Uniquely Tagged Rearranged Adaptive Immune Receptor Genes In A Complex Gene Set

[0001] Uniquely Tagged Rearranged Adaptive Immune Receptor Genes In A Complex Gene Set

SEQUENCE LISTING

[0002] The instant application contains a Sequence Listing which has been submitted via EFS-Web and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Said ASCII copy, created on April 12, 2013, is named 23496PCT_CRF_sequencelisting.txt, and is 4,382,702 bytes in size. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Technical Field

[0003] The present disclosure relates generally to quantitative high-throughput sequencing of adaptive immune receptor encoding DNA or RNA (e.g., DNA or RNA encoding T cell receptors and immunoglobulins) in multiplexed nucleic acid amplification reactions. In particular, the compositions and methods described herein permit quantitative sequencing of DNA sequences encoding both chains of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer in a single cell. Also disclosed herein are embodiments that overcome undesirable distortions in the quantification of adaptive immune receptor encoding sequences that can result from biased over-utilization and/or under-utilization of specific oligonucleotide primers in multiplexed DNA amplification.

Description of the Related Art

[0004] The adaptive immune system employs several strategies to generate a repertoire of T- and B-cell antigen receptors, i.e., adaptive immune receptors, with sufficient diversity to recognize the universe of potential pathogens. The ability of T cells to recognize the universe of antigens associated with various cancers or infectious organisms is conferred by its T cell antigen receptor (TCR), which is a heterodimer of an a (alpha) chain from the TCRA locus and a β (beta) chain from the TCRB locus, or a heterodimer of a γ (gamma) chain from the TCRG locus and a δ (delta) chain from the TCRD locus. The proteins which make up these chains are encoded by DNA, which in lymphoid cells employs a unique rearrangement mechanism for generating the tremendous diversity of the TCR. This multi-subunit immune recognition receptor associates with the CD3 complex and binds to peptides presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II proteins on the surface of antigen- presenting cells (APCs). Binding of TCR to the antigenic peptide on the APC is the central event in T cell activation, which occurs at an immunological synapse at the point of contact between the T cell and the APC. [0005] Each TCR peptide contains variable complementarity determining regions (CDRs), as well as framework regions (FRs) and a constant region. The sequence diversity of αβ T cells is largely determined by the amino acid sequence of the third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) loops of the a and β chain variable domains, which diversity is a result of recombination between variable (V ), diversity (Dp), and joining (Jp) gene segments in the β chain locus, and between analogous Va and Ja gene segments in the a chain locus, respectively. The existence of multiple such gene segments in the TCR a and β chain loci allows for a large number of distinct CDR3 sequences to be encoded. CDR3 sequence diversity is further increased by independent addition and deletion of nucleotides at the Vp- Dp, Dp-Jp, and Va-Ja junctions during the process of TCR gene rearrangement. In this respect, immunocompetence is reflected in the diversity of TCRs.

[0006] The γδ TCR is distinctive from the αβ TCR in that it encodes a receptor that interacts closely with the innate immune system, and recognizes antigen in a non-HLA-dependent manner. TCRy5 is expressed early in development, and has specialized anatomical distribution, unique pathogen and small-molecule specificities, and a broad spectrum of innate and adaptive cellular interactions. A biased pattern of TCRy V and J segment expression is established early in ontogeny. Consequently, the diverse TCRy repertoire in adult tissues is the result of extensive peripheral expansion following stimulation by environmental exposure to pathogens and toxic molecules.

[0007] Immunoglobulins (Igs or IG) expressed by B cells, also referred to herein as B cell receptors (BCR), are proteins consisting of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains (H chains) from the IGH locus and two light chains (L chains) from either the IGK (kappa) or the IGL (lambda) locus, forming an H2L2 structure. Both H and L chains contain

complementarity determining regions (CDR) involved in antigen recognition, and a constant domain. The H chains of IGs are initially expressed as membrane-bound isoforms using either the IgM or IgD constant region isoform, but after antigen recognition the H chain constant region can class switch to several additional isotypes, including IgG, IgE and IgA. As with TCR, the diversity of naive Igs within an individual is mainly determined by the hypervariable complementarity determining regions (CDR). Similar to the TCR, the CDR3 domain of IGH chains is created by the combinatorial joining of the VH, DR, and ½ gene segments. Hypervariable domain sequence diversity is further increased by independent addition and deletion of nucleotides at the VH-DH, DH-JH, and VH-JH junctions during the process of Ig gene rearrangement. Distinct from TCR, Ig sequence diversity is further augmented by somatic hypermutation (SHM) throughout the rearranged IG gene after a naive B cell initially recognizes an antigen. The process of SHM is not restricted to CDR3, and therefore can introduce changes in the germline sequence in framework regions, CDR1 and CDR2, as well as in the somatically rearranged CDR3.

[0008] As the adaptive immune system functions in part by clonal expansion of cells expressing unique TCRs or BCRs, accurately measuring the changes in total abundance of each clone is important to understanding the dynamics of an adaptive immune response. For instance, a healthy human has a few million unique TCRP chains, each carried in hundreds to thousands of clonal T-cells out of the roughly trillion T cells in a healthy individual.

Utilizing advances in high-throughput sequencing, a new field of molecular immunology has recently emerged to profile the vast TCR and BCR repertoires. Compositions and methods for the sequencing of rearranged adaptive immune receptor gene sequences and for adaptive immune receptor clonotype determination are described, for example, in Robins et al., 2009 Blood 114, 4099; Robins et al, 2010 Sci. Translat. Med. 2 ΊΧΆ64; Robins et al, 2011 J. Immunol. Meth. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2011.09. 001; Sherwood et al. 2011 Sci. Translat. Med. 3:90ra61; U.S.A.N. 13/217,126 (US Pub. No. 2012/0058902), U.S.A.N. 12/794,507 (US Pub. No. 2010/0330571), WO/2010/151416, WO/2011/106738 (PCT/US2011/026373),

WO2012/027503 (PCT/US2011/049012), U.S.A.N. 61/550,311, and U.S.A.N. 61/569,118, all herein incorporated by reference.

[0009] To date, several different strategies have been employed to sequence nucleic acids encoding adaptive immune receptors quantitatively at high throughput, and these strategies may be distinguished, for example, by the approach that is used to amplify the CDR3- encoding regions, and by the choice of sequencing genomic DNA (gDNA) or messenger RNA (mRNA).

[0010] Sequencing mRNA is a potentially easier method than sequencing gDNA, because mRNA splicing events remove the intron between J and C segments. This allows for the amplification of adaptive immune receptors (e.g., TCRs or Igs) having different V regions and J regions using a common 3 ' polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification primer in the C region. For each TCRP, for example, the thirteen J segments are all less than 60 base pairs (bp) long. Therefore, splicing events bring identical polynucleotide sequences encoding TCRP constant regions (regardless of which V and J sequences are used) to within less than 100 bp of the rearranged VDJ junction. The spliced mRNA can then be reverse transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA) using poly-dT primers complementary to the poly-A tail of the mRNA, random small primers (usually hexamers or nonamers) or C-segment-specific oligonucleotides. This reverse transcription should produce an unbiased library of TCR cDNA (because all cDNAs are primed with the same oligonucleotide, whether poly-dT, random hexamer, or C segment-specific oligo) that may then be sequenced to obtain information on the V and J segment used in each rearrangement, as well as the specific sequence of the CDR3. Such sequencing could use single, long reads spanning CDR3 ("long read") technology, or could instead involve fractionating many copies of the longer sequences and using higher throughput shorter sequence reads.

[0011] Efforts to quantify the number of cells in a sample that express a particular rearranged TCR (or Ig) based on mRNA sequencing are difficult to interpret, however, because each cell potentially expresses different quantities of TCR mRNA. For example, T cells activated in vitro have 10-100 times as much mRNA per cell than quiescent T cells. To date, there is very limited information on the relative amount of TCR mRNA in T cells of different functional states, and therefore quantitation of mRNA in bulk does not necessarily accurately measure the number of cells carrying each clonal TCR.

[0012] Most T cells, on the other hand, have one productively rearranged TCRa and one productively rearranged TCRP gene (or two rearranged TCRy and TCR5), and most B cells have one productively rearranged Ig heavy-chain gene and one productively rearranged Ig light-chain gene (either IGK or IGL) so quantification in a sample of genomic DNA encoding TCRs or BCRs should directly correlate with, respectively, the number of T or B cells in the sample. Genomic sequencing of polynucleotides encoding any one or more of the adaptive immune receptor chains, for instance, using the human TCRP chain as a representative example, desirably entails amplifying with equal efficiency all of the many possible rearranged TCRP encoding sequences that are present in a sample containing DNA from lymphoid cells of a subject, followed by quantitative sequencing, such that a quantitative measure of the relative abundance of each clonotype can be obtained.

[0013] Difficulties are encountered with such approaches, however, in that equal

amplification and sequencing efficiencies may not be achieved readily, for example, for each rearranged TCRP encoding clone, where each clone employs one of 54 possible germline V region-encoding genes and one of 13 possible J region-encoding genes. The specific sequences of the highly diverse V and J segments in the TCRP genomic locus vary widely among the large number of possible rearrangements that result from using different V or J genes, due to diversity-generating mechanisms such as those summarized above. [0014] This sequence diversity yields complex DNA samples in which accurate determination of the multiple distinct sequences contained therein is hindered by technical limitations on the ability to quantify a plurality of molecular species simultaneously using multiplexed amplification and high throughput sequencing. In addition, it is difficult from existing methodologies to sequence quantitatively DNA or RNA encoding both chains of a TCR or IG heterodimer in a manner that permits determination that both chains originated from the same lymphoid cell.

[0015] One or more factors can give rise to artifacts that skew sequencing data outputs, compromising the ability to obtain reliable quantitative data from sequencing strategies that are based on multiplexed amplification of a highly diverse collection of TCR or IG gene templates. These artifacts often result from unequal use of diverse primers during the multiplexed amplification step. Such biased utilization of one or more oligonucleotide primers in a multiplexed reaction that uses diverse amplification templates may arise as a function of one or more of differences in the nucleotide base composition of templates and/or oligonucleotide primers, differences in template and/or primer length, the particular polymerase that is used, the amplification reaction temperatures (e.g., annealing, elongation and/or denaturation temperatures), and/or other factors (e.g., Kanagawa, 2003 J. Biosci. Bioeng. 96:317; Day et al, 1996 Hum. Mol. Genet. 5:2039; Ogino et al, 2002 J. Mol.

Diagnost. 4:185; Barnard et al, 1998 Biotechniques 25:684; Aird et al, 2011 Genome Biol. 12:R18).

[0016] Clearly there remains a need for improved compositions and methods that will permit accurate quantification of adaptive immune receptor-encoding DNA and RNA sequence diversity in complex samples, in a manner that avoids skewed results such as misleading over- or underrepresentation of individual sequences due to biases in the utilization of one or more oligonucleotide primers in an oligonucleotide primer set used for multiplexed amplification of a complex template DNA population, and in a manner that permits determination of the coding sequences for both chains of a TCR or IG heterodimer that originate from the same lymphoid cell. The presently described embodiments address this need and provide other related advantages.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0017] The invention provides compositions comprising an oligonucleotide amplification primer composition. The oligonucleotide amplification primer composition comprises (A)a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprising a plurality of forward oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (A): Ul - Bl - VI (A), and a plurality of reverse oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (B): U2 - B2 - Jl (B), wherein Ul comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and U2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence. In one embodiment, Bl comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides, and B2 comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides, such that at least one of Bl or B2 is present. In another embodiment, VI comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 100 contiguous nucleotides of a V region encoding gene sequence of a first adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof. In some embodiments , Jl comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of (i) a joining (J) region encoding gene sequence of said first adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof, or (ii) a constant (C) region encoding gene sequence of said first adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U1-B1-V1, VI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U2-B2-J1, Jl comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence. The

oligonucleotide amplification primer composition comprises a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprising a plurality of forward oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (C): U3 - B3 - V2 (C) and a plurality of reverse oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (D): U4 - B4 - J2 (D), wherein U3 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence identical to either Ul or U2, and U4 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence identical to either Ul or U2, whichever sequence is not identical to U3. In some embodiments, B3 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides that is the same as B 1 , and B4 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides that is the same as B2. In another embodiment, V2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 100 contiguous nucleotides of a V region encoding gene sequence of a second adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof. In another embodiment, J2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of (i) a joining (J) region encoding gene sequence of said second adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof, or (ii) a constant (C) region encoding gene sequence of said second adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U3-B3- V2, V2 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U4-B4-J2, J2 comprises a unique

oligonucleotide sequence. In one embodiment, Ul is the same as U3. In another embodiment, U2 is the same as U4.

[0018] The invention provides a method for labeling individual rearranged DNA sequences encoding a plurality of adaptive immune receptors in a biological sample that comprises lymphoid cells of a subject, the method comprising: (a) amplifying said rearranged DNA sequences using a first amplification primer set comprising an oligonucleotide primer composition described herein under conditions that promote amplification to obtain double- stranded DNA products. Each double-stranded DNA product comprises (i) a sequence comprising at least two universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences with one at each end of the product, at least one oligonucleotide barcode sequence, an XI oligonucleotide sequence, an X2 oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a complementary sequence to the sequence in (i); (b) amplifying the double-stranded DNA products of (a) with a second amplification primer set comprising a plurality of first and second sequencing platform tag-containing

oligonucleotides that each comprise either: (i) a first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide comprising an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform- specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, or (ii) a second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide comprising an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence. In some embodiments, amplifying takes place under conditions that promote amplification of both strands of the separated double-stranded DNA product of (a), to obtain a library of rearranged DNA sequences encoding a plurality of adaptive immune receptors for sequencing. The method also comprises a step (c) for sequencing the DNA library obtained in (b), wherein each of the sequences in the DNA library comprises a unique oligonucleotide barcode sequence, thereby labeling each sequence with an unique identifiable barcode sequence. [0019] In some embodiments, a plurality of oligonucleotides in the second amplification primer set each further comprises either or both of: (i) a sample-identifying barcode oligonucleotide which comprises a third barcode oligonucleotide B5 comprising an oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides having a sequence that is distinct from Bl and B2, wherein in the first sequencing platform tag-containing

oligonucleotide B5 is situated between the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence, and wherein in the second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide B3 is situated between the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the second sequencing platform-specific

oligonucleotide sequence; and (ii) a spacer oligonucleotide of any sequence of 1 to 20 contiguous nucleotides, wherein said spacer oligonucleotide is situated between the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence in the first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide, and between the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence in the second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide.

[0020] In other embodiments, the invention provides an oligonucleotide primer composition, comprising a plurality of oligonucleotides sequences having a general formula (I): 5' - Ul - Bln - X - 3' (I) wherein: Ul comprises an oligonucleotide sequence which comprises a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, Bl comprises an oligonucleotide sequence that comprises a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of n contiguous nucleotides, wherein n is at least 6 nucleotides, and X comprises either (i) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (ii) an

oligonucleotide comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences, X comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence.

[0021] In some embodiments, the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprises up to 4" unique Bl oligonucleotide sequences. In one embodiment, n is 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 contiguous nucleotides. In other embodiments, X comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 20, 30, 40 or 50 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof. In another embodiment, X comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising not more than 70, 60, or 55 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof. In yet another embodiment, X comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 16-50 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof. In other embodiments, X comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising not more than 70, 60 or 55 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof. In one embodiment, X is capable of hybridizing to a V region encoding gene sequence. In another embodiment, X is capable of hybridizing to a J region encoding gene sequence.

[0022] In other embodiments, Bl is a unique tag for identifying individual rearranged TCR or Ig encoding sequences. In another embodiment, Ul comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1710-1731. Bl can include sequences listed in Table 8. X can comprise SEQ ID NOs: 1631-1643 or 1696-1708. In some embodiments, X comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1644-1695. In other embodiments, X comprises SEQ ID NOs: 5613-5625. In some embodiments, the

oligonucleotide composition comprising said plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprising SEQ ID NOs: 5626-5685. In other embodiments, the oligonucleotide composition comprising said plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprises SEQ ID NOs: l-1630.

[0023] In some embodiments, the composition includes a second plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprising a general formula (II): 5'- PI - SI - B2 - Ul - 3' (II), wherein PI comprises a sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide, S 1 comprises a sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide sequence, wherein B2 comprises an oligonucleotide barcode sequence and wherein said oligonucleotide barcode sequence can be used to identify a sample source, and wherein Ul comprises said first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence. In other embodiments, the second plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprises SEQ ID NOs: 5686-5877.

[0024] In another embodiment, the invention includes an oligonucleotide primer composition for a first amplification primer set comprising: (A) a plurality of first oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (III): 5'- Ul - Bln - Xl - 3' (III). In some embodiments, Ul comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, (ii) Bl comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of n contiguous nucleotides, wherein n is 0 or 6 to 20, and (iii) XI comprises either (a) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (b) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences XI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence.

[0025] In one embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprises up to 4n unique Bl oligonucleotide sequences,

[0026] In another embodiment, the first amplification primer set also comprises: (B) a plurality of second oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (IV): 5 '- U2 - B2m - X2 - 3' (IV), wherein: (i) U2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, (ii) B2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a second oligonucleotide barcode sequence of m contiguous nucleotides, wherein m is 0 or 6 to 20, (iii) X2 comprises (a) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (b) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences XI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, wherein n and m are independent of each other, and in said first and second pluralities of oligonucleotides, m and n are not both zero, and wherein if XI comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, then X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, and if XI comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, then X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence.

[0027] In one embodiment, the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprises up to 4m unique B2 oligonucleotide sequences.

[0028] In another embodiment, XI or X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 20, 30, 40 or 50 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof. In yet another embodiment, XI or X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising not more than 70, 60 or 55 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof. In other embodiments, XI or X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 16-50 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof. In one embodiment, XI or X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising not more than 70, 60 or 55 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof. In another embodiment, Bl is a unique tag for identifying an individual rearranged TCR or Ig encoding sequence. In yet another embodiment, B2 is a unique tag for identifying an individual rearranged TCR or Ig encoding sequence.

[0029] In some embodiments, Ul or U2 comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1710-1731. In one embodiment, Bl or B2 comprises sequences listed in Table 8. In another embodiment, XI or X2 comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1631-1643 or 1696-1708. In yet another embodiment, XI or X2 comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1644-1695. XI or X2 can comprise SEQ ID NOs: 5613-5625. In other embodiments, the plurality of first or second oligonucleotide sequences comprises SEQ ID NOs: 5626-5685. In another embodiment, the plurality of first or second oligonucleotide sequences comprise SEQ ID NOs: 1-1630.

[0030] In another embodiment, the invention comprises an oligonucleotide amplification primer composition, comprising: (A) a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprising a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (V): Ul/2 - Bl - XI (V), wherein Ul/2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when Bl is present, or a second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when Bl is nothing, and wherein Bl comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides, and wherein XI comprises either: (1) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (2) an

oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of (i) an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (ii) an adaptive immune receptor constant (C) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U1/2-B1-X1, XI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence.

[0031] In some embodiments, the oligonucleotide amplification primer composition also comprises: (B) a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprising a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (VI): U3/4 - B2 - X2 (VI), wherein U3/4 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B2 is present or a fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B2 is nothing, and wherein B2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising either nothing or a second oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides that is the same as Bl, and wherein X2 comprises either (1) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (2) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U3/4-B2-X2, X2 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence. In some embodiments, U3 has the same sequence as Ul or U2. In other embodiments, U4 has the same sequence as Ul or U2.

[0032] Certain embodiments of the invention include a method for identifying individual rearranged DNA sequences encoding a plurality of adaptive immune receptors in a biological sample that comprises lymphoid cells of a subject, the method comprising: (a) amplifying said rearranged DNA sequences using a first amplification primer set comprising an oligonucleotide primer composition described herein under conditions that promote amplification to obtain double-stranded DNA products that each comprise (i) a sequence comprising at least one universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one

oligonucleotide barcode sequence, and at least one of an X, XI or X2 oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a complementary sequence to the sequence in (i).

[0033] The method includes the step of (b) amplifying the double-stranded DNA products of (a) with a second amplification primer set comprising a plurality of first and second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise either: (i) a first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide comprising an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, or (ii) a second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide comprising an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, wherein amplifying takes place under conditions that promote amplification of both strands of the separated double-stranded DNA product of (a), to obtain a library of rearranged DNA sequences encoding a plurality of adaptive immune receptors for sequencing.

[0034] The method includes the step of (c) sequencing the DNA library obtained in (b), wherein each of the sequences in the DNA library comprises a unique oligonucleotide barcode sequence, thereby labeling each sequence with a unique identifiable barcode sequence. In some embodiments, a plurality of oligonucleotides in the second amplification primer set each further comprises either or both of: (i) a sample-identifying barcode oligonucleotide which comprises a third barcode oligonucleotide B3 comprising an oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides having a sequence that is distinct from Bl and B2, wherein in the first sequencing platform tag-containing

oligonucleotide B3 is situated between the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence, and wherein in the second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide B3 is situated between the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the second sequencing platform-specific

oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a spacer oligonucleotide of any sequence of 1 to 20 contiguous nucleotides, wherein said spacer oligonucleotide is situated between the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence in the first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide, and between the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence in the second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide.

[0035] In some embodiments, the invention includes a method for labeling individual rearranged DNA sequences or m NA sequences transcribed therefrom encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer in a single lymphoid cell, comprising: contacting (A) a first plurality of individual microdroplets that each contain a single lymphoid cell or genomic DNA isolated therefrom or complementary DNA (cDNA) that has been reverse transcribed from messenger RNA (mRNA) of a single lymphoid cell, with (B) a second plurality of individual microdroplets. The second plurality of individual microdroplets each contain: (i) a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and (ii) a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer. In some embodiments, the first oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises a composition of U1/2-B1-X1 described herein, and the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises a composition of U3/4-B2-X2 described herein.

[0036] The method also includes providing conditions for a time sufficient such that a plurality of fusion events occur between one of said first microdroplets and one of said second microdroplets to produce a plurality of fused microdroplets, and providing conditions that permit amplification of the genomic DNA, or the cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from mRNA, using the first and second oligonucleotide amplification primer sets within the plurality of fused microdroplets. In some embodiments, each of one or more of said plurality of fused microdroplets comprises: a first double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least one first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one first oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one XI oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one XI oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and a second double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least one third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one second oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one X2 oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one X2 oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, thereby upon amplification of the genomic DNA, or the cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from mRNA, labeling each of the individual rearranged DNA sequences or mRNA sequences transcribed therefrom with an oligonucleotide barcode sequence.

[0037] In some embodiments, the method comprises disrupting the plurality of fused microdroplets to obtain a heterogeneous mixture of said first and second double-stranded DNA products. The method also includes contacting the mixture of the first and second double-stranded DNA products with a third amplification primer set and a fourth

amplification primer set, wherein the third amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence. In some embodiments, the fourth amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of third sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a third sequencing platform-specific

oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of fourth sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a fourth sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence. In one embodiment, the step of contacting takes place under conditions and for a time sufficient to amplify both strands of the first and second double-stranded DNA products, to obtain a DNA library for sequencing.

[0038] In another embodiment, the method includes sequencing the DNA library to obtain a data set of sequences encoding the first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer. In some embodiments, the third and fourth amplification primer sets are the same.

[0039] In one embodiment, the invention comprises a method for labeling individual rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer in a single lymphoid cell, comprising: contacting (A) a first plurality of individual microdroplets that each contain complementary DNA (cDNA) that has been reverse transcribed from messenger RNA (mRNA) of a single lymphoid cell, with (B) a second plurality of individual microdroplets. The second plurality of individual

microdroplets each contain (i) a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a first cDNA sequence encoding a first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and (ii) a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a second cDNA sequence encoding a second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer. The first oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises a composition of U1/2-B1-X1 described herein, and the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises a composition of U3/4-B2-X2 described herein. [0040] In other embodiments, the method includes providing conditions for a time sufficient for a plurality of fusion events between one of said first microdroplets and one of said second microdroplets to produce a plurality of fused microdroplets and conditions that permit amplification of the cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from mR A of a single lymphoid cell, using the first and second oligonucleotide amplification primer sets within the plurality of fused microdroplets. In some embodiments, each of one or more of said plurality of fused microdroplets comprises: a first double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least one first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one first oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one XI oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one XI oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and a second double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least one third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one second oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one X2 oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one X2 oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, thereby upon amplification of the cDNA, uniquely labeling each of the individual rearranged cDNA sequences with a unique oligonucleotide barcode sequence.

[0041] In another embodiment, the method includes disrupting the plurality of fused microdroplets to obtain a heterogeneous mixture of said first and second double-stranded DNA products. In other embodiments, the method includes contacting the mixture of first and second double-stranded DNA products with a third amplification primer set and a fourth amplification primer set. In one embodiment, the third amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence. In one embodiment, the fourth amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of third sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a third sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of fourth sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a fourth sequencing platform- specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5' to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence. In some embodiments, the step of contacting takes place under conditions and for a time sufficient to amplify both strands of the first and second double-stranded DNA products, to obtain a DNA library for sequencing.

[0042] In certain embodiments, the method includes sequencing the DNA library to obtain a data set of sequences encoding the first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer. In another embodiment, the third amplification primer set is identical to the fourth amplification primer set.

[0043] In certain other embodiments, the method includes either or both of: (1) the first oligonucleotide amplification primer set is capable of amplifying, in the rearranged DNA sequence encoding the first polypeptide, a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a first complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) of the first polypeptide; and (2) the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set is capable of amplifying, in the rearranged DNA sequence encoding the second polypeptide, a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a second complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) of the second polypeptide.

[0044] In some embodiments, the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR alpha (TCRA) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR beta (TCRB) chain. In other embodiments, the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR gamma (TCRG) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR delta (TCRD) chain.

[0045] In another embodiment, the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is an immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is an immunoglobulin light (IGL or IGK or both IGL and IGK) chain. In some embodiments, if the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is an IGH chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is both IGL and IGK, then three different amplification primer sets are used comprising: a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set for IGH, a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set for IGK, and a third oligonucleotide amplification primer set for IGL.

[0046] In yet another embodiment, each of the second plurality of individual microdroplets further contains a third oligonucleotide primer set that is capable of amplifying a third cDNA sequence that encodes a lymphocyte status indicator molecule and that comprises a composition comprising a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences having a general formula (VII): U5/6 - B - X3 (VII). In one aspect, U5/6 comprises a fifth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B is present or a sixth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B is nothing. In another aspect, B comprises Bl or B2. In yet another aspect, X3 comprises an oligonucleotide that is one of (i) a forward primer of 15-80 contiguous nucleotides of a lymphocyte status indicator molecule encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and (ii) a reverse primer of 15-80 contiguous nucleotides of a lymphocyte status indicator molecule encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U5/6-B-X3, X3 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence.

[0047] In one embodiment, the lymphocyte status indicator molecule comprises one or more of FoxP3, CD4, CD8, CDl la, CD18, CD21, CD25, CD29, CCD30, CD38, CD44, CD45, CD45RA, CD45RO, CD49d, CD62, CD62L, CD69, CD71, CD103, CD137 (4-lBB), CD138, CD161, CD294, CCR5, CXCR4, IgGl-4 H-chain constant region, IgA H-chain constant region, IgE H-chain constant region, IgD H-chain constant region, IgM H-chain constant region, HLA-DR, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-21, TGF-β, TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 and TLR10.

[0048] In some embodiments, the method includes sorting the data set of sequences according to oligonucleotide barcode sequences identified therein to obtain a plurality of barcode sequence sets each having a unique barcode, sorting each barcode sequence set of (a) into an XI sequence-containing subset and an X2 sequence-containing subset, and clustering members of each of the XI and X2 sequence-containing subsets according to XI and X2 sequences to obtain one or a plurality of XI sequence cluster sets and one or a plurality of X2 sequence cluster sets, respectively, and error-correcting single nucleotide barcode sequence mismatches within any one or more of said XI and X2 sequence cluster sets. The method further includes identifying as originating from the same cell sequences that are members of an XI and an X2 sequence cluster set that belong to the same one or more barcode sequence sets.

[0049] In another embodiment, methods of the invention include determining rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer in a single lymphoid cell, comprising: (1) distributing cells of a cell suspension that comprises a population of lymphoid cells of a subject, amongst a plurality of containers that are capable of containing said cells, to obtain a plurality of containers that each contain a subpopulation of the lymphoid cells that comprises one lymphoid cell or a plurality of lymphoid cells. The method also includes (2) contacting each of said plurality of containers, under conditions and for a time sufficient to promote reverse transcription of messenger RNA (mR A) in the lymphoid cells in the plurality of containers, with a first and a second oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set, wherein (A) the first

oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set is capable of reverse transcribing a plurality of first mRNA sequences encoding a plurality of polypeptides of a first adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and (B) the second oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set is capable of reverse transcribing a plurality of second mRNA sequences encoding a plurality of polypeptides of a second adaptive immune receptor heterodimer.

[0050] In another embodiment, the method comprises (I) the first oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set comprising a composition of a general formula of U1/2-B1-X1 described herein, and (II) the second oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set comprises a composition comprising a general formula U3/4-B2-X2 described herein.

[0051] In yet another embodiment, the step of contacting takes place under conditions and for a time sufficient to obtain in each of one or more of said plurality of containers: a first reverse-transcribed complementary DNA (cDNA) product that comprises at least one first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one first oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one XI oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one XI oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor

heterodimer, and a second reverse-transcribed cDNA product that comprises at least one third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one second oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one X2 oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one X2 oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer.

[0052] In one embodiment, the method includes combining the first and second reverse- transcribed cDNA products from the plurality of containers to obtain a mixture of reverse- transcribed cDNA products and contacting the mixture of first and second reverse-transcribed cDNA products of (3) with a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set and a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set. In some embodiments, the first amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of first sequencing platform tag-containing

oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence.

[0053] In another embodiment, the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of third sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a third sequencing platform-specific

oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of fourth sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a fourth sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence.

[0054] In another embodiment, the step of contacting takes place under conditions and for a time sufficient to amplify both of the first and second reverse-transcribed cDNA products of (2), to obtain a DNA library for sequencing. In one embodiment, the method includes sequencing the DNA library obtained in (3) to obtain a data set of sequences encoding the first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer. [0055] In yet another embodiment, the method includes (a) sorting the data set of sequences according to oligonucleotide barcode sequences identified therein to obtain a plurality of barcode sequence sets each having a unique barcode and (b) sorting each barcode sequence set of (a) into an XI sequence-containing subset and an X2 sequence-containing subset. The method can further include (c) clustering members of each of the XI and X2 sequence- containing subsets according to XI and X2 sequences to obtain one or a plurality of XI sequence cluster sets and one or a plurality of X2 sequence cluster sets, respectively, and error-correcting single nucleotide barcode sequence mismatches within any one or more of said XI and X2 sequence cluster sets.

[0056] In another embodiment, the method includes (d) identifying each first and second adaptive immune receptor heterodimer polypeptide encoding sequence based on known XI and X2 sequences, wherein each XI sequence and each X2 sequence is associated with one or a plurality of unique B sequences to identify the container from which each B sequence- associated XI sequence and each B sequence-associated X2 sequence originated. In some embodiments, the method includes (e) combinatorically matching B sequence-associated XI and X2 sequences of (d) as being of common clonal origin based on a probability of B sequences that are coincident with common first and second adaptive immune receptor heterodimer polypeptide encoding sequences, and therefrom determining that rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer originated in a single lymphoid cell.

[0057] In one embodiment, the first oligonucleotide amplification primer set is capable of amplifying, in the rearranged DNA sequence encoding the first polypeptide, a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a first complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) of the first polypeptide. In another embodiment, the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set is capable of amplifying, in the rearranged DNA sequence encoding the second polypeptide, a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a second complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) of the second polypeptide.

[0058] In certain embodiments, the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR alpha (TCRA) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR beta (TCRB) chain, or (b) the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR gamma (TCRG) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR delta (TCRD) chain, or (c) the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is an immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is an immunoglobulin light (IGL, IGK, or both IGL and IGK) chain.

[0059] In certain other embodiments, one or more of the containers comprises a third oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a third cDNA sequence that encodes a lymphocyte status indicator molecule and that comprises a composition comprising a plurality of oligonucleotides having a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula (VI): U5/6 - B3 - X3 (VI). In some embodiments, U5/6 comprises an oligonucleotide which comprises a fifth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B3 is present or a sixth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B3 is nothing. In one embodiment, B3 comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a third oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 contiguous nucleotides that is either the same as or different than at least one of Bl or B2. In another embodiment, X3 comprises an oligonucleotide that is one of (i) a forward primer polynucleotide of 15-80 contiguous nucleotides of a lymphocyte status indicator molecule encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and (ii) a reverse primer polynucleotide of 15-80 contiguous nucleotides of a lymphocyte status indicator molecule encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U5/6-B3-X3, X3 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence.

[0060] In certain embodiments, the lymphocyte status indicator molecule comprises one or more of FoxP3, CD4, CD8, CDl la, CD18, CD21, CD25, CD29, CCD30, CD38, CD44, CD45, CD45RA, CD45RO, CD49d, CD62, CD62L, CD69, CD71, CD103, CD137 (4- IBB), CD138, CD161, CD294, CCR5, CXCR4, IgGl-4 H-chain constant region, IgA H-chain constant region, IgE H-chain constant region, IgD H-chain constant region, IgM H-chain constant region, HLA-DR, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-21, TGF-β, TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 and TLR10.

[0061] These and other aspects of the herein described invention embodiments will be evident upon reference to the following detailed description and attached drawings. All of the U.S. patents, U.S. patent application publications, U.S. patent applications, foreign patents, foreign patent applications and non-patent publications referred to in this

specification and/or listed in the Application Data Sheet are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, as if each was incorporated individually. Aspects and embodiments of the invention can be modified, if necessary, to employ concepts of the various patents, applications and publications to provide yet further embodiments. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

[0062] Figure 1 depicts a schematic representation of certain herein described compositions and methods. Ul and U2 represent universal adaptor oligonucleotides. BC1 and BC2 represent barcode oligonucleotides. J represents an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region gene and Jpr represents a region of such a gene to which a J-specific oligonucleotide primer specifically anneals. V represents an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region gene and Vpr represents a region of such a gene to which a V-specific oligonucleotide primer specifically anneals. NDN represents the diversity (D) region found in some adaptive immune receptor encoding genes, flanked on either side by junctional nucleotides (N) which may include non-templated nucleotides. Adapl and Adap2 represent sequencing platform- specific adapters. The segment shown as "n6" represents a spacer nucleotide segment of any nucleotide sequence, in this case, a spacer of six randomly selected nucleotides.

[0063] Figure 2 depicts a schematic representation of certain herein described compositions and methods in which individual first and second microdroplets are contacted to permit fusion events between single first and second microdroplets, by which fusion events DNA from individual lymphoid cells (e.g., T or B cells) is introduced, within a fused microdroplet, to first and second oligonucleotide amplification primer sets that are capable of amplifying, respectively, DNA encoding sequences (e.g., CDR3 encoding DNA) of first and second adaptive immune receptor polypeptide encoding genes from the same cell. Amplification and oligonucleotide barcode labeling of at least two rearranged DNA loci from the same cell are thus contemplated as described herein, e.g., [IGH + IGL], [IGH + IGK], [IGH + IGK + IGL], [TCRA + TCRB], [TCRG + TCRG], etc.

[0064] Figure 3 depicts a schematic representation of certain herein described compositions and methods according to which, for example, DNA from individual lymphoid cells (e.g., T or B cells), or cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from mRNA of single lymphoid cells, is introduced, within a fused microdroplet, to first and second oligonucleotide amplification primer sets that are capable of amplifying, respectively, DNA encoding sequences (e.g., CDR3 encoding DNA) of first and second adaptive immune receptor polypeptide encoding genes from the same cell, after which the individual microdroplets are disrupted (e.g., by chemical, physical and/or mechanical dissolution, dissociation, breakage, etc.) and the released bar-coded double-stranded DNAs are amplified with universal oligonucleotide primers and sequencing platform-specific adapters to permit large-scale multiplexed quantitative sequencing. See Brief Description of Fig. 1 for abbreviations. [0065] Figure 4 depicts a schematic representation of labeling adaptive immune receptor polypeptide encoding cDNA during reverse transcription by using an oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer that directs incorporation of oligonucleotide barcode and universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences into cDNA.

[0066] Figure 5 depicts a schematic representation of labeling adaptive immune receptor polypeptide encoding cDNA during reverse transcription by using an oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer that directs incorporation of oligonucleotide barcode and universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences into cDNA.

[0067] Figure 6 presents a schematic representation of a DNA product that is amenable to sequencing following modification with Illumina sequencing adapters of amplified adaptive immune receptor polypeptide encoding cDNA that has been labeled during reverse transcription by using an oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer that directs

incorporation of oligonucleotide barcode and universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0068] The present invention provides, in certain embodiments and as described herein, compositions and methods that are useful for reliably quantifying and determining the sequences of large and structurally diverse populations of rearranged genes encoding adaptive immune receptors, such as immunoglobulins (IG) and/or T cell receptors (TCR). These rearranged genes may be present in a biological sample containing DNA from lymphoid cells of a subject or biological source, including a human subject, and/or mRNA transcripts of these rearranged genes may be present in such a sample and used as templates for cDNA synthesis by reverse transcription.

[0069] Disclosed herein are unexpectedly advantageous approaches for uniquely and unambiguously labeling individual, sequence-distinct IG and TCR encoding gene segments or mRNA transcripts thereof, or cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from such mRNA transcripts, by performing such labeling prior to conventional steps of expanding a population of such gene segments or transcripts thereof (including reverse transcripts) through established nucleic acid amplification techniques. Without wishing to be bound by theory, by labeling individual TCR and IG encoding gene segments or transcripts thereof (including complementary DNA generated by reverse transcription) as described herein, prior to commonly practiced amplification steps which are employed to generate DNA copies in sufficient quantities for sequencing, the present embodiments offer unprecedented sensitivity in the detection and quantification of diverse TCR and IG encoding sequences, while at the same time avoiding misleading, inaccurate or incomplete results that may occur due to biases in oligonucleotide primer utilization during multiple rounds of nucleic acid amplification from an original sample, using a sequence-diverse set of amplification primers.

[0070] Also described herein in certain embodiments are unprecedented compositions and methods that permit quantitative determination of the sequences encoding both polypeptides in an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer from a single cell, such as both TCRA and TCRB from a T cell, or both IgH and IgL from a B cell. By providing the ability to obtain such information from a complex sample such as a sample containing a heterogeneous mixture of T and/or B cells from a subject, these and related embodiments permit more accurate determination of the relative representation in a sample of particular T and/or B cell clonal populations than has previously been possible.

[0071] Certain embodiments contemplate modifications as described herein to

oligonucleotide primer sets that are used in multiplexed nucleic acid amplification reactions to generate a population of amplified rearranged DNA molecules from a biological sample containing rearranged genes encoding adaptive immune receptors, prior to quantitative high throughput sequencing of such amplified products. Multiplexed amplification and high throughput sequencing of rearranged TCR and BCR encoding DNA sequences are described, for example, in Robins et al, 2009 Blood 114:4099; Robins et al, 2010 Sci. Translat. Med. 2:47ra64; Robins et al, 2011 J. Immunol. Meth. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2011.09. 001; Sherwood et al. 2011 Sci. Translat. Med. 3:90ra61; U.S.A.N. 13/217,126 (US Pub. No. 2012/0058902), U.S.A.N. 12/794,507 (US Pub. No. 2010/0330571), WO/2010/151416, WO/2011/106738 (PCT/US2011/026373), WO2012/027503 (PCT/US2011/049012), U.S.A.N. 61/550,311, and U.S.A.N. 61/569,118; accordingly these disclosures are incorporated by reference and may be adapted for use according to the embodiments described herein.

[0072] According to certain embodiments, in a sample containing a plurality of sequence- diverse TCR or IG encoding gene segments, such as a sample comprising DNA (or mRNA transcribed therefrom or cDNA reverse-transcribed from such mRNA) from lymphoid cells in which DNA rearrangements have taken place to encode functional TCR and/or IG heterodimers (or in which non-functional TCR or IG pseudogenes have been involved in DNA rearrangements), a plurality of individual TCR or IG encoding sequences may each be uniquely tagged with a specific oligonucleotide barcode sequence as described herein, through a single round of nucleic acid amplification {e.g., polymerase chain reaction PCR). The population of tagged polynucleotides can then be amplified to obtain a library of tagged molecules, which can then be quantitatively sequenced by existing procedures such as those described, for example, in U.S.A.N. 13/217,126 (US Pub. No. 2012/0058902), U.S.A.N. 12/794,507 (US Pub. No. 2010/0330571), WO/2010/151416, WO/2011/106738

(PCT/US2011/026373), WO2012/027503 (PCT/US2011/049012), U.S.A.N. 61/550,311, and U.S.A.N. 61/569,118.

[0073] In the course of these sequence reads, the incorporated barcode tag sequence is sequenced and can be used as an identifier in the course of compiling and analyzing the sequence data so obtained. In certain embodiments, it is contemplated that for each barcode tag sequence, a consensus sequence for the associated TCR or IG sequences may be determined. A clustering algorithm can then be applied to identify molecules generated from the same original clonal cell population. By such an approach, sequence data of high quality can be obtained in a manner that overcomes inaccuracies associated with sequencing artifacts.

[0074] An exemplary embodiment is depicted in Figure 1 , according to which from a starting template population of genomic DNA or cDNA from a lymphoid cell-containing population, two or more cycles of PCR are performed using an oligonucleotide primer composition that contains primers having the general formula U1-B1„-X as described herein. As shown in Figure (Fig.) 1, the J-specific primer 110a contains a J primer sequence 100 that is complementary to a portion of the J segment, a barcode tag (BC1) 101 in Fig. 1, or Bl„ in the generic formula) and also includes a first external universal adaptor sequence (Ul) 102, while the V-specific primer 110b includes a V primer sequence 103 that is complementary to a portion of the V segment and a second external universal adaptor sequence (U2) 104. The invention need not be so limited, however, and also contemplates related embodiments, such as those where the barcode may instead or may in addition be present as part of the V- specific primer and is situated between the V-sequence and the second universal adaptor. It will be appreciated that based on the present disclosure, those skilled in the art can design other suitable primers by which to introduce the herein described barcode tags to uniquely label individual TCR and/or IG encoding gene segments.

[0075] As described herein, a large number (up to 4", where n is the length of the barcode sequence) of different barcode sequences are present in the oligonucleotide primer composition that contains primers having the general formula U1-B1„-X as described herein, such that the PCR products of the large number of different amplification events following specific annealing of appropriate V- and J-specific primers are differentially labeled. In some embodiments, the number of barcode sequences is up to or smaller than 4" . In one embodiment, a set of 192 different barcode sequences are used based on a barcode of length n=8. The length of the barcode "n" determines the possible number of barcodes (4n as described herein), but in some embodiments, a smaller subset is used to avoid closely related barcodes or barcodes with different annealing temperatures. In other embodiments, as described herein, sets of m and n barcode sequences are used in subsequent amplification steps (e.g., to individually label each rearranged TCR or IG sequence and then to uniformally label ("tailing") a set of sequences obtained from the same source, or sample In preferred embodiments, the V and J primers 100 and 103 are capable of promoting the amplification of a TCR or Ig encoding sequence that includes the CDR3 encoding sequence, which in Fig. 1 includes the NDN region 1 1 1. As also indicated in Fig. 1 , following no more than two amplification cycles, the first amplification primer set 1 10a, 1 10b is separated from the double-stranded DNA product. By such a step, it is believed according to non-limiting theory that contamination of the product preparation by subsequent rounds of amplification is avoided, where contaminants could otherwise be produced by amplifying newly formed double-stranded DNA molecules with amplification primers that are present in the complex reaction but which are primers other than those used to generate the double-stranded DNA in the first one or two amplification cycles. A variety of chemical and biochemical techniques are known in the art for separating double-stranded DNA from oligonucleotide amplification primers.

[0076] Once the first amplification primer set 1 10a, 1 10b is removed, by which the unique barcode tag sequences have been introduced, the tagged double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) products can be amplified using a second amplification primer set 120a, 120b as described herein and depicted in Fig. 1 , to obtain a DNA library suitable for sequencing. The second amplification primer set advantageously exploits the introduction, during the preceding step, of the universal adaptor sequences 102, 104 (e.g., Ul and U2 in Fig. 1) into the dsDNA products. Accordingly, because these universal adaptor sequences have been situated external to the unique barcode tags (BC1) 101 in Fig. 1 , the amplification products that comprise the DNA library to be sequenced retain the unique barcode identifier sequences linked to each particular rearranged V-J gene segment combination, whilst being amenable to amplification via the universal adaptors. An exemplary set of such a second primer set, also known as "tailing" primers, is shown in Table 7. [0077] In preferred embodiments and as also depicted in Fig. 1 , the second amplification primer set 120a, 120b may introduce sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequences (Adapl 105 and Adap2 106 in Fig. 1), however these are not necessary in certain other related embodiments. The second amplification primer set 120a, 120b may also optionally introduce a second oligonucleotide barcode identifier tag (BC2 107 in Fig. 1), such as a single barcode sequence that may desirably identify all products of the amplification from a particular sample (e.g., as a source subject-identifying code) and ease multiplexing multiple samples to allow for higher throughput. The barcode (BC2; 107 in Fig. 1) is a modification that increases the throughput of the assay (e.g., allows samples to be multiplexed on the sequencer), but is not required. Alternatively, a universal primer without adaptors can be used to amplify the tagged molecules. After amplification, the molecules can be additionally tagged with platform specific oligonucleotide sequences. Such inclusion of a second, sample-identifying barcode, may beneficially aid in the identification of sample origins when samples from several different subjects are mixed, or in the identification of inadvertent contamination of one sample preparation with material from another sample preparation. The second amplification primer set may also, as shown in Fig. 1 , optionally include a spacer nucleotide ("n6"; 108 in Fig. 1), which may facilitate the operation of the sequencing platform-specific sequences. The spacer improves the quality of the sequencing data, but is not required or present in certain embodiments. The spacer is specifically added to increase the number of random base pairs during the first 12 cycles of the sequencing step of the method. By increasing the diversity of the first 12 cycles, cluster definition and basecalling is improved. The spacer nucleotide 108 may be 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1-20, 21-30 or more nucleotides of any sequence, typically a randomly generated sequence. Where it may be of concern that the presence of such random sequences will result in uneven annealing rates amongst the oligonucleotide primers containing such sequences, it may be preferred to perform a relatively small number of amplification cycles, typically three, four or five cycles, or optionally 1-6 or no more than eight cycles, to reduce the potential for unevenness in amplification that could skew downstream results.

[0078] The resulting DNA library can then be sequenced according to standard

methodologies and using available instrumentation as provided herein and known in the art. Where a second, sample-identifying barcode (BC2 107 in Fig. 1) is present, sequencing that includes reading both such barcodes is performed, with the sequence information (V-J junction including CDR3 encoding sequence, along with the first oligonucleotide barcode BC1 101 that uniquely tags each distinct sequence) between the two occurrences of the sample-identifying barcode 107 also being read. Sequencing primers may include, for instance, and with reference to Fig. 1, the universal primer 102 on the J side of NDN 111 for the first read, followed by a barcode sequence BC1 101, a J primer sequence 100 and CDR3 sequences. The second set of amplification primers include a forward primer comprising the platform-specific primer (Adapl 105) on the J side, a spacer sequence comprising random nucleotides (labeled "n6"; 108 in Fig. 1), and BC2 sample-identifying barcodes 107. The reverse primer in the second set of amplification primers includes the universal primer 104 on the V side of NDN 111, a spacer sequence 108 comprising random nucleotides, and a BC2 sample-identifying barcode sequence 107, and optionally a paired-end read using the reverse second sequencing platform-specific primer (Adap2 106). The second sequencing platform- specific primer (Adap2 106) is used to sequence and "read" the spacer sequence 108, the sample-identifying barcode sequence BC2 107, the universal adaptor sequence 104, the V sequence 103, and NDN 111. To capture the CDR3 sequence, one can use J amplification primers, C amplification primers or the V amplification primers.

[0079] Sequence data may be sorted using the BC2 sample-identifying barcodes 107 and then further sorted according to sequences that contain a common first barcode BC1 101. Within such sorted sequences, CDR3 sequences may be clustered to determine whether more than one sequence cluster is present using any of a known variety of algorithms for clustering (e.g., BLASTClust, UCLUST, CD-HIT, or others, or as described in Robins et al, 2009 Blood 114:4099). Additionally or alternatively, sequence data may be sorted and selected on the basis of those sequences that are found at least twice. Consensus sequences may then be determined by sequence comparisons, for example, to correct for sequencing errors. Where multiple unique identifier barcode tags (BC1 101) are detected among sequences that otherwise share a common consensus sequence, the number of such barcode tags that is identified may be regarded as reflective of the number of molecules in the sample from the same T cell or B cell clone.

Identifying Both Chains Of A TCR Or IG Heterodimer From A Single Adaptive

Immune Cell

[0080] As also noted above, in certain other embodiments there is provided herein a method for determining rearranged DNA sequences (or mRNA sequences transcribed therefrom or cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from such mRNA) encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer in a single lymphoid cell. The method includes uniquely labeling each rearranged DNA sequence with a unique barcode sequence for identifying a particular cell and/or sample.

[0081] Briefly, and by way of illustration and not limitation, these and related embodiments comprise a method comprising steps of (1) in each of a plurality of parallel reactions, contacting first and second microdroplets and permitting them to fuse under conditions permissive for nucleic acid amplification, to generate double-stranded DNA products (or single-stranded cDNA products) that all contain an identical barcode oligonucleotide sequence and that correspond to the two chains of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer; (2) disrupting the fused microdroplets to obtain a heterogeneous mixture of double-stranded (or single-stranded) DNA products; (3) amplifying the heterogeneous mixture of double- stranded DNA (or single-stranded) products to obtain a DNA library for sequencing; and (4) sequencing the library to obtain a data set of DNA sequences encoding the first and second polypeptides of the heterodimer.

[0082] The method comprises contacting and permitting to fuse in pairwise fashion (A) individual first microdroplets that each (or in every nth droplet) contain a single lymphoid cell or genomic DNA isolated therefrom, or cDNA has been reverse transcribed from mRNA, with (B) individual second microdroplets from a plurality of second liquid microdroplets that each contain two oligonucleotide amplification primer sets, the first set for amplifying any rearranged DNA that encodes the first chain of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer (e.g., an IGH chain, or a TCRA chain), and the second set for amplifying any rearranged DNA that encodes the second chain of the heterodimer (e.g., an IGL chain, or a TCRB chain). Significantly, in a given second microdroplet, all oligonucleotide amplification primers will comprise the same barcode oligonucleotide, but within different second microdroplets, the primer sets will comprise different barcode sequences. The step of contacting is controlled so that in each of a plurality of events, a single first microdroplet fuses with a single second microdroplet to obtain a fused microdroplet. The contents of each of the first and second microdroplets come into contact with one another in the fused microdroplet. Oligonucleotide amplification primer sets capable of amplifying any rearranged DNA encoding a given TCR or IG polypeptide are described elsewhere herein and in the references incorporated for such disclosure.

[0083] Those familiar with the art will be aware of any of a number of microf uidics apparatus and devices by which microdroplet compositions that have defined contents and properties (such as the ability to controllably undergo fusion) may be prepared, such as the RainDance™ microdroplet digital PCR system (RainDance Technologies, Lexington, MA) or any of the systems described, for example, in Pekin et al., 2011 Lab Chip 11 :2156; Miller et al, 2012 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 109:378; Brouzes et al, 2009 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 106:14195; Joensson et al, 2009 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 81 :4813; Baret et al, 2009 Lab Chip 9: 1850; Frenz et al, 2009 Lab Chip 9: 1344; Kiss et al, 2008 Anal. Chem. 80:8975; Leamon et al., 2006 Nat. Meths. 3:541; which may be adapted to a particular method such as those described herein through modifications that are routine in view of the present disclosure.

[0084] As a non-limiting example, certain embodiments may exploit the properties of aqueous phase microdroplets dispersed in an oil phase using microfluidic channels.

Microdroplets may be water-in-oil emulsions, oil-in-water emulsions, or similar aqueous and non-aqueous emulsion compositions. Microdroplets may also be called microdroplets or micellar microdroplets. Conventional water-in-oil (WO) emulsions have found many applications in biology, including next-generation sequencing (Margulies et al, Nature 2005, 437, 376-380), rare mutation detection ( Diehl, F. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005, 102, 16368-16373; Li, M. et al, Nat.Methods 2006, 3, 95-97; Diehl, F. et al, Nat. Med. 2008, 14, 985-990) and quantitative detection of DNA methylation (Li, M. et al, Nat.

Biotechnol. 2009, 27, 858-U118), but these emulsions suffer from droplet polydispersity and shearing stresses which can disrupt cells during mechanical agitation used to form the emulsions. The use of micro fluidics overcomes these limitations and leads to an improved performance of biochemical and cell based assays (Zeng, Y. et al, Anal. Chem. 2010, 82, 3183-3190). Microfluidic chips with channel diameters of 10-100 μιη are typically fabricated from quartz, silicon, glass, or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using standard soft photolithography techniques (A. Manz, N. Graber and H.M. Widmer: Miniaturized total Chemical Analysis systems: A Novel Concept for Chemical Sensing, Sensors and Actuators, B Chemical (1990) 244-248). Droplets are typically generated at rates of ~ 1-lOHz by flowing an aqueous solution in one channel into a stream of oil. The use of flow focusing nozzles enables generation of controlled size droplets of aqueous phase. The droplet size and rate of droplet generation are controlled by the ratio of oil and aqueous phase flow rates, for a given nozzle geometry. The chip channel surface is usually modified to be hydrophobic, for instance, by one of the many published silanization chemistries (Zeng, Y. et al., Anal. Chem. 2010, 82, 3183-3190). For droplets to be fully functional microvessels, the use of hydrophobic and lipophobic oils may be beneficial, since the molecular diffusion between droplets is minimized, the oils have low solubility for biological reagents contained in the aqueous phase and have good gas solubility, which ensures viability of encapsulated cells in certain applications. In addition, surfactants may desirably, according to certain

embodiments, be mixed into the oil phase, since droplets tend to coalesce. Surfactants may also inhibit adsorption of biomolecules at the microdroplet interfaces. A novel class of block copolymer surfactants, comprising perfluorinated polyethers (PFPE) coupled to

polyethyleneglycol (PEG), has been described for use with fluorocarbon oils, for example, the fluorinated oil FC-40 (Sigma), a mix of perfluoro tri-n-butyl amine with di(perfluoro(n- butyl))perfluoromethyl amine (Holtze, C. et al, Lab Chip, 2008, DOI: 10.1039/b806706f). These compositions have led to very stable, biocompatible emulsions (Brouzes, E., et al, A¾S 2009, 106(34), 14195-14200).

[0085] Droplets traveling in microfluidic channels may be maintained as discrete

microdroplets by means of their surface tension. Various methods have also been proposed to overcome the surface tension and allow droplets to merge when desired, thus allowing reagent mixing, e.g., by micro fabrication of passive, flow reducing elements in channels (Niu, X. et al, Lab Chip 2008, 8, 1837-1841), by the use of electrostatic charge

(electrocoalescence) (Zagnoni, M. et al, Langmuir, 2010, 26(18), 14443-14449), or by manipulating microchannel geometry (Dolomite Merger chip; see also WO/2012/083225). A method of adding reagents to droplets in microfluidic channels via picoinjectors (pressurized reagent filled channels, perpendicular to the droplet channel, operated by electric fields), has recently been published (Abate, A.R. et al, PNAS 2010, 107(45), 19163-19166) and may also be adapted according to certain presently contemplated embodiments as described herein.

[0086] The microdroplet contents and the step of contacting are selected to be permissive for nucleic acid amplification interactions between the genomic DNA and the amplification primers. Nucleic acid amplification {e.g., PCR) reagents and conditions are well known. Such amplification is permitted to proceed at least to obtain first and second double-stranded DNA products that include the nucleotide sequences of the first and second oligonucleotide amplification primers as provided herein, and the complementary sequences thereto. Thus, for example, any single fused microdroplet may contain (i) a first double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least a first universal adaptor sequence, the barcode sequence, a V region and a J or C region sequence that encode a portion of the first adaptive immune receptor polypeptide of the heterodimer, and a second universal adaptor sequence, and (ii) a second double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least a third universal adaptor sequence, the same barcode sequence as in (i), a V region and a J or C region sequence that encode a portion of the second adaptive immune receptor polypeptide of the heterodimer, and a fourth universal adaptor sequence.

[0087] Conditions for the amplification step in the fused microdroplets are stopped prior to the next step. This can be achieved by changing the temperature of the environment in which the microdroplets are contained (e.g., in a container or well) to stop the amplification process.

[0088] In some embodiments, the method comprises disrupting the plurality of fused microdroplets to obtain a heterogeneous mixture of the first and second double-stranded products. Disruption may be selected on the basis of the chemical properties and

composition of the microdroplets, and may be achieved, for instance, by chemical, biochemical and/or physical manipulations, such as the introduction of a diluent, detergent, chaotrope, surfactant, osmotic agent, or other chemical agent, or by the use of sonication, pressure, electrical field or other disruptive conditions. It will be appreciated that preferred conditions will involve the use of aqueous solvents for the included volumes within the microdroplets and/or for the heterogeneous mixture that is obtained by the step of disrupting. By using microdroplets instead of individual cells as an assay format, one can analyze data on the number of input cells in the sample. One can correct for PCR and sequencing errors, and in the case of IG molecules differentiate between non-germline sequences due to somatic hypermutation (SHM) from non-germline sequences introduced due to PCR error.

[0089] In some embodiments, the method comprises an ensuing step for contacting the mixture of first and second double-stranded DNA products with the herein described third and fourth amplification primer sets. Conditions for this step may similarly be achieved using accepted methodologies for DNA amplification to obtain a DNA library for

sequencing, which may also be achieved according to any of a number of established DNA sequencing technologies. In certain related embodiments, instead of using first liquid microdroplets that each contain a single lymphoid cell or genomic DNA isolated therefrom, each of the first liquid microdroplets contains complementary DNA (cDNA) that has been reverse transcribed from the mRNA of a single lymphoid cell, such as a first cDNA that encodes the first chain of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer and a second cDNA that encodes the second chain of the heterodimer.

[0090] In certain related embodiments, the individual second microdroplets may each contain a third oligonucleotide primer set that is capable of amplifying additional cDNA sequences that encode a lymphocyte status indicator molecule or molecules, The third primer set is labeled with the same barcode sequence that is present in the first and second primer sets that are in the microdroplet. In such embodiments, the biological status can be determined for the single source cell from which a given TCR or IG heterodimeric sequence is identified. The biological status can be activated vs. quiescent, maturational stage, naive vs. memory, regulatory vs. effector, etc. Exemplary lymphocyte status indicator molecules include, e.g., lck, fyn, FoxP3, CD4, CD8, CDl la, CD18, CD25, CD28, CD29, CD44, CD45, CD49d, CD62, CD69, CD71, CD103, CD137 (4-1BB), HLA-DR, etc.

[0091] Certain embodiments include a third oligonucleotide primer set that is capable of amplifying a third cDNA sequence that encodes a lymphocyte status indicator molecule, where the third oligonucleotide primer set is labeled with the same barcode sequence that is present in the first and second primer sets, and where the lymphocyte status indicator molecule comprises one or more of the following: FoxP3, CD4, CD8, CD1 la, CD18, CD21, CD25, CD29, CCD30, CD38, CD44, CD45, CD45RA, CD45RO, CD49d, CD62, CD62L, CD69, CD71, CD103, CD137 (4-1BB), CD138, CD161, CD294, CCR5, CXCR4, IgGl-4 H- chain constant region, IgA H-chain constant region, IgE H-chain constant region, IgD H- chain constant region, IgM H-chain constant region, HLA-DR, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-21, TGF-β, TLRl, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 and TLR10.

Table 1: EXEMPLARY LYMPHOCYTE STATUS INDICATORS

CD45RA Naive T cells NM_002838, NM 080921,

NM_001267798

CD45RO Memory T cells NM_002838, NM 080921,

NM_001267798

CD62L Homing of naive cells to peripheral lymph NM 000655

nodes

CD294 TH2 cells NM_004778

Helios Thymic Treg cells NM_001079526,

NM_016260

CD161 NK cells NM_002258

IL2 CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells NM_000586

IL5 TH2 cells NM_000879

IL6 Macrophages, endothelial cells, and T cells NM 000600

IL10 Macrophages and TH2 cells NM_000572

TGF-β T cells and macrophages NM 000660

IL12B Macrophages and dendritic cells NM_002187

IL12A Macrophages and dendritic cells NM_000882

IL13 TH2 cells NM_002188

IL15 Macrophages NM_0172175, NM_000585

IL21 Activated T cells (mainly TH2, TH17, and NM_021803,

NKT cells) NM 001207006

CCR5 T cells and macrophages NM_000579,

NM 001100168

CXCR4 T cells NM_003467,

NM 001008540

IGHG1 IgGl heavy chain constant region AJ294730, J00228

IGHG2 IgG2 heavy chain constant region AJ294731, J00230

IGHG3 IgG3 heavy chain constant region D78345

IGHG4 IgG4 heavy chain constant region AJ294733, K01316

IGHA1 IgAl heavy chain constant region J00220

IGHA2 IgA2 heavy chain constant region M60192, J00221

IGHE IgGEl heavy chain constant region L00022, J00222 IGHD IgD heavy chain constant region K02875, K02876, K02877,

K02878, K02879, K02880, K02881. K02992, X57331

IGHM IgM heavy chain constant region J00260, K01310, X14939,

X14940, X57331

TLR1 B cells NM_003263

TLR2 T and B cells NM_003264

TLR3 T cells NM_003265

TLR4 T cells NM_003266, NMJ38554,

NM_138557

TLR5 Treg and naive T cells NM_003268

[0092] These and related embodiments need not be so limited, however, such that there are also contemplated embodiments according to which, additionally or alternatively, there may be included a third oligonucleotide primer set that is capable of amplifying a third cDNA sequence that encodes a lymphocyte status indicator molecule, where the third primer set is labeled with the same barcode sequence that is present in the first and second primer sets, and where the lymphocyte status indicator molecule comprises a cell surface receptor.

[0093] Examples of cell surface receptors include the following, or the like: CD2 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. Y00023, SEG HUMCD2, M16336, M16445, SEG MUSCD2,

M14362), 4- IBB (CDwl37, Kwon et al, 1989 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 1963, 4- IBB ligand (Goodwin et al, 1993 Eur. J. Immunol. 23:2361; Melero et al, 1998 Eur. J. Immunol. 3: 116), CD5 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. X78985, X89405), CD10 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. M81591, X76732) CD27 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. M63928, L24495, L08096), CD28 (June et al, 1990 Immunol. Today 11 :211; see also, e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. J02988,

SEG HUMCD28, M34563), CD152/CTLA-4 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. L15006, X05719, SEG HUMIGCTL), CD40 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. M83312, SEG MUSC040A0, Y10507, X67878, X96710, U15637, L07414), interferon-γ (IFN-γ; see, e.g., Farrar et al. 1993 Ann. Rev. Immunol. 11 :571 and references cited therein, Gray et al. 1982 Nature 295:503, Rinderknecht et al. 1984 J. Biol. Chem. 259:6790, DeGrado et al. 1982 Nature 300:379), interleukin-4 (IL-4; see, e.g., 53rd Forum in Immunology, 1993 Research in Immunol.

144:553-643; Banchereau et al, 1994 in The Cytokine Handbook, 2nd ed., A. Thomson, ed., Academic Press, NY, p. 99; Keegan et al, 1994 JLeukocyt. Biol . 55:272, and references cited therein), interleukin-17 (IL-17) (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. U32659, U43088) and interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17R) (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. U31993, U58917).

[0094] Additional cell surface receptors include the following or the like: CD59 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. SEG_HUMCD590, M95708, M34671), CD48 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. M59904), CD58/LFA-3 (e.g., GenBank Acc. No. A25933, Y00636, E12817; see also JP 1997075090-A), CD72 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. AA311036, S40777, L35772), CD70 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. Y13636, S69339), CD80/B7.1 (Freeman et al, 1989 J. Immunol.

43:2714; Freeman et al, 1991 J. Exp. Med. 174:625; see also e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos.

U33208, 1683379), CD86/B7.2 (Freeman et al, 1993 J. Exp. Med. 178:2185, Boriello et al, 1995 J. Immunol. 155:5490; see also, e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. AF099105, SEG MMB72G, U39466, U04343, SEG_HSB725, L25606, L25259), B7-H1/B7-DC (e.g., Genbank Acc. Nos. NM_014143, AF177937, AF317088; Dong et al, 2002 Nat. Med. Jun 24 [epub ahead of print], PMID 12091876; Tseng et al, 2001 J. Exp. Med. 193:839; Tamura et al, 2001 Blood 97: 1809; Dong et al, 1999 Nat. Med. 5: 1365), CD40 ligand (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos.

SEG_HUMCD40L, X67878, X65453, L07414), IL-17 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. U32659, U43088), CD43 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. X52075, J04536), ICOS (e.g., Genbank Acc. No. AH011568), CD3 (e.g., Genbank Acc. Nos. NM 000073 (gamma subunit), NM 000733 (epsilon subunit), X73617 (delta subunit)), CD4 (e.g., Genbank Acc. No. NM_000616), CD25 (e.g., Genbank Acc. No. NM_000417), CD8 (e.g., Genbank Acc. No.M12828), CDl lb (e.g., Genbank Acc. No. J03925), CD14 (e.g., Genbank Acc. No. XM_039364), CD56 (e.g., Genbank Acc. No.U63041), CD69 (e.g., Genbank Acc. No.NM_001781) and VLA-4 (α4β7) (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. L12002, X16983, L20788, U97031, L24913, M68892, M95632).

[0095] The following cell surface receptors are typically associated with B cells: CD 19 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. SEG HUMCD 19W0, M84371, SEG MUSCD 19W, M62542), CD20 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. SEG_HUMCD20, M62541), CD22 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. 1680629, Y10210, X59350, U62631, X52782, L16928), CD30 (e.g., Genbank Acc. Nos. M83554, D86042), CD153 (CD30 ligand, e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. L09753, M83554), CD37 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. SEG_MMCD37X, X14046, X53517), CD50 (ICAM-3, e.g., GenBank Acc. No. NM_002162), CD106 (VCAM-1) (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. X53051, X67783, SEG_MMVCAM1C, see also U.S. Patent No. 5,596,090), CD54 (ICAM-1) (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. X84737, S82847, X06990, J03132, SEG_MUSICAM0), interleukin-12 (see, e.g., Reiter et al, 1993 Crit. Rev. Immunol. 13: 1, and references cited therein), CD 134 (OX40, e.g., GenBank Acc. No. AJ277151), CD137 (41BB, e.g., GenBank Acc. No. L12964, NM 001561), CD83 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. AF001036, AL021918), DEC-205 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. AF011333, U19271).

[0096] Examples of other cell surface receptors include the following, or the like: HER1 (e.g., GenBank Accession Nos. U48722, SEG HEGFREXS, K03193), HER2 (Yoshino et al, 1994 J. Immunol. 152:2393; Disis et al, 1994 Cane. Res. 54: 16; see also, e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. X03363, M17730, SEG HUMHER20), HER3 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. U29339, M34309), HER4 (Plowman et al, 1993 Nature 366:473; see also e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. L07868, T64105), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos.

U48722, SEG HEGFREXS, K03193), vascular endothelial cell growth factor(e.g., GenBank No. M32977), vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. AF022375, 1680143, U48801, X62568), insulin-like growth factor-I (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. X00173, X56774, X56773, X06043, see also European Patent No. GB 2241703), insulin-like growth factor-II (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. X03562, X00910, SEG HUMGFIA, SEG HUMGFI2, Ml 7863, Ml 7862), transferrin receptor (Trowbridge and Omary, 1981 Proc. Nat. Acad. USA 78:3039; see also e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. X01060, Ml 1507), estrogen receptor (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. M38651, X03635, X99101, U47678, M12674), progesterone receptor (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. X51730, X69068, M15716), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R) (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. Z34260, M65085), retinoic acid receptor (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. L12060, M60909, X77664, X57280, X07282, X06538), MUC-1 (Barnes et al, 1989 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 86:7159; see also e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. SEG MUSMUCIO, M65132, M64928) NY-ESO-1 (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. AJ003149, U87459), NA 17-A (e.g., European Patent No. WO 96/40039), Melan- A/MART-1 (Kawakami et al, 1994 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 91 :3515; see also e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. U06654, U06452), tyrosinase (Topalian et al, 1994 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 91 :9461; see also e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. M26729, SEG HUMTYR0, see also Weber et al, J. Clin. Invest (1998) 702: 1258), Gp-100 (Kawakami et al, 1994 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 91 :3515; see also e.g., GenBank Acc. No. S73003, see also European Patent No. EP 668350; Adema et al, 1994 J. Biol. Chem. 269:20126), MAGE (van den Bruggen et al, 1991 Science 254: 1643; see also e.g, GenBank Acc. Nos. U93163, AF064589, U66083, D32077, D32076, D32075, U10694, U10693, U10691, U10690, U10689, U10688, U10687, U10686, U10685, L18877, U10340, U10339, L18920, U03735, M77481), BAGE (e.g., GenBank Acc. No. U19180, see also U.S. Patent Nos. 5,683,886 and 5,571,711), GAGE (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. AF055475, AF055474, AF055473, U19147, U19146, U19145, U19144, U19143, U19142), any of the CTA class of receptors including in particular HOM-MEL-40 antigen encoded by the SSX2 gene (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. X86175, U90842, U90841, X86174), carcinoembyonic antigen (CEA, Gold and Freedman, 1985 J. Exp. Med. 121 :439; see also e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. SEG HUMCEA, M59710, M59255, M29540), and PyLT (e.g., GenBank Acc. Nos. J02289, J02038).

[0097] A lymphocyte status indicator may also include one or more apoptosis signaling polypeptides, sequences of which are known to the art, as reviewed, for example, in When Cells Die: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Apoptosis and Programmed Cell Death (R.A. Lockshin et al, Eds., 1998 John Wiley & Sons, New York; see also, e.g., Green et al, 1998 Science 281 : 1309 and references cited therein; Ferreira et al, 2002 Clin. Cane. Res. 8 :2024; Gurumurthy et al, 2001 Cancer Metastas. Rev. 20:225; Kanduc et al, 2002 Int. J. Oncol. 21 : 165). Typically, an apoptosis signaling polypeptide sequence comprises all or a portion of, or is derived from, a receptor death domain polypeptide, for instance, FADD (e.g. , Genbank Acc. Nos. U24231, U43184, AF009616, AF009617, NM 012115), TRADD (e.g., Genbank Acc. No. NM_003789), RAIDD (e.g., Genbank Acc. No. U87229), CD95

(FAS/Apo-1; e.g., Genbank Acc. Nos. X89101, NM_003824, AF344850, AF344856), TNF- a-receptor-1 (TNFR1, e.g., Genbank Acc. Nos. S63368, AF040257), DR5 (e.g., Genbank Acc. No. AF020501, AF016268, AF012535), an ITIM domain (e.g., Genbank Acc. Nos. AF081675, BC015731, NM_006840, NM_006844, NM_006847, XM_017977; see, e.g., Billadeau et al., 2002 J. Clin. Invest. 109: 161), an ITAM domain (e.g., Genbank Acc. Nos. NM_005843, NM_003473, BC030586; see, e.g., Billadeau et al, 2002), or other apoptosis- associated receptor death domain polypeptides known to the art, for example, TNFR2 (e.g., Genbank Acc. No. L49431, L49432), caspase/procaspase-3 (e.g., Genbank Acc. No.

XM_54686), caspase/procaspase-8 (e.g., AF380342, NM_004208, NM_001228,

NM_033355, NM_033356, NM_033357, NM_033358), caspase/procaspase-2 (e.g., Genbank Acc. No. AF314174, AF314175), etc. Cells in a biological sample that are suspected of undergoing apoptosis may be examined for morphological, permeability, biochemical, molecular genetic, or other changes that will be apparent to those familiar with the art.

[0098] These and related methods for the first time permit rapid determination of the rearranged DNA sequences that encode both chains of a TCR or IG heterodimer from a single cell. Such embodiments will find uses for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, by permitting high-throughput sequencing of adaptive immune receptor encoding sequences from each of a plurality of single cells, and will also usefully inform immunological investigations into TCR or IG heterodimeric pairings and their underlying molecular mechanisms. The rapid and large-scale availability of DNA sequence information for both subunits of a large number of TCR and/or IG heterodimers will accelerate development of synthetic antibody technologies and related arts, for example, where antibodies or complete or partial TCR or IG antigen-binding regions may be usefully engineered into diagnostic, therapeutic, biomimetic, enzymatic or catalytic (e.g., Abzymes) or other industrially useful compositions. By virtue of the quantitative nature of the high throughput TCR and/or IG sequencing afforded by the present disclosure, high precision in the quantitative

characterization of TCR and/or IG heterodimer sequences that are present in a sample will advantageously improve the ability to determine the number of cells that belong to a specific T cell or B cell clone.

[0099] As noted above, according to these embodiments for identifying both chains of a TCR or IG heterodimer from a single adaptive immune cell, in any given second microdroplet, all oligonucleotide amplification primers will comprise the same barcode oligonucleotide, but within different second microdroplets the primer sets will comprise different barcode sequences. Accordingly, after sequencing the DNA library obtained as described above to obtain a data set of sequences, the sequences in the data set can be sorted into groups of sequences that have identical barcode sequences, and such barcode groups can be further sorted into those having XI or X2 sequences (which include portions of V and J or C regions) that will indicate whether a given sequence reflects the amplification product of a first TCR or IG encoding chain (e.g., a TCRA or IGH chain) or a second TCR or IG encoding chain (e.g., a TCRB or IGL chain).

[00100] Sequences that have been so sorted by barcode and by TCR or IG chain may be further subject to cluster analysis using any of a known variety of algorithms for clustering (e.g., BLASTClust, UCLUST, CD-HIT, see also IEEE Rev Biomed Eng. 2010;3: 120-54. doi: 10.1109/RBME.2010.2083647; Clustering algorithms in biomedical research: a review, Xu R, Wunsch DC 2nd; Mol Biotechnol. 2005 Sep;31(l):55-80; Data clustering in life sciences. Zhao Y, Karypis G; Methods Mol Biol. 2010;593:81-107. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-194- 3 5; Overview on techniques in cluster analysis. Frades I, Matthiesen R, and error correction in the case of sequences that fail to cluster with other sequences having shared barcode sequences but which instead would cluster with sequences having a barcode that differs by a single nucleotide. See, e.g., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012 Jan 24;109(4): 1347-52. doi: 10.1073/pnas. l 118018109. Epub 2012 Jan 9. Digital RNA sequencing minimizes sequence- dependent bias and amplification noise with optimized single-molecule barcodes. Shiroguchi K, Jia TZ, Sims PA, Xie XS; Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012 Sep 4;109(36): 14508-13. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1208715109. Epub 2012 Aug 1. Detection of ultra-rare mutations by next- generation sequencing. Schmitt MW, Kennedy SR, Salk JJ, Fox EJ, Hiatt JB, Loeb LA.

[00101] Accordingly, certain embodiments comprise a method including steps of (a) sorting the data set of sequences (obtained as described above) according to oligonucleotide barcode sequences identified therein to obtain a plurality of barcode sequence sets each having a unique barcode; (b) sorting each barcode sequence set of (a) into an XI sequence- containing subset and an X2 sequence-containing subset; (c) clustering members of each of the XI and X2 sequence-containing subsets according to XI and X2 sequences to obtain one or a plurality of XI sequence cluster sets and one or a plurality of X2 sequence cluster sets, respectively, and error-correcting single nucleotide barcode sequence mismatches within any one or more of said XI and X2 sequence cluster sets; and (d) identifying as originating from the same cell sequences that are members of an XI and an X2 sequence cluster set that belong to the same one or more barcode sequence sets.

[00102] It will be appreciated that according to non- limiting theory, first and second adaptive immune receptor chain encoding sequences that occur with the same set of barcode sequences have an extremely high probability of having originated from the same fused microdroplet, and thus from the same source cell. For example, where 104 different barcodes are used in the construction of the first and second oligonucleotide amplification primers, the probability that two independent (i.e., originating from different cells) double-stranded first and second products would be obtained having the same barcode sequence is one in 108. Hence, if according to the methods described herein, three or more copies of a given set of first and second adaptive immune receptor polypeptide encoding sequences (e.g., XI and X2) share common barcode sequences (e.g., belong to the same barcode sequence set), the probability that the sequences are of independent cellular origin approaches zero.

[00103] Similarly, it will be appreciated that analysis of the data set of sequences obtained according to the present methods may also be used to characterize the biological status of the lymphoid cell source of genomic DNA. For example, because in B cells IGH gene rearrangement is known to precede IGL gene rearrangement, barcode sequence analysis as described herein may reveal multiple single lymphoid cell genomes having the same rearranged IGH sequence but different IGL sequences, indicating origins of these sequences in immunologically naive cells. [00104] Alternatively, the analysis may exploit the observation that T cells express proteins that are specific to their functions, such as lymphocyte status indicator molecules as described herein. For example, regulatory T cells express the protein FOXP3. If a cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from T cell mR A is subsequently amplified, co- amplification products may include cDNA species that reflect other m NAs encoding phenotypic specific proteins such as FOXP3, along with cDNAs encoding the TCRB and TCRA molecules. This approach may permit identification of the adaptive immune receptors that are expressed by T cells having specific phenotypes, such as T regulatory cells or effector T cells.

[00105] Thus, there is provided herein a method for determining rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer in a single lymphoid cell, comprising (1) contacting (A) individual first microdroplets that each contain a single lymphoid cell or genomic DNA isolated therefrom, with (B) individual second microdroplets from a plurality of second liquid microdroplets that each contain (i) a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a first complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) of a first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and (ii) a second

oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a second complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) of a second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer. The first oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises a composition comprising a plurality of oligonucleotides having a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula: U1/2-B1-X1, in which Ul/2 comprises an oligonucleotide which comprises a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when Bl is present or a second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when Bl is nothing. In some embodiments, Bl comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 contiguous nucleotides, and XI comprises an oligonucleotide that is one of: (a) a polynucleotide comprising at least 20, 30, 40 or 50 and not more than 100, 90, 80, 70 or 60 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region encoding gene sequence for said first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U1/2-B1-X1, XI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, and (b) a

polynucleotide comprising at least 15-30 or 31-50 and not more than 80, 70, 60 or 55 contiguous nucleotides of either (i) an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence for said first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, or (ii) an adaptive immune receptor constant (C) region encoding gene sequence for said first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U1/2-B1-X1, XI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence. The second oligonucleotide amplification primer set can comprise a composition comprising a plurality of oligonucleotides having a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula: U3/4-B2-X2 in which U3/4 comprises an oligonucleotide which comprises a third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B2 is present or a fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B2 is nothing, B2 comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a second oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 contiguous nucleotides that is from the same as Bl, and X2 comprises an oligonucleotide that is one of: (a) a polynucleotide comprising at least 20, 30, 40 or 50 and not more than 100, 90, 80, 70 or 60 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region encoding gene sequence for said second polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U3/4-B2-X2, X2 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, and (b) a polynucleotide comprising at least 15-30 or 31-50 and not more than 80, 70, 60 or 55 contiguous nucleotides of either (i) an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence for said second polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, or (ii) an adaptive immune receptor constant (C) region encoding gene sequence for said second polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U3/4-B2-X2, X2 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence. The step of contacting can take place under conditions and for a time sufficient for a plurality of fusion events between one of the first microdroplets and one of the second microdroplets to produce a plurality of fused microdroplets in which nucleic acid amplification interactions occur between the genomic DNA and the first and second oligonucleotide amplification primer sets, to obtain in each of one or more of said plurality of fused microdroplets: a first double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least one first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one first oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one XI oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one XI oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer. The conditions also permit obtaining in each of one or more of said plurality of fused microdroplets: a second double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least one third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one second oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one X2 oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one X2 oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer.

[00106] The method also includes disrupting the plurality of fused microdroplets to obtain a heterogeneous mixture of said first and second double-stranded DNA products and contacting the mixture of first and second double-stranded DNA products with a third amplification primer set and a fourth amplification primer set. In some embodiments, the third amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of first sequencing platform tag- containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence. In other embodiments, the fourth amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of third sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a third sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of fourth sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a fourth sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5' to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence. The contacting step can take place under conditions and for a time sufficient to amplify both strands of the first and second double-stranded DNA products of (2), to obtain a DNA library for sequencing. The method also includes sequencing the DNA library obtained in (3) to obtain a data set of sequences encoding the first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer.

[00107] Figure 2 illustrates one method by which a plurality of first microdroplets 210 that contain a single lymphoid cell or genomic DNA fuse with a plurality of individual second microdroplets 220 to form a plurality of fused microdroplets 230. The second plurality of droplets may comprise amplification primer sets, as described herein, and the fused droplets can be placed under conditions where the amplification primers can amplify the DNA found in the single lymphoid cell or the genomic DNA (or cDNA) within the microdroplet.

[00108] These and related embodiments permit high throughput sequencing of rearranged genes encoding both chains from the same cell of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, such as IGH plus IGL, or IGH plus IGK, or TCRA plus TCRB, or TCRG plus TCRD.

Advantageously, this approach also permits quantifying the number of cells having a given TCR or IG. A schematic depiction of an exemplary embodiment is shown in Figure 3, according to which steps highly similar to those described above are carried out,

significantly, however, with the step of contacting DNA from a single lymphoid cell with first and second amplification primer sets as described herein to effect the first amplification reaction by which the unique molecular-tagging barcode is incorporated taking place within a single microdroplet, such as those that are formed from emulsions for use in the

RainDance™ microdroplet digital PCR system (RainDance Technologies, Lexington, MA) (e.g., Pekin et al, 2011 Lab. Chip 11(13):2156; Zhong et al, 2011 Lab. Chip 11(13):2167; Tewhey et al, 2009 Nature Biotechnol. 27: 1025; 2010 Nature Biotechnol. 28: 178) or other comparable systems, any of which may be adapted by the skilled person for use with the herein described compositions and methods. Subsequent to the incorporation into a plurality of distinct dsDNA products of the plurality of unique molecular-tagging barcodes, the microdroplets may be disrupted and the ensuing steps that include amplifying and

introducing sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotides may be carried out as described herein and shown in Fig. 3.

[00109] In these and related embodiments, a single tagging barcode (BC 1) may be shared by all J primers (or in certain embodiments by all V primers) and it may be desirable to produce such primers with a finite set of specific and pre-identified barcode sequences. Only a single tagging barcode sequence (BC1) will be present within any given microdroplet during the first step, however. Hence, even after a large and diverse set of sequence information is obtained following the sequencing step when practiced starting with a sample that comprises a plurality of heterogeneous lymphoid cells as provided herein, analysis of such information may include determination of first and second TCR or Ig heterodimeric polypeptide chain encoding sequences that contain the same tagging barcode (BC1), from which a probabilistic basis would indicate an extremely high likelihood that both chains are the products of the same cell. Accordingly, the present disclosure for the first time provides compositions and methods for determining and quantifying the relative representation in a sample of both chains of a TCR or Ig heterodimer that are expressed in the same cell.

[00110] Clonal Heterodimer Sequence Determination Without MicroDroplets

[00111] According to certain other embodiments, determination of rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second adaptive immune receptor heterodimer polypeptide sequences in a single cell may be achieved without first preparing separate populations of first and second microdroplets that contain, respectively, single lymphoid cell genomic DNA (or cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from mRNA therefrom) and oligonucleotide amplification primer sets.

[00112] Instead, these alternative embodiments contemplate separating the cells of a lymphoid cell-containing cell suspension (e.g., a blood cell preparation from a subject or a cell subpopulation thereof) into subpopulations by distributing the cells to a plurality of containers, such as multiple wells of a multi-well cell culture plate or assay plate (e.g., 96-, 384- or 1536-well formats). Persons familiar with the art will be aware of a number of devices and methodologies for distributing a cell suspension into such multiple containers, for instance, using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) or with automated low-volume dispensing equipment or by limiting dilution, to obtain a desired number of cells per well, container, tube, compartment or the like. In certain embodiments it may be preferred to distribute substantially the same number of cells to each container, although certain other contemplated embodiments need not be so limited.

[00113] Briefly, according to these and related embodiments, separated lymphoid cell subpopulations may provide mRNA molecules that are used as templates for reverse transcription to produce cDNA molecules that are concomitantly labeled during the reverse transcription (RT) step (see Figures 4 and 5). Figure 4 depicts a schematic representation of labeling adaptive immune receptor polypeptide encoding cDNA during reverse transcription by using an oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer that directs incorporation of oligonucleotide barcode and universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences into cDNA. The cDNA strand is amplified with primers comprising a pGEX-Rev sequence, a barcode BC and N6 spacer sequence (BC-N6) and a "Cn-RC" sequence. The 3' end of the amplified cDNA strand includes a pGEX-FRC sequence, a barcode BC-N6 spacer sequence, and a "Smarter UAH" sequence. The wells or containers of amplified cDNA are pooled, and SPRI bead purification is performed of the first cDNA strand pool. PCR amplification is performed using a tailing-pGEX F/R sequence. The amplicons are purified and selected based on size. The resulting cDNA amplicon is shown in Figure 4.

[00114] Figure 5 depicts a schematic representation of labeling adaptive immune receptor polypeptide encoding cDNA during reverse transcription by using an oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer that directs incorporation of oligonucleotide barcode and universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences into cDNA. Figure 6 presents a schematic representation of a DNA product that is amenable to sequencing following modification with Illumina sequencing adapters of amplified adaptive immune receptor polypeptide encoding cDNA that has been labeled during reverse transcription by using an oligonucleotide reverse

transcription primer that directs incorporation of oligonucleotide barcode and universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences.

[00115] As provided herein, oligonucleotide RT primers in such embodiments include oligonucleotide sequences that specifically hybridize to target adaptive immune receptor encoding regions such as V, J or C region sequences, and also include oligonucleotide barcode sequences as molecular labels, along with universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences as described herein. The process of reverse transcription from adaptive immune receptor encoding mRNA may thus be accompanied by incorporation into cDNA products of (i) oligonucleotide barcode sequences as source identifiers, and (ii) universal adaptors to facilitate automated high throughput sequencing as described herein. By way of illustration and not limitation, in certain of these embodiments all RT primers in the oligonucleotide RT primer sets that are contacted with the contents of a single particular container (e.g., one well of a multi-well plate) share a common barcode oligonucleotide sequence (B), and a different barcode oligonucleotide sequence (B) is present in each separate container (such as each well of a multi-well plate).

[00116] For instance, a cell suspension (e.g., blood cells or a fraction thereof, such as nucleated cells, lymphoid cells, etc.) may be divided by random distribution among different wells of a multi-well plate to physically separate the cells into subsets. The subset of cells in each well may then be lysed or otherwise processed according to any of a number of conventional procedures to liberate mRNA present within the cells, which may include mRNA encoding both chains of TCR (e.g., TCRA and TCRB, or TCRG and TCRG) or IG (e.g., IGH and IGL) heterodimers expressed by the cells, and which may also include mRNA encoding one or more lymphocyte status indicator molecules.

[00117] The mRNA may then be used as a template for cDNA synthesis by modification of established reverse transcription (RT) protocols, using oligonucleotide reverse

transcription primer sets as described herein that are capable of introducing into the cDNA products, in each separate well, a unique oligonucleotide barcode sequence that is linked to the TCR or IG encoding sequence or complement thereof (see, e.g., Figs. 4-5). External to the barcode (e.g., distal from the TCR or IG encoding sequence, relative to the barcode), the oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer sets may also be designed to introduce a universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence as described herein and/or other known oligonucleotide sequence features such as those that may facilitate downstream amplification, processing and/or other manipulation steps such as those that will be compatible with automated high throughput quantitative sequencing.

[00118] Following DNA amplification of the reverse transcription cDNA products, each amplified DNA molecule within a given well of the multi-well plate will have the same oligonucleotide barcode sequence, while the barcode sequences of the amplification products in each different well will be distinct from one another. In this manner within each well, all DNA molecules that encode either chain of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer (e.g., IGH and IGL, TCRA and TCRB, TCRG and TCRD) will have the same oligonucleotide barcode sequence.

[00119] The amplification products may be pooled and quantitatively sequenced using automated high throughput DNA sequencing as described elsewhere herein to obtain a data set of sequences, which include TCR and/or IG sequences along with associated

oligonucleotide barcode sequences. As disclosed herein, in certain preferred embodiments the data set of sequences may be analyzed by a combinatorics approach, which permits matching particular pairs of adaptive immune receptor heterodimer subunit encoding sequences to identify them as having originated from the same lymphoid cell.

[00120] As a non-limiting illustrative example, a hypothetical data set of sequences may be obtained from a set of 100 wells into which a lymphoid cell suspension is distributed. In each well, the cells' mR A cDNA is reverse transcribed using first and second oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer sets that are specific, respectively, for portions of TCRA and TCRB encoding sequences. The oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer sets also introduce a different oligonucleotide barcode sequence into the cDNA products in each distinct well. If, hypothetically, T cells having a single, common clonal origin (e.g., T cells that express the identical TCRA/B sequences) are randomly distributed into five different wells of the 100 wells, then the sequence data set will include five separate instances in which the unique pair of TCRA and TCRB sequences occurs in DNA amplification products that share an identical barcode sequence. In other words, in each of the five separate wells, the oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set promotes the generation of cDNAs having identical rearranged TCRA and TCRB sequences, but the cDNA products of each well include a distinct, well-specific barcode sequence. According to non-limiting theory, on a probabilistic basis the likelihood would be extremely high that the unique TCRA/TCRB sequence pair originates in the same T cell clone, members of which would have been randomly distributed into the five different wells.

[00121] According to certain embodiments, a more detailed description of this high throughput method for determining rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer in a single lymphoid cell is as follows:

[00122] Lymphoid cells are isolated from an anti-coagulated whole blood sample using either density gradient centrifugation (e.g., FicollPaque®, GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences, Piscataway, NJ), or by binding to antibody-coated magnetic beads, such as CD45 beads from Miltenyi Biotec (Auburn, CA). Alternatively, T lymphocytes may be purified from a whole blood sample by binding to CD3+ magnetic beads, and B lymphocytes may be purified from a whole blood sample by binding to CD 19+ magnetic beads. Isolated cell populations may then be checked for viability. Dead cells may be removed from the sample with a filter, for example, using a Miltenyi Biotec Dead Cell Removal kit. Depending on the application, isolated viable lymphoid cells (e.g., as may be present in unsorted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), or as preparations of specific cell sub-sets) may be cultured in short-tem cell culture, and in certain embodiments cells may be activated by any of a number of known activation paradigms, such as by exposure to one or more of cytokines,

chemokines, specific antibodies, mitogens, polyclonal activators, etc. The final cell sample may be prepared by resuspending the cells in culture media (e.g., RPMI with 10% fetal bovine serum) or appropriate isotonic buffered solutions (e.g., phosphate buffered saline, PBS), supplemented with agents which prevent cell clumping (e.g., 0.1% BSA, 1%

Pluronic® F-68). Alternatively, whole blood or PBMCs may be utilized without sorting. As the most general case, any set of cells present as a suspension in an aqueous solution that contains B or T cells may be used.

[00123] The cell preparation comprising a plurality of lymphoid cells is divided into a plurality of physically separated subsets, for example, by distributing the suspension of cells amongst a plurality of containers or compartments that are capable of containing the cells to obtain a plurality of containers or compartments that each contain a subpopulation of the lymphoid cells, wherein each subpopulation comprises one lymphoid cell or a plurality of lymphoid cells, and wherein each container or compartment is physically separate so that the contents are not in fluid communication with one another. Preferably the cells are distributed or divided into the plurality of containers so that each container contains a substantially equivalent number of cells, which may result in there being the same number of cells in each container, or in there being in each container a number of cells that is within 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21-30, 31-50, 51-70, 71-80, or 81-100 percent of the number of cells in any other container. Exemplary containers may be wells of multi- well culture or assay plates such as 6-, 12-, 24-, 48-, 96-, 384- or 1536-well multi-well plates or any other multi-well plate format; arrays of tubes, filters, microfabricated well arrays, laser-generated matrices or any other suitable containers that are capable of containing the cells are also contemplated. In certain exemplary embodiments, cells may be distributed amongst the plurality of containers by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS): A predetermined number of cells may be isolated, sorted, and deposited into a multi-well (e.g., 96, 384 or 1536) reaction plate using FACS. Any of a number of methodologies and instrumentation may be employed using flow cytometers that are capable of preparative sorting of cells onto multi-well plates (e.g., Beckton Dickinson FACSAria® III, Beckman MoFlo™ XDP, etc.). FACS allows for specific subsets of cells to be isolated by antibody staining, viability staining or multicolor combination of specific cell staining reagents. Cell sorters may be employed to count target cells and deposit specified numbers of cells into each well of a collection multi-well plate (10-20%CV). Alternatively, automated low volume (nl to μΐ volumes per well) dispensers, capable of preferably non-contact dispensing of uniform cell suspensions onto high density micro-well plates (384, 1536, 3456 wells), such as

Beckman Coulter BioRAPTR FRD™, LambdaJet™ IIIMT (Thermo Fisher Scientific), CyBi™ Drop (Jena Analytik), Furukawa Perflow™, or similar instruments, may be used to deposit specified numbers of cells into each well of a collection multi-well plate with high precision and reproducibility (10-20%CV).

[00124] The adaptive immune receptor encoding polynucleotide sequences are then amplified from each well, with a unique, well-specific, barcode oligonucleotide attached to all samples. One way to do this is to convert cellular mRNA to cDNA by reverse transcription, and to add to the cDNA products a molecular label in the form of an oligonucleotide barcode during the reverse transcription step. The same barcode may be added to cDNAs that are complementary to mRNAs encoding both chains of each heterodimeric adaptive immune receptor molecule within the well, for instance, the immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, the TCRA and TCRB chains, and the TCRG and TCRD chains. In this and related embodiments, antigen receptor encoding sequences are amplified from cDNA made by reverse transcription from mRNA; genomic DNA (gDNA) is not amplified. To do this, each well of a microwell plate may contain a medium containing an RNase inhibitor, and a medium designed either to protect RNA in cells (such as Qiagen RNAlater™, Qiagen, Valencia, CA), or to lyse cells and isolate RNA (Trizol, guanidium isothiocyanate - Qiagen RNeasy™ etc.). Extracted total cellular RNA may then be transferred into another multi-well plate for the reverse transcription reaction using robotic liquid handlers. Alternatively, sorted cells may be lysed directly in a reverse-transcription reaction mix containing an RNase inhibitor. Reverse transcription reaction (RT) may be initiated by exposing cellular RNA to a reaction mix containing an appropriate buffer, dNTPs, an enzyme (reverse transcriptase) and a set of oligonucleotide reverse transcription primers. These primers will generally comprise a multiplicity of subsets of primers that may anneal to IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE, Ig kappa, Ig lambda, TCR alpha, beta, gamma and delta constant region (C-segment) gene-specific oligonucleotide sequences, as well as a universal template switching oligonucleotide (e.g., Clontech Smarter™ UAII oligonucleotide, Clontech, Mountain View, CA). For instance, either the C-segment gene specific primers, or the Smarter™ UAII oligonucleotide, or both, will be uniquely tagged with a DNA barcode, which will be a unique sequence 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, . .. etc. base pairs long. Each well of the RT reaction plate will contain the same multiplicity of primers, where each primer in the mix will be tagged with the same DNA barcode, but a different barcode will be used in each well. Thus, upon completion of the reverse transcription reaction, each first strand cDNA molecule in a given well will be barcoded with an identical DNA barcode sequence.

List of BCR / TCR C-segment primers for Is cDNA strand synthesis:

Primers from Glanville et al, PNAS 2011

IgM RACE 5 '-GATGGAGTCGGGAAGGAAGTCCTGTGCG AG-3 ' 5601

IgG RACE 5'-GGGAAGACSGATGGGCCCTTGGTGG-3' 5602

IgA RACE 5'-CAGGCAKGCGAYGACCACGTTCCCATC-3' 5603

IgK RACE 5 '-CATCAGATGGCGGGAAGATGAAGAC AGATGGTGC-3 ' 5604

Ig RACE 5 '-CCTC AGAGGAGGGTGGGAAC AGAGTGAC-3 ' 5605

TCRB RACE 5 '-GCTC AAAC AC AGCGACCTCGGGTGGGAAC AC-3 ' 5606

Clontech Smarter primers

Smarter UAII 5*-AAGCAGTGGTATCAACGCAGAGTACrGrGrGrGrG-P-3 5607

5'-

AAGCAGTGGTATCAACGCAGAGTGCAGUGCUXXXXXXr

Islam UAII GrGrG-3' 5608

Smarter CDS 5'-Bio-AAGCAGTGGTATCAACGCAGAGTACT(30)N-lN-3 ' 5609

Smarter IS PCR 5 '-Bio-AAGCAGTGGTATCAACGCAGAGT -3' 5610

5'-

CTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGCAAGCAGTGGTATCAAC

5 'RACE long GCAGAGT-3' 5611

5 'RACE short 5 '-CT AATACGACTC ACTAT AGGGC-3 ' 5612

[00125] Accordingly, following the step of distributing cells to a plurality of containers, each of the containers is contacted, under conditions and for a time sufficient to promote reverse transcription of mRNA in the lymphoid cells in the plurality of containers, with a first and a second oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set, wherein (A) the first oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set is capable of reverse transcribing a plurality of first mRNA sequences encoding a plurality of first polypeptides of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and (B) the second oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set is capable of reverse transcribing a plurality of second mRNA sequences encoding a plurality of second polypeptides of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and wherein: (I) the first oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set comprises a composition comprising a plurality of oligonucleotides having a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula: U1/2-B1-X1

[00126] in which Ul/2 comprises an oligonucleotide which comprises a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when Bl is present or a second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when Bl is nothing, Bl comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 contiguous nucleotides, and XI comprises an oligonucleotide that is one of: (a) a polynucleotide comprising at least 20, 30, 40 or 50 and not more than 100, 90, 80, 70 or 60 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region encoding gene sequence for said first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U1/2-B1-X1, XI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, and (b) a polynucleotide comprising at least 15-30 or 31-50 and not more than 80, 70, 60 or 55 contiguous nucleotides of either (i) an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence for said first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor

heterodimer, or the complement thereof, or (ii) an adaptive immune receptor constant (C) region encoding gene sequence for said first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U1/2-B1-X1, XI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, and (II) the second oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set comprises a composition comprising a plurality of oligonucleotides having a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula:

[00127] U3/4-B2-X2

[00128] in which U3/4 comprises an oligonucleotide which comprises a third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B2 is present or a fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B2 is nothing, B2 comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a second oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 contiguous nucleotides that is, for each of the first and second reverse transcription primer sets that are contacted with a single one of the plurality of containers, the same as Bl, and X2 comprises an oligonucleotide that is one of: (a) a polynucleotide comprising at least 20, 30, 40 or 50 and not more than 100, 90, 80, 70 or 60 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region encoding gene sequence for said second polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U3/4-B2-X2, X2 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, and (b) a

polynucleotide comprising at least 15-30 or 31-50 and not more than 80, 70, 60 or 55 contiguous nucleotides of either (i) an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence for said second polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, or (ii) an adaptive immune receptor constant (C) region encoding gene sequence for said second polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U3/4-B2-X2, X2 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, said step of contacting taking place under conditions and for a time sufficient to obtain in each of one or more of said plurality of containers: a first reverse-transcribed complementary DNA (cDNA) product that comprises at least one first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one first oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one XI oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one XI oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and also to obtain in each of one or more of said plurality of containers: a second reverse-transcribed cDNA product that comprises at least one third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one second oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one X2 oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one X2 oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer.

[00129] After the step of contacting, there is performed a step of combining the first and second reverse-transcribed cDNA products from the plurality of containers to obtain a mixture of reverse-transcribed cDNA products.

[00130] The combining step is followed by contacting the mixture of first and second reverse-transcribed cDNA products with a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set and a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set, wherein the first amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific

oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and wherein the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of third sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a third sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of fourth sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a fourth sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, said step of contacting taking place under conditions and for a time sufficient to amplify both of the first and second reverse-transcribed cDNA products, to obtain a DNA library for sequencing.

[00131] Once the DNA library for sequencing has been so obtained, in a step which follows there takes place the sequencing of the DNA library, to obtain a data set of sequences encoding the first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer.

[00132] Analysis of the data set of sequences may then proceed essentially as described elsewhere herein, to determine rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second polypeptides of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer that originate in a single (i.e., the same) lymphoid cell. Briefly, the method may further comprise the steps of: (a) sorting the data set of sequences according to oligonucleotide barcode sequences identified therein to obtain a plurality of barcode sequence sets each having a unique barcode; (b) sorting each barcode sequence set of (a) into an XI sequence-containing subset and an X2 sequence- containing subset; (c) clustering members of each of the XI and X2 sequence-containing subsets according to XI and X2 sequences to obtain one or a plurality of XI sequence cluster sets and one or a plurality of X2 sequence cluster sets, respectively, and error-correcting single nucleotide barcode sequence mismatches within any one or more of said XI and X2 sequence cluster sets; (d) identifying each first and second adaptive immune receptor heterodimer polypeptide encoding sequence based on known XI and X2 sequences, wherein each XI sequence and each X2 sequence is associated with one or a plurality of unique B sequences to identify the container from which each B sequence-associated XI sequence and each B sequence-associated X2 sequence originated; and (e) combinatorically matching B sequence-associated XI and X2 sequences of (d) as being of common clonal origin based on a probability of B sequences that are coincident with common first and second adaptive immune receptor heterodimer polypeptide encoding sequences, and therefrom determining that rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer originated in a single lymphoid cell.

[00133] Accordingly and in summary, in certain of the herein disclosed embodiments, sequencing adapters may be put onto each end of all reverse transcribed/ amplified TCR and/or IG encoding segments, for instance, by synthesizing universal adaptor sequences onto each end of each cDNA molecule outside of the well-specific barcode. Then, the adapters can be synthesized onto each molecule in a tailing PCR reaction. In such embodiments, fusion RT primers may be synthesized and used for the first cDNA strand synthesis. These primers will all contain the same unique DNA barcode, as well as universal (e.g., pGEX) priming sites. Upon completion of the first cDNA strand synthesis by reverse transcription, the contents of all plate wells will be recovered in a quantitative manner and pooled (e.g., by an inverted centrifugation onto a trough), purified and consequently split into a multiplicity of wells for PCR with universal adapter primers (pGEX) containing "tail" sequences designed to incorporate sequences to be used for amplification and sequencing using a next- generation sequence analysis system (e.g., Illumina, San Diego, CA). Alternatively, the sequencing platform specific adapters can be ligated onto the ends of tagged molecules (e.g., Illumina TrueSeq™ sample preparation method). The molecules from all the wells are pooled thus generating a high-complexity sequencing library of uniquely tagged BCR or TCR ds-cDNA products. The molecules are all sequenced using high-throughput sequencing.

[00134] Universal sequencing primers, complementary to the sequencing platform-specific adapters may desirably be used. This will allow sample indexing of multiple samples, where a sample specific index will be used for each pool of uniquely tagged IGH / TCR products, originating from 96, 384, 1536 etc. original RT reaction wells. Or, a multiplex PCR with a mix of a universal UAII-Forward/ multiplex V, J or C reverse primers may be used to amplify specific target fragments while preserving the original cell transcripts barcoding. If the Illumina sequencing platform (MiSeq™) is used, a paired end sequencing of 2x 250bp would span the majority of the whole BCR / TCR heavy and light (alpha / beta; gamma / delta) chain sequences, thus allowing recovery of the whole coding sequence of each receptor domain. Alternatively, sequencing platforms with extended read length (Roche 454, Life Ion Torrent, OGT etc.) may be used to read through all library fragments in a single sequencing read in one direction. After sequencing, the reads from each sample may be demultiplexed, provided that more than one sample were in the same sequencing lane. Demultiplexing may be performed by assigning sequencing reads to one of multiple indexes used as part of the universal sequencing adapters. For each sample demultiplexed sequence reads, all reads may be divided by the well specific barcodes. Each set of reads with a specific barcode may be clustered separately to correct PCR and sequencing errors and determine the unique sequences for each barcode:

[00135] Sequences that have been so sorted by barcode and by TCR or IG chain may be further subject to cluster analysis using any of a known variety of algorithms for clustering (e.g., BLASTClust, UCLUST, CD-HIT) and error correction in the case of sequences that fail to cluster with other sequences having shared barcode sequences but which instead would cluster with sequences having a barcode that differs by a single nucleotide. The unique sequences can be identified as IG heavy or light (kappa or lambda) chain, or as TCR (alpha or beta; gamma or delta) chains, by sequence match to known receptor sequences. Each heavy and light chain sequence may thus be associated with a list of barcodes corresponding to an original sample well position. The data can then be reordered by sequence. Associated to each unique sequence will be the set of multi-well plate well-specific barcodes within which set that sequence is found. For every B or T cell clone, the heavy and light chain sequences may be associated with the barcodes from all the wells for which one or more copies of the clone is present. Combinatorics may then be used to match heavy and light chains from the same clone. For example, in a 96 well plate, if particular heavy and light chain sequences are both associated with the same 12 barcodes, this particular pair of heavy and light chains may be assumed to have originated from the same clone, insofar as the probability of two sequences randomly having the exact same 12 barcodes out of 96 is infinitesimally small.

[00136] Exemplary Algorithm: It will be appreciated that according to non-limiting theory, first and second adaptive immune receptor chain encoding sequences that occur with the same set of barcode sequences have a high probability of having originated from the same plate well, and thus from the same source cell. For example, where 103 different barcodes are used in the construction of the first and second oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer sets, the probability that two independent (i.e., originating from different cells) double- stranded cDNA first and second products would be obtained having the same barcode sequence is one in 106, if one cell per each plate well were sorted.

[00137] Hence, if according to the methods described herein, three or more copies of a given set of first and second adaptive immune receptor polypeptide encoding sequences (e.g., XI and X2) share common barcode sequences (e.g., belong to the same barcode sequence set), the probability that the sequences are of independent cellular origin approaches zero.

[00138] In certain embodiments barcode oligonucleotides B (Bl, B2) may optionally comprise a first and a second oligonucleotide barcode sequence, wherein the first barcode sequence is selected to identify uniquely a particular V oligonucleotide sequence and the second barcode sequence is selected to identify uniquely a particular J oligonucleotide sequence. The relative positioning of the barcode oligonucleotides Bl and B2 and universal adaptors (U) advantageously permits rapid identification and quantification of the

amplification products of a given unique template oligonucleotide by short sequence reads and paired-end sequencing on automated DNA sequencers (e.g., Illumina HiSeq™ or Illumina MiSEQ®, or GeneAnalyzer™-2, Illumina Corp., San Diego, CA). In particular, these and related embodiments permit rapid high-throughput determination of specific combinations of a V and a J sequence that are present in an amplification product, thereby to characterize the relative representation of annealing targets for each combination of a V- specific primer and a J-specific primer that may be present in a sample such as a sample comprising rearranged TCR or BCR encoding DNA. Verification of the identities and/or quantities of the amplification products may be accomplished by longer sequence reads.

[00139] A large number of adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region and joining (J) region gene sequences are known as nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences, including non- rearranged genomic DNA sequences of TCR and Ig loci, and productively rearranged DNA sequences at such loci and their encoded products. See, e.g., U.S.A.N. 13/217,126; U.S.A.N. 12/794,507; PCT/US2011/026373; PCT/US2011/049012. These and other sequences known to the art may be used according to the present disclosure for the design and production of oligonucleotides to be included in the presently provided compositions and methods.

[00140] V region-specific oligonucleotides may include a polynucleotide sequence of at least 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400 or 450 and not more than 1000, 900, 800, 700, 600 or 500 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor (e.g., TCR or BCR) variable (V) region gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences V comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence. Genomic sequences for TCR and BCR V region genes of humans and other species are known and available from public databases such as Genbank; V region gene sequences include polynucleotide sequences that encode the products of expressed, rearranged TCR and BCR genes and also include polynucleotide sequences of pseudogenes that have been identified in the V region loci. The diverse V polynucleotide sequences that may be incorporated into the presently disclosed oligonucleotides may vary widely in length, in nucleotide composition (e.g., GC content), and in actual linear polynucleotide sequence, and are known, for example, to include "hot spots" or hypervariable regions that exhibit particular sequence diversity.

[00141] The polynucleotide V may thus includes sequences to which members of oligonucleotide primer sets specific for TCR or BCR genes can specifically anneal. Primer sets that are capable of amplifying rearranged DNA encoding a plurality of TCR or BCR are described, for example, in U.S.A.N. 13/217,126; U.S.A.N. 12/794,507;

PCT/US201 1/026373; or PCT/US201 1/049012; or the like; or as described therein may be designed to include oligonucleotide sequences that can specifically hybridize to each unique V gene and to each J gene in a particular TCR or BCR gene locus (e.g., TCRA, TCRB, TCRG, TCRD, IGH, IGK or IGL). For example by way of illustration and not limitation, an oligonucleotide primer of an oligonucleotide primer amplification set that is capable of amplifying rearranged DNA encoding one or a plurality of TCR or BCR may typically include a nucleotide sequence of 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 or 40 contiguous nucleotides, or more, and may specifically anneal to a complementary sequence of 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 or 40 contiguous nucleotides of a V or a J polynucleotide as provided herein. In certain embodiments the primers may comprise at least 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 or 30 nucleotides, and in certain embodiment the primers may comprise sequences of no more than 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 , 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 or 40 contiguous nucleotides. Primers and primer annealing sites of other lengths are also expressly contemplated, as disclosed herein. [00142] The V polynucleotide may thus, in certain embodiments, comprise a nucleotide sequence having a length that is less than, the same or similar to that of the length of a typical V gene from its start codon to its CDR3 encoding region and may, but need not, include a nucleotide sequence that encodes the CDR3 region. In certain preferred embodiments the V polynucleotide includes all or a portion of a CDR3 encoding nucleotide sequence or the complement thereto and CDR3 sequence lengths may vary considerably and have been characterized by several different numbering schemes (e.g., Lefranc, 1999 The Immunologist 7: 132; Kabat et al., 1991 In: Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, NIH

Publication 91-3242; Chothia et al, 1987 J. Mol. Biol. 196:901; Chothia et al, 1989 Nature 342:877; Al-Lazikani et al, 1997 J. Mol. Biol. 273:927; see also, e.g., Rock et al, 1994 J. Exp. Med. 179:323; Saada et al, 2007 Immunol. Cell Biol. 85:323).

[00143] Briefly, the CDR3 region typically spans the polypeptide portion extending from a highly conserved cysteine residue (encoded by the trinucleotide codon TGY; Y = T or C) in the V segment to a highly conserved phenylalanine residue (encoded by TTY) in the J segment of TCRs, or to a highly conserved tryptophan (encoded by TGG) in IGH. More than 90% of natural, productive rearrangements in the TCRB locus have a CDR3 encoding length by this criterion of between 24 and 54 nucleotides, corresponding to between 9 and 17 encoded amino acids. The numbering schemes for CDR3 encoding regions described above denote the positions of the conserved cysteine, phenylalanine and tryptophan codons, and these numbering schemes may also be applied to pseudogenes in which one or more codons encoding these conserved amino acids may have been replaced with a codon encoding a different amino acid. For pseudogenes which do not use these conserved amino acids, the CDR3 length may be defined relative to the corresponding position at which the conserved residue would have been observed absent the substitution, according to one of the established CDR3 sequence position numbering schemes referenced above.

[00144] The polynucleotide J may comprise a polynucleotide comprising at least 15-30, 31-50, 51-60, 61-90, 91-120, or 120-150, and not more than 600, 500, 400, 300 or 200 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences J comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence. The polynucleotide J (or its complement) includes sequences to which members of oligonucleotide primer sets specific for TCR or BCR genes can specifically anneal. Primer sets that are capable of amplifying rearranged DNA encoding a plurality of TCR or BCR are described, for example, in U.S.A.N. 13/217, 126; U.S.A.N. 12/794,507; PCT/US201 1/026373; or PCT/US201 1/049012; or the like; or as described therein may be designed to include oligonucleotide sequences that can specifically hybridize to each unique V gene and to each unique J gene in a particular TCR or BCR gene locus (e.g., TCR α, β, γ or δ, or IgH μ, γ, δ, a or ε, or IgL κ or λ).

[00145] It may be preferred in certain embodiments that the plurality of J polynucleotides that are present in the herein described primer compositions have lengths that simulate the overall lengths of known, naturally occurring J gene nucleotide sequences. The J region lengths in the herein described templates may differ from the lengths of naturally occurring J gene sequences by no more than 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 percent. The J polynucleotide may thus, in certain embodiments, comprise a nucleotide sequence having a length that is the same or similar to that of the length of a typical naturally occurring J gene and may, but need not, include a nucleotide sequence that encodes the CDR3 region, as discussed above.

[00146] Genomic sequences for TCR and BCR J region genes of humans and other species are known and available from public databases such as Genbank; J region gene sequences include polynucleotide sequences that encode the products of expressed and unexpressed rearranged TCR and BCR genes. The diverse J polynucleotide sequences that may be incorporated into the presently disclosed primers may vary widely in length, in nucleotide composition (e.g., GC content), and in actual linear polynucleotide sequence.

[00147] Alternatives to the V and J sequences described herein, for use in construction of the herein described V-segment and J-segment oligonucleotide primers, may be selected by a skilled person based on the present disclosure using knowledge in the art regarding published gene sequences for the V- and J-encoding regions of the genes for each TCR and Ig subunit. Reference Genbank entries for human adaptive immune receptor sequences include: TCRa: (TCRA/D): NC 000014.8 (chrl4:22090057..23021075); TCR : (TCRB): NC 000007.13 (chr7: 141998851..142510972); TCRy: (TCRG): NC_000007.13 (chr7: 38279625..38407656); immunoglobulin heavy chain, IgH (IGH): NC 000014.8 (chrl4: 106032614..107288051); immunoglobulin light chain-kappa, IgLK (IGK): NC_000002.1 1 (chr2:

89156874..90274235); and immunoglobulin light chain-lambda, IgIA (IGL): NC 000022.10 (chr22: 22380474..23265085). Reference Genbank entries for mouse adaptive immune receptor loci sequences include: TCR : (TCRB): NC 000072.5 (chr6: 40841295..41508370), and immunoglobulin heavy chain, IgH (IGH): NC 000078.5 (chrl2: l 14496979..1 17248165). [00148] Primer design analyses and target site selection considerations can be performed, for example, using the OLIGO primer analysis software and/or the BLASTN 2.0.5 algorithm software (Altschul et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 1997, 25(17):3389-402), or other similar programs available in the art.

[00149] Accordingly, based on the present disclosure and in view of these known adaptive immune receptor gene sequences and oligonucleotide design methodologies, for inclusion in the instant oligonucleotides those skilled in the art can design a plurality of V region- specific and J region-specific polynucleotide sequences that each independently contain

oligonucleotide sequences that are unique to a given V and J gene, respectively. Similarly, from the present disclosure and in view of known adaptive immune receptor sequences, those skilled in the art can also design a primer set comprising a plurality of V region- specific and J region-specific oligonucleotide primers that are each independently capable of annealing to a specific sequence that is unique to a given V and J gene, respectively, whereby the plurality of primers is capable of amplifying substantially all V genes and substantially all J genes in a given adaptive immune receptor-encoding locus {e.g., a human TCR or IGH locus). Such primer sets permit generation, in multiplexed {e.g., using multiple forward and reverse primer pairs) PCR, of amplification products that have a first end that is encoded by a rearranged V region-encoding gene segment and a second end that is encoded by a J region-encoding gene segment.

[00150] Typically and in certain embodiments, such amplification products may include a CDR3 -encoding sequence although the invention is not intended to be so limited and contemplates amplification products that do not include a CDR3-encoding sequence. The primers may be preferably designed to yield amplification products having sufficient portions of V and J sequences and in certain preferred embodiments also of barcode (B) sequences as described herein, such that by sequencing the products (amplicons), it is possible to identify on the basis of sequences that are unique to each gene segment (i) the particular V gene, and (ii) the particular J gene in the proximity of which the V gene underwent rearrangement to yield a rearranged adaptive immune receptor-encoding gene. Typically, and in preferred embodiments, the PCR amplification products will not be more than 600 base pairs in size, which according to non-limiting theory will exclude amplification products from non- rearranged adaptive immune receptor genes. In certain other preferred embodiments the amplification products will not be more than 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 125, 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30 or 20 base pairs in size, such as may advantageously provide rapid, high- throughput quantification of sequence-distinct amplicons by short sequence reads.

Primers

[00151] According to the present disclosure, oligonucleotide primers are provided in an oligonucleotide primer set that comprises a plurality of V-segment primers and a plurality of J-segment primers, where the primer set is capable of amplifying rearranged DNA encoding adaptive immune receptors in a biological sample that comprises lymphoid cell DNA.

Suitable primer sets are known in the art and disclosed herein, for example, the primer sets in US 2012/0058902, U.S.A.N. 13/217,126; U.S.A.N. 12/794,507; PCT/US2011/026373; or PCT/US2011/049012; or the like; or those shown in Table 1. In certain embodiments the primer set is designed to include a plurality of V sequence-specific primers that includes, for each unique V region gene (including pseudogenes) in a sample, at least one primer that can specifically anneal to a unique V region sequence; and for each unique J region gene in the sample, at least one primer that can specifically anneal to a unique J region sequence.

[00152] Primer design may be achieved by routine methodologies in view of known TCR and BCR genomic sequences. Accordingly, the primer set is preferably capable of amplifying every possible V-J combination that may result from DNA rearrangements in the TCR or BCR locus. As also described below, certain embodiments contemplate primer sets in which one or more V primers may be capable of specifically annealing to a "unique" sequence that may be shared by two or more V regions but that is not common to all V regions, and/or in which in which one or more J primers may be capable of specifically annealing to a "unique" sequence that may be shared by two or more J regions but that is not common to all J regions.

[00153] In particular embodiments, oligonucleotide primers for use in the compositions and methods described herein may comprise or consist of a nucleic acid of at least about 15 nucleotides long that has the same sequence as, or is complementary to, a 15 nucleotide long contiguous sequence of the target V- or J- segment (i.e., portion of genomic polynucleotide encoding a V-region or J-region polypeptide). Longer primers, e.g., those of about 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, or 50, nucleotides long that have the same sequence as, or sequence complementary to, a contiguous sequence of the target V- or J- region encoding polynucleotide segment, will also be of use in certain embodiments. All intermediate lengths of the presently described oligonucleotide primers are contemplated for use herein. As would be recognized by the skilled person, the primers may have additional sequence added (e.g. , nucleotides that may not be the same as or complementary to the target V- or J-region encoding polynucleotide segment), such as restriction enzyme recognition sites, adaptor sequences for sequencing, barcode sequences, and the like (see e.g., primer sequences provided in the Tables and sequence listing herein). Therefore, the length of the primers may be longer, such as about 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100 or more nucleotides in length or more, depending on the specific use or need.

[00154] Also contemplated for use in certain embodiments are adaptive immune receptor V-segment or J-segment oligonucleotide primer variants that may share a high degree of sequence identity to the oligonucleotide primers for which nucleotide sequences are presented herein, including those set forth in the Sequence Listing. Thus, in these and related embodiments, adaptive immune receptor V-segment or J-segment oligonucleotide primer variants may have substantial identity to the adaptive immune receptor V-segment or J- segment oligonucleotide primer sequences disclosed herein, for example, such

oligonucleotide primer variants may comprise at least 70% sequence identity, preferably at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% or higher sequence identity compared to a reference polynucleotide sequence such as the

oligonucleotide primer sequences disclosed herein, using the methods described herein (e.g., BLAST analysis using standard parameters). One skilled in this art will recognize that these values can be appropriately adjusted to determine corresponding ability of an oligonucleotide primer variant to anneal to an adaptive immune receptor segment-encoding polynucleotide by taking into account codon degeneracy, reading frame positioning and the like.

[00155] Typically, oligonucleotide primer variants will contain one or more substitutions, additions, deletions and/or insertions, preferably such that the annealing ability of the variant oligonucleotide is not substantially diminished relative to that of an adaptive immune receptor V-segment or J-segment oligonucleotide primer sequence that is specifically set forth herein.

[00156] Table 2 presents as a non- limiting example an oligonucleotide primer set that is capable of amplifying productively rearranged DNA encoding TCR β-chains (TCRB) in a biological sample that comprises DNA from lymphoid cells of a subject. In this primer set the J segment primers share substantial sequence homology, and therefore may cross-prime amongst more than one target J polynucleotide sequence, but the V segment primers are designed to anneal specifically to target sequences within the CDR2 region of V and are therefore unique to each V segment. An exception, however, is present in the case of several V primers where the within-family sequences of the closely related target genes are identical (e.g., V6-2 and V6-3 are identical at the nucleotide level throughout the coding sequence of the V segment, and therefore may have a single primer, TRB2V6-2/3).

Table 2. Exemplary Oligonucleotide Primer Set

(hsTCRB PCR Primers)

Name Sequence SEQ

ID

NO:

TRB2V6-1 GTCCCCAATGGCTACAATGTCTCCAGATT 1653

TRB2V6-4 GTCCCTGATGGTTATAGTGTCTCCAGAGC 1654

TRB2V24-1 ATCTCTGATGGATACAGTGTCTCTCGACA 1655

TRB2V25-1 TTTCCTCTGAGTCAACAGTCTCCAGAATA 1656

TRB2V27 TCCTGAAGGGTACAAAGTCTCTCGAAAAG 1657

TRB2V26 CTCTGAGAGGTATCATGTTTCTTGAAATA 1658

TRB2V28 TCCTGAGGGGTACAGTGTCTCTAGAGAGA 1659

TRB2V19 TATAGCTGAAGGGTACAGCGTCTCTCGGG 1660

TRB2V4-1 CTGAATGCCCCAACAGCTCTCTCTTAAAC 1661

TRB2V4-2/3 CTGAATGCCCCAACAGCTCTCACTTATTC 1662

TRB2V2P CCTGAATGCCCTGACAGCTCTCGCTTATA 1663

TRB2V3-1 CCTAAATCTCCAGACAAAGCTCACTTAAA 1664

TRB2V3-2 CTCACCTGACTCTCCAGACAAAGCTCAT 1665

TRB2V16 TTCAGCTAAGTGCCTCCCAAATTCACCCT 1666

TRB2V23-1 GATTCTCATCTCAATGCCCCAAGAACGC 1667

TRB2V18 ATTTTCTGCTGAATTTCCCAAAGAGGGCC 1668

TRB2V17 ATTCACAGCTGAAAGACCTAACGGAACGT 1669

TRB2V14 TCTTAGCTGAAAGGACTGGAGGGACGTAT 1670

TRB2V2 TTCGATGATCAATTCTCAGTTGAAAGGCC 1671

TRB2V12-1 TTGATTCTCAGCACAGATGCCTGATGT 1672

TRB2V12-2 GCGATTCTCAGCTGAGAGGCCTGATGG 1673

TRB2V 12-3/4 TCGATTCTCAGCTAAGATGCCTAATGC 1674

TRB2V12-5 TTCTCAGCAGAGATGCCTGATGCAACTTTA 1675

TRB2V7-9 GGTTCTCTGCAGAGAGGCCTAAGGGATCT 1676

TRB2V7-8 GCTGCCCAGTGATCGCTTCTTTGCAGAAA 1677

TRB2V7-4 GGCGGCCCAGTGGTCGGTTCTCTGCAGAG 1678

TRB2V7-6/7 ATGATCGGTTCTCTGCAGAGAGGCCTGAGG 1679

TRB2V7-2 AGTGATCGCTTCTCTGCAGAGAGGACTGG 1680

TRB2V7-3 GGCTGCCCAACGATCGGTTCTTTGCAGT 1681 Name Sequence SEQ

ID

NO:

TRB2V7-1 TCCCCGTGATCGGTTCTCTGCACAGAGGT 1682

TRB2V1 1- CTAAGGATCGATTTTCTGCAGAGAGGCTC 1683 123

TRB2V13 CTGATCGATTCTCAGCTCAACAGTTCAGT 1684

TRB2V5-1 TGGTCGATTCTCAGGGCGCCAGTTCTCTA 1685

TRB2V5-3 TAATCGATTCTCAGGGCGCCAGTTCCATG 1686

TRB2V5-4 TCCTAGATTCTCAGGTCTCCAGTTCCCTA 1687

TRB2V5-8 GGAAACTTCCCTCCTAGATTTTCAGGTCG 1688

TRB2V5-5 AAGAGGAAACTTCCCTGATCGATTCTCAGC 1689

TRB2V5-6 GGCAACTTCCCTGATCGATTCTCAGGTCA 1690

TRB2V9 GTTCCCTGACTTGCACTCTGAACTAAAC 1691

TRB2V15 GCCGAACACTTCTTTCTGCTTTCTTGAC 1692

TRB2V30 GACCCCAGGACCGGCAGTTCATCCTGAGT 1693

TRB2V20-1 ATGCAAGCCTGACCTTGTCCACTCTGACA 1694

TRB2V29-1 CATCAGCCGCCCAAACCTAACATTCTCAA 1695

[00157] In certain preferred embodiments, the V-segment and J-segment oligonucleotide primers as described herein are designed to include nucleotide sequences such that adequate information is present within the sequence of an amplification product of a rearranged adaptive immune receptor (TCR or Ig) gene to identify uniquely both the specific V and the specific J genes that give rise to the amplification product in the rearranged adaptive immune receptor locus (e.g., at least 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 base pairs of sequence upstream of the V gene recombination signal sequence (RSS), preferably at least about 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 or 40 base pairs of sequence upstream of the V gene recombination signal sequence (RSS), and in certain preferred embodiments greater than 40 base pairs of sequence upstream of the V gene recombination signal sequence (RSS), and at least 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 base pairs downstream of the J gene RSS, preferably at least about 22, 24, 26, 28 or 30 base pairs downstream of the J gene RSS, and in certain preferred embodiments greater than 30 base pairs downstream of the J gene RSS). [00158] This feature stands in contrast to oligonucleotide primers described in the art for amplification of TCR-encoding or Ig-encoding gene sequences, which rely primarily on the amplification reaction merely for detection of presence or absence of products of appropriate sizes for V and J segments (e.g., the presence in PCR reaction products of an amplicon of a particular size indicates presence of a V or J segment but fails to provide the sequence of the amplified PCR product and hence fails to confirm its identity, such as the common practice of spectratyping).

[00159] Oligonucleotides (e.g., primers) can be prepared by any suitable method, including direct chemical synthesis by a method such as the phosphotriester method of Narang et al, 1979, Meth. Enzymol. 68:90-99; the phosphodiester method of Brown et al, 1979, Meth. Enzymol. 68: 109-151; the diethylphosphoramidite method of Beaucage et al, 1981, Tetrahedron Lett. 22: 1859-1862; and the solid support method of U.S. Pat. No.

4,458,066, each incorporated herein by reference. A review of synthesis methods of conjugates of oligonucleotides and modified nucleotides is provided in Goodchild, 1990, Bioconjugate Chemistry 1(3): 165-187, incorporated herein by reference.

[00160] The term "primer," as used herein, refers to an oligonucleotide capable of acting as a point of initiation of DNA synthesis under suitable

[00161] conditions. Such conditions include those in which synthesis of a primer extension product complementary to a nucleic acid strand is induced in the presence of four different nucleoside triphosphates and an agent for extension (e.g., a DNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase) in an appropriate buffer and at a suitable temperature.

[00162] A primer is preferably a single-stranded DNA. The appropriate length of a primer depends on the intended use of the primer but typically ranges from 6 to 50 nucleotides, or in certain embodiments, from 15-35 nucleotides. Short primer molecules generally require cooler temperatures to form sufficiently stable hybrid complexes with the template. A primer need not reflect the exact sequence of the template nucleic acid, but must be sufficiently complementary to hybridize with the template. The design of suitable primers for the amplification of a given target sequence is well known in the art and described in the literature cited herein.

[00163] As described herein, primers can incorporate additional features which allow for the detection or immobilization of the primer but do not alter the basic property of the primer, that of acting as a point of initiation of DNA synthesis. For example, primers may contain an additional nucleic acid sequence at the 5' end which does not hybridize to the target nucleic acid, but which facilitates cloning, detection, or sequencing of the amplified product. The region of the primer which is sufficiently complementary to the template to hybridize is referred to herein as the hybridizing region.

[00164] As used herein, a primer is "specific," for a target sequence if, when used in an amplification reaction under sufficiently stringent conditions, the primer hybridizes primarily to the target nucleic acid. Typically, a primer is specific for a target sequence if the primer- target duplex stability is greater than the stability of a duplex formed between the primer and any other sequence found in the sample. One of skill in the art will recognize that various factors, such as salt conditions as well as base composition of the primer and the location of the mismatches, will affect the specificity of the primer, and that routine experimental confirmation of the primer specificity will be needed in many cases. Hybridization conditions can be chosen under which the primer can form stable duplexes only with a target sequence. Thus, the use of target-specific primers under suitably stringent amplification conditions enables the selective amplification of those target sequences which contain the target primer binding sites.

[00165] In particular embodiments, primers for use in the methods described herein comprise or consist of a nucleic acid of at least about 15 nucleotides long that has the same sequence as, or is complementary to, a 15 nucleotide long contiguous sequence of the target V or J segment. Longer primers, e.g., those of about 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, or 50, nucleotides long that have the same sequence as, or sequence complementary to, a contiguous sequence of the target V or J segment, will also be of use in certain embodiments. All intermediate lengths of the aforementioned primers are contemplated for use herein. As would be recognized by the skilled person, the primers may have additional sequence added {e.g. , nucleotides that may not be the same as or complementary to the target V or J segment), such as restriction enzyme recognition sites, adaptor sequences for sequencing, barcode sequences, and the like (see e.g., primer sequences provided herein and in the sequence listing). Therefore, the length of the primers may be longer, such as 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 70, 75, nucleotides in length or more, depending on the specific use or need. For example, in one embodiment, the forward and reverse primers are both modified at the 5' end with the universal forward primer sequence compatible with a DNA sequencer.

[00166] Also contemplated for use in certain embodiments are adaptive immune receptor V-segment or J-segment oligonucleotide primer variants that may share a high degree of sequence identity to the oligonucleotide primers for which nucleotide sequences are presented herein, including those set forth in the Sequence Listing. Thus, in these and related embodiments, adaptive immune receptor V-segment or J-segment oligonucleotide primer variants may have substantial identity to the adaptive immune receptor V-segment or J- segment oligonucleotide primer sequences disclosed herein, for example, such

oligonucleotide primer variants may comprise at least 70% sequence identity, preferably at least 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% or higher sequence identity compared to a reference polynucleotide sequence such as the

oligonucleotide primer sequences disclosed herein, using the methods described herein (e.g., BLAST analysis using standard parameters). One skilled in this art will recognize that these values can be appropriately adjusted to determine corresponding ability of an oligonucleotide primer variant to anneal to an adaptive immune receptor segment-encoding polynucleotide by taking into account codon degeneracy, reading frame positioning and the like.

[00167] Typically, oligonucleotide primer variants will contain one or more substitutions, additions, deletions and/or insertions, preferably such that the annealing ability of the variant oligonucleotide is not substantially diminished relative to that of an adaptive immune receptor V-segment or J-segment oligonucleotide primer sequence that is specifically set forth herein. As also noted elsewhere herein, in preferred embodiments adaptive immune receptor V-segment and J-segment oligonucleotide primers are designed to be capable of amplifying a rearranged TCR or IGH sequence that includes the coding region for CDR3.

[00168] According to certain embodiments contemplated herein, the primers for use in the multiplex PCR methods of the present disclosure may be functionally blocked to prevent non-specific priming of non-T or B cell sequences. For example, the primers may be blocked with chemical modifications as described in U.S. patent application publication

US2010/0167353. According to certain herein disclosed embodiments, the use of such blocked primers in the present multiplex PCR reactions involves primers that may have an inactive configuration wherein DNA replication (i.e., primer extension) is blocked, and an activated configuration wherein DNA replication proceeds. The inactive configuration of the primer is present when the primer is either single-stranded, or when the primer is specifically hybridized to the target DNA sequence of interest but primer extension remains blocked by a chemical moiety that is linked at or near to the 3' end of the primer.

[00169] The activated configuration of the primer is present when the primer is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence of interest and is subsequently acted upon by RNase H or another cleaving agent to remove the 3' blocking group, thereby allowing an enzyme (e.g., a DNA polymerase) to catalyze primer extension in an amplification reaction. Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the kinetics of the hybridization of such primers are akin to a second order reaction, and are therefore a function of the T cell or B cell gene sequence concentration in the mixture. Blocked primers minimize non-specific reactions by requiring hybridization to the target followed by cleavage before primer extension can proceed. If a primer hybridizes incorrectly to a sequence that is related to the desired target sequence but which differs by having one or more non-complementary nucleotides that result in base-pairing mismatches, cleavage of the primer is inhibited, especially when there is a mismatch that lies at or near the cleavage site. This strategy to improve the fidelity of amplification reduces the frequency of false priming at such locations, and thereby increases the specificity of the reaction. As would be recognized by the skilled person, reaction conditions, particularly the concentration of R ase H and the time allowed for hybridization and extension in each cycle, can be optimized to maximize the difference in cleavage efficiencies between highly efficient cleavage of the primer when it is correctly hybridized to its true target sequence, and poor cleavage of the primer when there is a mismatch between the primer and the template sequence to which it may be incompletely annealed.

[00170] As described in US2010/0167353, a number of blocking groups are known in the art that can be placed at or near the 3' end of the oligonucleotide (e.g., a primer) to prevent extension. A primer or other oligonucleotide may be modified at the 3 '-terminal nucleotide to prevent or inhibit initiation of DNA synthesis by, for example, the addition of a 3' deoxyribonucleotide residue (e.g., cordycepin), a 2',3'-dideoxyribonucleotide residue, non- nucleotide linkages or alkane-diol modifications (U.S. Pat. No. 5,554,516). Alkane diol modifications which can be used to inhibit or block primer extension have also been described by Wilk et al, (1990 Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (8):2065), and by Arnold et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 6,031,091). Additional examples of suitable blocking groups include 3' hydroxyl substitutions (e.g., 3'-phosphate, 3 '-triphosphate or 3'-phosphate diesters with alcohols such as 3-hydroxypropyl), 2'3'-cyclic phosphate, 2' hydroxyl substitutions of a terminal RNA base (e.g., phosphate or sterically bulky groups such as triisopropyl silyl (TIPS) or tert-butyl dimethyl silyl (TBDMS)). 2'-alkyl silyl groups such as TIPS and TBDMS substituted at the 3'-end of an oligonucleotide are described by Laikhter et al., U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/686,894, which is incorporated herein by reference. Bulky substituents can also be incorporated on the base of the 3 '-terminal residue of the oligonucleotide to block primer extension.

[00171] In certain embodiments, the oligonucleotide may comprise a cleavage domain that is located upstream (e.g., 5' to) of the blocking group used to inhibit primer extension. As examples, the cleavage domain may be an RNase H cleavage domain, or the cleavage domain may be an RNase H2 cleavage domain comprising a single RNA residue, or the

oligonucleotide may comprise replacement of the RNA base with one or more alternative nucleosides. Additional illustrative cleavage domains are described in US2010/0167353.

[00172] Thus, a multiplex PCR system may use 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, or more forward primers, wherein each forward primer is complementary to a single functional TCR or Ig V segment or a small family of functional TCR or Ig V segments, e.g., a TCR νβ segment, (see e.g., the TCRBV primers as shown in Table 2, SEQ ID NOS: 1644-1695), and, for example, thirteen reverse primers, each specific to a TCR or Ig J segment, such as TCR Ιβ segment (see e.g., TCRBJ primers in Table 2, SEQ ID NOS: 1631-1643). In another embodiment, a multiplex PCR reaction may use four forward primers each specific to one or more functional TCRy V segment and four reverse primers each specific for one or more TCRy J segments. In another embodiment, a multiplex PCR reaction may use 84 forward primers each specific to one or more functional V segments and six reverse primers each specific for one or more J segments.

[00173] Thermal cycling conditions may follow methods of those skilled in the art. For example, using a PCR Express™ thermal cycler (Hybaid, Ashford, UK), the following cycling conditions may be used: 1 cycle at 95°C for 15 minutes, 25 to 40 cycles at 94°C for 30 seconds, 59°C for 30 seconds and 72°C for 1 minute, followed by one cycle at 72°C for 10 minutes. As will be recognized by the skilled person, thermal cycling conditions may be optimized, for example, by modifying annealing temperatures, annealing times, number of cycles and extension times. As would be recognized by the skilled person, the amount of primer and other PCR reagents used, as well as PCR parameters (e.g., annealing temperature, extension times and cycle numbers), may be optimized to achieve desired PCR amplification efficiency.

[00174] Alternatively, in certain related embodiments also contemplated herein, "digital PCR" methods can be used to quantitate the number of target genomes in a sample, without the need for a standard curve. In digital PCR, the PCR reaction for a single sample is performed in a multitude of more than 100 microcells or droplets, such that each droplet either amplifies (e.g., generation of an amplification product provides evidence of the presence of at least one template molecule in the microcell or droplet) or fails to amplify (evidence that the template was not present in a given microcell or droplet). By simply counting the number of positive microcells, it is possible directly to count the number of target genomes that are present in an input sample. Digital PCR methods typically use an endpoint readout, rather than a conventional quantitative PCR signal that is measured after each cycle in the thermal cycling reaction (see, e.g., Pekin et al., 2011 Lab. Chip

11(13):2156; Zhong et al, 2011 Lab. Chip 11(13):2167; Tewhey et al, 2009 Nature

Biotechnol. 27: 1025; 2010 Nature Biotechnol. 28:178). Accordingly, any of the herein described compositions {e.g., adaptive immune receptor gene-specific oligonucleotide primer sets) and methods may be adapted for use in such digital PCR methodology, for example, the ABI QuantStudio™ 12K Flex System (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA), the QuantaLife™ digital PCR system (BioRad, Hercules, CA) or the RainDance™ microdroplet digital PCR system (RainDance Technologies, Lexington, MA).

Adaptors

[00175] The herein described oligonucleotides may in certain embodiments comprise first (Ul) and second (U2) (and optionally third (U3) and fourth (U4)) universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences, or may lack either or both of Ul and U2 (or U3 or U4). A universal adaptor oligonucleotide U thus may comprise either nothing or an oligonucleotide having a sequence that is selected from (i) a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5' to a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and U2 may comprise either nothing or an oligonucleotide having a sequence that is selected from (i) a second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to a second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence. A similar relationship pertains for U3 and U4.

[00176] Ul and/or U2 may, for example, comprise universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences and/or sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequences that are specific to a single-molecule sequencing technology being employed, for example the HiSeq™ or GeneAnalyzer™-2 (GA-2) systems (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA) or another suitable sequencing suite of instrumentation, reagents and software. Inclusion of such platform- specific adaptor sequences permits direct quantitative sequencing of the presently described dsDNA amplification products into which U has been incorporated as described herein, using a nucleotide sequencing methodology such as the HiSeq™ or GA2 or equivalent. This feature therefore advantageously permits qualitative and quantitative characterization of the dsDNA composition.

[00177] For example, dsDNA amplification products may be generated that have universal adaptor sequences at both ends, so that the adaptor sequences can be used to further incorporate sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotides at each end of each template.

[00178] Without wishing to be bound by theory, platform-specific oligonucleotides may be added onto the ends of such dsDNA using 5 ' (5 '-platform sequence-universal adaptor- 1 sequence-3 ') and 3 ' (5 '-platform sequence-universal adaptor-2 sequence-3 ') oligonucleotides in three cycles of denaturation, annealing and extension, so that the relative representation in the dsDNA composition of each of the component dsDNAs is not quantitatively altered. Unique identifier sequences (e.g., barcode sequences B that are associated with and thus identify individual V and/or J regions, or sample-identifier barcodes as described herein) are placed adjacent to the adaptor sequences, thus permitting quantitative sequencing in short sequence reads, in order to characterize the DNA population by the criterion of the relative amount of each unique sequence that is present.

[00179] In addition to adaptor sequences described in the Examples and included in the exemplary template sequences in the Sequence Listing (e.g., at the 5 ' and 3 ' ends of SEQ ID NOS: 1-1630), other oligonucleotide sequences that may be used as universal adaptor sequences will be known to those familiar with the art in view of the present disclosure. Non-limiting examples of additional adaptor sequences are shown in Table 3 and set forth in SEQ ID NOS: 1710-1731.

Table 3. Exemplary Adaptor Sequences

SEQ ID

Adaptor (primer) name Sequence NO:

AOX1 Forward GACTGGTTCCAATTGACAAGC 1717

AOX1 Reverse GCAAATGGCATTCTGACATCC 1718 pGEX Forward (GST 5, 1719 pGEX 5') GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTG

pGEX Reverse (GST 3, 1 720 pGEX 3') CCGGGAGCTGCATGTGTCAGAGG

BGH Reverse AACTAGAAGGCACAGTCGAGGC 1 721

GFP (C terminal CFP, 1722

YFP or BFP) C A CTCTCGGC ATGG ACG AG C

GFP Reverse TGGTGCAGATGAACTTCAGG 1723

GAG- GTTCGACCCCGCCTCGATCC 1724

GAG Reverse TGACACACATTCCACAGGGTC 1725

CYC 1 Reverse GCGTGAATGTAAGCGTGAC 1726 pFastBacF 5'-d(GGATTATTCATACCGTCCCA)-3' 1727 pFastBacR 5'-d(CAAATGTGGTATGGCTGATT)-3' 1728 pB AD Forward 5*-d{ Λ' I X ( ΛΎΛί ·( 'Λ'Π 1 " f" ΓΛΎ< '( ' )-.V 1729 pBAD Reverse 5'-d(GATTTAATCTGTATCAGG)-3' 1730

CMV-Forward 5 '-d(CGC ΑΑ ATGGGCGGT AGGCGTG )-3 ' 1 73 1

Barcodes

[00180] As described herein, certain embodiments contemplate designing oligonucleotide sequences to contain short signature sequences that permit unambiguous identification of the polynucleotide sequence into which they are incorporated, and hence of at least one primer responsible for amplifying that product, without having to sequence the entire amplification product. In the herein described oligonucleotides, such barcodes B (e.g., Bl , B2) are each either nothing or each comprise an oligonucleotide B that comprises an oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 or more contiguous nucleotides (including all integer values therebetween), wherein in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences B comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence which uniquely identifies a particular V and/or J oligonucleotide primer sequence. [00181] Exemplary barcodes may comprise a first barcode oligonucleotide of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16 nucleotides that uniquely identifies each oligonucleotide primer (e.g., a V or a J primer) in the primer composition, and optionally in certain embodiments a second barcode oligonucleotide of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16 nucleotides that uniquely identifies each partner primer in a primer set (e.g., a J or a V primer), to provide barcodes of, respectively, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 or 32 nucleotides in length, but these and related embodiments are not intended to be so limited. Barcode oligonucleotides may comprise oligonucleotide sequences of any length, so long as a minimum barcode length is obtained that precludes occurrence of a given barcode sequence in two or more product polynucleotides having otherwise distinct sequences (e.g., V and J sequences).

[00182] Thus, the minimum barcode length, to avoid such redundancy amongst the barcodes that are used to uniquely identify different V-J sequence pairings, is X nucleotides, where 4X is greater than the number of distinct template species that are to be differentiated on the basis of having non-identical sequences. In practice, barcode oligonucleotide sequence read lengths may be limited only by the sequence read-length limits of the nucleotide sequencing instrument to be employed. For certain embodiments, different barcode oligonucleotides that will distinguish individual species of template oligonucleotides should have at least two nucleotide mismatches (e.g., a minimum hamming distance of 2) when aligned to maximize the number of nucleotides that match at particular positions in the barcode oligonucleotide sequences.

[00183] The skilled artisan will be familiar with the design, synthesis, and incorporation into a larger oligonucleotide or polynucleotide construct, of oligonucleotide barcode sequences of, for instance, at least 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 35 or more contiguous nucleotides, including all integer values therebetween. For non-limiting examples of the design and implementation of

oligonucleotide barcode sequence identification strategies, see, e.g., de Career et al, 2011 Adv. Env. Microbiol. 77:6310; Parameswaran et al, 2007 Nucl. Ac. Res. 35(19):330; Roh et al, 2010 Trends Biotechnol. 28:291.

[00184] Typically, barcodes are placed in oligonucleotides at locations where they are not found naturally, i.e., barcodes comprise nucleotide sequences that are distinct from any naturally occurring oligonucleotide sequences that may be found in the vicinity of the sequences adjacent to which the barcodes are situated (e.g., V and/or J sequences). Such barcode sequences may be included, according to certain embodiments described herein, as elements Bl and/or B2 of the presently disclosed oligonucleotides. Accordingly, certain of the herein described oligonucleotide compositions may in certain embodiments comprise one, two or more barcodes, while in certain other embodiments some or all of these barcodes may be absent. In certain embodiments all barcode sequences will have identical or similar GC content (e.g., differing in GC content by no more than 20%, or by no more than 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11 or 10%).

Sequencing

[00185] Sequencing may be performed using any of a variety of available high throughput single molecule sequencing machines and systems. Illustrative sequence systems include sequence-by-synthesis systems such as the Illumina Genome Analyzer and associated instruments (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA), Helicos Genetic Analysis System (Helicos Biosciences Corp., Cambridge, MA), Pacific Biosciences PacBio RS (Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA), or other systems having similar capabilities. Sequencing is achieved using a set of sequencing oligonucleotides that hybridize to a defined region within the amplified DNA molecules. The sequencing oligonucleotides are designed such that the V- and J- encoding gene segments can be uniquely identified by the sequences that are generated, based on the present disclosure and in view of known adaptive immune receptor gene sequences that appear in publicly available databases. See, e.g., U.S.A.N. 13/217,126;

U.S.A.N. 12/794,507; PCT/US2011/026373; or PCT/US2011/049012. Exemplary TCRB J- region sequencing primers are set forth in Table 4:

Table 4: TCRBJ Sequencing Primers

[00186] The term "gene" means the segment of DNA involved in producing a polypeptide chain such as all or a portion of a TCR or Ig polypeptide {e.g., a CDR3 -containing polypeptide); it includes regions preceding and following the coding region "leader and trailer" as well as intervening sequences (introns) between individual coding segments (exons), and may also include regulatory elements {e.g., promoters, enhancers, repressor binding sites and the like), and may also include recombination signal sequences (RSSs) as described herein.

[00187] The nucleic acids of the present embodiments, also referred to herein as polynucleotides, may be in the form of RNA or in the form of DNA, which DNA includes cDNA, genomic DNA, and synthetic DNA. The DNA may be double-stranded or single- stranded, and if single stranded may be the coding strand or non-coding (anti-sense) strand. A coding sequence which encodes a TCR or an immunoglobulin or a region thereof {e.g., a V region, a D segment, a J region, a C region, etc.) for use according to the present

embodiments may be identical to the coding sequence known in the art for any given TCR or immunoglobulin gene regions or polypeptide domains {e.g., V-region domains, CDR3 domains, etc.), or may be a different coding sequence, which, as a result of the redundancy or degeneracy of the genetic code, encodes the same TCR or immunoglobulin region or polypeptide.

[00188] In certain embodiments, the amplified J-region encoding gene segments may each have a unique sequence-defined identifier tag of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or about 15, 20 or more nucleotides, situated at a defined position relative to a RSS site. For example, a four- base tag may be used, in the j -region encoding segment of amplified TCRP CDR3 -encoding regions, at positions +11 through +14 downstream from the RSS site. However, these and related embodiments need not be so limited and also contemplate other relatively short nucleotide sequence-defined identifier tags that may be detected in J-region encoding gene segments and defined based on their positions relative to an RSS site. These may vary between different adaptive immune receptor encoding loci.

[00189] The recombination signal sequence (RSS) consists of two conserved sequences (heptamer, 5'-CACAGTG-3', and nonamer, 5'-ACAAAAACC-3'), separated by a spacer of either 12 +/- 1 bp (" 12-signal") or 23 +/- 1 bp ("23-signal"). A number of nucleotide positions have been identified as important for recombination including the CA dinucleotide at position one and two of the heptamer, and a C at heptamer position three has also been shown to be strongly preferred as well as an A nucleotide at positions 5, 6, 7 of the nonamer. (Ramsden et. al 1994; Akamatsu et. al. 1994; Hesse et. al. 1989). Mutations of other nucleotides have minimal or inconsistent effects. The spacer, although more variable, also has an impact on recombination, and single-nucleotide replacements have been shown to significantly impact recombination efficiency (Fanning et. al. 1996, Larijani et. al 1999; Nadel et. al. 1998). Criteria have been described for identifying RSS polynucleotide sequences having significantly different recombination efficiencies (Ramsden et. al 1994; Akamatsu et. al. 1994; Hesse et. al. 1989 and Cowell et. al. 1994). Accordingly, the sequencing oligonucleotides may hybridize adjacent to a four base tag within the amplified J- encoding gene segments at positions +11 through +14 downstream of the RSS site. For example, sequencing oligonucleotides for TCRB may be designed to anneal to a consensus nucleotide motif observed just downstream of this "tag", so that the first four bases of a sequence read will uniquely identify the J-encoding gene segment (see, e.g.,

WO/2012/027503).

[00190] The average length of the CDR3 -encoding region, for the TCR, defined as the nucleotides encoding the TCR polypeptide between the second conserved cysteine of the V segment and the conserved phenylalanine of the J segment, is 35+/-3 nucleotides. Accordingly and in certain embodiments, PCR amplification using V-segment oligonucleotide primers with J-segment oligonucleotide primers that start from the J segment tag of a particular TCR or IgH J region (e.g., TCR Ιβ, TCR Jy or IgH JH as described herein) will nearly always capture the complete V-D- J junction in a 50 base pair read. The average length of the IgH CDR3 region, defined as the nucleotides between the conserved cysteine in the V segment and the conserved phenylalanine in the J segment, is less constrained than at the TCR locus, but will typically be between about 10 and about 70 nucleotides.

Accordingly and in certain embodiments, PCR amplification using V-segment

oligonucleotide primers with J-segment oligonucleotide primers that start from the IgH J segment tag will capture the complete V-D-J junction in a 100 base pair read.

[00191] PCR primers that anneal to and support polynucleotide extension on mismatched template sequences are referred to as promiscuous primers. In certain embodiments, the TCR and Ig J-segment reverse PCR primers may be designed to minimize overlap with the sequencing oligonucleotides, in order to minimize promiscuous priming in the context of multiplex PCR. In one embodiment, the TCR and Ig J-segment reverse primers may be anchored at the 3' end by annealing to the consensus splice site motif, with minimal overlap of the sequencing primers. Generally, the TCR and Ig V and J-segment primers may be selected to operate in PCR at consistent annealing temperatures using known

sequence/primer design and analysis programs under default parameters.

[00192] For the sequencing reaction, the exemplary IGH J sequencing primers extend three nucleotides across the conserved CAG sequences as described in WO/2012/027503.

Samples

[00193] The subject or biological source, from which a test biological sample may be obtained, may be a human or non-human animal, or a transgenic or cloned or tissue- engineered (including through the use of stem cells) organism. In certain preferred embodiments of the invention, the subject or biological source may be known to have, or may be suspected of having or being at risk for having, a circulating or solid tumor or other malignant condition, or an autoimmune disease, or an inflammatory condition, and in certain preferred embodiments of the invention the subject or biological source may be known to be free of a risk or presence of such disease.

[00194] Certain preferred embodiments contemplate a subject or biological source that is a human subject such as a patient that has been diagnosed as having or being at risk for developing or acquiring cancer according to art-accepted clinical diagnostic criteria, such as those of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD, USA) or as described in DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology (2008, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia/ Ovid, New York); Pizzo and Poplack, Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology (Fourth edition, 2001, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia/ Ovid, New York); and Vogelstein and Kinzler, The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer (Second edition, 2002, McGraw Hill Professional, New York); certain embodiments contemplate a human subject that is known to be free of a risk for having, developing or acquiring cancer by such criteria.

[00195] Certain other embodiments contemplate a non-human subject or biological source, for example a non-human primate such as a macaque, chimpanzee, gorilla, vervet, orangutan, baboon or other non-human primate, including such non-human subjects that may be known to the art as preclinical models, including preclinical models for solid tumors and/or other cancers. Certain other embodiments contemplate a non-human subject that is a mammal, for example, a mouse, rat, rabbit, pig, sheep, horse, bovine, goat, gerbil, hamster, guinea pig or other mammal; many such mammals may be subjects that are known to the art as preclinical models for certain diseases or disorders, including circulating or solid tumors and/or other cancers {e.g., Talmadge et al, 2007 Am. J. Pathol. 170:793; Kerbel, 2003 Cane. Biol.

Therap. 2(4 Suppl 1):S134; Man et al, 2007 Cane. Met. Rev. 26:737; Cespedes et al, 2006 Clin. Transl. Oncol. 8:318). The range of embodiments is not intended to be so limited, however, such that there are also contemplated other embodiments in which the subject or biological source may be a non-mammalian vertebrate, for example, another higher vertebrate, or an avian, amphibian or reptilian species, or another subject or biological source.

[00196] Biological samples may be provided by obtaining a blood sample, biopsy specimen, tissue explant, organ culture, biological fluid or any other tissue or cell preparation from a subject or a biological source. Preferably the sample comprises DNA from lymphoid cells of the subject or biological source, which, by way of illustration and not limitation, may contain rearranged DNA at one or more TCR or BCR loci. In certain embodiments a test biological sample may be obtained from a solid tissue (e.g., a solid tumor), for example by surgical resection, needle biopsy or other means for obtaining a test biological sample that contains a mixture of cells.

[00197] According to certain embodiments it may be desirable to isolate lymphoid cells (e.g., T cells and/or B cells) according to any of a large number of established methodologies, where isolated lymphoid cells are those that have been removed or separated from the tissue, environment or milieu in which they naturally occur. B cells and T cells can thus be obtained from a biological sample, such as from a variety of tissue and biological fluid samples including bone marrow, thymus, lymph glands, lymph nodes, peripheral tissues and blood, but peripheral blood is most easily accessed. Any peripheral tissue can be sampled for the presence of B and T cells and is therefore contemplated for use in the methods described herein. Tissues and biological fluids from which adaptive immune cells, may be obtained include, but are not limited to skin, epithelial tissues, colon, spleen, a mucosal secretion, oral mucosa, intestinal mucosa, vaginal mucosa or a vaginal secretion, cervical tissue, ganglia, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), bone marrow, cord blood, serum, serosal fluid, plasma, lymph, urine, ascites fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, abdominal fluid, culture medium, conditioned culture medium or lavage fluid. In certain embodiments, adaptive immune cells may be isolated from an apheresis sample. Peripheral blood samples may be obtained by phlebotomy from subjects. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are isolated by techniques known to those of skill in the art, e.g., by Ficoll-Hypaque® density gradient separation. In certain embodiments, whole PBMCs are used for analysis.

[00198] For nucleic acid extraction, total genomic DNA may be extracted from cells using methods known in the art and/or commercially available kits, e.g., by using the QIAamp® DNA blood Mini Kit (QIAGEN®). The approximate mass of a single haploid genome is 3 pg. Preferably, at least 100,000 to 200,000 cells are used for analysis, i.e., about 0.6 to 1.2 μg DNA from diploid T or B cells. Using PBMCs as a source, the number of T cells can be estimated to be about 30% of total cells. The number of B cells can also be estimated to be about 30% of total cells in a PBMC preparation.

[00199] The Ig and TCR gene loci contain many different variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments, which are subjected to rearrangement processes during early lymphoid differentiation. Ig and TCR V, D and J gene segment sequences are known in the art and are available in public databases such as GENBANK. The V-D-J rearrangements are mediated via a recombinase enzyme complex in which the RAGl and RAG2 proteins play a key role by recognizing and cutting the DNA at the recombination signal sequences (RSS), which are located downstream of the V gene segments, at both sides of the D gene segments, and upstream of the J gene segments. Inappropriate RSS reduce or even completely prevent rearrangement. The recombination signal sequence (RSS) consists of two conserved sequences (heptamer, 5'-CACAGTG-3', and nonamer, 5'-ACAAAAACC-3'), separated by a spacer of either 12 +/- 1 bp ("12-signal") or 23 +/- 1 bp ("23-signal").

[00200] A number of nucleotide positions have been identified as important for recombination including the CA dinucleotide at position one and two of the heptamer, and a C at heptamer position three has also been shown to be strongly preferred as well as an A nucleotide at positions 5, 6, 7 of the nonamer. (Ramsden et al. 1994 Nucl. Ac. Res. 22: 1785; Akamatsu et. al. 1994 J. Immunol. 153:4520; Hesse et. al. 1989 Genes Dev. 3:1053).

Mutations of other nucleotides have minimal or inconsistent effects. The spacer, although more variable, also has an impact on recombination, and single-nucleotide replacements have been shown to significantly impact recombination efficiency (Fanning et. al. 1996 Cell. Immunol. Immunopath. 79: 1, Larijani et al. 1999 Nucl. Ac. Res. 2Ί 2?>ΰ<\; Nadel et al. 1998 J. Immunol. 161 :6068; Nadel et al, 1998 J. Exp. Med. 187: 1495). Criteria have been described for identifying RSS polynucleotide sequences having significantly different recombination efficiencies (Ramsden et al 1994 Nucl. Ac. Res. 22: 1785; Akamatsu et. al. 1994 J. Immunol. 153:4520; Hesse et al. 1989 Genes Dev. 3: 1053, and Lee et al, 2003 PLoS 1(1):E1).

[00201] The rearrangement process generally starts with a D to J rearrangement followed by a V to D-J rearrangement in the case of Ig heavy chain (IgH), TCR beta (TCRB), and TCR delta (TCRD) genes or concerns direct V to J rearrangements in case of Ig kappa (IgK), Ig lambda (IgL), TCR alpha (TCRA), and TCR gamma (TCRG) genes. The sequences between rearranging gene segments are generally deleted in the form of a circular excision product, also called TCR excision circle (TREC) or B cell receptor excision circle (BREC).

[00202] The many different combinations of V, D, and J gene segments represent the so- called combinatorial repertoire, which is estimated to be ~2xl06 for Ig molecules, ~3xl06 for TCRaP and ~ 5xl03 for TCRy5 molecules. At the junction sites of the V, D, and J gene segments, deletion and random insertion of nucleotides occurs during the rearrangement process, resulting in highly diverse junctional regions, which significantly contribute to the total repertoire of Ig and TCR molecules, estimated to be > 1012.

[00203] Mature B-lymphocytes further extend their Ig repertoire upon antigen recognition in follicle centers via somatic hypermutation, a process, leading to affinity maturation of the Ig molecules. The somatic hypermutation process focuses on the V- (D-) J exon of IgH and Ig light chain genes and concerns single nucleotide mutations and sometimes also insertions or deletions of nucleotides. Somatically-mutated Ig genes are also found in mature B-cell malignancies of follicular or post-follicular origin. [00204] In certain embodiments described herein, V-segment and J-segment primers may be employed in a PCR reaction to amplify rearranged TCR or BCR CDR3-encoding DNA regions in a test biological sample, wherein each functional TCR or Ig V-encoding gene segment comprises a V gene recombination signal sequence (RSS) and each functional TCR or Ig J-encoding gene segment comprises a J gene RSS. In these and related embodiments, each amplified rearranged DNA molecule may comprise (i) at least about 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000 (including all integer values therebetween) or more contiguous nucleotides of a sense strand of the TCR or Ig V-encoding gene segment, with the at least about 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000 or more contiguous nucleotides being situated 5' to the V gene RSS and/or each amplified rearranged DNA molecule may comprise (ii) at least about 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 (including all integer values therebetween) or more contiguous nucleotides of a sense strand of the TCR or Ig J-encoding gene segment, with the at least about 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 or more contiguous nucleotides being situated 3' to the J gene RSS.

[00205] The practice of certain embodiments of the present invention will employ, unless indicated specifically to the contrary, conventional methods in microbiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, molecular genetics, cell biology, virology and immunology techniques that are within the skill of the art, and reference to several of which is made below for the purpose of illustration. Such techniques are explained fully in the literature. See, e.g., Sambrook, et al, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (3rd Edition, 2001); Sambrook, et al, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (2nd Edition, 1989); Maniatis et al, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (1982); Ausubel et al, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (John Wiley and Sons, updated July 2008); Short Protocols in Molecular Biology: A Compendium of Methods from Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Greene Pub.

Associates and Wiley -Interscience; Glover, DNA Cloning: A Practical Approach, vol. I & II (IRL Press, Oxford Univ. Press USA, 1985); Current Protocols in Immunology (Edited by: John E. Coligan, Ada M. Kruisbeek, David H. Margulies, Ethan M. Shevach, Warren Strober 2001 John Wiley & Sons, NY, NY); Real-Time PCR: Current Technology and Applications, Edited by Julie Logan, Kirstin Edwards and Nick Saunders, 2009, Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK; Anand, Techniques for the Analysis of Complex Genomes, (Academic Press, New York, 1992); Guthrie and Fink, Guide to Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology

(Academic Press, New York, 1991); Oligonucleotide Synthesis (N. Gait, Ed., 1984); Nucleic Acid Hybridization (B. Hames & S. Higgins, Eds., 1985); Transcription and Translation (B. Hames & S. Higgins, Eds., 1984); Animal Cell Culture (R. Freshney, Ed., 1986); Perbal, A Practical Guide to Molecular Cloning (1984); Next-Generation Genome Sequencing (Janitz, 2008 Wiley- VCH); PCR Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (Park, Ed., 3rd Edition, 2010 Humana Press); Immobilized Cells And Enzymes (IRL Press, 1986); the

treatise, Methods In Enzymology (Academic Press, Inc., N.Y.); Gene Transfer Vectors For Mammalian Cells (J. H. Miller and M. P. Calos eds., 1987, Cold Spring Harbor

Laboratory); Harlow and Lane, Antibodies, (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 1998); Immunochemical Methods In Cell And Molecular

Biology (Mayer and Walker, eds., Academic Press, London, 1987); Handbook Of

Experimental Immunology, Volumes I-IV (D. M. Weir and CC Blackwell, eds., 1986);

Riott, Essential Immunology, 6th Edition, (Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1988); Embryonic Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (Kurstad Turksen, Ed., 2002); Embryonic Stem Cell Protocols: Volume I: Isolation and

Characterization (Methods in Molecular Biology) (Kurstad Turksen, Ed., 2006); Embryonic Stem Cell Protocols: Volume II: Differentiation Models (Methods in Molecular Biology) (Kurstad Turksen, Ed., 2006); Human Embryonic Stem Cell Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (Kursad Turksen Ed., 2006); Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (Darwin J. Prockop, Donald G. Phinney, and Bruce A. Bunnell Eds., 2008); Hematopoietic Stem Cell Protocols (Methods in Molecular Medicine) (Christopher A. Klug, and Craig T. Jordan Eds., 2001); Hematopoietic Stem Cell Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (Kevin D. Bunting Ed., 2008) Neural Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (Leslie P. Weiner Ed., 2008).

[00206] Unless specific definitions are provided, the nomenclature utilized in connection with, and the laboratory procedures and techniques of, molecular biology, analytical chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, and medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry described herein are those well known and commonly used in the art. Standard techniques may be used for recombinant technology, molecular biological, microbiological, chemical syntheses, chemical analyses, pharmaceutical preparation, formulation, and delivery, and treatment of patients.

[00207] The term "isolated" means that the material is removed from its original environment {e.g., the natural environment if it is naturally occurring). For example, a naturally occurring tissue, cell, nucleic acid or polypeptide present in its original milieu in a living animal is not isolated, but the same tissue, cell, nucleic acid or polypeptide, separated from some or all of the co-existing materials in the natural system, is isolated. Such nucleic acid could be part of a vector and/or such nucleic acid or polypeptide could be part of a composition (e.g., a cell lysate), and still be isolated in that such vector or composition is not part of the natural environment for the nucleic acid or polypeptide. The term "gene" means the segment of DNA involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it includes regions preceding and following the coding region "leader and trailer" as well as intervening sequences (introns) between individual coding segments (exons).

[00208] Unless the context requires otherwise, throughout the present specification and claims, the word "comprise" and variations thereof, such as, "comprises" and "comprising" are to be construed in an open, inclusive sense, that is, as "including, but not limited to". By "consisting of is meant including, and typically limited to, whatever follows the phrase "consisting of." By "consisting essentially of is meant including any elements listed after the phrase, and limited to other elements that do not interfere with or contribute to the activity or action specified in the disclosure for the listed elements. Thus, the phrase "consisting essentially of indicates that the listed elements are required or mandatory, but that no other elements are required and may or may not be present depending upon whether or not they affect the activity or action of the listed elements.

[00209] In this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an" and "the" include plural references unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. As used herein, in particular embodiments, the terms "about" or "approximately" when preceding a numerical value indicates the value plus or minus a range of 5%, 6%, 7%, 8% or 9%. In other embodiments, the terms "about" or "approximately" when preceding a numerical value indicates the value plus or minus a range of 10%, 1 1%, 12%, 13% or 14%. In yet other embodiments, the terms "about" or "approximately" when preceding a numerical value indicates the value plus or minus a range of 15%, 16%, 17%, 18%, 19% or 20%.

[00210] Reference throughout this specification to "one embodiment" or "an embodiment" or "an aspect" means that a particular feature, structure or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment of the present invention. Thus, the appearances of the phrases "in one embodiment" or "in an embodiment" in various places throughout this specification are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiment. Furthermore, the particular features, structures, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner in one or more embodiments. EXAMPLES

Example 1: Single Molecule Labeling.

[00211] The single molecule labeling process used a Polymerase Chain Reaction approach to tag adaptive immune receptor encoding sequences with a unique barcode and a universal primer. The PCR reaction to tag the individual barcodes used QIAGEN Multiplex PCR master mix (QIAGEN part number 206145, Qiagen, Valencia, CA), 10% Q- solution

(QIAGEN), and 300 ng of template DNA. The pooled primers were added so the final reaction had an aggregate forward primer concentration of 2 uM and an aggregate reverse primer concentration of 2 uM. The forward primers were composed of nucleotide sequence portions that annealed to V genes (segments that annealed to the V genes are shown in Table 2) and at the 5' end a universal primer (pGEX f, Table 3). The aggregate primer is listed in Table 6. These primers may, for greater specificity, have a random nucleotide insertion between the 3' end of the V primer and the 5' end of the universal primer sequence. The reverse primers have a section of nucleotides that can anneal to the J gene region (Table 2), on the 5' end of the J primer an 8 bp barcode composed of random nucleotides, and on the 5' end of the 8 bp random barcode a universal primer (pGEXr, Table 3). An example of these primers is listed in Table 5. The 8 bp barcode made of random nucleotides may be shorter or longer, additional basepairs increase the number of unique barcodes.

[00212] The nucleotide tags were incorporated onto the molecules in a 7 cycle PCR reaction. The thermocycle conditions were: 95° C for 5 minutes, followed by 7 cycles of 95° for 30 sec, 68° for 90 sec, and 72° for 30 sec. Following cycling, the rxn is held for 10 minutes at 72°.

[00213] Once the antigen receptor molecules were tagged by the primers carrying a random 8 bp tag, any remaining primers were destroyed using ExoSAP-IT (Product # 78200, Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). ExoSAP-IT is a product from Affymetrix that uses

Exonuclease I and Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase activities; the Exonuclease I destroys single stranded DNA and SAP degrades dNTPs. For this example, 10 ul of PCR reagents and 4 ul of exoSAP-IT were used. The reaction was incubated for 15 minutes at 37°C and the ExoSAP-it was inactivated by a 15 minute incubation at 80°C. At this point, the molecules were uniquely tagged with a barcode and a universal primer. To amplify the tagged products, another PCR reaction was performed with the universal pGEX primers. This reaction used QIAGEN Multiplex PCR master mix (QIAGEN part number 206145, Qiagen, Valencia, CA), 10% Q- solution (QIAGEN), and 6 ul of cleaned PCR reaction as template. The forward universal (pGEXf) primer was added to the mix so the final concentration was 2 uM and the reverse universal primer (pgEXr) was added to the reaction so its final concentration was 2uM. To sequence these molecules, an Illumina adapter was incorporated using the pGEX primers. The reaction conditions were the same as above, except that the primers were replaced with the tailing primers (Table 7 below (SEQ ID NOs: 5686-5877). The Illumina adapters, which also included an 8 bp tag and a 6 bp random set of nucleotides, were incorporated onto the molecules in a 7 cycle PCR reaction. The thermocycle conditions were: 95° C for 5 minutes, followed by 7 cycles of 95° for 30 sec, 68° for 90 sec, and 72° for 30 sec. Following cycling, the reaction was held for 10 minutes at 72°.

[00214] Once the labeled molecules were "tailed" with Illumina adaptors, they were amenable to sequencing. For this example, sequencing was conducted through the 8 bp randomer into the adaptive immune receptor encoding sequence on an Illumina HISEQ™ sequencing platform. The sequenced molecules included an 8 bp random tag. Every sequenced molecule having identical CDR3 and 8 bp random tag sequences was amplified from the adaptive immune receptor encoding polynucleotide sequences of a single cell.

[00215] Table 5 shows the J primers for the single molecule sequencing (reverse primers) and Table 6 shows the V primers (forward primers). The PCR protocol is short: 1st PCR (5 cycles) with the above primers to uniquely tag each molecule, followed by a second PCR (35 cycles) with a universal primer (PGEX) to amplify the molecules. These reactions are followed by a PCR reaction to tail on the Illumina adapters.

Table 5

_vD12 AGA GGN NNN NNN NCT TAC

TCA CCT ACA ACA GTG AGC CAA CTT CC

CCG GGA GCT GCA TGT GTC AGA GGN NNN NNN NAT ACC

pGEXr_TCRBJl-4 CAA GAC AGA GAG CTG GGT _vD12 57 5616 TCC

CCG GGA GCT GCA TGT GTC AGA GGN NNN NNN NAA CTT

pGEXr_TCRBJl-5 ACC TAG GAT GGA GAG TCG _vD12 60 5617 AGT CCC

CCG GGA GCT GCA TGT GTC

pGEXr_TCRBJl-6 AGA GGN NNN NNN NCT GTC _vD12 53 5618 ACA GTG AGC CTG GTC CC

CCG GGA GCT GCA TGT GTC

pGEXr_TCRBJ2-l AGA GGN NNN NNN NCA CGG _vD12 49 5619 TGA GCC GTG TCC C

CCG GGA GCT GCA TGT GTC

pGEXr_TCRBJ2-2 AGA GGN NNN NNN NCC AGT _vD12 53 5620 ACG GTC AGC CTA GAG CC

CCG GGA GCT GCA TGT GTC

pGEXr_TCRBJ2-3 AGA GGN NNN NNN NCA CTG _vD12 49 5621 TCA GCC GGG TGC C

CCG GGA GCT GCA TGT GTC

pGEXr_TCRBJ2-4 AGA GGN NNN NNN NCA CTG _vD12 49 5622 AGA GCC GGG TCC C

CCG GGA GCT GCA TGT GTC

pGEXr_TCRBJ2-5 AGA GGN NNN NNN NAC CAG _vD12 48 5623 GAG CCG CGT GCC

CCG GGA GCT GCA TGT GTC

pGEXr_TCRBJ2-6 AGA GGN NNN NNN NCA CGG _vD12 49 5624 TCA GCC TGC TGC C CCG GGA GCT GCA TGT GTC pGEXr_TCRBJ2-7 AGA GGN NNN NNN NGA CCG

_vD12 49 5625 TGA GCC TGG TGC C

Table 6

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGGAAACTTCCCTC V05-8_verD10 5638 CTAGATTTTCAGGTCG

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCCCCAATGGCTAC V06-l_verD10 5639 AATGTCTCCAGATT

pGEXf TCRB

V06- GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGGAGAGGTCCCT

2/3_verD10 5640 GATGGCTACAA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGTCCCTGATGGTTA V06-4_verD10 5641 TAGTGTCTCCAGAGC

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGGAGAAGTCCCC V06-5_verD10 5642 AATGGCTACAATGTC

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGAAAGGAGAAGTC V06-6_verD10 5643 CCGAATGGCTACAA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGTTCCCAATGGCT V06-7_verD10 5644 ACAATGTCTCCAGATC

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGAAGTCCCCAAT V06-8_verD10 5645 GGCTACAATGTCTCTAGATT

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGAGAAGTCCCCG V06-9_verD10 5646 ATGGCTACAATGTA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGTGATCGGTTCTC V07-l_verD10 5647 TGCACAGAGGT

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCGCTTCTCTGCAG V07-2_verD10 5648 AGAGGACTGG

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGGTTCTTTGCAGT V07-3_verD10 5649 CAGGCCTGA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCAGTGGTCGGTTC V07-4_verD10 5650 TCTGCAGAG

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGCTCAGTGATCA V07-5_verD10 5651 ATTCTCCACAGAGAGGT

pGEXf TCRB

V07- GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGTTCTCTGCAGAGA

6/7_verD10 5652 GGCCTGAGG pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCCCAGTGATCGCT V07-8_verD10 5653 TCTTTGCAGAAA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCTGCAGAGAGGC V07-9_verD10 5654 CTAAGGGATCT

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGAAGGGTACAAT V08-l_verD10 5655 GTCTCTGGAAACAAACTCAAG

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGGGGTACTGTGTT V08-2_verD10 5656 TCTTGAAACAAGCTTGAG

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCAGTTCCCTGACT V09_verD10 5657 TGCACTCTGAACTAAAC

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGACTAACAAAGGA V10-l_verD10 5658 GAAGTCTCAGATGGCTACAG

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGAGATAAAGGAGA V10-2_verD10 5659 AGTCCCCGATGGCTA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGATACTGACAAA V10-3_verD10 5660 GGAGAAGTCTCAGATGGCTATAG

pGEXf TCRB

Vl l- GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCTAAGGATCGATT l/2/3_verD10 5661 TTCTGCAGAGAGGCTC

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGTTGATTCTCAGCA V12-l_verD10 5662 CAGATGCCTGATGT

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGATTCTCAGCTGAG V12-2_verD10 5663 AGGCCTGATGG

pGEXf TCRB

V12- GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGGATCGATTCTCA

3/4_verD10 5664 GCTAAGATGCCTAATGC

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCTCAGCAGAGAT V12-5_verD10 5665 GCCTGATGCAACTTTA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCTGATCGATTCTC V13_verD10 5666 AGCTCAACAGTTCAGT

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGTAGCTGAAAGGA V14_verD10 5667 CTGGAGGGACGTAT pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCCAGGAGGCCGA V15_verD10 5668 ACACTTCTTTCT

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGCTAAGTGCCTCC V16_verD10 5669 CAAATTCACCCT

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCACAGCTGAAAG V17_verD10 5670 ACCTAACGGAACGT

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCTGCTGAATTTCC V18_verD10 5671 CAAAGAGGGCC

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGAGGGTACAGCGT V19_verD10 5672 CTCTCGGG

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGCCTGACCTTGTC V20_verD10 5673 CACTCTGACA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGATGAGCGATTTTT V21_verD10 5674 AGCCCAATGCTCCA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGTGAAGGCTACGT V22_verD10 5675 GTCTGCCAAGAG

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCTCATCTCAATGC V23_verD10 5676 CCCAAGAACGC

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGAGATCTCTGATGG V24_verD10 5677 ATACAGTGTCTCTCGACA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGAGATCTTTCCTCT V25_verD10 5678 GAGTCAACAGTCTCCAGAATA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCACTGAAAAAGG V26_verD10 5679 AGATATCTCTGAGGGGTATCATG

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGGTTCCTGAAGGGT V27_verD10 5680 ACAAAGTCTCTCGAAAAG

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCTGAGGGGTACA V28_verD10 5681 GTGTCTCTAGAGAGA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGAGCCGCCCAAAC V29_verD10 5682 CTAACATTCTCAA

pGEXf TCRB GGGCTGGCAAGCCACGTTTGGTGCCCAGGACCGGC V30_verD10 5683 AGTTCA

?69? Χ33 XXV 300 3X3 ΧΟΟ 33V 3VX 3XV OVO 33V 33V 030 03V XVO XW

Ρ69ζ 0 OVO V3X 0X0 XV3

0X3 0V0 003 3VX XW Χ03 MMM MMM Χ3Χ V03 3ΧΧ 3X3 033 WO Χ30 Χ33 XXV 300 3X3 ΧΟΟ 33V 3VX 3XV OVO 33V 33V 030 03V XVO XW

£69? 0 OVO V3X 0X0 XV3

0X3 0V0 003 3X3 OXV XV3 MMM MMM Χ3Χ V03 3ΧΧ 3X3 033 WO Χ30 Χ33 XXV 300 3X3 ΧΟΟ 33V 3VX 3XV OVO 33V 33V 030 03V XVO XW

£69? 0 OVO V3X 0X0 XV3

0X3 0V0 003 3XV XVO Χ3Χ MMM MMM Χ3Χ V03 3ΧΧ 3X3 033 WO Χ30 Χ33 XXV 300 3X3 ΧΟΟ 33V 3VX 3XV OVO 33V 33V 030 03V XVO XW

169? 0 OVO V3X 0X0 XV3

0X3 0V0 003 3V0 XOV 3X3 MMM MMM Χ3Χ V03 3ΧΧ 3X3 033 WO Χ30 Χ33 XXV 300 3X3 ΧΟΟ 33V 3VX 3XV OVO 33V 33V 030 03V XVO XW

069? 0 OVO V3X 0X0 XV3

0X3 0V0 003 3ΧΧ 030 3VX MMM MMM Χ3Χ V03 3ΧΧ 3X3 033 WO Χ30 Χ33 XXV 300 3X3 ΧΟΟ 33V 3VX 3XV OVO 33V 33V 030 03V XVO XW

689? 0 OVO V3X 0X0 XV3

0X3 0V0 003 303 VXO 3VX MMM MMM Χ3Χ V03 3ΧΧ 3X3 033 WO Χ30 Χ33 XXV 300 3X3 ΧΟΟ 33V 3VX 3XV OVO 33V 33V 030 03V XVO XW

889? 0 OVO V3X 0X0 XV3

0X3 0V0 003 3 XX VOX 3X3 MMM MMM Χ3Χ V03 3ΧΧ 3X3 033 WO X30 X33 XXV 300 3X3 XOO 33V 3VX 3XV OVO 33V 33V 030 03V XVO XW

Λ89? 0 OVO VOX 0X0 XV3

0X3 OVO 003 3X3 WX V30 MMM MMM X3X V03 3XX 3X3 033 WO X30 X33 XXV 300 3X3 XOO 33V 3VX 3XV OVO 33V 33V 030 03V XVO XW

989? 0 OVO VOX 0X0 XV3

0X3 OVO 003 3V3 XOO W3 MMM MMM X3X V03 3XX 3X3 033 WO X30 X33 XXV 300 3X3 XOO 33V 3VX 3XV OVO 33V 33V 030 03V XVO XW

ΌΜ sousnbss as

t66£tO/£lOZSil/I3d I£888l/£10Z OAV L6

t66£tO/£lOZSil/I3d ΐ£888ΐ/£ΪΟΖ OAV 86

t66£tO/£lOZSil/I3d I£888l/£10Z OAV 66

t66£tO/£lOZSil/I3d I£888l/£10Z OAV 001

t66£tO/£lOZSil/I3d ΐ£888ΐ/£ΪΟΖ OAV 013 OVO 00330V 3V0 IW MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW

LPL9 0 OVO V31010 IV3

013 OVO 003331 WO WI MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW

9PLi 0 OVO V31010 IV3

013 OVO 0033IV 031031 MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW

0 OVO V31010 IV3

013 OVO 00333V IVO VIV MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW

PPLS 0 OVO V31010 IV3

013 OVO 003310 VOV 103 MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW

£Ρίζ 0 OVO V31010 IV3

013 OVO 003300 WI VI3 MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW

ZPLS 0 OVO V31010 IV3

013 OVO 0033V03V3113 MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW ιρίς 0 OVO V31010 IV3

013 OVO 003333 V3V OIV MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW ορίς 0 OVO V31010 IV3

013 OVO 0033W OVO 313 MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW

6£ίς 0 OVO V31010 IV3

013 OVO 0033VI V03 OVO MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW

8£ίς 0 OVO V31010 IV3

013 OVO 0033113130V3 MMM MMM 131 V03311313033 WO 130 133 IIV 30031310033V 3VI 3IV OVO 33V 33V 03003V IVO IW t66£tO/£lOZSil/I3d I£888l/£10Z OAV ZOl

t66£tO/£lOZSil/I3d I£888l/£10Z OAV £01

t66£tO/£lOZSil/I3d ΐ£888ΐ/£ΪΟΖ OAV POl

t66£tO/£lOZSil/I3d I£888l/£10Z OAV CAT GTG TCA GAG G

AAT GAT ACG GCG ACC ACC GAG ATC TAC ACC GGT CTC GGC ATT CCT GCT GAA CCG CTC TTC CGA TCT NNN NNN GCT TAG TAC CGG GAG CTG CAT GTG TCA GAG G 5781

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CAA GGT CAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5782

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GCA TAA CTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5783

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CTC TGA TTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5784

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TAC GTA CGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5785

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TAC GCG TTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5786

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CTC AGT GAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5787

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TCT GAT ATN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5788

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CAT ATG CTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5789

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CGT AAT TAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5790

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG 5791 CTC TTC CGA TCT ACG TAC TCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CTT CTA AGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5792

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ACT ATG ACN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5793

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GAC GTT AAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5794

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ACA AGA TAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5795

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GAC TAA GAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5796

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GTG TCT ACN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5797

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TTC ACT AGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5798

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AAT CGG ATN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5799

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AGT ACC GAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5800

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TTG CCT CAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5801 CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TCG TTA GCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5802

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TAT AGT TCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5803

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TGG CGT ATN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5804

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TGG ACA TGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5805

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AGG TTG CTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5806

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ATA TGC TGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5807

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GTA CAG TGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5808

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ATC CAT GGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5809

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TGA TGC GAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5810

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GTA GCA GTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5811

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GGA TCA TCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT 5812 GGT G

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GTG AAC GTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5813

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ATT AAG CGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5814

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TAT TGG CGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5815

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CGA TTA CAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5816

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TGT CAT CGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5817

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TAT CAA GTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5818

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AGG CTT GAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5819

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GAT AAC CAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5820

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AAT CCT GCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5821

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GTT ATA TCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5822

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG 5823 CTC TTC CGA TCT ACA CAC GTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ATA CGA CTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5824

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ATC TTC GTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5825

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ACA TGT ATN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5826

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TCC ACA GTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5827

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CAG TCT GTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5828

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TCC ATG TGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5829

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TCA CTG CAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5830

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ATG GTC AAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5831

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CAA GTC ACN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5832

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TAG ACG GAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5833 CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CAG CTC TTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5834

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GAG CGA TAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5835

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CTC GAG AAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5836

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ATG ACA CCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5837

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CTT CAC GAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5838

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CTA TAA GGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5839

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CGT AGA GTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5840

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ATA GAT ACN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5841

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TCG TCG ATN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5842

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TAA GAA TCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5843

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AAT GAC AGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT 5844 GGT G

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AGC TAG TGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5845

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TGA GAC CTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5846

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AGC GTA ATN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5847

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TAA CCA AGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5848

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GAT GGC TTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5849

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GCA TCT GAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5850

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TTC CGG TAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5851

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GAC ACT CTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5852

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TTA AGC ATN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5853

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TGC TAC ACN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5854

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG 5855 CTC TTC CGA TCT TCA GCT TGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CAT GTA GAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5856

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TTC GGA ACN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5857

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GCA ATT CGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5858

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CAA GAG GTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5859

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TCG ATT AAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5860

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GAA TGG ACN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5861

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AGA ATC AGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5862

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AAC TGC CAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5863

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AAG TAA CGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5864

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT ACT CAA TGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5865 CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CCT AGT AGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5866

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CTG ACG TTN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5867

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TGC AGA CAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5868

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AGT TGA CCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5869

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GTC TCC TAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5870

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CTG CAA TCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5871

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TGA GCG AAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5872

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TTG GAC TGN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5873

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT AGC AAT CCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5874

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT CGA ACT ACN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5875

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT TTA ATG GCN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT 5876 GGT G

CAA GCA GAA GAC GGC ATA CGA GAT ACA CTC TTT CCC TAC ACG ACG CTC TTC CGA TCT GCT TAG TAN NNN NNG GGC TGG CAA GCC ACG TTT GGT G 5877

Example 2: Single Cell Labeling of Adaptive Immune Receptor Encoding Sequences

1002161 This example describes single cell labeling of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor heavy and light chain encoding sequences by RT-PCR. Freshly drawn blood from healthy human volunteers is used as a source of leukocytes. The amount of whole blood required to obtain 100,000 - 300,000 leukocytes is less than lmL; 1-3 mL of blood are used for isolation of blood cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are isolated from blood by density gradient centrifugation on Histopaque®-1077 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) according to the supplier's instructions. CD45+ hematopoietic cells are isolated by binding to anti-CD45 coated magnetic beads using Whole Blood CD45 Microbeads (Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn, CA) as instructed by the manufacturer and essentially as described in Koehl et al. (2003 Leukemia 17:232). Leukocyte cell suspensions are washed in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) and adjusted to a concentration of 1 x 106 cells/ mL. Aliquots of 1-3 (1-3 x 103 cells) are distributed into wells of 96-well PCR multiwell plates held on ice in pre-chilled plate racks. Immediately after ail plate wells are filled, the plates are sealed and placed on dry ice to freeze and lyse the ceils. Plates are held on dry ice during the reverse transcription preparation steps below.

[00217] Reverse transcription is performed using the SMART er™ Ultra Low RNA kit for Illumina sequencing (Clontech, Mountain View, CA) essentially according to the supplier's instructions. Stock Reaction Buffer is prepared by mixing 380 μΐ of Dilution Buffer with 20 μΐ of RNase inhibitor (401Ι/μ1). 250 μΐ of Reaction Buffer is then mixed with 100 μΐ of a 12 μΜ solution of the 3' Smarter™ CDS II oligonucleotide (5'-Bio-

AAGCAGTGGTATCAACGCAGAGTACT(30)NN-3' [SEQ ID NO: 5878], where Bio is a biotin moiety; AAGCAGTGGTATCAACGCAGAGTAC [SEQ ID NO: 5879] is a universal adapter sequence, T(30) (SEQ ID NO: 5880) is a 30-mer of thymine residues, and N is any nucleotide (A, C, G or T).

[00218] The first- step annealing reactions for reverse transcription are set up by adding 3.5 μΐ of the Reaction Buffer containing the 3' Smarter™ CDS II oligonucleotide primer to each well of the 96-well plate containing the lysed cells, sealing the plate and incubating it for 3 minutes at 72°C, after which it is returned to a chilled rack on ice.

[00219] Reverse Transcription Master Mix (450 μΐ for 100 rxns) is prepared by combining 200 μΐ of 5x First Strand Buffer, 25 μΐ of 100 mM dithithreitol (DTT), 100 μΐ of dNTPs (lOmM), 25 μΐ of RNase inhibitor (401Ι/μ1), and 100 μΐ of reverse transcriptase. A 96-well working plate is prepared containing 1.0 μΐ of a barcoded 3 '-Smart™ CDSII oligonucleotide per well. The 3 '-Smart CDSII oligo sequence is: 5'-

AAGCAGTGGTATCAACGCAGAGTACBBBBBBBBrGrGrG-P-3' [SEQ ID NO: 5881] where AAGCAGTGGTATCAACGCAGAGTAC [SEQ ID NO: 5879] is a universal adapter sequence; BBBBBBBB is an 8-nucleotide barcode (see list below for examples of barcodes); rG is riboguanine; and P is a 3 ' phosphate blocking moiety.

Table 8. Barcode list (96 JS barcodes):

JS20 TTGCCTCA

JS21 TCGTTAGC

JS22 TATAGTTC

JS23 TGGCGTAT

JS24 TGGACATG

JS25 AGGTTGCT

JS26 ATATGCTG

JS27 GTACAGTG

JS28 ATCCATGG

JS29 TGATGCGA

JS30 GTAGCAGT

JS31 GGATCATC

JS32 GTGAACGT

JS33 ATTAAGCG

JS34 TATTGGCG

JS35 CGATTACA

JS36 TGTCATCG

JS37 TATCAAGT

JS38 AGGCTTGA

JS39 GATAACCA

JS40 AATCCTGC

JS41 GTTATATC

JS42 AC AC AC GT

JS43 ATACGACT

JS44 ATCTTCGT

JS45 ACATGTAT

JS46 TCCACAGT

JS47 CAGTCTGT

JS48 TCCATGTG

JS49 TCACTGCA

JS50 ATGGTCAA

JS51 CAAGTCAC JS52 TAGACGGA

JS53 CAGCTCTT

JS54 GAGCGATA

JS55 CTCGAGAA

JS56 ATGACACC

JS57 CTTCACGA

JS58 CTATAAGG

JS59 CGTAGAGT

JS60 ATAGATAC

JS61 TCGTCGAT

JS62 TAAGAATC

JS63 AATGACAG

JS64 AGCTAGTG

JS65 TGAGACCT

JS66 AGCGTAAT

JS67 TAACCAAG

JS68 GATGGCTT

JS69 GCATCTGA

JS70 TTCCGGTA

JS71 GACACTCT

JS72 TTAAGCAT

JS73 TGCTACAC

JS74 TCAGCTTG

JS75 CATGTAGA

JS76 TTCGGAAC

JS77 GCAATTCG

JS78 CAAGAGGT

JS79 TCGATTAA

JS80 GAATGGAC

JS81 AGAATCAG

JS82 AACTGCCA

JS83 AAGTAACG JS84 ACTCAATG

JS85 CCTAGTAG

JS86 CTGACGTT

JS87 TGCAGACA

JS88 AGTTGACC

JS89 GTCTCCTA

JS90 CTGCAATC

JS91 TGAGCGAA

JS92 TTGGACTG

JS93 AGCAATCC

JS94 CGAACTAC

JS95 TTAATGGC

JS96 GCTTAGTA

[00220] To each well of the 96-well working plate containing 1.0 μΐ of a barcoded 3 '- Smart™ CDSII oligonucleotide is added 4.5 μΐ of the Master Mix, and following completion of the annealing reaction, 5.5μ1 of the Master Mix containing barcoded 3 '-Smart™ CDSII oligonucleotide is transferred from each well of the 96-well working plate to the

correspondingly positioned (respective) wells of the reverse transcription annealing plate. The reverse transcription annealing plate is placed onto a thermocycler and a program is run with the steps 42°C for 90 minutes followed by 70°C for 10 minutes. This temperature profile performs first cDNA strand synthesis on all poly-A mRNA transcript molecules released from leukocytes in each well. According to non-limiting theory, after the first cDNA strand synthesis, each cDNA molecule in a well contains universal adaptor sequences at both the 5 ' and 3 ' ends, and is uniquely tagged with an 8-nt barcode at the 5 ' end.

[00221] Optionally, the barcoded cDNA molecules from all 96 reactions can be pooled at this step, and re-aliquoted onto a PCR plate where PCR amplification of immunoglobulin or T cell receptor cDNA takes place. The combining and splitting step permit substantially all barcoded cDNA molecules to be substantially evenly represented in subsequent PCR amplification reactions with adaptive immune receptor encoding (e.g., IG or TCR) C- segment gene specific primers.

[00222] The products of reverse transcription/ cDNA first strand synthesis are next isolated by Solid Phase Reversible Immobilization Purification (SPRI) by mixing the contents of each well from the reverse transcription reaction plate with 25 μΐ of a suspension of Ampure™ XP SPRI magnetic beads (Beckman-Coulter Inc., Brea, CA) and incubating for 8 minutes at room temperature, followed by bead separation using a MagnaBot™ magnetic separator (Promega, Madison, WI) at room temperature according to the suppliers' instructions.

[00223] SPRI bead-immobilized cDNA first strands are immediately added to 5 'RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) PCR amplification reactions using Advantage 2™ PCR reagents (Clontech) according to the manufacturer's instructions. For each reaction, 50 μΐ of PCR Master Mix is added containing dNTPs, UPM primer mix, IG/TCR primer mix as described elsewhere herein, and Advantage 2™ polymerase and PCR buffer. The thermocycling conditions are: 95°C for 1 minute; 30 cycles of 95°C for 30 seconds, 63°C for 30 seconds, and 72°C for 3 minutes; 72°C for 7 minutes; and then reactions are held at 10°C prior to preparation for Illumina sequencing. PCR primer sequences are:

IgM RACE 5 '-GATGGAGTCGGGAAGGAAGTCCTGTGCGAG-3 ' (SEQ ID NO:

5601)

IgG RACE 5 '-GGGAAGAC SGATGGGCCCTTGGTGG-3 ' (SEQ ID NO: 5602)

IgA RACE 5'-CAGGCAKGCGAYGACCACGTTCCCATC-3' (SEQ ID NO: 5603)

IgK RACE 5 '-C ATC AGATGGCGGGAAGATGAAGAC AGATGGTGC-3 ' (SEQ ID

NO: 5604)

Ig RACE 5 '-CCTC AGAGGAGGGTGGGAAC AGAGTGAC-3 ' (SEQ ID NO: 5605)

TCRB RACE 5 '-GCTCAAAC ACAGCGACCTCGGGTGGGAACAC-3 ' (SEQ ID NO:

5606)

TCRA RACE JB2 5 '-AGTCTCTC AGCTGGTAC ACGGC AGGGTC-3 ' (SEQ ID NO: 5591)

5*- ACA GAC TTG TCA CTG GAT TTA GAG TCT CTC AGC TGG TAC

TCRA 50 ACG GCA GGG TC -3* (SEQ ID NO: 5592)

5*- GAG ATC TCT GCT TCT GAT GGC TCA AAC ACA GCG ACC TCG

TCRB 50 GGT GGG AAC AC -3* (SEQ ID NO: 5593)

S G or C

K G or T

Y C or T

Illumina Sequencing Library Preparation

[00224] PCR products are pooled by inverted centrifugation of the 96-well plates and the pooled products are purified to remove DNA fragments shorter than 200-3 OObp using

Beckman Coulter Ampure™ XP beads according to the supplier's instructions. DNA purity is assessed by capillary electrophoresis using a Caliper Bioanalyzer (Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CT) to confirm that most of the dsDNA is within a size range of 600-700 bp. dsDNA

products are quantified fluorometrically or by A260 UV absorbance.

[00225] Sequencing library construction is conducted using 1 μg of purified DNA as an input for the Illumina TruSeq® sample preparation protocol (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) according to the Illumina TruSeq® DNA Sample Preparation Guide (Part number 15026486 Rev. C, July 2012, Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA). This protocol generates a sequencing library that can be sequenced using the paired-end flow cell on the Illumina MiSeq®,

HiSeq®2000, and HiSeq®2500 sequencers. [00226] Illumina sequencing is conducted according to a sequencing protocol on the Illumina MiSeq® sequencer that utilizes the MiSeq® reagents kit v2, for 500 cycles. This chemistry provides kitted reagents for up to 525 cycles of sequencing on the MiSeq® instrument and provides sufficient reagents for a 251 -cycle paired-end run, plus two eight- cycle indexed reads. The Illumina sequencing protocol is described in MiSeq® ReagentKit v2 ReagentPrepGuide, Part number 15034097 Rev. B, October 2012 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). A schematic representation of the structure of DNA targets to be sequenced is shown in Fig. 6 (in which Ig heavy chain is used as an example).

[00227] The various embodiments described above can be combined to provide further embodiments. All of the U.S. patents, U.S. patent application publications, U.S. patent applications, foreign patents, foreign patent applications and non-patent publications referred to in this specification and are incorporated herein by reference, in their entirety. Aspects of the embodiments can be modified, if necessary to employ concepts of the various patents, applications and publications to provide yet further embodiments.

[00228] These and other changes can be made to the embodiments in light of the above- detailed description. In general, in the following claims, the terms used should not be construed to limit the claims to the specific embodiments disclosed in the specification and the claims, but should be construed to include all possible embodiments along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled. Accordingly, the claims are not limited by the disclosure.

CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. An oligonucleotide amplification primer composition, comprising:

(A) a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprising a plurality of forward oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (A):

U1 - B1 - V1 (A),

and a plurality of reverse oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (B): U2 - B2 - Jl (B),

wherein Ul comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and U2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence,

wherein Bl comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides, and B2 comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides, such that at least one of Bl or B2 is present,

wherein VI comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 100 contiguous nucleotides of a V region encoding gene sequence of a first adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof,

wherein Jl comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of (i) a joining (J) region encoding gene sequence of said first adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof, or (ii) a constant (C) region encoding gene sequence of said first adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U1-B1-V1, VI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U2-B2-J1, Jl comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence; and

(B) a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprising a plurality of forward oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (C):

U3 - B3 - V2 (C),

and a plurality of reverse oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (D): U4 - B4 - J2 (D), wherein U3 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence identical to either Ul or U2, and U4 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence identical to either Ul or U2, whichever sequence is not identical to U3,

wherein B3 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides that is the same as Bl, and B4 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides that is the same as B2, and

wherein V2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 100 contiguous nucleotides of a V region encoding gene sequence of a second adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof,

wherein J2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of (i) a joining (J) region encoding gene sequence of said second adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof, or (ii) a constant (C) region encoding gene sequence of said second adaptive immune receptor, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U3-B3- V2, V2 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U4-B4-J2, J2 comprises a unique

oligonucleotide sequence.

2. The composition of claim 1, wherein Ul is the same as U3.

3. The composition of claim 1, wherein U2 is the same as U4.

4. A method for labeling individual rearranged DNA sequences encoding a plurality of adaptive immune receptors in a biological sample that comprises lymphoid cells of a subject, the method comprising:

(a) amplifying said rearranged DNA sequences using a first amplification primer set comprising an oligonucleotide primer composition of claims 1-3 under conditions that promote amplification to obtain double-stranded DNA products that each comprise (i) a sequence comprising at least two universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequences with one at each end of the product, at least one oligonucleotide barcode sequence, an XI oligonucleotide sequence, an X2 oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a complementary sequence to the sequence in (i);

(b) amplifying the double-stranded DNA products of (a) with a second amplification primer set comprising a plurality of first and second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise either: (i) a first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide comprising an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, or

(ii) a second sequencing platform tag-containing

oligonucleotide comprising an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence,

wherein amplifying takes place under conditions that promote amplification of both strands of the separated double-stranded DNA product of (a), to obtain a library of rearranged DNA sequences encoding a plurality of adaptive immune receptors for sequencing; and

(c) sequencing the DNA library obtained in (b), wherein each of the sequences in the DNA library comprises a unique oligonucleotide barcode sequence, thereby labeling each sequence with an unique identifiable barcode sequence.

5. The method of claim 4, wherein a plurality of oligonucleotides in the second amplification primer set each further comprises either or both of:

(i) a sample-identifying barcode oligonucleotide which comprises a third barcode oligonucleotide B5 comprising an oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides having a sequence that is distinct from Bl and B2, wherein in the first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide B5 is situated between the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence, and wherein in the second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide B3 is situated between the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence; and

(ii) a spacer oligonucleotide of any sequence of 1 to 20 contiguous nucleotides, wherein said spacer oligonucleotide is situated between the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence in the first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide, and between the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the second sequencing platform-specific

oligonucleotide sequence in the second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide.

6. An oligonucleotide primer composition, comprising a plurality of oligonucleotides sequences having a general formula (I):

5' - Ul - Bln - X - 3' (I)

wherein:

Ul comprises an oligonucleotide sequence which comprises a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence,

Bl comprises an oligonucleotide sequence that comprises a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of n contiguous nucleotides, wherein n is at least 6 nucleotides, and

X comprises either (i) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (ii) an oligonucleotide comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences, X comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence.

7. The composition of claim 6, wherein the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprises up to 4" unique B 1 oligonucleotide sequences,

8. The composition of claim 6, wherein n is 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 contiguous nucleotides.

9. The composition as in any one of claims 6-8, wherein X comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 20, 30, 40 or 50 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof.

10. The composition as in any one of claims 6-9, wherein X comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising not more than 70, 60, or 55 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof.

11. The composition as in any one of claims 6-8, wherein X comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 16-50 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof.

12. The composition as in any one of claims 6-8 or 11 , wherein X comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising not more than 70, 60 or 55 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof.

13. The composition as in any one of claims 6-12, wherein X is capable of hybridizing to a V region encoding gene sequence.

14. The composition as in any one of claims 6-12, wherein X is capable of hybridizing to a J region encoding gene sequence.

15. The composition as in any one of claims 6-14, wherein Bl is a unique tag for identifying individual rearranged TCR or Ig encoding sequences.

16. The composition of claim 15, wherein Bl is used to identify individual rearranged TCR or Ig encoding sequences derived from a single cell.

17. The composition as in any one of claims 6-16, wherein Ul comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1710-1731.

18. The composition as in any one of claims 6-17, wherein Bl comprises sequences listed in Table 8.

19. The composition as in any one of claims 6-18, wherein X comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1631-1643 or 1696-1708.

20. The composition as in any one of claims 6-18, wherein X comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1644-1695.

21. The composition as in any one of claims 6-18, wherein X comprises SEQ ID NOs: 5613-5625.

22. The composition as in any one of claims 6-16, wherein said plurality of

oligonucleotide sequences comprises SEQ ID NOs: 5626-5685.

23. The composition as in any one of claims 6-16, wherein said plurality of

oligonucleotide sequences comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1-1630.

24. The composition as in any one of claims 6-23, further comprising: a second plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprising a general formula (II):

5'- Pl - Sl - B2 - Ul - 3' (II),

wherein PI comprises a sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide, wherein S 1 comprises a sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide sequence;

wherein B2 comprises an oligonucleotide barcode sequence and wherein said oligonucleotide barcode sequence can be used to identify a sample source, and

wherein Ul comprises said first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence.

25. The composition of claim 24, wherein said second plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprises SEQ ID NOs: 5686-5877.

26. An oligonucleotide primer composition for a first amplification primer set comprising:

(A) a plurality of first oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula

(III) :

5'- Ul - Bln - XI - 3' (HI),

wherein:

(i) Ul comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence,

(ii) Bl comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of n contiguous nucleotides, wherein n is 0 or 6 to 20,

(iii) XI comprises either (a) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (b) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the

complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences XI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence; and

(B) a plurality of second oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula

(IV) :

5'- U2 - B2m - X2 -3' (IV),

wherein:

(i) U2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence,

(ii) B2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a second oligonucleotide barcode sequence of m contiguous nucleotides, wherein m is 0 or 6 to 20,

(iii) X2 comprises (a) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor variable (V) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (b) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences XI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence,

wherein n and m are independent of each other, and in said first and second pluralities of oligonucleotides, m and n are not both zero, and

wherein if XI comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, then X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, and if XI comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, then X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising an adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence.

27. The composition of claim 26, wherein XI or X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 20, 30, 40 or 50 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof.

28. The composition as in any one of claims 26-27, wherein XI or X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising not more than 70, 60 or 55 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof.

29. The composition of claim 26, wherein XI or X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 16-50 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof.

30. The composition as in any one of claims 26 or 29, wherein XI or X2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising not more than 70, 60 or 55 contiguous nucleotides of said adaptive immune receptor J region encoding gene sequence, or said complement thereof.

31. The composition of claim 26, wherein B 1 is a unique tag for identifying an individual rearranged TCR or Ig encoding sequence.

32. The composition of claim 26, wherein B2 is a unique tag for identifying an individual rearranged TCR or Ig encoding sequence.

33. The composition of claim 26, wherein Ul or U2 comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1710-1731.

34. The composition of claim 26, wherein Bl or B2 comprises sequences listed in Table 8.

35. The composition of claim 26, wherein XI or X2 comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1631-1643 or 1696-1708.

36. The composition of claim 26, wherein XI or X2 comprises SEQ ID NOs: 1644-1695.

37. The composition of claim 26, wherein XI or X2 comprises SEQ ID NOs: 5613-5625.

38. The composition of claim 26, wherein said plurality of first or second oligonucleotide sequences comprise SEQ ID NOs: 5626-5685.

39. The composition of claim 26, wherein said plurality of first or second oligonucleotide sequences comprise SEQ ID NOs: 1-1630.

40. The composition as in any of claims 26-39, wherein the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprises up to 4n unique Bl oligonucleotide sequences.

41. The composition as in any of claims 26-40, wherein the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences comprises up to 4m unique B2 oligonucleotide sequences.

42. An oligonucleotide amplification primer composition, comprising:

(A) a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprising a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (V):

U1/2 - B1 - X1 (V),

wherein Ul/2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when Bl is present, or a second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when Bl is nothing, and

wherein Bl comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a first oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides, and

wherein XI comprises either: (1) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (2) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of (i) an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (ii) an adaptive immune receptor constant (C) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U1/2-B1-X1, XI comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence; and

(B) a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprising a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of a general formula (VI):

U3/4 - B2 - X2 (VI),

wherein U3/4 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising a third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B2 is present or a fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B2 is nothing, and wherein B2 comprises an oligonucleotide sequence comprising either nothing or a second oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides that is the same as B 1 , and

wherein X2 comprises either (1) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor V region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, or (2) an oligonucleotide sequence comprising at least 15 and not more than 80 contiguous nucleotides of an adaptive immune receptor joining (J) region encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U3/4-B2-X2, X2 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence.

43. The method of claim 42, wherein U3 has the same sequence as Ul or U2.

44. The method of claim 42, wherein U4 has the same sequence as Ul or U2.

45. A method for labeling individual rearranged DNA sequences encoding a plurality of adaptive immune receptors in a biological sample that comprises lymphoid cells of a subject, the method comprising:

(a) amplifying said rearranged DNA sequences using a first amplification primer set comprising an oligonucleotide primer composition of claims 1-36 under conditions that promote amplification to obtain double-stranded DNA products that each comprise (i) a sequence comprising at least one universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one oligonucleotide barcode sequence, and at least one of an X, XI or X2 oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a complementary sequence to the sequence in (i);

(b) amplifying the double-stranded DNA products of (a) with a second amplification primer set comprising a plurality of first and second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise either:

(i) a first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide comprising an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, or

(ii) a second sequencing platform tag-containing

oligonucleotide comprising an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence,

wherein amplifying takes place under conditions that promote amplification of both strands of the separated double-stranded DNA product of (a), to obtain a library of rearranged DNA sequences encoding a plurality of adaptive immune receptors for sequencing; and

(c) sequencing the DNA library obtained in (b), wherein each of the sequences in the DNA library comprises a unique oligonucleotide barcode sequence, thereby labeling each sequence with an unique identifiable barcode sequence.

46. The method of claim 43, wherein a plurality of oligonucleotides in the second amplification primer set each further comprises either or both of:

(i) a sample-identifying barcode oligonucleotide which comprises a third barcode oligonucleotide B3 comprising an oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides having a sequence that is distinct from Bl and B2, wherein in the first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide B3 is situated between the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence, and wherein in the second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide B3 is situated between the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence; and

(ii) a spacer oligonucleotide of any sequence of 1 to 20 contiguous nucleotides, wherein said spacer oligonucleotide is situated between the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence in the first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide, and between the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide and the second sequencing platform-specific

oligonucleotide sequence in the second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotide.

47. A method for labeling individual rearranged DNA sequences or mRNA sequences transcribed therefrom encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer in a single lymphoid cell, comprising:

contacting (A) a first plurality of individual microdroplets that each contain a single lymphoid cell or genomic DNA isolated therefrom or complementary DNA (cDNA) that has been reverse transcribed from messenger RNA (mRNA) of a single lymphoid cell, with (B) a second plurality of individual microdroplets that each contain: (i) a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and

(ii) a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer,

wherein:

(I) the first oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises a composition of U1/2-B1-X1 of claim 42, and

(II) the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises a composition of U3/4-B2-X2 of claim 42;

providing conditions for a time sufficient such that a plurality of fusion events occur between one of said first microdroplets and one of said second microdroplets to produce a plurality of fused microdroplets; and

providing conditions that permit amplification of the genomic DNA, or the cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from mRNA, using the first and second

oligonucleotide amplification primer sets within the plurality of fused microdroplets,

wherein each of one or more of said plurality of fused microdroplets comprises:

a first double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least one first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one first oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one XI oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one XI oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and

a second double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least one third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one second oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one X2 oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one X2 oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, thereby upon amplification of the genomic DNA, or the cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from mRNA, labeling each of the individual rearranged DNA sequences or mRNA sequences transcribed therefrom with an oligonucleotide barcode sequence.

48. The method of claim 47, further comprising: disrupting the plurality of fused microdroplets to obtain a heterogeneous mixture of said first and second double-stranded DNA products.

49. The method of claim 48, further comprising: contacting the mixture of the first and second double-stranded DNA products with a third amplification primer set and a fourth amplification primer set,

wherein the third amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor

oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence,

wherein the fourth amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of third sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the third universal adaptor

oligonucleotide and a third sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5' to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of fourth sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a fourth sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and

wherein said step of contacting takes place under conditions and for a time sufficient to amplify both strands of the first and second double-stranded DNA products, to obtain a DNA library for sequencing.

50. The method of claim 49, further comprising sequencing the DNA library to obtain a data set of sequences encoding the first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer.

51. The method of claim 49, wherein the third and fourth amplification primer sets are the same.

52. A method for labeling individual rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer in a single lymphoid cell, comprising:

contacting (A) a first plurality of individual microdroplets that each contain complementary DNA (cDNA) that has been reverse transcribed from messenger RNA (mRNA) of a single lymphoid cell, with (B) a second plurality of individual microdroplets that each contain:

(i) a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a first cDNA sequence encoding a first polypeptide of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and

(ii) a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a second cDNA sequence encoding a second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer,

wherein:

(I) the first oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises a composition of U1/2-B1-X1 of claim 42;

and

(II) the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises a composition of U3/4-B2-X2 of claim 42,

providing conditions for a time sufficient for a plurality of fusion events between one of said first microdroplets and one of said second microdroplets to produce a plurality of fused microdroplets and conditions that permit amplification of the cDNA that has been reverse transcribed from mRNA of a single lymphoid cell, using the first and second oligonucleotide amplification primer sets within the plurality of fused microdroplets, wherein each of one or more of said plurality of fused microdroplets comprises:

a first double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least one first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one first oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one XI oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one XI oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor

heterodimer, and

a second double-stranded DNA product that comprises at least one third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one second oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one X2 oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one X2 oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer;

thereby upon amplification of the cDNA, uniquely labeling each of the individual rearranged cDNA sequences with a unique oligonucleotide barcode sequence.

53. The method of claim 52, further comprising: disrupting the plurality of fused microdroplets to obtain a heterogeneous mixture of said first and second double-stranded DNA products.

54. The method of claim 53, further comprising: contacting the mixture of first and second double-stranded DNA products with a third amplification primer set and a fourth amplification primer set,

wherein the third amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor

oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and

wherein the fourth amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of third sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the third universal adaptor

oligonucleotide and a third sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5' to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of fourth sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a fourth sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence,

wherein said step of contacting takes place under conditions and for a time sufficient to amplify both strands of the first and second double-stranded DNA products, to obtain a DNA library for sequencing.

55. The method of claim 54, further comprising sequencing the DNA library to obtain a data set of sequences encoding the first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer.

56. The method of claim 54, wherein the third amplification primer set is identical to the fourth amplification primer set.

57. The method as in any one of claims 47 or 52, wherein either or both of:

(1) the first oligonucleotide amplification primer set is capable of amplifying, in the rearranged DNA sequence encoding the first polypeptide, a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a first complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) of the first polypeptide; and

(2) the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set is capable of amplifying, in the rearranged DNA sequence encoding the second polypeptide, a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a second complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) of the second polypeptide.

58. The method of any one of claims 47 or 52, wherein:

(a) the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR alpha (TCRA) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR beta (TCRB) chain, or

(b) the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR gamma (TCRG) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR delta (TCRD) chain, or

(c) the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is an immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is selected from an immunoglobulin light IGL or IGK chain.

59. The method of claim 58, wherein if the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is an IGH chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is an immunoglobulin light IGL or IGK chain, then three different amplification primer sets are used comprising: a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set for IGH, a second oligonucleotide amplification primer set for IGK, and a third

oligonucleotide amplification primer set for IGL.

60. The method of claim 52, wherein the second plurality of individual microdroplets each further comprise: a third oligonucleotide primer set that is capable of amplifying a third cDNA sequence that encodes a lymphocyte status indicator molecule and that comprises a composition comprising a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences having a general formula (VII):

U5/6 - B - X3 (VII),

wherein U5/6 comprises a fifth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B is present or a sixth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B is nothing,

B comprises Bl or B2, and

X3 comprises an oligonucleotide that is one of (i) a forward primer of 15-80 contiguous nucleotides of a lymphocyte status indicator molecule encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and (ii) a reverse primer of 15-80 contiguous nucleotides of a lymphocyte status indicator molecule encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U5/6-B-X3, X3 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence.

61. The method of claim 60, wherein the lymphocyte status indicator molecule comprises one or more of FoxP3, CD4, CD8, CDl la, CD18, CD21, CD25, CD29, CCD30, CD38, CD44, CD45, CD45RA, CD45RO, CD49d, CD62, CD62L, CD69, CD71, CD103, CD137 (4- 1BB), CD138, CD161, CD294, CCR5, CXCR4, IgGl-4 H-chain constant region, IgA H- chain constant region, IgE H-chain constant region, IgD H-chain constant region, IgM H- chain constant region, HLA-DR, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-21, TGF-β, TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 and TLR10.

62. The method as in any one of claims 50 or 55, further comprising: (a) sorting the data set of sequences according to oligonucleotide barcode sequences identified therein to obtain a plurality of barcode sequence sets each having a unique barcode;

(b) sorting each barcode sequence set of (a) into an XI sequence- containing subset and an X2 sequence-containing subset;

(c) clustering members of each of the XI and X2 sequence-containing subsets according to XI and X2 sequences to obtain one or a plurality of XI sequence cluster sets and one or a plurality of X2 sequence cluster sets, respectively, and error-correcting single nucleotide barcode sequence mismatches within any one or more of said XI and X2 sequence cluster sets; and

(d) identifying as originating from the same cell sequences that are members of an XI and an X2 sequence cluster set that belong to the same one or more barcode sequence sets.

63. A method for determining rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of an adaptive immune receptor heterodimer in a single lymphoid cell, comprising:

(1) distributing cells of a cell suspension that comprises a population of lymphoid cells of a subject, amongst a plurality of containers that are capable of containing said cells, to obtain a plurality of containers that each contain a subpopulation of the lymphoid cells that comprises one lymphoid cell or a plurality of lymphoid cells;

(2) contacting each of said plurality of containers, under conditions and for a time sufficient to promote reverse transcription of messenger RNA (mR A) in the lymphoid cells in the plurality of containers, with a first and a second oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set, wherein (A) the first oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set is capable of reverse transcribing a plurality of first mRNA sequences encoding a plurality of polypeptides of a first adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and (B) the second

oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set is capable of reverse transcribing a plurality of second mRNA sequences encoding a plurality of polypeptides of a second adaptive immune receptor heterodimer,

and wherein:

(I) the first oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set comprises a composition comprising a general formula of U1/2-B1-X1 of claim 32, and (II) the second oligonucleotide reverse transcription primer set comprises a composition comprising a general formula U3/4-B2-X2 of claim 32, and

wherein said step of contacting taking place under conditions and for a time sufficient to obtain in each of one or more of said plurality of containers:

a first reverse-transcribed complementary DNA (cDNA) product that comprises at least one first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one first oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one XI oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one XI oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, and

a second reverse-transcribed cDNA product that comprises at least one third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, at least one second oligonucleotide barcode sequence, at least one X2 oligonucleotide V region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer, at least one fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and at least one X2 oligonucleotide J region or C region encoding gene sequence of said second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer;

(3) combining the first and second reverse-transcribed cDNA products from the plurality of containers to obtain a mixture of reverse-transcribed cDNA products;

(4) contacting the mixture of first and second reverse-transcribed cDNA products of (3) with a first oligonucleotide amplification primer set and a second

oligonucleotide amplification primer set, wherein the first amplification primer set comprises

(i) a plurality of first sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a first sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the first universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and

(ii) a plurality of second sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a second sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the second universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and wherein the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set comprises (i) a plurality of third sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide and a third sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the third universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence, and (ii) a plurality of fourth sequencing platform tag-containing oligonucleotides that each comprise an oligonucleotide sequence that is capable of specifically hybridizing to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence and a fourth sequencing platform-specific oligonucleotide sequence that is linked to and positioned 5 ' to the fourth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence,

said step of contacting taking place under conditions and for a time sufficient to amplify both of the first and second reverse-transcribed cDNA products of (2), to obtain a DNA library for sequencing; and

(5) sequencing the DNA library obtained in (3) to obtain a data set of sequences encoding the first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer.

64. The method of claim 63, wherein step (5) further comprises:

(a) sorting the data set of sequences according to oligonucleotide barcode sequences identified therein to obtain a plurality of barcode sequence sets each having a unique barcode;

(b) sorting each barcode sequence set of (a) into an XI sequence- containing subset and an X2 sequence-containing subset;

(c) clustering members of each of the XI and X2 sequence-containing subsets according to XI and X2 sequences to obtain one or a plurality of XI sequence cluster sets and one or a plurality of X2 sequence cluster sets, respectively, and error-correcting single nucleotide barcode sequence mismatches within any one or more of said XI and X2 sequence cluster sets;

(d) identifying each first and second adaptive immune receptor heterodimer polypeptide encoding sequence based on known XI and X2 sequences, wherein each XI sequence and each X2 sequence is associated with one or a plurality of unique B sequences to identify the container from which each B sequence-associated XI sequence and each B sequence-associated X2 sequence originated; and (e) combinatorically matching B sequence-associated XI and X2 sequences of (d) as being of common clonal origin based on a probability of B sequences that are coincident with common first and second adaptive immune receptor heterodimer polypeptide encoding sequences, and therefrom determining that rearranged DNA sequences encoding first and second polypeptide sequences of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer originated in a single lymphoid cell.

65. The method of claim 63, wherein either or both of:

(1) the first oligonucleotide amplification primer set is capable of amplifying, in the rearranged DNA sequence encoding the first polypeptide, a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a first complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) of the first polypeptide; and

(2) the second oligonucleotide amplification primer set is capable of amplifying, in the rearranged DNA sequence encoding the second polypeptide, a rearranged DNA sequence encoding a second complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) of the second polypeptide.

66. The method of claim 65, wherein:

(a) the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR alpha (TCRA) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR beta (TCRB) chain, or

(b) the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR gamma (TCRG) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is a TCR delta (TCRD) chain, or

(c) the first polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is an immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) chain and the second polypeptide of the adaptive immune receptor heterodimer is an immunoglobulin light (IGL, IGK, or both IGL and IGK) chain.

67. The method of claim 63, wherein one or more of the containers comprises a third oligonucleotide amplification primer set that is capable of amplifying a third cDNA sequence that encodes a lymphocyte status indicator molecule and that comprises a composition comprising a plurality of oligonucleotides having a plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula (VIII):

U5/6 - B3 - X3 (VIII), in which U5/6 comprises an oligonucleotide which comprises a fifth universal adaptor oligonucleotide sequence when B3 is present or a sixth universal adaptor

oligonucleotide sequence when B3 is nothing,

B3 comprises an oligonucleotide that comprises either nothing or a third oligonucleotide barcode sequence of 6 to 20 contiguous nucleotides that is either the same as or different than at least one of Bl or B2, and

X3 comprises an oligonucleotide that is one of (i) a forward primer polynucleotide of 15-80 contiguous nucleotides of a lymphocyte status indicator molecule encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and (ii) a reverse primer polynucleotide of 15-80 contiguous nucleotides of a lymphocyte status indicator molecule encoding gene sequence, or the complement thereof, and in each of the plurality of oligonucleotide sequences of general formula U5/6-B3-X3, X3 comprises a unique oligonucleotide sequence. 68. The method of claim 67, wherein the lymphocyte status indicator molecule comprises one or more of FoxP3, CD4, CD8, CDl la, CD18, CD21, CD25, CD29, CCD30, CD38, CD44, CD45, CD45RA, CD45RO, CD49d, CD62, CD62L, CD69, CD71, CD103, CD137 (4- 1BB), CD138, CD161, CD294, CCR5, CXCR4, IgGl-4 H-chain constant region, IgA H- chain constant region, IgE H-chain constant region, IgD H-chain constant region, IgM H- chain constant region, HLA-DR, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-21, TGF-β, TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 and TLR10.

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