 15. .520 -1. .812 9. .617 1 , .00 87. .54 c

ATOM 2443 CD2 LEU c 96 15. .842 -2. .295 7. .181 1 , .00 90. .71 c

ATOM 2444 C LEU c 96 12. .019 -1. .602 9. .390 1 , .00 79. .52 c

ATOM 2445 O LEU c 96 12. .221 -0. .658 10. .161 1 , .00 80. .63 0 ATOM 2446 N LYS C 97 11..128 -1..563 8..400 1 ,.00 75..39 N

ATOM 2447 CA LYS C 97 10. .359 -0. .365 8. .095 1 , .00 72. .02 C

ATOM 2448 CB LYS C 97 9. .346 -0. .643 6. .969 1 , .00 84. .24 C

ATOM 2449 CG LYS C 97 8. .993 0. .578 6. .085 1 , .00 89. .21 c

ATOM 2450 CD LYS C 97 7. .952 0. .259 4. .996 1 , .00 84. .81 c

ATOM 2451 CE LYS C 97 8. .520 -0. .643 3. .898 1 , .00 85. .94 c

ATOM 2452 NZ LYS C 97 7. .553 -0. .880 2. .786 1 , .00 79. .83 N

ATOM 2453 C LYS C 97 9. .665 0. .165 9. .352 1 , .00 70. .03 c

ATOM 2454 O LYS C 97 9. .637 1. .371 9. .592 1 , .00 72. .61 0

ATOM 2455 N GLU C 98 9. .135 -0. .738 10. .168 1 , .00 65. .07 N

ATOM 2456 CA GLU C 98 8. .432 -0. .353 11. .391 1 , .00 69. .66 c

ATOM 2457 CB GLU C 98 7. .873 -1. .586 12. .103 1 , .00 77. .27 c

ATOM 2458 CG GLU C 98 6. .680 -2. .248 11. .435 1 , .00 68. .98 c

ATOM 2459 CD GLU C 98 6. .339 -3. .583 12. .081 1 , .00 73. .97 c

ATOM 2460 OE1 GLU C 98 5. .920 -4. .511 11. .348 1 , .00 77. .99 0

ATOM 2461 OE2 GLU C 98 6. .493 -3. .704 13. .322 1 , .00 67. .60 0

ATOM 2462 C GLU c 98 9. .264 0. .459 12. .395 1 , .00 78. .44 c

ATOM 2463 O GLU c 98 8. .808 1. .506 12. .868 1 , .00 74. .73 0

ATOM 2464 N ARG c 99 10. .456 -0. .020 12. .755 1 , .00 80. .01 N

ATOM 2465 CA ARG c 99 11. .254 0. .717 13. .736 1 , .00 77. .38 c

ATOM 2466 CB ARG c 99 12. .474 -0. .082 14. .218 1 , .00 76. .38 c

ATOM 2467 CG ARG c 99 12. .195 -0. .839 15. .525 1 , .00 78. .22 c

ATOM 2468 CD ARG c 99 13. .385 -1. .623 16. .087 1 , .00 81. .36 c

ATOM 2469 NE ARG c 99 12. .983 -2. .400 17. .267 1 , .00 81. .78 N

ATOM 2470 CZ ARG c 99 13. .817 -3. .048 18. .082 1 , .00 90. .20 c

ATOM 2471 NH1 ARG c 99 15. .127 -3. .023 17. .858 1 , .00 85. .19 N

ATOM 2472 NH2 ARG c 99 13. .339 -3. .720 19. .132 1 , .00 81. .47 N

ATOM 2473 C ARG c 99 11. .643 2. .076 13. .178 1 , .00 78. .21 C

ATOM 2474 O ARG c 99 11. .768 3. .049 13. .913 1 , .00 77. .49 0

ATOM 2475 N ILE c 100 11. .789 2. .145 11. .861 1 , .00 74. .35 N

ATOM 2476 CA ILE c 100 12. .104 3. .405 11. .207 1 , .00 81. .30 C

ATOM 2477 CB ILE c 100 12. .514 3. .205 9. .740 1 , .00 82. .84 c

ATOM 2478 CGI ILE c 100 13. .518 2. .060 9. .630 1 , .00 72. .62 c

ATOM 2479 CD1 ILE c 100 13. .975 1. .791 8. .229 1 , .00 87. .35 c

ATOM 2480 CG2 ILE c 100 13. .092 4. .496 9. .163 1 , .00 79. .94 c

ATOM 2481 C ILE c 100 10. .915 4. .345 11. .270 1 , .00 73. .62 c

ATOM 2482 O ILE c 100 11. .071 5. .510 11. .617 1 , .00 80. .26 0

ATOM 2483 N LYS c 101 9. .731 3. .844 10. .940 1 , .00 64. .40 N

ATOM 2484 CA LYS c 101 8. .511 4. .653 11. .057 1 , .00 75. .53 c

ATOM 2485 CB LYS c 101 7. .246 3. .831 10. .740 1 , .00 67. .79 c

ATOM 2486 CG LYS c 101 7. .078 3. .459 9. .272 1 , .00 67. .50 c

ATOM 2487 CD LYS c 101 5. .949 2. .469 9. .086 1 , .00 58. .98 c

ATOM 2488 CE LYS c 101 4. .622 3. .046 9. .589 1 , .00 66. .40 c

ATOM 2489 NZ LYS c 101 3. .469 2. .100 9. .390 1 , .00 52. .86 N

ATOM 2490 C LYS c 101 8. .404 5. .273 12. .443 1 , .00 72. .34 c

ATOM 2491 O LYS c 101 7. .765 6. .308 12. .630 1 , .00 60. .93 0

ATOM 2492 N LYS c 102 9. .048 4. .624 13. .407 1 , .00 72. .88 N

ATOM 2493 CA LYS c 102 9. .014 5. .059 14. .792 1 , .00 68. .92 c

ATOM 2494 CB LYS c 102 9. .533 3. .933 15. .698 1 , .00 71. .58 c

ATOM 2495 CG LYS c 102 9. .698 4. .294 17. .163 1 , .00 70. .95 c

ATOM 2496 CD LYS c 102 8. .504 5. .081 17. .685 1 , .00 81. .71 c

ATOM 2497 C LYS c 102 9. .819 6. .348 14. .973 1 , .00 72. .63 c

ATOM 2498 O LYS c 102 9. .405 7. .255 15. .699 1 , .00 71. .22 0

ATOM 2499 N TYR c 103 10. .950 6. .440 14. .277 1 , .00 79. .31 N

ATOM 2500 CA TYR c 103 11. .862 7. .568 14. .437 1 , .00 77. .29 c

ATOM 2501 CB TYR c 103 13. .303 7. .067 14. .395 1 , .00 70. .64 c

ATOM 2502 CG TYR c 103 13. .513 5. .986 15. .424 1 , .00 65. .24 c

ATOM 2503 CD1 TYR c 103 13. .483 6. .281 16. .776 1 , .00 67. .49 c

ATOM 2504 CE1 TYR c 103 13. .642 5. .293 17. .726 1 , .00 68. .13 c

ATOM 2505 CZ TYR c 103 13. .827 3. .984 17. .327 1 , .00 68. .01 c

ATOM 2506 OH TYR c 103 13. .983 2. .996 18. .273 1 , .00 63. .25 0

ATOM 2507 CE2 TYR c 103 13. .856 3. .666 15. .988 1 , .00 62. .76 c

ATOM 2508 CD2 TYR c 103 13. .688 4. .667 15. .048 1 , .00 66. .94 c ATOM 2509 C TYR C 103 11.610 8.598 13.371 1.00 75.21 C

ATOM 2510 O TYR C 103 12.472 9.416 13.069 1.00 80.48 O

ATOM 2511 N LEU C 104 10.390 8.570 12.848 1.00122.70 N

ATOM 2512 CA LEU C 104 10.020 9.265 11.621 1.00125.91 C

ATOM 2513 CB LEU C 104 8.844 8.527 10.978 1.00123.71 C

ATOM 2514 CG LEU C 104 8.698 8.470 9.460 1.00129.05 c

ATOM 2515 CD1 LEU C 104 9.878 7.732 8.854 1.00128.54 c

ATOM 2516 CD2 LEU C 104 7.382 7.790 9.089 1.00128.89 c

ATOM 2517 C LEU C 104 9.643 10.727 11.856 1.00135.85 c

ATOM 2518 O LEU C 104 10.391 11.644 11.513 1.00130.81 0

ATOM 2519 OXT LEU C 104 8.575 11.034 12.391 1.00137.62 0

TER

HETATM 2520 O HOH 1 25.811 2.360 24.963 1.00 45.86 O HETATM 2521 O HOH 2 7.173 -5.978 14.925 1.00 38.83 O HETATM 2522 O HOH 3 9.962 0.261 27.317 1.00 39.71 O HETATM 2523 O HOH 4 24.011 -15.969 22.835 1.00 47.78 O HETATM 2524 O HOH 5 2.695 0.019 35.519 1.00 61.10 O TER

END

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CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. An isolated polypeptide having a sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO: 1-7, and a variant of any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7 having at least about 75% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

2. An isolated polypeptide comprising at least about 10, at least about 20, at least about 30, at least about 50 at least about 60, at least about 70, at least about 80, at least about 90 or at least about 100 consecutive amino acids from any of SEQ ID NOs: 1-7.

3. The isolated polypeptide of claim 1 or 2, wherein the sequence does not have 100% identity with any extant polypeptide.

4. The isolated polypeptide of claim 1, wherein the variant has at least about 85.5%, at least about 90.5%>, at least about 92.5%, at least about 95%, about 96%>, about 96.5%>, about 97%, about 97.5%, about 98%, about 98.5%, about 99%, about 99.5% or about 99.9% amino acid sequence identity to any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

5. The isolated polypeptide of claim 2, wherein the polypeptide has at least about 85.5%, at least about 90.5%, at least about 92.5%, at least about 95%, about 96%, about 96.5%, about 97%, about 97.5%, about 98%, about 98.5%, about 99%, about 99.5% or about 99.9% amino acid sequence identity to any one of SEQ ID NO: 1-7.

6. The isolated polypeptide of any one of claims 1-2, wherein the polypeptide has enzymatic activity.

7. The isolated polypeptide of any one of claims 1-2, wherein the polypeptide has thioredoxin activity.

8. The isolated polypeptide of any one of claims 1-2, wherein the polypeptide is labeled.

9. The isolated polypeptide of claim 8, wherein the label is colorimetric, radioactive, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent.

10. The isolated polypeptide of any one of claims 1-2, wherein the polypeptide is chemically modified.

11. The isolated polypeptide of claim 10, wherein the chemical modification comprises covalent modification of an amino acid.

12. The isolated polypeptide of claim 11, wherein the covalent modification comprises methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, citrullination, or ADP ribosylation.

13. An isolated antibody that specifically binds to a polypeptide of any of SEQ ID NO: 1- 7.

14. An isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleic acid sequence which encodes the polypeptide of any of claims 1-2.

15. The sequence of claim 14, wherein the sequence is optimized for expression in a mammalian expression system.

16. The sequence of claim 14, wherein the sequence is optimized for expression in a bacterial expression system.

17. The sequence of claim 16, wherein the baterial expression system is E. coli.

18. The isolated nucleic acid of claim 14, wherein the isolated nucleic acid is operably linked to one or more control sequences that direct the production of the polypeptide in a suitable expression host.

19. A recombinant expression vector comprising the nucleic acid of claim 18.

20. A recombinant host cell comprising the nucleic acid of claim 14.

21. A method for producing the polypeptide of any one of claims 1-2, the method comprising cultivating a host cell comprising a nucleic acid construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding the polypeptide under conditions suitable for production of the polypeptide; and recovering the polypeptide.

22. A polypeptide produced by the method of claim 21.

23. A method generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide having greater activity or stability at low pH than an extant polypeptide, the method comprising (a) aligning a plurality of sequences corresponding to homologues of the extant polypeptide,

(b) generating a phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide,

(c) using bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree,

(d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence,

(e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position and wherein a polypeptide comprising the reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence has increased activity or stability at low pH relative to the extant polypeptide.

24. A method generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide having greater activity or stability at high temperature than an extant polypeptide, the method comprising

(a) aligning a plurality of sequences corresponding to homologues of the extant polypeptide,

(b) generating a phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide,

(c) using bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree,

(d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence,

(e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position and wherein a polypeptide comprising the reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence has increased activity or stability at high temperature relative to the extant polypeptide.

25. A method generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide having a higher melting temperature than an extant polypeptide, the method comprising

(a) aligning a plurality of sequences corresponding to homologues of the extant polypeptide,

(b) generating a phylogenetic tree of the plurality of sequences corresponding homologues of the extant polypeptide,

(c) using bayesian statistical analysis to generate inferred sequences of one or more ancestral genes encoding a version of the polypeptide that was present in a common ancestor of at least two or more organisms in the phylogenetic tree,

(d) calculating posterior probabilities for all 20 amino acids in each inferred sequence,

(e) generating a reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence by assigning to each position in the inferred sequence the amino acid residue having the highest posterior probability for that position and wherein a polypeptide comprising the reconstructed ancestral polypeptide sequence has a higher melting temperature than an extant polypeptide.

26. The method of any one of claims 23, 24 or 25, wherein the extant polypeptide is a thioredoxin polypeptide.

27. A polypeptide generated according to the method of any of claims 23, 24 or 25.

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