Heterocyclic Compounds And Their Uses

HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS AND THEIR USES

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/287,827, filed December 18, 2009, which is hereby incorporated by reference.

The present invention relates generally to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) enzymes, and more particularly to selective inhibitors of PI3K activity and to methods of using such materials.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Cell signaling via 3 '-phosphorylated phosphoinositides has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, e.g., malignant transformation, growth factor signaling, inflammation, and immunity (see Rameh et al., J. Biol Chem, 274:8347-8350 (1999) for a review). The enzyme responsible for generating these phosphorylated signaling products, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase; PI3K), was originally identified as an activity associated with viral oncoproteins and growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (PI) and its phosphorylated derivatives at the 3'-hydroxyl of the inositol ring (Panayotou et al, Trends Cell Biol 2:358-60 (1992)).

The levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3), the primary product of PI 3-kinase activation, increase upon treatment of cells with a variety of stimuli. This includes signaling through receptors for the majority of growth factors and many inflammatory stimuli, hormones, neurotransmitters and antigens, and thus the activation of PI3Ks represents one, if not the most prevalent, signal transduction events associated with mammalian cell surface receptor activation (Cantley, Science 296: 1655-1657 (2002); Vanhaesebroeck et al.

Annu.Rev.Biochem, 70: 535-602 (2001)). PI 3-kinase activation, therefore, is involved in a wide range of cellular responses including cell growth, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis (Parker et al, Current Biology, 5:577-99 (1995); Yao et al, Science, 267:2003-05 (1995)). Though the downstream targets of phosphorylated lipids generated following PI 3-kinase activation have not been fully characterized, it is known that pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain- and FYVE-finger domain-containing proteins are activated when binding to various phosphatidylinositol lipids (Sternmark et al, J Cell Sci, 112:4175-83 (1999); .Lemmon et al, Trends Cell Biol, 7:237-42 (1997)). Two groups of PH-domain containing PI3K effectors have been studied in the context of immune cell signaling, members of the tyrosine kinase TEC family and the serine/threonine kinases of the AGC family. Members of the Tec family containing PH domains with apparent selectivity for Ptdlns (3,4,5)P3 include Tec, Btk, Itk and Etk.

Binding of PH to PIP3 is critical for tyrsosine kinase activity of the Tec family members (Schaeffer and Schwartzberg, Curr.Opin.Immunol. 12: 282-288 (2000)) AGC family members that are regulated by PI3K include the phosphoinositide- dependent kinase (PDK1), AKT (also termed PKB) and certain iso forms of protein kinase C (PKC) and S6 kinase. There are three isoforms of AKT and activation of AKT is strongly associated with PI3K- dependent proliferation and survival signals. Activation of AKT depends on phosphorylation by PDK1, which also has a 3-phosphoinositide-selective PH domain to recruit it to the membrane where it interacts with AKT. Other important PDK1 substrates are PKC and S6 kinase (Deane and Fruman, Annu.Rev.Immunol. 22 563-598 (2004)). In vitro, some isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) are directly activated by PIP3.

(Burgering et al, Nature, 376:599-602 (1995)).

Presently, the PI 3 -kinase enzyme family has been divided into three classes based on their substrate specificities. Class I PI3Ks can phosphorylate phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, and phosphatidyl- inositol-4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) to produce phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol-3,4-biphosphate, and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5- triphosphate, respectively. Class II PI3Ks phosphorylate PI and phosphatidyl- inositol-4-phosphate, whereas Class III PI3Ks can only phosphorylate PI.

The initial purification and molecular cloning of PI 3 -kinase revealed that it was a heterodimer consisting of p85 and pi 10 subunits (Otsu et al, Cell, 65:91- 104 (1991); Hiles et al, Cell, 70:419-29 (1992)). Since then, four distinct Class I PI3Ks have been identified, designated PI3K α, β, δ, and γ, each consisting of a distinct 110 kDa catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit. More specifically, three of the catalytic subunits, i.e., pi 10a, i 10β and pi 105, each interact with the same regulatory subunit, p85; whereas pi 10γ interacts with a distinct regulatory subunit, plOl . As described below, the patterns of expression of each of these PBKs in human cells and tissues are also distinct. Though a wealth of information has been accumulated in recent past on the cellular functions of PI 3-kinases in general, the roles played by the individual iso forms are not fully understood.

Cloning of bovine pi 10a has been described. This protein was identified as related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein: Vps34p, a protein involved in vacuolar protein processing. The recombinant pi 10a product was also shown to associate with p85a, to yield a PI3K activity in transfected COS-1 cells. See Hiles et al, Cell, 70, 419-29 (1992).

The cloning of a second human pi 10 iso form, designated pi 10β, is described in Hu et al, Mol Cell Biol, 13:7677-88 (1993). This isoform is said to associate with p85 in cells, and to be ubiquitously expressed, as pi 10β m NA has been found in numerous human and mouse tissues as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, Jurkat human leukemic T cells, 293 human embryonic kidney cells, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, HeLa cells, and NBT2 rat bladder carcinoma cells. Such wide expression suggests that this isoform is broadly important in signaling pathways.

Identification of the pi 105 isoform of PI 3-kinase is described in Chantry et al, J Biol Chem, 272: 19236-41 (1997). It was observed that the human pi 10δ isoform is expressed in a tissue-restricted fashion. It is expressed at high levels in lymphocytes and lymphoid tissues and has been shown to play a key role in PI 3- kinase-mediated signaling in the immune system (Al-Alwan etl al. JI 178: 2328- 2335 (2007); Okkenhaug et al JI, 177: 5122-5128 (2006); Lee et al. PNAS, 103: 1289-1294 (2006)). PI 105 has also been shown to be expressed at lower levels in breast cells, melanocytes and endothelial cells (Vogt et al. Virology, 344: 131-138 (2006) and has since been implicated in conferring selective migratory properties to breast cancer cells (Sawyer et al. Cancer Res. 63: 1667-1675 (2003)). Details concerning the PI 105 isoform also can be found in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,858,753; 5,822,910; and 5,985,589. See also, Vanhaesebroeck et al, Proc Nat. Acad Sci USA, 94:4330-5 (1997), and international publication WO 97/46688.

In each of the ΡΒΚα, β, and δ subtypes, the p85 subunit acts to localize PI 3 -kinase to the plasma membrane by the interaction of its SH2 domain with phosphorylated tyrosine residues (present in an appropriate sequence context) in target proteins (Rameh et al, Cell, 83:821-30 (1995)). Five isoforms of p85 have been identified (ρ85α, ρ85β, ρ55γ, p55a and p50a) encoded by three genes.

Alternative transcripts of Pik3rl gene encode the p85 a, p55 a and p50a proteins (Deane and Fruman, Annu.Rev.Immunol. 22: 563-598 (2004)). p85a is ubiquitously expressed while ρ85β, is primarily found in the brain and lymphoid tissues (Volinia et al, Oncogene, 7:789-93 (1992)). Association of the p85 subunit to the PI 3-kinase pi 10a, β, or δ catalytic subunits appears to be required for the catalytic activity and stability of these enzymes. In addition, the binding of Ras proteins also upregulates PI 3-kinase activity.

The cloning of p 110γ revealed still further complexity within the PI3K family of enzymes (Stoyanov et al, Science, 269:690-93 (1995)). The pi 10γ isoform is closely related to pi 10a and pi 10β (45-48% identity in the catalytic domain), but as noted does not make use of p85 as a targeting subunit. Instead, pi 10γ binds a plOl regulatory subunit that also binds to the βγ subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. The pi 01 regulatory subunit for PBKgamma was originally cloned in swine, and the human ortholog identified subsequently (Krugmann et al, J Biol Chem, 274: 17152-8 (1999)). Interaction between the N- terminal region of plOl with the N-terminal region of pi 10γ is known to activate ΡΙ3Κγ through ϋβγ. Recently, a plOl-homologue has been identified, p84 or p87PIKAP (ΡΙ3Κγ adapter protein of 87 kDa) that binds p 110γ (Voigt et al. JBC,

281 : 9977-9986 (2006), Suire et al. Curr.Biol. 15: 566-570 (2005)). p87PIKAP is homologous to plOl in areas that bind pi 10γ and ϋβγ and also mediates activation of pi 10γ downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors. Unlike plOl, pgyPiKAP s hjgUy expressed in the heart and may be crucial to ΡΙ3Κγ cardiac function. A constitutively active PI3K polypeptide is described in international publication WO 96/25488. This publication discloses preparation of a chimeric fusion protein in which a 102-residue fragment of p85 known as the inter-SH2 (iSH2) region is fused through a linker region to the N-terminus of murine pi 10. The p85 iSH2 domain apparently is able to activate PI3K activity in a manner comparable to intact p85 (Klippel et al, Mol Cell Biol, 14:2675-85 (1994)).

Thus, PI 3 -kinases can be defined by their amino acid identity or by their activity. Additional members of this growing gene family include more distantly related lipid and protein kinases including Vps34 TORI, and TOR2 of Saccharo- myces cerevisiae (and their mammalian homologs such as FRAP and mTOR), the ataxia telangiectasia gene product (ATR) and the catalytic subunit of DNA- dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). See generally, Hunter, Cell, 83: 1-4 (1995).

PI 3-kinase is also involved in a number of aspects of leukocyte activation. A p85-associated PI 3-kinase activity has been shown to physically associate with the cytoplasmic domain of CD28, which is an important costimulatory molecule for the activation of T-cells in response to antigen (Pages et al., Nature, 369:327- 29 (1994); Rudd, Immunity, 4:527-34 (1996)). Activation of T cells through CD28 lowers the threshold for activation by antigen and increases the magnitude and duration of the proliferative response. These effects are linked to increases in the transcription of a number of genes including interleukin-2 (IL2), an important T cell growth factor (Fraser et al, Science, 251 :313-16 (1991)). Mutation of CD28 such that it can no longer interact with PI 3-kinase leads to a failure to initiate IL2 production, suggesting a critical role for PI 3-kinase in T cell activation.

Specific inhibitors against individual members of a family of enzymes provide invaluable tools for deciphering functions of each enzyme. Two compounds, LY294002 and wortmannin, have been widely used as PI 3-kinase inhibitors. These compounds, however, are nonspecific PI3K inhibitors, as they do not distinguish among the four members of Class I PI 3-kinases. For example, the IC50 values of wortmannin against each of the various Class I PI 3-kinases are in the range of 1-lOnM. Similarly, the IC50 values for LY294002 against each of these PI 3-kinases is about ΙμΜ (Fruman et al., Ann Rev Biochem, 67:481-507 (1998)). Hence, the utility of these compounds in studying the roles of individual Class I PI 3 -kinases is limited.

Based on studies using wortmannin, there is evidence that PI 3 -kinase function also is required for some aspects of leukocyte signaling through G- protein coupled receptors (Thelen et al, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 91 :4960-64 (1994)). Moreover, it has been shown that wortmannin and LY294002 block neutrophil migration and superoxide release. However, inasmuch as these compounds do not distinguish among the various isoforms of PI3K, it remains unclear from these studies which particular PI3K isoform or isoforms are involved in these phenomena and what functions the different Class I PI3K enzymes perform in both normal and diseased tissues in general. The co-expression of several PI3K isoforms in most tissues has confounded efforts to segregate the activities of each enzyme until recently.

The separation of the activities of the various PI3K isozymes has been advanced recently with the development of genetically manipulated mice that allowed the study of isoform-specific knock-out and kinase dead knock-in mice and the development of more selective inhibitors for some of the different isoforms. PI 10a and pi 10β knockout mice have been generated and are both embryonic lethal and little information can be obtained from these mice regarding the expression and function of pi 10 alpha and beta (Bi et al. Mamm.Genome, 13: 169-172 (2002); Bi et al. J.Biol.Chem. 274: 10963-10968 (1999)). More recently, pi 10a kinase dead knock in mice were generated with a single point mutation in the DFG motif of the ATP binding pocket (pi 10aD933A) that impairs kinase activity but preserves mutant pi 10a kinase expression. In contrast to knock out mice, the knockin approach preserves signaling complex stoichiometry, scaffold functions and mimics small molecule approaches more realistically than knock out mice. Similar to the pi 10a KO mice, pi 10aD933A homozygous mice are embryonic lethal. However, heterozygous mice are viable and fertile but display severely blunted signaling via insulin-receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, key mediators of insulin, insulin- like growth factor- 1 and leptin action. Defective responsiveness to these hormones leads to hyperinsulinaemia, glucose intolerance, hyperphagia, increase adiposity and reduced overall growth in heterozygotes (Foukas, et al. Nature, 441 : 366-370 (2006)). These studies revealed a defined, non-redundant role for pi 10a as an intermediate in IGF-1, insulin and leptin signaling that is not substituted for by other isoforms. We will have to await the description of the p 110β kinase-dead knock in mice to further understand the function of this isoform (mice have been made but not yet published;

Vanhaesebroeck).

PI 10γ knock out and kinase-dead knock in mice have both been generated and overall show similar and mild phenotypes with primary defects in migration of cells of the innate immune system and a defect in thymic development of T cells (Li et al. Science, 287: 1046-1049 (2000), Sasaki et al. Science, 287: 1040-1046 (2000), Patrucco et al. Cell, 118: 375-387 (2004)).

Similar to pi 10γ, PI3K delta knock out and kinase-dead knock-in mice have been made and are viable with mild and like phenotypes. The pi 105D910A mutant knock in mice demonstrated an important role for delta in B cell development and function, with marginal zone B cells and CD5+ Bl cells nearly undetectable, and B- and T cell antigen receptor signaling (Clayton et al.

J.Exp.Med. 196:753-763 (2002); Okkenhaug et al. Science, 297: 1031-1034 (2002)). The pi 105D910A mice have been studied extensively and have elucidated the diverse role that delta plays in the immune system. T cell dependent and T cell independent immune responses are severely attenuated in pi 105D910A and secretion of TH1 (INF-γ) and TH2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-5) are impaired (Okkenhaug et al. J.Immunol. 177: 5122-5128 (2006)). A human patient with a mutation in pi 105 has also recently been described. A taiwanese boy with a primary B cell immunodeficiency and a gamma-hypoglobulinemia of previously unknown aetiology presented with a single base-pair substitution, m.3256G to A in codon 1021 in exon 24 of pi 105. This mutation resulted in a mis-sense amino acid substitution (E to K) at codon 1021, which is located in the highly conserved catalytic domain of pi 105 protein. The patient has no other identified mutations and his phenotype is consistent with pi 105 deficiency in mice as far as studied. (Jou et al. Int.J.Immunogenet. 33: 361-369 (2006)).

Isoform-selective small molecule compounds have been developed with varying success to all Class I PI3 kinase isoforms (Ito et al. J. Pharm. Exp.

Therapeut., 321 : 1-8 (2007)). Inhibitors to alpha are desirable because mutations in pi 10a have been identified in several solid tumors; for example, an amplification mutation of alpha is associated with 50% of ovarian, cervical, lung and breast cancer and an activation mutation has been described in more than 50% of bowel and 25% of breast cancers (Hennessy et al. Nature Reviews, 4: 988-1004 (2005)). Yamanouchi has developed a compound YM-024 that inhibits alpha and delta equipotently and is 8- and 28-fold selective over beta and gamma respectively (Ito et al. J.Pharm.Exp.Therapeut., 321 : 1-8 (2007)).

PI 10β is involved in thrombus formation (Jackson et al. Nature Med. 11 : 507-514 (2005)) and small molecule inhibitors specific for this isoform are thought after for indication involving clotting disorders (TGX-221 : 0.007uM on beta; 14-fold selective over delta, and more than 500-fold selective over gamma and alpha) (Ito et al. J.Pharm.Exp.Therapeut., 321 : 1-8 (2007)).

Selective compounds to pi 10γ are being developed by several groups as immunosuppressive agents for autoimmune disease (Rueckle et al. Nature Reviews, 5: 903-918 (2006)). Of note, AS 605240 has been shown to be efficacious in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (Camps et al. Nature Medicine, 11 : 936-943 (2005)) and to delay onset of disease in a model of systemic lupus erythematosis (Barber et al. Nature Medicine, 11 : 933-935 (205)).

Delta-selective inhibitors have also been described recently. The most selective compounds include the quinazolinone purine inhibitors (PIK39 and

IC87114). IC87114 inhibits pi 105 in the high nanomolar range (triple digit) and has greater than 100-fold selectivity against pi 10a, is 52 fold selective against pi 10β but lacks selectivity against pi 10γ (approx. 8-fold). It shows no activity against any protein kinases tested (Knight et al. Cell, 125: 733-747 (2006)). Using delta-selective compounds or genetically manipulated mice (pl l05D910A) it was shown that in addition to playing a key role in B and T cell activation, delta is also partially involved in neutrophil migration and primed neutrophil respiratory burst and leads to a partial block of antigen-IgE mediated mast cell degranulation (Condliffe et al. Blood, 106: 1432-1440 (2005); Ali et al. Nature, 431 : 1007-1011 (2002)). Hence pi 105 is emerging as an important mediator of many key inflammatory responses that are also known to participate in aberrant

inflammatory conditions, including but not limited to autoimmune disease and allergy. To support this notion, there is a growing body of pi 105 target validation data derived from studies using both genetic tools and pharmacologic agents. Thus, using the delta-selective compound IC 87114 and the pi 105D910A mice, Ali et al. (Nature, 431 : 1007-1011 (2002)) have demonstrated that delta plays a critical role in a murine model of allergic disease. In the absence of functional delta, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) is significantly reduced and can be attributed to a reduction in allergen-IgE induced mast cell activation and degranulation. In addition, inhibition of delta with IC 87114 has been shown to significantly ameliorate inflammation and disease in a murine model of asthma using ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation (Lee et al. FASEB, 20: 455-465 (2006). These data utilizing compound were corroborated in pi 105D910A mutant mice using the same model of allergic airway inflammation by a different group (Nashed et al. Eur.J.Immunol. 37:416-424 (2007)).

There exists a need for further characterization of PI3K5 function in inflammatory and auto-immune settings. Furthermore, our understanding of PI3K5 requires further elaboration of the structural interactions of pi 105, both with its regulatory subunit and with other proteins in the cell. There also remains a need for more potent and selective or specific inhibitors of PI3K delta, in order to avoid potential toxicology associated with activity on isozymes pi 10 alpha (insulin signaling) and beta (platelet activation). In particular, selective or specific inhibitors of PI3K5 are desirable for exploring the role of this isozyme further and for development of superior pharmaceuticals to modulate the activity of the isozyme. Summary

The present invention comprises a new class of compounds having the general formula

which are useful to inhibit the biological activity of human ΡΒΚδ. Another aspect of the invention is to provide compounds that inhibit ΡΒΚδ selectively while having relatively low inhibitory potency against the other PI3K isoforms. Another aspect of the invention is to provide methods of characterizing the function of human ΡΒΚδ. Another aspect of the invention is to provide methods of selectively modulating human ΡΒΚδ activity, and thereby promoting medical treatment of diseases mediated by ΡΒΚδ dysfunction. Other aspects and advantages of the invention will be readily apparent to the artisan having ordinary skill in the art.

Detailed Description

One aspect of the invention relates to compounds having the structure:

n is 0, 1, 2 or 3;

R1 is a direct-bonded, Ci_4alk-linked, OCi_2alk- linked, Ci_2alkO-linked or O-linked saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 5-, 6- or 7-membered monocyclic or 8-, 9-, 10- or 11-membered bicyclic ring containing 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S atom, substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 substituents independently selected from halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa, wherein the available carbon atoms of the ring are additionally substituted by 0, 1 or 2 oxo or thioxo groups;

R2 is selected from H, halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, ORa, NRaRa,

-C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa,

-S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa;

R3 is selected from H, halo, nitro, cyano, Ci_4alk, OCi_4alk, OCi_4haloalk, NHCi_4alk, N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk or Ci_4haloalk;

R4 is, independently, in each instance, halo, nitro, cyano, Ci_4alk, OCi_4alk, OCi_4haloalk, NHCi_4alk, N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk, Ci_4haloalk or an unsaturated 5-, 6- or 7-membered monocyclic ring containing 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S, substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, Ci_4alk, Ci_3haloalk, -OCi_4alk, -NH2, -NHCi_4alk,

R5 is, independently, in each instance, H, halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, or Ci_6alk substituted by 1, 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, cyano, OH, OCi_4alk, Ci_4alk, Ci_3haloalk, OCi_4alk, NH2, NHCi_4alk, N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk; or both R5 groups together form a C3_6spiroalk substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, cyano, OH, OCi_4alk, Ci_4alk, Ci_3haloalk, OCi_4alk, NH2, NHCi_4alk, N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk;

R6 is H, halo, NHR9 or OH;

R7 is selected from H, halo, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra,

-C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa,

-N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra,

-N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkORa and Ci_6alk, wherein the Ci_6alk is substituted by 0, 1 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa,

-OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa, and the Ci_6alk is additionally substituted by 0 or 1 saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 5-, 6- or 7-membered monocyclic rings containing 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S, wherein the available carbon atoms of the ring are substituted by 0, 1 or 2 oxo or thioxo groups, wherein the ring is substituted by 0, 1 , 2 or 3 substituents independently selected from halo, nitro, cyano, Ci_4alk, OCi_4alk, OCi_4haloalk, NHCi_4alk, N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk and Ci_ 4haloalk; or R7 and R8 together form a -C=N- bridge wherein the carbon atom is substituted by H, halo, cyano, or a saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 5-,

6- or 7-membered monocyclic ring containing 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S, wherein the available carbon atoms of the ring are substituted by 0, 1 or 2 oxo or thioxo groups, wherein the ring is substituted by 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 substituents selected from halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa,

-ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa; or R7 and R9 together form a -N=C- bridge wherein the carbon atom is substituted by H, halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, ORa, NRaRa, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa,

-C(=0)NRaRa, -C (=NRa)NRaRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa;

R9 is H, Ci_6alk or Ci_4haloalk;

R10 is H, halo, Ci_3alk, Ci_3haloalk or cyano;

R11 is selected from H, halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Rb, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa,

-N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra,

-N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa;

Ra is independently, at each instance, H or Rb; and

Rb is independently, at each instance, phenyl, benzyl or Ci_6alk, the phenyl, benzyl and Ci_6alk being substituted by 0, 1 , 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, Ci_4alk, Ci_3haloalk, -OCi_4alk, -NH2, -NHCi_4alk, -N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, X1 is N.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, Y is N(R8).

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R1 is a direct-bonded saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 5-, 6- or 7-membered monocyclic or 8-, 9-, 10- or 1 1-membered bicyclic ring containing 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S atom, substituted by 0, 1 , 2 or 3 substituents independently selected from halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C (=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa,

-OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa,

-N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra,

-N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa, wherein the available carbon atoms of the ring are additionally substituted by 0, 1 or 2 oxo or thioxo groups.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R1 is a direct-bonded unsaturated 6-membered monocyclic ring containing 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S atom, substituted by 0, 1 , 2 or 3 substituents independently selected from halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C (=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa,

-OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa,

-N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra,

-N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R1 is phenyl, pyridyl or pyrimidinyl, all of which are substituted by 0, 1 , 2 or 3 substituents independently selected from halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa,

-OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra,

-S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R1 is phenyl substituted by 0, 1 , 2 or 3 substituents independently selected from halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C (=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa,

-OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa,

-N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra,

-N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R1 is phenyl, pyridyl or pyrimidinyl, all of which are substituted by 1 , 2 or 3 substituents independently selected from halo, Ci_6alk, and Ci_4haloalk.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R1 is phenyl which is substituted by 1 , 2 or 3 substituents independently selected from halo, Ci_6alk, and C^haloalk.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R2 is H.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R3 is selected from H and halo.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R5 is, independently, in each instance, H, halo, Ci_6alk, and Ci_4haloalk.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, one R5 is H and the other R5 is Ci_6alk.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, one R5 is H and the other R5 is methyl.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, one R5 is H and the other R5 is (R)-methyl.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, one R5 is H and the other R5 is (S)-methyl.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R6 is NHR9.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R7 is cyano. In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R7 and R8 together form a -C=N- bridge wherein the carbon atom is substituted by H, halo, cyano, or a saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 5-, 6- or 7-membered monocyclic ring containing 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S, wherein the available carbon atoms of the ring are substituted by 0, 1 or 2 oxo or thioxo groups, wherein the ring is substituted by 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 substituents selected from halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R7 and R9 together form a -N=C- bridge wherein the carbon atom is substituted by H, halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, ORa, NRaRa, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra,

-S(=0)2NRaRa.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R7 and R9 together form a -N=C- bridge wherein the carbon atom is substituted by H or halo.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R11 is selected from H, halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk and cyano.

In another embodiment, in conjunction with the above and below embodiments, R11 is selected from H, halo and Ci_6alk.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a method of treating PI3K- mediated conditions or disorders.

In certain embodiments, the PI3K-mediated condition or disorder is selected from rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases. In other embodiments, the PI3K- mediated condition or disorder is selected from cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, hypertension, deep venous thrombosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, thrombolytic diseases, acute arterial ischemia, peripheral thrombotic occlusions, and coronary artery disease. In still other embodiments, the PI3K- mediated condition or disorder is selected from cancer, colon cancer,

glioblastoma, endometrial carcinoma, hepatocellular cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, cell lymphoma,

lymphoproliferative disorders, small cell lung cancer, squamous cell lung carcinoma, glioma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and leukemia. In yet another embodiment, the PI3K- mediated condition or disorder is selected from type II diabetes. In still other embodiments, the PI3K- mediated condition or disorder is selected from respiratory diseases, bronchitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In certain embodiments, the subject is a human.

Another aspect of the invention relates to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory diseases or autoimmune diseases comprising the step of

administering a compound according to any of the above embodiments.

Another aspect of the invention relates to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disorders, inflammatory eye disorders, inflammatory or unstable bladder disorders, skin complaints with inflammatory components, chronic inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), myestenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, idiopathic

thrombocytopenic purpura, multiples sclerosis, Sjoegren's syndrome and autoimmune hemolytic anemia, allergic conditions and hypersensitivity, comprising the step of administering a compound according to any of the above or below embodiments. Another aspect of the invention relates to the treatment of cancers that are mediated, dependent on or associated with pi 105 activity, comprising the step of administering a compound according to any of the above or below embodiments.

Another aspect of the invention relates to the treatment of cancers are selected from acute myeloid leukaemia, myelo-dysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative diseases, chronic myeloid leukaemia, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-hodgkins lymphoma, B- cell lymphoma, solid tumors and breast cancer, comprising the step of administering a compound according to any of the above or below embodiments.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound according to any of the above embodiments and a pharmaceutically-acceptable diluent or carrier.

Another aspect of the invention relates to the use of a compound according to any of the above embodiments as a medicament.

Another aspect of the invention relates to the use of a compound according to any of the above embodiments in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases.

The compounds of this invention may have in general several asymmetric centers and are typically depicted in the form of racemic mixtures. This invention is intended to encompass racemic mixtures, partially racemic mixtures and separate enantiomers and diasteromers.

Unless otherwise specified, the following definitions apply to terms found in the specification and claims:

"Ca^alk" means an alk group comprising a minimum of a and a maximum of β carbon atoms in a branched, cyclical or linear relationship or any combination of the three, wherein a and β represent integers. The alk groups described in this section may also contain one or two double or triple bonds. Examples of Ci_6alk include, but are not limited to the following:

"Benzo group", alone or in combination, means the divalent radical C4H4=, one representation of which is -CH=CH-CH=CH-, that when vicinally attached to another ring forms a benzene-like ring—for example tetrahydronaphthylene, indole and the like.

The terms "oxo" and "thioxo" represent the groups =0 (as in carbonyl) and =S (as in thiocarbonyl), respectively.

"Halo" or "halogen" means a halogen atoms selected from F, CI, Br and I.

"Cv-whaloalk" means an alk group, as described above, wherein any number— at least one— of the hydrogen atoms attached to the alk chain are replaced by F, CI, Br or I.

"Heterocycle" means a ring comprising at least one carbon atom and at least one other atom selected from N, O and S. Examples of heterocycles that may be found in the claims include, but are not limited to, the following:

"Available nitrogen atoms" are those nitrogen atoms that are part of a heterocycle and are joined by two single bonds (e.g. piperidine), leaving an external bond available for substitution by, for example, H or CH3.

"Pharmaceutically-acceptable salt" means a salt prepared by conventional means, and are well known by those skilled in the art. The "pharmacologically acceptable salts" include basic salts of inorganic and organic acids, including but not limited to hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, lactic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, mandelic acid and the like. When compounds of the invention include an acidic function such as a carboxy group, then suitable pharmaceutically acceptable cation pairs for the carboxy group are well known to those skilled in the art and include alkaline, alkaline earth, ammonium, quaternary ammonium cations and the like. For additional examples of "pharmacologically acceptable salts," see infra and Berge et al., J. Pharm. Sci. 66: 1 (1977).

"Saturated, partially saturated or unsaturated" includes substituents saturated with hydrogens, substituents completely unsaturated with hydrogens and substituents partially saturated with hydrogens.

"Leaving group" generally refers to groups readily displaceable by a nucleophile, such as an amine, a thiol or an alcohol nucleophile. Such leaving groups are well known in the art. Examples of such leaving groups include, but are not limited to, N-hydroxysuccinimide, N-hydroxybenzotriazole, halides, triflates, tosylates and the like. Preferred leaving groups are indicated herein where appropriate.

"Protecting group" generally refers to groups well known in the art which are used to prevent selected reactive groups, such as carboxy, amino, hydroxy, mercapto and the like, from undergoing undesired reactions, such as nucleophilic, electrophilic, oxidation, reduction and the like. Preferred protecting groups are indicated herein where appropriate. Examples of amino protecting groups include, but are not limited to, aralk, substituted aralk, cycloalkenylalk and substituted cycloalkenyl alk, allyl, substituted allyl, acyl, alkoxycarbonyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, silyl and the like. Examples of aralk include, but are not limited to, benzyl, ortho-methylbenzyl, trityl and benzhydryl, which can be optionally substituted with halogen, alk, alkoxy, hydroxy, nitro, acylamino, acyl and the like, and salts, such as phosphonium and ammonium salts. Examples of aryl groups include phenyl, naphthyl, indanyl, anthracenyl, 9-(9-phenylfluorenyl), phenanthrenyl, durenyl and the like. Examples of cycloalkenylalk or substituted cycloalkenylalk radicals, preferably have 6-10 carbon atoms, include, but are not limited to, cyclohexenyl methyl and the like. Suitable acyl, alkoxycarbonyl and aralkoxycarbonyl groups include

benzyloxycarbonyl, t-butoxycarbonyl, iso-butoxycarbonyl, benzoyl, substituted benzoyl, butyryl, acetyl, trifluoroacetyl, trichloro acetyl, phthaloyl and the like. A mixture of protecting groups can be used to protect the same amino group, such as a primary amino group can be protected by both an aralk group and an

aralkoxycarbonyl group. Amino protecting groups can also form a heterocyclic ring with the nitrogen to which they are attached, for example,

1 ,2-bis(methylene)benzene, phthalimidyl, succinimidyl, maleimidyl and the like and where these heterocyclic groups can further include adjoining aryl and cycloalk rings. In addition, the heterocyclic groups can be mono-, di- or tri-substituted, such as nitrophthalimidyl. Amino groups may also be protected against undesired reactions, such as oxidation, through the formation of an addition salt, such as hydrochloride, toluenesulfonic acid, trifluoroacetic acid and the like. Many of the amino protecting groups are also suitable for protecting carboxy, hydroxy and mercapto groups. For example, aralk groups. Alk groups are also suitable groups for protecting hydroxy and mercapto groups, such as tert-butyl.

Silyl protecting groups are silicon atoms optionally substituted by one or more alk, aryl and aralk groups. Suitable silyl protecting groups include, but are not limited to, trimethylsilyl, triethylsilyl, triisopropylsilyl, tert-butyldimethylsilyl, dimethylphenylsilyl, 1 ,2-bis(dimethylsilyl)benzene, 1 ,2-bis(dimethylsilyl)ethane and diphenylmethylsilyl. Silylation of an amino groups provide mono- or di- silylamino groups. Silylation of aminoalcohol compounds can lead to a Ν,Ν,Ο- trisilyl derivative. Removal of the silyl function from a silyl ether function is readily accomplished by treatment with, for example, a metal hydroxide or ammonium fluoride reagent, either as a discrete reaction step or in situ during a reaction with the alcohol group. Suitable silylating agents are, for example, trimethylsilyl chloride, tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl chloride, phenyldimethylsilyl chloride, diphenylmethyl silyl chloride or their combination products with imidazole or DMF. Methods for silylation of amines and removal of silyl protecting groups are well known to those skilled in the art. Methods of preparation of these amine derivatives from corresponding amino acids, amino acid amides or amino acid esters are also well known to those skilled in the art of organic chemistry including amino acid/amino acid ester or aminoalcohol chemistry.

Protecting groups are removed under conditions which will not affect the remaining portion of the molecule. These methods are well known in the art and include acid hydrolysis, hydrogenolysis and the like. A preferred method involves removal of a protecting group, such as removal of a benzyloxycarbonyl group by hydrogenolysis utilizing palladium on carbon in a suitable solvent system such as an alcohol, acetic acid, and the like or mixtures thereof. A t- butoxycarbonyl protecting group can be removed utilizing an inorganic or organic acid, such as HC1 or trifluoroacetic acid, in a suitable solvent system, such as dioxane or methylene chloride. The resulting amino salt can readily be neutralized to yield the free amine. Carboxy protecting group, such as methyl, ethyl, benzyl, tert-butyl, 4-methoxyphenylmethyl and the like, can be removed under hydrolysis and hydrogenolysis conditions well known to those skilled in the art.

It should be noted that compounds of the invention may contain groups that may exist in tautomeric forms, such as cyclic and acyclic amidine and guanidine groups, heteroatom substituted heteroaryl groups (Y' = O, S, NR), and the like, which are illustrated in the following examples:

and though one form is named, described, displayed and/or claimed herein, all the tautomeric forms are intended to be inherently included in such name, description, display and/or claim.

Prodrugs of the compounds of this invention are also contemplated by this invention. A prodrug is an active or inactive compound that is modified chemically through in vivo physiological action, such as hydrolysis, metabolism and the like, into a compound of this invention following administration of the prodrug to a patient. The suitability and techniques involved in making and using prodrugs are well known by those skilled in the art. For a general discussion of prodrugs involving esters see Svensson and Tunek Drug Metabolism Reviews 165 (1988) and Bundgaard Design of Prodrugs, Elsevier (1985). Examples of a masked carboxylate anion include a variety of esters, such as alk (for example, methyl, ethyl), cycloalk (for example, cyclohexyl), aralk (for example, benzyl, p- methoxybenzyl), and alkcarbonyloxyalk (for example, pivaloyloxymethyl).

Amines have been masked as arylcarbonyloxymethyl substituted derivatives which are cleaved by esterases in vivo releasing the free drug and formaldehyde (Bungaard J. Med. Chem. 2503 (1989)). Also, drugs containing an acidic NH group, such as imidazole, imide, indole and the like, have been masked with N- acyloxymethyl groups (Bundgaard Design of Prodrugs, Elsevier (1985)).

Hydroxy groups have been masked as esters and ethers. EP 039,051 (Sloan and Little, 4/11/81) discloses Mannich-base hydroxamic acid prodrugs, their preparation and use.

The specification and claims contain listing of species using the language

"selected from . . . and . . ." and "is . . . or . . ." (sometimes referred to as Markush groups). When this language is used in this application, unless otherwise stated it is meant to include the group as a whole, or any single members thereof, or any subgroups thereof. The use of this language is merely for shorthand purposes and is not meant in any way to limit the removal of individual elements or subgroups as needed.

The present invention also includes isotopically-labelled compounds, which are identical to those recited herein, but for the fact that one or more atoms are replaced by an atom having an atomic mass or mass number different from the atomic mass or mass number usually found in nature. Examples of isotopes that can be incorporated into compounds of the invention include isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, fluorine and chlorine, such as 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 15N, 160, 170, 31P, 32P, 35S, 18F, and 36C1.

Compounds of the present invention that contain the aforementioned isotopes and/or other isotopes of other atoms are within the scope of this invention. Certain isotopically-labeled compounds of the present invention, for example those into which radioactive isotopes such as 3H and 14C are

incorporated, are useful in drug and/or substrate tissue distribution assays.

Tritiated, i.e., 3H, and carbon-14, i.e., 14C, isotopes are particularly preferred for their ease of preparation and detection. Further, substitution with heavier isotopes such as deuterium, i.e., 2H, can afford certain therapeutic advantages resulting from greater metabolic stability, for example increased in vivo half-life or reduced dosage requirements and, hence, may be preferred in some circumstances.

Isotopically labeled compounds of this invention can generally be prepared by substituting a readily available isotopically labeled reagent for a non-isotopically labeled reagent.

- 25 -

Experimental

The following abbreviations are used:

aq. - aqueous

BINAP - 2,2 ' -bis(diphenylphosphino)- 1,1 ' -binaphthyl

coned - concentrated

DCM - dichloromethane

DIAD - diisopropyl azodicarboxylate

DMF - N,N-dimethylformamide

Et20 - diethyl ether

EtOAc - ethyl acetate

EtOH - ethyl alcohol

h - hour(s)

min - minutes

MeOH - methyl alcohol

MsCl - methanesulfonyl chloride

rt - room temperature

satd - saturated

THF - tetrahydrofuran

General

Reagents and solvents used below can be obtained from commercial sources. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker 400 MHz and 500 MHz NMR spectrometers. Significant peaks are tabulated in the order: multiplicity (s, singlet; d, doublet; t, triplet; q, quartet; m, multiplet; br s, broad singlet), coupling constant(s) in Hertz (Hz) and number of protons. Mass spectrometry results are reported as the ratio of mass over charge, followed by the relative abundance of each ion (in parentheses Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry analysis was conducted on a Agilent 1100 series LC/MSD electrospray mass spectrometer. All compounds could be analyzed in the positive ESI mode using

acetonitrile: water with 0.1% formic acid as the delivery solvent. Reverse phase analytical HPLC was carried out using a Agilent 1200 series on Agilent Eclipse

XDB-C18 5 μιη column (4.6 x 150 mm) as the stationary phase and eluting with acetonitrile: water with 0.1% TFA. Reverse phase Semi-Prep HPLC was carried - 26 - out using a Agilent 1100 Series on a Phenomenex Gemini 10 μιη CI 8 column (250 x 21.20 mm) as the stationary phase and eluting with acetonitrile:H20 with 0.1% TFA.

Example 1: Preparation of N-(l-(2-(3-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethyl)-9H-purin-6-amine

2-(3-Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile

To a mixture of 3-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-oxopropanenitrile (0.8991 g, 5.511 mmol) and 3-amino-2-pyridinecarbaldehyde (0.6730 g, 5.511 mmol) in ethyl acetate (16.70 mL, 5.511 mmol) was added piperidine (0.04360 mL, 0.4409 mmol) and the mixture was heated under reflux (bath temp. 85 °C) with stirring. After 1 h, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a dark brown solid. The dark brown solid was purified by silica gel column chromatography on a 80 g of Redi-Sep™ column using 0 to 50%> gradient of EtOAc in hexane over 25 min and then 50% isocratic of EtOAc in hexane for 25 min as eluent to give 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3- carbonitrile as a brown solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.27 (1 H, d, J=0.8 Hz), 9.18 (1 H, dd, J=4.1, 1.8 Hz), 8.56 - 8.62 (1 H, m), 8.01 (1 H, dd, J=8.6, 3.9 Hz), 7.76 - 7.85 (2 H, m), 7.63 - 7.71 (1 H, m), 7.44 - 7.52 (1 H, m); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 249.9 [M+H]+.

2-(3-Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carbaldehyde

To a solution of 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (0.175 g, 0.702 mmol) in dichloromethane (9.93 mL, 0.702 mmol) at -78 °C was added - 27 - diisobutylaluminum hydride 1.0 M in dichloromethane (1.40 mL, 1.40 mmol, 2 eqv.) dropwise over 3 min with stirring and the mixture was allowed to warm to 15 °C with stirring over 24 h. The mixture was cooled to -78 °C. To the cooled mixture was added diisobutylaluminum hydride 1.0 M in dichloromethane (0.702 mL, 0.702 mmol, 1 eqv.) dropwise and the mixture was stirred at -78 °C for further 2 h. After 26 h, the mixture was cooled in ice water bath and quenched by addition of 1 N aq. HC1 (4.21 mL, 4.21 mmol) at 0 °C and stirred. After 1.5 h, to the mixture was added potassium acetate (0.413 g, 4.21 mmol). The organic layer was separated and the aq. layer was extracted with CH2CI2 (50 mL x 2). The combined organic layers were washed saturated NaHC03 (50 mL x 1), brine (50 mL x 1), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated at reduced pressure to give an orange solid. The orange solid was purified by silica gel column chromatography on a 40 g of Redi-Sep™ column using 0 to 100% gradient of EtOAc in hexane over 14 min and then 100% isocratic of EtOAc for 5 min as eluent to give 2-(3 -fluorophenyl)- 1, 5 -naphthyridine-3-carbaldehyde as a yellow solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.15 (1 H, s), 9.17 (1 H, dd, J=4.1, 1.8 Hz), 8.90 (1 H, d, J=0.8 Hz), 8.54 - 8.59 (1 H, m, J=8.6, 1.0, 0.8, 0.8 Hz), 7.98 (1 H, dd, J=8.6, 4.1 Hz), 7.59 - 7.67 (2 H, m), 7.53 - 7.58 (1 H, m), 7.39 - 7.47 (1 H, m); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 252.9 [M+H]+.

l-(2-(3-Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanol

To a stirring mixture of 2-(3 -fluorophenyl)- 1,5 -naphthyridine-3-carbaldehyde (0.0293 g, 0.116 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (2.00 mL, 0.116 mmol) was added methylmagnesium bromide 3M in diethyl ether (0.0581 mL, 0.174 mmol) dropwise at 0 °C and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature with stirring. After 2.5 h, the reaction was quenched with saturated aq. NH4C1 (20 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (30 mL x 2). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (30 mL x 3), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel column - 28 - chromatography on a 40 g of Redi-Sep™ column using 0 to 100% gradient of EtOAc in hexane over 14 min and then 100% isocratic of EtOAc for 10 min as eluent to give l-(2-(3 -fluorophenyl)- 1, 5 -naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanol as a colorless syrup: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 268.9 [M+H]+.

2-(l-(2-(3-Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)-lH-isoindole-l,3(2H)- dione

A solution of l-(2-(3-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanol (0.0260 g, 0.0969 mmol), triphenylphosphine (0.0508 g, 0.194 mmol), phthalimide (0.0285 g, 0.194 mmol), and tetrahydrofuran (1.29 mL, 0.0969 mmol) was stirred at room temperature for 5 min to dissolve all reactants. The mixture was then cooled to 0 °C and to the cooled homogenous mixture was added dropwise diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (0.0382 mL, 0.194 mmol) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred at room temperature for 1.5 h. After 1.5 h, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure and partitioned between EtOAc (50 mL) and brine (50 mL). The organic layer was dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography on a 12 g of Redi-Sep™ column using 0 to 100% gradient of EtOAc in hexane over 11 min and 100% isocratic of EtOAc for 25 min as eluent to give 2-(l-(2-(3-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethyl)-lH-isoindole-l,3(2H)-dione as a white solid: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 397.9 [M+H]+. - 29 - l-(2-(3-Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine

To a suspension of 2-(l-(2-(3 -fluorophenyl)- 1,5 -naphthyridin-3 -yl)ethyl)-l H- isoindole-l,3(2H)-dione (0.0317 g, 0.0798 mmol) in ethanol (1.60 mL, 0.0798 mmol) was added hydrazine monohydrate (0.0774 mL, 1.60 mmol), and the mixture was stirred under reflux. After 1 h 20 min, the mixture was cooled to room temperature. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on a 12 g of Redi-Sep™ column using 0% to 100% gradient of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH (89:9: 1) in CH2C12 over 11 min, and then 100% isocratic of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH (89:9: 1) for 10 min as eluent to give l-(2-(3 -fluorophenyl)- 1,5 -naphthyridin-3 -yl)ethanamine as a light yellow syrup: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 268.0 [M+H]+.

N-(l-(2- -Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)-9H-purin-6-amine

A mixture of 6-chloropurine (0.00925 g, 0.0599 mmol), l-(2-(3-fluorophenyl)- l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine (0.0160 g, 0.0599 mmol), and n,n-diisopropyl- ethylamine (0.0313 mL, 0.180 mmol) in 1-butanol (0.599 mL, 0.0599 mmol) was stirred at 100 °C. After 88.5 h, the mixture was removed from the heat and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in CH2C12 (50 mL). The organic mixture was washed with water (30 mL x 1) and brine (30 mL x 1), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography on a 40 g of Redi-Sep™ column - 30 - using 0% to 50% gradient of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH (89:9: 1) in CH2C12 over 14 min, then 50% isocratic of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH (89:9: 1) in CH2C12 for 14 min, then 50% to 100% gradient of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH (89:9: 1) in CH2Cl2 over 14 min, and then 100% isocratic of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH (89:9: 1) for 14 min as eluent to give the desired product as a brown solid. The brown solid was suspended in EtOAc-hexane (1 : 1) and filtered to give N-(l-(2-(3-fluorophenyl)- l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)-9H-purin-6-amine as a tan solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ ppm 12.92 (1 H, br. s.), 8.96 (1 H, dd, J=3.9, 1.6 Hz), 8.31 - 8.77 (3 H, m), 7.99 - 8.21 (2 H, m), 7.52 - 7.81 (4 H, m), 7.35 (1 H, td, J=8.5, 1.8 Hz), 5.60 (1 H, br. s.), 1.47 (3 H, br. s.); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 385.9 [M+H]+.

Example 2: Preparation of 4-amino-6-((l-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphth- yridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile, 4-amino-6-(((lR)-l-(2-(2- fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile, and 4-amino-6-(((lS)-l-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)- amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

2-Methyl-3-nitropyridine

2-Chloro-3-nitropyridine (20 g, 126.18 mmol), methane boronic acid (9.8 g, 164 mmol), tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (11.66 g, 10 mmol) and potassium carbonate (51.48 g, 378.6 mmol) were all mixed in 1-4 dioxane(500 mL), degasified and heated to 100 °C for 48 h under N2. Work up was carried out by allowing the reaction mass to cool to ambient temperature and quenched with water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The aqueous layer was back extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. The solid was further purified by silica gel column chromatography using 6% of ethyl acetate in hexane as eluent to give 2-methyl-3-nitropyridine as an off white solid: 1H-NMR (CDC13) δ: 2.9(s, 3H), 7.4(m, 1H), 8.3(d, 1H), 8.7(d, 1H). - 31 -

3-Nitro-2-pyridinecarbaldehyde

2-Methyl-3-nitropyridine (24 g, 173.91 mmol) was dissolved in 1, 4-dioxane (500 mL) and to the mixture was added selenium dioxide (23 g, 208.7 mmol) and the mixture was heated under reflux for 16 h. After completion of reaction, the mixture was cooled to rt and filtered through Celite™ and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give thick oily mass. The oily mass was purified by silical gel column chromatography using 20% of ethyl acetate and hexane as eluent to give 3-nitro-2-pyridinecarbaldehyde as an off white solid: 1H- NMR (CDC13) δ: 7.7(m, 1H), 8.3(d, 1H), 9.0(d, 1H), 10.3(s, 1H).

2-(l,3-Dioxol -2-yl)-3-nitropyridine

3-Nitro-2-pyridinecarbaldehyde (22 g, 144.74 mmol) was dissolved in toluene (500 mL). To the mixture was added catalytic amount of p-TSA (2 g) and ethylene glycol (40 mL) and the reaction flask equipped with Dean-Stark assembly was refluxed for 12 h at 120 °C. After the reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was treated with water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was back extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a thick oily mass. The olily mass was then purified by silica gel column chromatography using 20% of ethyl acetate and hexane as eluent to give 2-(l,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-3-nitropyridine: 1H-NMR (CDC13) δ: 4.2(d, 5H), 6.5(s, 1H), 7.5(m, 1H), 8.3(d, 1H), 8.9(brs, 1H).

2-(l,3-Dioxolan-2-yl)-3-pyridinamine - 32 -

2-(l,3-Dioxolan-2-yl)-3-nitropyridine (10 g, 51 mmol) was suspended in ethanol (300 mL). To the mixture was added 10% Pd/C (3 g). The reaction mixture was kept at 60 psi pressure using Parr-shaker hydrogenation assembly. After completion of reaction (6 h), the reaction mixture was filtered through Celite™ and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give 2-(l ,3-dioxolan- 2-yl)-3-pyridinamine as an off orange solid: 1H-NMR (CDC13) δ: 4.4- 4.0(m, 6H), 5.8(s, 1H), 7.2- 6.9(m, 2H), 8.0(s, 1H).

2-(2-Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile

3-(2-Fluorophenyl)-3-oxopropanenitrile (1.5 g, 9.2 mmol) and 2-(l ,3-dioxolan-2- yl)-3-pyridinamine (1.68 g, 10.12 mmol) were dissolved in toluene (100 mL). To the mixture was added catalytic amount of p-TSA (300 mg) and the reaction flask equipped with Dean-Stark assembly was heated for 4 h at 120 °C. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was treated with water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was back extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a thick oily mass. The oily mass was then purified by silica gel column chromatography using 20% of ethyl acetate and hexane as eluent to give 2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3- carbonitrile: 1H-NMR (CDC13) δ: 7.2- 7.0(m, 3H), 7.8-7.4(m, 3H), 8.4(d, 1H), 9.1(s, 1H).

2-(2-Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carbaldehyde

DIBAL-H (1M in cyclohexane, 16 mL, 16 mmol) was added dropwise to the solution of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (1 g, 4.02 mmol) - 33 - in toluene (100 mL) at -78 °C. Then reaction mixture was slowly allowed to warm to 0 °C and stirred for 3 h. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was quenched with saturated NH4C1 solution and ethyl acetate, then filtered through Celite™. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was back extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a thick oily mass. Analysis revealed an alcohol was obtained instead of the aldehyde. The above crude oily alcohol (1.2 g) was dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (60 mL) and to the mixture was added manganese dioxide (Mn02) (400 mg) and stirred at rt for 2 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite™ and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a thick oily mass (aldehyde derivative). The oily mass was then purified by silica gel column chromatography using 30% of ethyl acetate and hexane as eluent to give 2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3- carbaldehyde as a yellow oil: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 252.9 [M+H]+.

l-(2-(2-Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanol

Methyl magnesium bromide (2M in diethyl ether, 2.38 mL, and 4.76mmol) was added dropwise to the solution of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carb- aldehyde (600 mg, 4.76 mmol) in THF (60 mL) at -0 °C. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was quenched with saturated NH4C1 solution and ethyl acetate, and then filtered through Celite™. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was back extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give an oily mass. The oily mass was then purified by silica gel column chromatography using 30% of ethyl acetate and hexane as eluent to give l-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanol as a yellow oil: 1H- NMR (CDCI3) δ: 1.3(s, 3H), 5.0(brs, 1H), 7.7-7.2(m, 5H), 8.4(d, 1H), 8.8(s, 1H), 9.0(s, 1H). - 34 -

-(2-Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)-lH-isoindole-l,3(2H)-

l-(2-(2 -Fluorophenyl)- l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanol (550 mg, 2.04 mmol) and pthalimide (600 mg, 4.09 mmol) were dissolved in THF (20 mL) and the mixture was cooled to 0 °C. To the cooled mixture was added PPh3 (1.07 g, 4.09 mmol) and the mixture was stirred for 5-10 min at 0 °C. Then DIAD (800 mg, 4.09 mmol) was added dropwise to the above reaction mixture at 0 °C, and the reaction mixture was slowly allowed to warm to rt and maintained at rt for 3 h. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was quenched with water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was back extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 2-(l-(2-(2- fiuorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)-lH-isoindole-l,3(2H)-dione as a white solid: 1H-NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.8(s, 3H), 5.0(brs, 1H), 6.4(s, 2H), 7.7-7.2(m, 7H), 8.4(d, 1H), 9.0-8.8 (d, 2H).

l-(2-(2-Fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine as a TFA salt

NH2NH2.H20 (4 mL, 8 mmol) was added dropwise to the solution of 2-(l-(2-(2- fiuorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)-lH-isoindole-l,3(2H)-dione (500 mg, 1.26 mmol) in ethanol (20 mL) at rt. The reaction mixture was stirred for 18 h at - 35 - rt. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was acidified with diluted HC1. Then ethanol was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue was washed with ethyl acetate. The mixture was basified with aq. NaOH solution at 0 °C and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was back extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the product as a white solid. The crude compound was further purified by preparative HPLC to give l-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethanamine as a TFA salt: 1H-NMR (DMSO) δ: 1.6(s, 3H), 4.3(brs, 1H), 7.6- 7.4(m, 3H), 7.9 (m, 1H), 8.6(d, 1H), 8.4(brs, 2H), 8.9(s, 1H), 9.1 (d, 1H); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 268.1 [M+H]+.

4,6-Dichloro-5-pyrimidinecarbaldehyde

A mixture of DMF (64 mL) and POCl3 (200 mL) at 0 °C was stirred for 1 h and then treated with 4,6-pyrimidinediol (50.0 g, 446 mmol), and further stirred for

0.5 h at rt. Then the heterogeneous mixture was heated under reflux for 3 h.

The volatiles were removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was poured into ice water and extracted six times with diethyl ether. The organic phase was washed with aqueous NaHC03 and water, dried over Na2S04, concentrated under reduced pressure, and crystallized (EtO Ac-petroleum ether) to give 4,6-dichloro-

5-pyrimidinecarbaldehyde (43.5 g, 55%); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 177 [M+H]+.

4,6-Dichloro-5-pyrimidinecarbaldehyde oxime

A mixture of 4,6-dichloro-5-pyrimidinecarbaldehyde (8.00 g, 44.8 mmol), NaOAc (3.7g, 1.0 eq) and NH2OH.HCl (3.1 g, 1.0 eq) in EtOH (320 mL) was stirred at rt for 2 h. The reaction mixture was filtered, concentrated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel (dry loading, first DCM then DCM/EtOAc, 1/9) to give 4,6-dichloro-5-pyrimidinecarbaldehyde oxime as a white solid. - 36 -

4,6-Dichloro-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

4,6-Dichloro-5-pyrimidinecarbaldehyde oxime (8 g) was dissolved in CHC13 (40 mL) and treated with SOCl2 (6 mL) for 2 h at rt. The solvent was removed and the residue was dissolved in DCM (5 mL). The resulting solid was filtered and washed with DCM (5 mL). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure and purified by silica gel column chromatography using DCM-hexane (3: 1) to give 4,6-dichloro-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile as a white solid.

4-Amino-6-chloro-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

The white solid of 4,6-dichloro-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (5.82 g, 33.5 mmol) was dissolved in THF (66.9 mL) in a 500 mL of round-bottom flask and to the mixture was bubbled through ammonia gas (0.570 g, 33.5 mmol) for 3 min every 10 min over 50 min of the reaction time with stirring. Right after bubbling of ammonia gas, white precipitate (ammmonium chloride) was formed. After 50 min, the precipitate was filtered and washed with THF (100 mL). To the filtrate was added silica gel and concentrated under reduced pressure. The product on silica gel was purified by silica gel column chromatography on a 120 g of Redi-Sep™ column using 0 to 100% gradient of EtOAc in hexane over 27 min and then 100% isocratic of EtOAC in hexane for 20 min as eluent to give 4-amino-6-chloro- pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile as an off- white solid. The off-white solid was suspended in EtOAc-hexane (1 : 1, 20 mL), filtered, washed with EtOAc-hexane (1 : 1, 30 mL), and dried to give 4-amino-6-chloro-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile as a white solid: !H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 7.91 - 8.77 (3 H, m); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 154.9 [M+H]+.

4-Amino-6-((l-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5- pyrimidinecarbonitrile - 37 -

A mixture of 4-amino-6-chloro-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (0.045 g, 0.288 mmol), l-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine TFA salt (0.110 g, 0.288 mmol), and n,n-diisopropylethylamine (0.251 mL, 1.44 mmol) in butan-l-ol (2.88 mL) was stirred at 120 °C. After 5 h, the mixture was removed from the heat and cooled to room temperature. After cooling, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to give brown syrup. To the residue was added water (30 mL) and the mixture was sonicated. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with water (20 mL), and dried to give the desired product as a yellow solid. The solid was purified by column chromatography on a 40 g of Redi-Sep™ column using 0 to 100% gradient of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH (89:9: 1) in CH2C12 over 14 min and then 100% isocratic of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH

(89:9:1) for 14 min as eluent to give a yellow solid. The yellow solid was suspended in EtOAc-hexane (1 : 1) and filtered to give 4-amino-6-((l-(2-(2- fluorophenyl)- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin-3 -yl)ethyl)amino)-5 -pyrimidinecarbonitrile as a light yellow solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.03 (1 H, dd, J=4.2, 1.7 Hz), 8.68 (1 H, s), 8.41 (1 H, ddd, J=8.6, 1.6, 0.8 Hz), 7.85 (1 H, d, J=7.2 Hz), 7.73 - 7.81 (2 H, m), 7.58 (1 H, br. s.), 7.45 - 7.53 (1 H, m), 7.26 - 7.37 (2 H, m), 7.17 (2 H, br. s.), 5.24 - 5.36 (1 H, m), 1.52 (3 H, d, J=7.0 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 386.0 [M+H]+. - 38 -

4- Amino-6-(((lR)-l-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-

5- pyrimidinecarbonitrile and 4-Amino-6-(((lS)-l-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5- na hthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

The racemic mixture (44.13 mg) was separated by chiral separation using SFC to give two fractions: The stereochemistry of the two isomers was arbitrarily assigned the isomer eluted first on IA column as the R configuration and the isomer eluted second on IA column as the S configuration and it was confirmed that less potent isomer as R-isomer and more potent isomer as S-isomer based on their PBKdelta biochemical potencies.

First peak on IA column and Second peak on AD-H column: 4-amino-6- (((lR)-l-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidine- carbonitrile as an off-white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.03 (1 H, dd, J=4.2, 1.7 Hz), 8.68 (1 H, s), 8.41 (1 H, ddd, J=8.6, 1.6, 0.8 Hz), 7.85 (1 H, d, J=7.8 Hz), 7.74 - 7.82 (2 H, m), 7.58 (1 H, br. s.), 7.46 - 7.53 (1 H, m), 7.27 - 7.36 (2 H, m), 7.17 (2 H, br. s.), 5.23 - 5.37 (1 H, m), 1.52 (3 H, d, J=6.8 Hz); LC- MS (ESI) m z 386.0 [M+H]+.

Second peak on IA column and First peak on AD-H column: 4-amino-6- ((( 1 S)- 1 -(2-(2-fluorophenyl)- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin-3 -yl)ethyl)amino)-5 -pyrimidine- carbonitrile as an off-white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.03 (1 H, dd, J=4.2, 1.7 Hz), 8.68 (1 H, s), 8.41 (1 H, ddd, J=8.5, 1.5, 0.8 Hz), 7.85 (1 H, d, J=7.0 Hz), 7.74 - 7.81 (2 H, m), 7.58 (1 H, br. s.), 7.46 - 7.53 (1 H, m), 7.27 - 7.35 (2 H, m), 7.17 (2 H, br. s.), 5.24 - 5.36 (1 H, m), 1.52 (3 H, d, J=7.0 Hz); LC- MS (ESI) m/z 386.0 [M+H]+.

Example 3: Preparation of 4-amino-6-((l-(2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-l,5-naphth- yridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile, 4-amino-6-(((lS)-l-(2- (3,5-difluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidine- - 39 - carbonitrile, and 4-amino-6-(((lR)-l-(2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-l,5-naphth- yridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

-(2-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine

Prepared according to the procedure in Example 2 using 2-(l,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-3 pyridinamine and 3-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-3-oxopropanenitrile to give l-(2-(3,5- difluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 286.0

[M+H]+.

4-Amino-6-((l-(2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5 pyrimidinecarbonitrile

A mixture of 4-amino-6-chloro-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (0.125 g, 0.807 mmol), l-(2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine (0.2303 g, 0.807 mmol), and n,n-diisopropylethylamine (0.703 mL, 4.04 mmol) in butan-l-ol (8.07 mL) was stirred at 120 °C. After 21 h, the mixture was removed from the heat - 40 - and cooled to room temperature. After cooling, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to give brown syrup. The residue was dissolved in DCM (50 mL). The solution was washed with water (50 mL x 1) and brine (50 mL x 1), dried over MgSC^, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a red solid. The red solid was purified by column chromatography on a 40 g of Redi-Sep™ column using 0 to 5% gradient of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH (89:9: 1) in CH2Cl2 over 14 min and then 5% isocratic of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH (89:9: 1) for 14 min as eluent to give an off- white solid. The off-white solid was suspended in EtOAc-hexane (1 :4, 10 m L), filtered, and washed with EtOAc-hexane (1 :4, 10 m L) to give 4-amino-6-((l-(2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)- amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile as a white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) 5 ppm 9.03 (1 H, dd, J=4.2, 1.7 Hz), 8.66 (1 H, s), 8.42 (1 H, ddd, J=8.6, 1.6, 0.8 Hz), 7.94 (1 H, d, J=7.2 Hz), 7.87 (1 H, s), 7.79 (1 H, dd, J=8.6, 4.1 Hz), 7.30 - 7.44 (3 H, m), 7.23 (2 H, br. s.), 5.46 (1 H, quin, J=7.1 Hz), 1.48 (3 H, d, J=6.8 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 404.0 [M+H]+.

4-Amino-6-(((lS)-l-(2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)- amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile and 4-Amino-6-(((lR)-l-(2-(3,5-difluoro- phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

The racemic mixture (117 mg) was separated by chiral separation using SFC to give two fractions: The stereochemistry of the two isomers was arbitrarily assigned the isomer eluted first on OJ column as the S configuration and the isomer eluted second on OJ column as the R configuration and it was confirmed that more potent isomer as S-isomer and less potent isomer as R-isomer based on their PBKdelta biochemical potencies.

First peak on OJ column and First peak on AD-H column: 4-amino-6-(((lS)- 1 -(2-(3 ,5 -difluorophenyl)- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin-3 -yl)ethyl)amino)-5 -pyrimidine- - 41 - carbonitrile as an off-white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.03 (1 H, dd, J=4.2, 1.7 Hz), 8.66 (1 H, s), 8.42 (1 H, ddd, J=8.6, 1.6, 0.8 Hz), 7.94 (1 H, d, J=7.4 Hz), 7.87 (1 H, s), 7.79 (1 H, dd, J=8.5, 4.2 Hz), 7.30 - 7.45 (3 H, m), 7.23 (2 H, br. s.), 5.46 (1 H, quin, J=7.1 Hz), 1.48 (3 H, d, J=7.0 Hz); LC-MS (ESI)] m/z 404.0 [M+H]+.

Second peak on OJ column and Second peak on AD-H column: 4-amino-6- ((( 1 R)- 1 -(2-(3 ,5 -difluorophenyl)- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin-3 -yl)ethyl)amino)-5 - pyrimidinecarbonitrile as a light yellow solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.03 (1 H, dd, J=4.2, 1.7 Hz), 8.66 (1 H, s), 8.42 (1 H, ddd, J=8.5, 1.7, 0.8 Hz), 7.94 (1 H, d, J=7.4 Hz), 7.87 (1 H, s), 7.79 (1 H, dd, J=8.5, 4.2 Hz), 7.30 - 7.45 (3 H, m), 7.23 (2 H, br. s.), 5.46 (1 H, quin, J=6.9 Hz), 1.48 (3 H, d, J=6.8 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 404.0 [M+H]+.

Example 4: Preparation of 4-amino-6-((l-(3-phenyl-l,5-naphthyridin-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile, 4-amino-6-(((lR)-l-(3-phenyl-l,5- naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile, and 4-amino-6- (((lS)-l-(3-phenyl-l,5-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-5- pyrimidinecarbonitrile

2-Ethyl-3-phenyl- 1 ,5-naphthyridine

2-Chloro-3-phenyl-l, 5-naphthyridine was made according to a known procedure (WO 2005/100356). A mixture of 2-chloro-3-phenyl-l,5-naphthyridine (200 mg, 0.85 mmol), diethylzinc (0.87 mL, 1 M in hexane, 1.02 eq), K2C03 (354 mg, 3.0 eq) and PdCl2(dppf)2 DCM complex (62.5 mg, 0.1 eq) in THF (5 mL) was purged with N2 for 5 min before heating to reflux. After 6 h, the reaction was quenched with NH4CI and extracted with EtOAc and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography using hexane/DCM (2/3) as eluent to give a yellow solid. LC-MS (ESI) m/z 235 [M+H]+. - 42 - -(l-(3-Phenyl-l,5-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)isoindoline-l,3-dione

2-Ethyl-3-phenyl-l,5-naphthyridine (112 mg, 0.43 mmol) and l,3-dibromo-5,5- dimethylhydantoin (85 mg, 0.7 eq) were suspended in carbon tetrachloride (5 mL). To the mixture was added benzoyl peroxide (10.3 mg, 0.1 eq) and the mixture was heated at reflux for 3 h. To the mixture was added saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (3 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with CH2CH2 (3 mL x 2). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (3 mL), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give an orange syrup. The material is used as such for the next step. LC-MS (ESI) m/z 314 [M+H]+. A mixture of 2- (l-bromoethyl)-3 -phenyl- 1, 5 -naphthyridine (120 mg, 0.38 mmol) in DMF (2.0 mL) was treated with phthalimide potassium salt (142 mg, 2.0 eq) at 60 °C for 2 h. LCMS showed completion. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water and EtOAc, worked up and purified by silica gel column chromatography using EtOAc-hexane (0/1 to 2/1) as eluent to give a white solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 8.88 (1 H, dd, J=5.0, 1.6 Hz), 8.31 (1 H, J=10 Hz), 8.1 (1 H, s), 7.63 - 7.54 (5 H, m), 7.27-7.17 (8 H, m), 5.88 (1 H, dd, J=10,5.0 Hz), 1.76 (3 H, J=10 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 380 [M+H]+.

l-(3-Phenyl- -naphthyridin-2-yl)ethanamine

- 43 -

2-(l-(3-Phenyl-l,5-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)isoindoline-l ,3-dione (120 mg, 0.32 mmol) was suspended in EtOH (2 mL) and treated with NH2NH2 (0.2 mL) at 70

°C for 30 min and worked up to give a colorless oil (92 mg, 96%). LC-MS (ESI) m/z 250 [M+H]+.

4-Amino-6-((l-(3-phenyl-l,5-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidine- carbonitrile, 4-amino-6-(((lR)-l-(3-phenyl-l,5-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)- amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile, and 4-amino-6-(((lS)-l-(3-phenyl-l,5- naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

l-(3-Phenyl-l,5-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethanamine (46 mg, 0.19 mmol), 4-amino-6- chloropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (28.5 mg, 1.0 eq) and Hunig's base (39 μί, 1.2 eq) in n-BuOH (2 mL) was heated to 130 °C for 4 h. The mixture was cooled to rt, filtered and washed with small amount of EtOH to give a white solid as 4-amino- 6-(l -(3 -phenyl- 1 ,5-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethylamino)pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.04 (1 H, dd, J=8.0, 4.0 Hz), 8.44 (1 H, dd, J=8.0, 4.0 Hz), 8.21 (1H, s), 7.97 (1H, s), 7.84 (1H, dd, J=8.0, 4.0 Hz), 7.61 - 7.47 (6 H, m), 7.30 (1 H, br, s), 5.63 (1 H, t, J=8.0 Hz)), 1.31 (3 H, d, J=8.0 Hz); LC- MS (ESI) m/z 368 [M+H]+.

The racemic mixture (50 mg) was separated by chiral separation using SFC to give two fractions: The stereochemistry of the two isomers was arbitrarily assigned the isomer eluted first on IA column as the S configuration and the isomer eluted second on IA column as the R configuration and it was confirmed that less potent isomer as R-isomer and more potent isomer as S-isomer based on their PBKdelta biochemical potencies.

First peak on IA column: (S)-4-amino-6-(l -(3 -phenyl- 1,5 -naphthyridin-2- yl)ethylamino)pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile as an off-white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ ppm 9.04 (1 H, dd, J=8.0, 4.0 Hz), 8.44 (1 H, dd, J=8.0, 4.0 Hz), 8.21 (1H, s), 7.97 (1H, s), 7.84 (1H, dd, J=8.0, 4.0 Hz), 7.61 - 7.47 (6 H, m), - 44 -

7.30 (1 H, br, s), 5.63 (1 H, t, J=8.0 Hz)), 1.31 (3 H, d, J=8.0 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 368 [M+H]+.

Second peak on IA column: (R)-4-amino-6-(l -(3 -phenyl- 1,5 -naphthyridin-2- yl)ethylamino)pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile as an off-white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ ppm 9.04 (1 H, dd, J=8.0, 4.0 Hz), 8.44 (1 H, dd, J=8.0, 4.0 Hz), 8.21 (1H, s), 7.97 (1H, s), 7.84 (1H, dd, J=8.0, 4.0 Hz), 7.61 - 7.47 (6 H, m), 7.30 (1 H, br, s), 5.63 (1 H, t, J=8.0 Hz)), 1.31 (3 H, d, J=8.0 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 368 [M+H]+.

Example 5: Preparation of N-((l-(3-phenyl-l,5-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)-9H- purin-6-amine

N-(l-(3-Phenyl-l, 5-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)-9H-purin-6-amine

l-(3-Phenyl-l,5-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethanamine (46 mg, 0.19 mmol), 4-amino-6- chloropurine (28.5 mg, 1.0 eq) and hunig's base (39 μί, 1.2 eq) in n-BuOH (2 mL) was heated to 130 °C overnight. The mixture was cooled to rt, concentrated, and purified by reverse phase HPLC (MeCN/H2O/0.1%TFA, 10% to 60%) to give a white powder (50 mg) as TFA salt. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 9.05 (1 H, d, J=4.0 Hz), 8.65 (1 H, d, J=8.0 Hz), 8.50-8.47 (2 H, m), 8.29 (1H, s), 7.90 (1H, dd, J=8.0, 4.0 Hz), 7.62 - 7.47 (5 H, m), 6.12 -6.01 (1 H, m), 1.63 (3 H, d, J=8.0 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 368 [M+H]+.

Example 6: Preparation of 4-amino-6-((2-(3-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-

3-yl)methoxy)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

Methyl 3-(3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)picolinate - 45 -

To a stirred solution of methyl 3-aminopicolinate (1.8 mL, 13.80 mmol) in dichloroethane (60 mL) was added ethyl 3-chloro-3-oxopropanoate (2.08 g, 13.80 mmol). The reaction was heated at reflux for 45 min. After this time the reaction was cooled to rt and partitioned between DCM (60 mL) and NaHC03 (satd aq. solution, 30 mL). The separated aq. layer was extracted with DCM (40 mL) and the combined organic layer were washed with brine (20 mL), dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give methyl 3-(3-ethoxy-3- oxopropanamido)picolinate: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 267.1 [M+H]+.

Sodium 3-(ethoxycarbonyl)- 1 ,5-naphthyridine-2,4-bis(olate)

To a stirred solution of methyl 3-(3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)picolinate (3.7 g, 14.67 mmol) in EtOH (50 mL) was added sodium ethanolate (6.56 mL, 17.60 mmol). The reaction was stirred at rt for 1 h. After this time the reaction was concentrated in vacuo and dried under vacuum overnight to give sodium 3- (ethoxycarbonyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-2,4-bis(olate): 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- de) δ ppm 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ ppm 8.14 (1 H, dd, J=4.5, 1.6 Hz), 7.46 (1 H, dd, J=8.2, 1.6 Hz), 7.29 (1 H, dd, J=8.2, 4.3 Hz), 4.08 (2 H, q, J=7.0 Hz), 1.13 - 1.24 (3 H, m).

Ethyl 2,4-dichloro- 1 ,5-naphthyridine-3-carboxylate

A suspension of sodium 3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-2,4-bis(olate) (4.0 g, 14.38 mmol) and phosphoryl trichloride (88 g, 575 mmol) was heated at 130 °C for 48 h. After this time the reaction was cooled to rt and evaporated in vacuo. The resulting residue was carefully poured into ice-water (100 mL) and then it was basified to pH 10 with a satd aq. solution of Na2C03. The aq. layer was extracted with EtO Ac (2 x 250 mL) and the combined organic layers were washed with 1 M NaOH (40 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgS04, - 46 - filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give ethyl 2,4-dichloro-l,5-naphthyridine-3- carboxylate: LC-MS (ESI) m z 271.0 [M+H]+.

Ethyl 4-chloro-2-(3-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carboxylate

To a stirred suspension of ethyl 2,4-dichloro-l ,5-naphthyridine-3-carboxylate (1.0 g, 3.69 mmol) in acetonitrile: water (7 mL:2 mL) was added Pd (PPh3)4 (0.426 g, 0.369 mmol), 3-fluorophenylboronic acid (0.568 g, 4.06 mmol) and sodium carbonate (0.782 g, 7.38 mmol) and the reaction was heated at reflux for 6 h. After this time the reaction was cooled to rt and partitioned between EtOAc (80 mL) and water (30 mL). The separated organic layer was dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The mixture was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using a gradient from 1 :0 to 4: 1 of hexane:EtOA c to give ethyl 4-chloro-2-(3 -fluorophenyl)- 1, 5 -naphthyridine-3-carboxylate as a white solid: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 331.0 [M+H]+.

(2-(3-Fluorophenyl)- 1 ,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)methanol

To a stirred solution of ethyl 4-chloro-2-(3-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3- carboxylate (614 mg, 1.856 mmol) in toluene (10 mL) at 0 °C was added DIBAL- H (4.1 mL, 4.1 mmol) dropwise over 2 min. After this time the reaction was allowed to warm to rt for 1 h. After this time more more DIBAL-H (4.1 mL, 4.1 mmol) was added and the reaction was stirred at rt overnight. After this time lithium aluminium hydride (0.92 mL, 3.68 mmol, 4.0M solution in THF) was added and the reaction was stirred at rt for 10 min. After this time the reaction was carefully quenched with water (8 mL), NaOH (5 mL, 1.0M aq. solution) and water (5 mL). To the stirred mixture was added EtOAc (50 mL) and Rochelle's - 47 - salt (50 mL, satd aq. solution) and the mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h. After this time the separated organic layer was washed with water, dried over MgSC^, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting solid was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using a gradient from 1 :0 to 1 :2 of hexane:EtOAc to give (2-(3 -fluorophenyl)- 1, 5 -naphthyridin-3-yl)methanol: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 255.1 [M+H]+.

4-Amino-6-((2-(3-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)methoxy)-5- pyrimidinecarbonitrile

To a stirred solution of (2-(3 -fluorophenyl)- 1 ,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)methanol (65 mg, 0.256 mmol) in DMF (1.5 mL) was added sodium hydride (12.3 mg, 0.31 mmol, 60% suspension in oil) and the reaction was stirred at rt for 10 min. After this time 4-amino-6-chloropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (39.5 mg, 0.256 mmol) was added and the reaction was stirred at rt for 30 min. After this time an additional portion of NaH (12.3 mg, 0.31 mmol, 60% dispersion in oil) was added and the reaction was heated at 50 °C for 2 h and at rt overnight. After this time the reaction was cooled to rt and partitioned between EtOAc (50 mL) and LiCl (20 mL, 1M aq. solution). The separated organic layer was washed with LiCl (20 mL, 1M aq. solution) and then it was dried over MgSC^, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The mixture was purified by reversed-phase HPLC (10 to 60%> acetonitrile in water) to give 4-amino-6-((2-(3-fluorophenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)methoxy)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile as a white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz,

CHLOROFORM-d) δ ppm 9.04 (1 H, dd, J=4.2, 1.7 Hz), 8.61 - 8.66 (1 H, m), 8.44 - 8.51 (1 H, m), 8.28 (1 H, s), 7.71 (1 H, dd, J=8.6, 4.1 Hz), 7.36 - 7.56 (3 H, m), 7.21 (1 H, tdd, J=8.3, 8.3, 2.7, 1.2 Hz), 5.67 (2 H, s), 5.62 (2 H, br. s.): LC- MS (ESI) m/z 373.1 [M+H]+. - 48 -

Example 7: Preparation of 4-amino-6-(((lS)-l-(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfon- yl)-phenyl)- 1 ,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile and 4-amino-6-(((lR)-l-(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin- 3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

3-(2-(Methylsulphonyl) phenyl)-3-oxopropanenitrile

To a solution of 3-(2-bromophenyl)-3-oxopropanenitrile (15 g, 66.94 mmol) in DMSO (267 niL) were added sodium salt of methanesulfonic acid (13.6 g, 138.89 mmol), copper iodide (6.3 g, 33.47 mmol), L-proline (3.8 g, 33.47 mmol) and sodium hydroxide (1.3 g, 33.47 mmol) at 25 °C. T he reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at 60 °C. Water was added to the reaction mixture at 25 °C and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over Na2S04 and

concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using 0-45 % EtOAc in hexane to give 3-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-3- oxopropanenitrile : 1H NMR (400 MHz , CHLOROFORM-d) : δ 3.183 (S, 3H), 4.041 (s, 2H), 7.468 (dd, 1H, J=1.2 H¾J=7.6 Hz), 7.699-7.798 (m, 2H), 8.084 (dd, 1H, J=1.2H¾ J=7.6Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 224.0 [M+H]+.

Methyl 3-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-3-oxopropanoate

To a solution of 3 -(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-3 -oxopropanenitrile (4.5 g, 20.25 mmol) in methanol (100 mL) was added trimethyl silyl chloride (11 mL, 100.58 mmol) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for overnight at 70 °C. Water was added to the reaction mixture at 25 °C and extracted with EtOAc. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromato- graphy on silica gel using 0-30 % EtOAc in hexane to give methyl 3-(2-(methyl- sulfonyl)phenyl)-3-oxopropanoate: 1H NMR (400 MHz , DMSO-d6): δ 3.294 (S, - 49 -

3H), 3.645 (s, 3H), 4.12 (s, 2H), 7.762-7.874 (m, 3H), 7.979-7.984 (m, 1H); LC-

MS (ESI) m/z 256.9 [M+H]+.

5-Fluoro-3-nitro-2-vinylpyridine

To a solution of 2-bromo-5-fluoro-3-nitropyridine (20 g, 90.50 mmol) in 1, 4 dioxane (270 mL) was added tributyl vinyl tin (34.54 g, 108.60 mmol). The reaction mixture was degassed using nitrogen for 30 min. Bis-(triphenylphos- phin)-palladium(II)-chloride (3.17 g, 4.5 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture. Reaction mass was stirred at 110 °C for 16 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 25 °C. Water was added to the reaction mass and extracted with EtOAc. Organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography on silica gel using 0-2 % EtOAc in hexane to give 5-fluoro-3-nitro-2-vinyl- pyridine: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 5.742 (dd, 1H, J=2H¾ 10.8Hz), 6.45 (dd, lH, J=2Hz, J=16.8Hz), 7.11-7.17 (m, 1H), 8.489-8.516 (m, 1H), 8.959 (d, lH, J=2.4Hz).

5-Fluoro-3-nitropicolinaldehyde

To a solution of 5-fluoro-3-nitro-2-vinylpyridine (14.5 g, 86.24 mmol) in THF: H20 (2: 1) (517 mL) was were added 4-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (15.1 g, 129.36 mmol), t-butanol (1 mL) and osmium tetroxide (4%) (2 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred for 6 h at 25 °C to form diol. Sodium metaperiodate (55.3 g, 258.87 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture. The reaction mass was stirred at 25 °C for 8 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite™ and washed with EtOAc. The filtrated was extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo to give 5-fluoro-3-nitropicolinaldehyde: 1H NMR (400 - 50 -

MHz, DMSO-de): δ 8.695-8.722 (m, 1H), 9.123 (d, lH, J=2.8Hz), 10.078 (s, 1H); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 171.0 [M+H]+.

2-(l,3-Dioxolan-2-yl)-5-fluoro-3-nitropyridine

To a solution of 5-fluoro-3-nitropicolinaldehyde (12.5 g, 73.48 mmol) in toluene (220 mL) were added p-toluene sulfonic acid (698 mg, 3.67 mmol) and ethylene glycol (20.7 mL, 367.43 mmol) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was heated to 120 °C for overnight and water was removed using dean-stark apparatus.

Reaction mass was cooled to 25 °C. Water was added to the reaction mass and extracted with EtOAc. Organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography on silica gel using 0-10 % EtOAc in hexane to give 2-(l,3- dioxolan-2-yl)-5-fluoro-3-nitropyridine: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 4.02 (s, 4H), 6.22 (s, 1H), 8.939 (d, 1H, J=1.2Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 215.1 [M+H]+. 2-(l, 3-Dioxolan-2-yl)-5-fluoropyridin-3-amine

To a solution of 2-(l, 3-dioxolan-2-yl)-5-fluoro-3-nitropyridine (10 g, 46.69 mmol) in ethanol (140 mL) was added Pd/C (1 g) under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred for overnight under hydrogen atmosphere at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite™ and washed with EtOH. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using 0-40 % EtOAc in hexane to give 2-(l,3- dioxolan-2-yl)-5-fluoropyridin-3-amine: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 185.2 [M+H]+.

3-Amino-5-fluoropicolinaldehyde - 51 -

To a solution of 2-(l, 3-dioxolan-2-yl)-5-fluoropyridin-3-amine (5 g, 27.14 mmol) in DMSO: H20 (1 : 1) (162 mL) was added lithium chloride (6.9 g, 162.89 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated to 90 °C for 16 h and water was removed using dean- stark apparatus. Water was added to the reaction mass and extracted with EtOAc. Organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography on silica gel using 0-40 % EtOAc in hexane to give 3-amino-5-fluoropicolin- aldehyde: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.003-7.037 (m, 1H), 7.387 (br s, 2H), 7.944 (d, 1H, J=2.4Hz), 9.853 (s, 1H); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 141.0 [M+H]+. Methyl- 7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl)-l, 5-naphthyridine-3- carboxylat

A mixture of 3-amino-5-fluoropicolinaldehyde (930 mg, 6.63 mmol), methyl 3-(2- (methylsulfonyl) phenyl)-3-oxopropanoate (1.7 g, 6.63 mmol) and cerium chloride heptahydrate (435 mg, 1.32 mmol) was heated to 100 °C for 3 h. The residue was dissolved in MeOH and purified by column chromatography on neutral alumina using 0-30 % EtOAc in hexane to give methyl 7-fluoro-2-(2- (methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carboxylate: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 361.0 [M+H]+.

(7-Fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)methanol

To a solution of 7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl)- 1, 5-naphthyridine-3- carboxylate (1.2 g, 3.33 mmol) in DCM (27 mL) was added DIBAL-H (34 mL, 33.3 mmol) at -78 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 4 h at same temperature. The reaction mixture was quenched with satd solution of - 52 - ammonium chloride and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo to give methyl (7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl)- 1,5- naphthyridin-3-yl)methanol: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 333.1 [M+H]+. It was carried on crude for next step.

7-Fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl)-!, 5-naphthyridine-3-carbaldehyde

To a solution of methyl (7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin- 3-yl)methanol (50 mg, 0.15 mmol) in DCM (0.5 mL) was added pyridinium dichromate (113 mg, 0.3 mmol) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for overnight at same temperature. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite™. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give 7-fluoro-2-(2- (methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carbaldehyde: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 331.1 [M+H]+. It was carried on crude for next step.

l-(7-Fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl)-!, 5-naphthyridin-3-yl) ethanol

To a solution of 7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3- carbaldehyde (1.0 g, 3.02 mmol) in THF (24 mL) was added methyl magnesium bromide (3 mL, 9.08 mmol) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 h at same temperature. The reaction mixture was quenched with satd solution of ammonium chloride and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using 0-40% EtOAc in hexane to give methyl l-(7- fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanol (500 mg): LC- MS (ESI) m z 347.0 [M+Hf. It was carried on crude for next step. - 53 -

2-(l-(7-Fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethyl)isoindoline- 1 ,3-dione

To a mixture of methyl l-(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyrid- in-3-yl)ethanol (500 mg, 1.44 mmol) and phthalimide (425 mg, 2.88 mmol) in THF (15 mL) was added triphenylphosphene (757 mg, 2.88 mmol) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 min at same temperature. Diisopropyl azo- dicarboxylate (0.6 mL, 2.88 mmol) was added to reaction mixture at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for overnight at 0 °C. Water was added to reaction mixture and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over Na2SC"4 and concentrated in vacuo to give 2-(l-(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl)- 1, 5-naphthyridin-3-yl) ethyl) isoindoline-1, 3-dione: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 476.0

[M+Hf. It was carried on crude for next step.

l-(7-Fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine

To a solution of 2-(l-(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl)- 1, 5-naphthyridin-3- yl) ethyl) isoindoline-1, 3-dione (1.2 g, 2.52 mmol in EtOH (40 mL) was added hydrazine hydrate (0.8 mL, 16.4 mmol) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for overnight at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was acidified with 5 N hydrochloric acid and concentrated in vacuo. Water was added to residue and extracted with EtOAc. Aq. layer was basified with aq. NaOH solution and - 54 - extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo to give l-(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5- naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 345.96 [M+H]+. It was carried on crude for next step.

4-Amino-6-((l-(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

To a mixture of 1 -(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methy lsulfonyl)phenyl)- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin-3 - yl)ethanamine (300 mg, 0.86 mmol) and 4-amino-6-chloropyrimidine-5-carbo- nitrile (135 mg, 0.86 mmol) in n-butanol (5.2 mL) was added diisopropylethyl amine (336 mg, 2.6 mmol) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for overnight at 110 °C. Water was added to the reaction mixture and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over Na2S04 and concentrated it. The residue was purified by column chromatography on neutral alumina using 0-5 % MeOH in DCM. It was further purified by reversed-phase HPLC to give 4- amino-6-((l-(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 1.380 (d, 3H, J=6.8Hz), 3.215 (s, 3H), 5.240-5.310 (m, 1H), 7.256 (br s, 2H), 7.718-7.828 (m, 2H), 7.934-7.950(m, 3H), 8.123(dd, 1H, J=1.2H¾ 7.6Hz), 8.336(dd, lH, J=2.4Hz, 9.6Hz). 8,678(s, 1H), 9.117(d, lH, J=2.8Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 464.2 [M+H]+. - 55 -

4-Amino-6-(((lS)-l-(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin- 3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile and 4-amino-6-(((lR)-l-(7-fluoro- 2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5- pyrimidinecarbonitrile

The racemic mixture (60 mg) was separated using SFC: Fraction 1 : 4-amino-6- ((( 1 S)- 1 -(7-fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin-3 -yl)ethy 1)- amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile (0.01993 g, 0.043 mmol, 33.2 % yield) as a tan solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.12 (1 H, d, J=2.7 Hz), 8.68 (1 H, s), 8.30 - 8.38 (1 H, m), 8.12 (1 H, dd, J=7.7, 1.5 Hz), 7.88 - 7.97 (3 H, m), 7.72 - 7.85 (2 H, m), 7.16 - 7.33 (2 H, m), 5.28 (1 H, quin, J=7.0 Hz), 1.38 (3 H, d, J=7.0 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 464.0 [M+H]+. Fraction 2: 4-amino-6-(((lR)-l-(7- fluoro-2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin-3 -yl)ethyl)amino)-5 - pyrimidinecarbonitrile as a brown solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ ppm 9.12 (1 H, d, J=2.7 Hz), 8.68 (1 H, s), 8.30 - 8.37 (1 H, m), 8.12 (1 H, dd, J=7.7, 1.5 Hz), 7.88 - 7.97 (3 H, m), 7.79 (2 H, dtd, J=19.6, 7.5, 7.5, 1.4 Hz), 7.16 - 7.31 (2 H, m), 5.28 (1 H, quin, J=6.9 Hz), 1.38 (3 H, d, J=7.0 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 464.0 [M+H]+.

Example 8: Preparation of 4-amino-6-(((lS)-l-(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)- l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile and 4-amino-6- (((lR)-l-(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5- pyrimidinecarbonitrile

3-Nitro-2-vinylpyridine a solution of 2-chloro-3-nitropyridine (20 g, 126.15 mmol) in 1, 4 dioxane mL) was added tributyl vinyl tin (48 g, 151.38 mmol). The reaction - 56 - mixture was degassed using nitrogen for 30 min. Bis-(triphenylphosphin)- palladium(II)-chloride (4.4 g, 6.3 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture.

Reaction mass was stirred at 110 °C for overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt. Water was added to the reaction mass and extracted with EtOAc. Organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography on silica gel using 0-5 % EtOAc in hexane to give 3-nitro-2-vinylpyridine: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 5.741 (dd, J=2.0 Hz, J=10.4 Hz, IH), 6.536 (dd, J=2.4 Hz, J=16.8 Hz, IH), 7.134-7.202 (m,lH), 7.593 (dd, J=4.4 Hz, J=8.4 Hz, IH), 8.388 (dd, J=1.6Hz, J=8.4 Hz, IH), 8.857 (dd, J=0.8 Hz, J=4.4 Hz, IH); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 151.1 [M+H]+.

3-Nitropicolinaldehyde

To a solution of 3-nitro-2-vinylpyridine (14 g, 93.25 mmol) in THF: H20 (2: 1) (560 mL) was were added 4-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (16.3 g, 139.87 mmol), t- butanol (1 mL) and osmium tetroxide (4%, 2 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred for 5 h at 25 °C to form diol. Sodium metaperiodate (64.87 g, 279.7 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture. The reaction mass was stirred at 25 °C for 8 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through cilite and washed with EtOAc. The filtrated was extracted with EtOAc. Organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na2S04. The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo to give 3-nitropicolinaldehyde: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.931-7.963 (m, IH), 8.556 (d, J=8.0 H¾ 1H), 9.034-9.046 (m,lH), 10.147(s,lH); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 153.2 [M+H]+.

3-Aminopicolinaldehyde

To a solution of 3-nitropicolinaldehyde (500 mg, 3.28 mmol) in EtOH (10 mL) was added Pd/C (50 mg) under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was - 57 - stirred for overnight under hydrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was filtered through cilite and washed with EtOH. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give 3-aminopicolinaldehyde (200 mg, 50% yield): 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 7.132 (br s, 2H), 7.217-7.325 (m, 2H), 7.979 (dd, J=1.6 Hz, J=4.0 Hz, 1H), 9.899 (s,lH); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 123.0 [M+H]+.

Methyl 2- -(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)- 1 ,5-naphthyridine-3-carboxylate

A mixture of 3-aminopicolinaldehyde (1.09 g, 8.97 mmol), methyl 3-(2-(methyl- sulfonyl) phenyl)-3-oxopropanoate (2.3 g, 8.97 mmol) and cerium chloride heptahydrate (587 mg, 1.79 mmol) was heated to 100 °C for 3 h. The residue was dissolved in MeOH and purified by column chromatography on neutral alumina using 0-50 % EtOAc in hexane to give methyl 2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)- phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carboxylate (800 mg, 26 % yield): 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 3.155 (s, 3H), 3.688 (s, 3H), 7.486-7.507 (m,lH), 7.733-7.816 (m, 2H), 7.951-7.982 (m, 1H), 8.059-8.081 (m, 1H), 8.510 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 8.965 (s, 1H), 9.165-9.178 (m, 1H); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 342.9 [M+H]+.

(2-(2-(Methylsulfonyl)phenyl)- 1 ,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)methanol

To a solution of methyl 2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3- carboxylate (1.2 g, 3.5 mmol) in DCM (30 mL) was added DIBAL-H (35 mL, 35 mmol) at -78 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 4 h at same temperature. The reaction mixture was quenched with satd solution of ammonium chloride and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo to give methyl (2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)- 1 ,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)methanol: LC-MS (ESI) m z 315.0 [M+Hf. It was carried on crude for next step. - 58 -

2-(2-(Methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3-carbaldehyde

To a solution of crude of methyl (2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin- 3-yl)methanol (lg, 3.18 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was added pyridinium dichrom- ate (2.4 g, 6.36 mmol) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for overnight at same temperature. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite™. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give 2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5- naphthyridine-3-carbaldehyde: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 313.0 [M+H]+. It was carried on crude for next step.

l-(2-(2-(Methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanol

To a solution ofcrude of 2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridine-3- carbaldehyde (1.0 g, 3.2 mmol) in THF (25 mL) was added methyl magnesium bromide (3.2 mL, 9.6 mmol) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 h at same temperature. The reaction mixture was quenched with satd solution of ammonium chloride and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo to give l-(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)- l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanol: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 329.0 [M+H]+. It was carried on crude for next step. - 59 -

2-(l-(2-(2-(Methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dion

To a mixture of crude of l-(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethanol (700 mg, 2.13 mmol) and phthalimide (627 mg, 4.26 mmol) in THF (21 mL) was added triphenylphosphene (1.12 g, 4.26 mmol) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 min at same temperature. Diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (0.9 mL, 4.26 mmol) was added to mixture at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for overnight at 0 °C. Water was added to reaction mixture and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo to give 2-(l-(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5- naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)isoindoline-l,3-dione: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 458.1 [M+H]+. It was carried on crude for next step.

l-(2-(2-(Methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine

To a solution of crude of 2-(l-(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethyl)isoindoline-l,3-dione (2g, 4.37 mmol) in ethanol (70 mL) was added hydrazine hydrate (1.5 mL, 28.43 mmol) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for overnight at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was acidified by 5 N hydrochloric acid. Water was added to residue and extracted with EtOAc. Aq. layer was basified with aq. NaOH solution and extracted with EtOAc. The - 60 - organic layer was dried over Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo to give l-(2-(2- (methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethanamine: LC-MS (ESI) m/z 328.0 [M+Hf. It was carried on crude for next step.

4-Amino-6-((l-(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile

To a mixture of crude l-(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)- ethanamine (600 mg, 1.83 mmol) and 4-amino-6-chloropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (283 mg, 1.83 mmol) in n-butanol (11 mL) was added Hunig base (709 mg, 5.49 mmol) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for overnight at 110 °C.

Water was added to reaction mixture and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography on neutral alumina using 0-5 % MeOH in DCM. It was further purified by reversed-phase HPLC to give 4-amino-6-((l-(2- (2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin-3 -yl)ethyl)amino)-5 -pyrimidine- carbonitrile: 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz) δ 1.387 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 3H), 5.250- 5.322 (m, 1H), 7.246 (br s, 2H), 7.735-7.843 (m, 3H), 7.911-7.940 (m, 3H), 8.110-8.129 (m, 1H), 8.395 (d, J=4.4Hz, 1H), 8.622 (s, 1H), 9.028-9.074 (m, 1H); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 446.0 [M+H]+.

61 -

4-Amino-6-(((lS)-l-(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile and 4-amino-6-(((lR)-l-(2-(2- (methylsulfonyl)phenyl)- 1 ,5-naphthyridin-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5- pyrimidinecarbonitrile

The racemic mixture (0.108 g) was separated using SFC:

Fraction 1 : 4-amino-6-(((l S)-l-(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-l ,5-naphthyridin-3- yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile as a yellow solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ ppm 9.03 (1 H, dd, J=4.2, 1.7 Hz), 8.62 (1 H, s), 8.35 - 8.43 (1 H, m), 8.12 (1 H, dd, J=7.8, 1.4 Hz), 7.89 - 7.97 (3 H, m), 7.69 - 7.86 (3 H, m), 7.24 (2 H, br. s.), 5.28 (1 H, quin, J=7.1 Hz), 1.39 (3 H, d, J=7.0 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m/z 446.0 [M+H]+.

Fraction 2 : 4-amino-6-((( 1 R)- 1 -(2-(2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin- 3-yl)ethyl)amino)-5-pyrimidinecarbonitrile as a yellow solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ ppm 9.03 (1 H, dd, J=4.2, 1.7 Hz), 8.62 (1 H, s), 8.39 (1 H, dt, J=8.5, 0.8 Hz), 8.12 (1 H, dd, J=7.7, 1.5 Hz), 7.89 - 7.96 (3 H, m), 7.69 - 7.84 (3 H, m), 7.25 (2 H, br. s.), 5.29 (1 H, quin, J=7.1 Hz), 1.39 (3 H, d, J=6.8 Hz); LC-MS (ESI) m z 446.0 [M+H]+.

Example 9

(S)-tert-Butyl 3 -oxo-4-phenylbutan-2-ylcarbamate

A solution of (S)-ter -butyl l-(methoxy(methyl)amino)-l-oxopropan-2-ylcarbam- ate (1.16 g, 5 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was cooled to -15 °C and slowly charged with isopropylmagnesium chloride (2.0M, 2.37 mL, 0.95 eq). After a clear solution was obtained, benzylmagnesium chloride (1.0M, 4.99 mL, 1.0 eq) was - 62 - added dropwise with stirring at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was quenched with NH4CI solution and extracted with EtOAc (10 mL x2). The combined organic layers were washed with water, brine, dried over sodium sulfate before being filtered, concentrated to give a white solid as (S)-tert-butyl 3-oxo-4-phenyl- butan-2-ylcarbamate. Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 264 (M + 1).

(S)-tert-Buty 3-oxo-4-(pyridin-2-yl)butan-2-ylcarbamate

tert-Butyl l-(methoxy(methyl)amino)-l-oxopropan-2-ylcarbamate (50.0 g, 215 mmol) in THF (450 mL) was cooled to -40 °C (dry ice/acetonitrile) and slowly charged with isopropylmagnesium chloride (2.0M, 102.2 mL, 0.95 eq). After a clear solution was obtained (became clear at -20 °C and milky again at -40 °C), bromo(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)magnesium solution (see below for preparation) was added drop wise using cannula before warming to rt overnight. The reaction mixture was quenched with NH4CI solution and extracted with EtOAc (500 mLx2). The combined organic layers were washed with water, brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated under high vacuum to give (S)-tert-butyl 3-oxo- 4-(pyridin-2-yl)butan-2-ylcarbamate as a tan oil. Small scale reaction was purified by combiflash (EtOAc/hexane, up to 1/3) to give a red oil. Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 265 (M + 1).

Bromo(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)magnesium

To a solution of picoline (31.9 mL, 1.5 eq) in THF (300 mL) was added MeLi (202 mL, 1.6 M, 1.5 eq) drop-wise at -40 °C under nitrogen. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to -20 °C and stirred for 10 min. and then cooled to -40 °C and magnesium bromide (59.4 g, 1.5 eq) was added in three portions. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to rt, stirred for 30 min to provide bromo(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)magnesium. - 63 -

Ethyl 2-(3-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)pyridin-2-yl)-2-oxoacetate

A solution of tert-butyl 2-bromopyridin-3-ylcarbamate (3.85 g, 14 mmol) (prepared from the procedure used by Kowol etc, J. Med. Chem., 2009, 52, 5032- 5043) in dry THF (20 mL) was cooled to -78 °C and was treated drop-wise with n- butyllithium (11.2 mL of 2.5M solution in hexane, 2.0 eq) such that the temperature never exceeded -65 °C, and the resulting mixture was stirred at -78 °C for an additional hour. After drop-wise addition of diethyl oxalate (4 mL, 29 mmol, 2.1 eq), the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to 0 °C, maintained there for 1 h, and then quenched by the addition of NH4C1 (40 mL). The resulting mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (3 x 20 mL) and brine (20 mL). After drying, filtration, and evaporation, the residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel with dichloromethane as eluant to afford ethyl 2-(3-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)- pyridin-2-yl)-2-oxoacetate as a white solid. Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 295 (M + 1).

2-(l-(tert-Butoxycarbonylamino)ethyl)-3-phenyl-l,5-naphthyridine-4- carboxylic acid

A mixture of (S)-tert-butyl 3-oxo-4-phenylbutan-2-ylcarbamate (249 mg, 0.95 mmol), ethyl 2-oxo-2-(2-pivalamidopyridin-3-yl)acetate (278 mg, 1.0 eq) and KOH (212 mg, 4.0 eq) in EtOH (15 mL) was heated to 88 °C overnight. After cool to rt, the mixture was acidified to pH 3 using 3M HCl. The resulted solid was filtered, washed with water and dried in the air to give a yellow solid. Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 394 (M + 1). - 64 -

2-(l-(tert-Butoxycarbonylamino)ethyl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-l,5-naphthyridine-4- carboxylic acid

A mixture of (S)-tert-butyl 3-oxo-4-(pyridin-2-yl)butan-2-ylcarbamate (404 mg, 1.5 mmol), ethyl 2-oxo-2-(2-pivalamidopyridin-3-yl)acetate (450 mg, 1.0 eq) and KOH (343 mg, 4.0 eq) in EtOH (15 mL) was heated to 88 °C overnight. After cool to rt, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, dissolved in water (10 mL) and extracted with DCM (2 x 5mL). The aqueous layer was acidified with 3M HC1 to pH 2 and freeze-dried to give a yellow powder, which was extracted with 20% MeOH in DCM (30 mL). The extracts were combined and concentrated to give a yellow foam as the crude acid. Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 395 (M + 1).

tert-Butyl l-(4-(methylcarbamoyl)-3-phenyl-l,5-naphthyridin-2- yl)ethylcarbamate

To a solution of 2-(l -(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)ethyl)-3 -phenyl- 1,5 -naphthyrid- ine-4-carboxylic acid (205 mg, 0.52 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was added pybop (407 mg, 1.5 mmol), methanamine (0.52 mL, 2.0 eq) and N-ethyl-N-isopropyl- propan-2-amine (0.18 mL, 2.0 eq). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The mixture was partitioned between water (10 mL) and EtOAc (15 mL). The water layer was extracted with EtOAc (5 mLx2). The combined organics were washed with water (10 mLx2), 0.5 N NaOH (5mLx2), water (5 mL x2), brine (5 mL) and dried over sodium sulfate. Removal of solvents followed with column chromatography on silica gel (EtOAc/hexane, up to 2/1) to give a white solid. Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 407 (M + 1). - 65 - tert-Butyl l-(4-(methylcarbamoyl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-l,5-naphthyridin-2- yl)ethylcarbamate

Tert-butyl 1 -(4-(methylcarbamoyl)-3 -(pyridin-2-yl)- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl- carbamate was prepared in the similar manner as the above experiment. Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 408 (M + 1).

2-(l-(6-Amino-5-cyanopyrimidin-4-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methyl-3-phenyl-l,5- naphthyridine-4-carboxamide

To tert-butyl 1 -(4-(methylcarbamoyl)-3 -phenyl- 1 ,5 -naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl- carbamate (110 mg, 0.27 mmol) was added 4N HC1 inl,4-dioxane (1 mL, 15 eq). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl ether (5 mL). The white solid was filtered and washed with ethyl ether and dried under vacuum. Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 307 (M + 1). To a solution of the amine HC1 salt in DMF (3 mL) was added 4-amino-6- chloropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (41.8 mg, 1.0 eq) and DIEA (0.19 mL, 4.0 eq). The resulting mixture was heated to 105 °C for 2 h. After cool to rt, EtOAc (10 mL) was added and the mixture was washed with water (3 x 3 mL), brine and dried over sodium sulfate. The solvent was removed and the residue was purified by combiflash (1 :20, MeOH/DCM) to afford 2-(l-(6-amino-5-cyano- pyrimidin-4-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methyl-3-phenyl-l,5-naphthyridine-4-carbox- amide. After chiral HPLC separation (isopropanol/ hexane gradient, AD column), (S)-2-(l-(6-amino-5-cyanopyrimidin-4-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methyl-3 -phenyl- 1,5- - 66 - naphthyridine-4-carboxamide and (R)-2-(l -(6-amino-5-cyanopyrimidin-4- ylamino)ethyl)-N-methyl-3 -phenyl- 1 ,5-naphthyridine-4-carboxamide were obtained as white solid.

(S)-2-(l -(6-Amino-5-cyanopyrimidin-4-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methyl-3 -phenyl- 1,5- naphthyridine-4-carboxamide

1H-NMR (500 Hz, CD3OD) δ ppm 1.41 (3H, d, J=5.0 Hz), 2.70 (3H, s), 5.55 (IH, m), 7.45-7.56 (5H, m), 7.85 (IH, dd, J=10, 5.0 Hz), 7.95 (IH, s), 8.54 (IH, d, J=10 Hz), 9.0 (IH, d, J=5.0 Hz). Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 425 (M + 1).

(R)-2-( 1 -(6-amino-5 -cyanopyrimidin-4-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methyl-3 -phenyl- 1,5- naphthyridine-4-carboxamide

1H-NMR (500 Hz, CD3OD) δ ppm 1.41 (3H, d, J=5.0 Hz), 2.70 (3H, s), 5.55 (IH, m), 7.45-7.56 (5H, m), 7.85 (IH, dd, J=10, 5.0 Hz), 7.95 (IH, s), 8.54 (IH, d, J=10 Hz), 9.0 (IH, d, J=5.0 Hz). Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 425 (M + 1). - 67 -

Example 10

2-( 1 -(6-Amino-5 -cyanopyrimidin-4-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methyl-3 -(pyridin-2-yl)- -naphthyridine-4-carboxamide

2-( 1 -(6-Amino-5 -cyanopyrimidin-4-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methyl-3 -(pyridin-2-yl)- l,5-naphthyridine-4-carboxamide was prepared in the similar manner as the above experiment. Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 426 (M + 1).

(S)-2-( 1 -(6-Amino-5 -cyanopyrimidin-4-y lamino)ethyl)-N-methyl-3 -(pyridin-2- yl)-l,5-naphthyridine-4-carboxamide

1H-NMR (500 Hz, CD3OD) δ ppm 1.48 (3H, d, J=5.0 Hz), 2.74 (3H, s), 5.60 (IH, m), 7.51 (IH, dd, J=10, 5.0 Hz), 7.68 (IH, d, J=10 Hz), 7.88 (IH, dd, J=10, 5.0 Hz), 7.92 (IH, s), 7.98 (IH, t, J=5.0 Hz),8.57 (IH, d, J=10 Hz), 8.73 (IH, d, J=5.0 Hz), 9.0 (IH, d, J=5.0 Hz). Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 426 (M + 1). - 68 -

(R)-2-(l-(6-amino-5-cyanopyrimidin-4-ylamino)ethyl)-N-methyl-3-(pyridin-2- yl)-l,5-naphthyridine-4-carboxamide

1H-NMR (500 Hz, CD3OD) δ ppm 1.48 (3H, d, J=5.0 Hz), 2.74 (3H, s), 5.60 (IH, m), 7.51 (IH, dd, J=10, 5.0 Hz), 7.68 (IH, d, J=10 Hz), 7.88 (IH, dd, J=10, 5.0 Hz), 7.92 (IH, s), 7.98 (IH, t, J=5.0 Hz),8.57 (IH, d, J=10 Hz), 8.73 (IH, d, J=5.0 Hz), 9.0 (IH, d, J=5.0 Hz). Mass Spectrum (ESI) m/e = 426 (M + 1).

Biological Assays

Recombinant expression of PI3Ks

Full length pi 10 subunits of PI3k α, β and δ, N-terminally labeled with polyHis tag, were coexpressed with p85 with Baculo virus expression vectors in sf9 insect cells. PI 10/p85 heterodimers were purified by sequential Ni-NTA, Q-HP, Superdex-100 chromatography. Purified α, β and δ isozymes were stored at -20 °C in 20mM Tris, pH 8, 0.2M NaCl, 50% glycerol, 5mM DTT, 2mM Na cholate. Truncated ΡΒΚγ, residues 114-1102, N-terminally labeled with polyHis tag, was expessed with Baculo virus in Hi5 insect cells. The γ isozyme was purified by sequential Ni-NTA, Superdex-200, Q-HP chromatography. The γ isozyme was stored frozen at -80 °C in NaH2P04, pH 8, 0.2M NaCl, 1% ethylene glycol, 2mM β-mercaptoethanol.

Alpha Beta Delta gamma

50 rriM Tris pH 8 pH 7.5 pH 7.5 pH 8

MgC12 15 rriM lO mM 10 mM 15 mM

Na cholate 2 mM 1 mM 0.5 mM 2 mM

DTT 2 mM 1 mM 1 mM 2 mM

ATP 1 uM 0.5 uM 0.5 uM 1 uM - 69 -

In vitro enzyme assays.

Assays were performed in 25 with the above final concentrations of components in white polyproplyene plates (Costar 3355). Phospatidyl inositol phosphoacceptor, PtdIns(4,5)P2 P4508, was from Echelon Biosciences. The ATPase activity of the alpha and gamma isozymes was not greatly stimulated by PtdIns(4,5)P2 under these conditions and was therefore omitted from the assay of these isozymes. Test compounds were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted with three-fold serial dilutions. The compound in DMSO (1 μί) was added per test well, and the inhibition relative to reactions containing no compound, with and without enzyme was determined. After assay incubation at rt, the reaction was stopped and residual ATP determined by addition of an equal volume of a commercial ATP bioluminescence kit (Perkin Elmer EasyLite) according to the manufacturer's instructions, and detected using a AnalystGT luminometer.

Human B Cells Proliferation stimulate by anti-IgM

Isolate human B Cells:

Isolate PBMCs from Leukopac or from human fresh blood. Isolate human B cells by using Miltenyi protocol and B cell isolation kit II. -human B cells were Purified by using AutoMacs. column.

Activation of human B cells

Use 96 well Flat bottom plate, plate 50000/well purified B cells in B cell proliferation medium (DMEM + 5% FCS, 10 mM Hepes, 50 μΜ 2-mercaptoethanol); 150 medium contain 250 ng/mL CD40L -LZ recombinant protein (Amgen) and 2 μg/mL anti-Human IgM antibody (Jackson ImmunoReseach Lab. #109- 006-129), mixed with 50 B cell medium containing PI3K inhibitors and incubate 72 h at 37 °C incubator. After 72h, pulse labeling B cells with 0.5-1 uCi /well 3H thymidine for overnight—18 h, and harvest cell using TOM harvester. - 70 -

Human B Cells Proliferation stimulate by IL-4

Isolate human B Cells:

Isolate human PBMCs from Leukopac or from human fresh blood. Isolate human B cells using Miltenyi protocol - B cell isolation kit. Human B cells were Purified by AutoMacs. column.

Activation of human B cells

Use 96-well flat bottom plate, plate 50000/well purified B cells in B cell proliferation medium (DMEM + 5% FCS, 50 μΜ 2-mercaptoethanol, lOmM Hepes). The medium (150 contain 250 ng/mL CD40L -LZ recombinant protein (Amgen) and 10 ng/mL IL-4 ( R&D system # 204-IL-025), mixed with 50 150 B cell medium containing compounds and incubate 72 h at 37 °C incubator. After 72 h, pulse labeling B cells with 0.5-1 uCi /well JH thymidine for overnight—18 h, and harvest cell using TOM harvester.

Specific T antigen (Tetanus toxoid) induced human PBMC proliferation assays

Human PBMC are prepared from frozen stocks or they are purified from fresh human blood using a Ficoll gradient. Use 96 well round-bottom plate and plate 2xl05 PBMC/well with culture medium (RPMI1640 + 10% FCS, 50uM 2- Mercaptoethanol,10 mM Hepes). For IC50 determinations, PI3K inhibitors was tested from 10 μΜ to 0.001 μΜ, in half log increments and in triplicate. Tetanus toxoid ,T cell specific antigen ( University of Massachusetts Lab) was added at 1 μg/mL and incubated 6 days at 37 °C incubator. Supernatants are collected after 6 days for IL2 ELISA assay , then cells are pulsed with 3H-thymidine for ~18 h to measure proliferation.

GFP assays for detecting inhibition of Class la and Class III PI3K

AKTl (PKBa) is regulated by Class la PI3K activated by mitogenic factors (IGF- 1, PDGF, insulin, thrombin, NGF, etc.). In response to mitogenic stimuli, AKTl translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane

Forkhead (FKHRLl) is a substrate for AKTl . It is cytoplasmic when phosphorylated by AKT (survival/growth). Inhibition of AKT (stasis/apoptosis)

- forkhead translocation to the nucleus - 71 -

FYVE domains bind to PI(3)P. the majority is generated by constitutive action of PI3K Class III

AKT membrane ruffling assay (CHO-IR-AKT1-EGFP cells/GE Healthcare)

Wash cells with assay buffer. Treat with compounds in assay buffer 1 h. Add 10 ng/mL insulin. Fix after 10 min at room temp and image

Forkhead translocation assay (MDA MB468 Forkhead-DiversaGFP cells)

Treat cells with compound in growth medium 1 h. Fix and image.

Class IIIPI(3)P assay (U20S EGFP-2XFYVE cells/GE Healthcare)

Wash cells with assay buffer. Treat with compounds in assay buffer 1 h. Fix and image.

Control for all 3 assays is lOuM Wortmannin:

AKT is cytoplasmic

Forkhead is nuclear

PI(3)P depleted from endosomes

Biomarker assay: B-cell receptor stimulation of CD69 or B7.2 (CD86) expression

Heparinized human whole blood was stimulated with 10 μg/mL anti-IgD

(Southern Biotech, #9030-01). 90 iL of the stimulated blood was then aliquoted per well of a 96-well plate and treated with 10 of various concentrations of blocking compound (from 10-0.0003 μΜ) diluted in IMDM + 10% FBS (Gibco). Samples were incubated together for 4 h (for CD69 expression) to 6 h (for B7.2 expression) at 37 °C. Treated blood (50 μί) was transferred to a 96-well, deep well plate (Nunc) for antibody staining with 10 each of CD45-PerCP (BD Biosciences, #347464), CD19-FITC (BD Biosciences, #340719), and CD69-PE (BD Biosciences, #341652). The second 50 iL of the treated blood was transferred to a second 96-well, deep well plate for antibody staining with 10 μΐ, each of CD19-FITC (BD Biosciences, #340719) and CD86-PeCy5 (BD

Biosciences, #555666). All stains were performed for 15-30 min in the dark at rt. The blood was then lysed and fixed using 450 μΙ_, of FACS lysing solution (BD Biosciences, #349202) for 15 min at rt. Samples were then washed 2X in

PBS + 2% FBS before FACS analysis. Samples were gated on either - 72 -

CD45/CD19 double positive cells for CD69 staining, or CD 19 positive cells for CD 86 staining.

Gamma Counterscreen: Stimulation of human monocytes for phospho- AKT expression

A human monocyte cell line, THP-1, was maintained in RPMI + 10% FBS (Gibco). One day before stimulation, cells were counted using trypan blue exclusion on a hemocytometer and suspended at a concentration of 1 x 106 cells per mL of media. 100 μΐ, of cells plus media (1 x 105 cells) was then aliquoted per well of 4-96-well, deep well dishes (Nunc) to test eight different compounds. Cells were rested overnight before treatment with various concentrations (from 10-0.0003μΜ) of blocking compound. The compound diluted in media (12 μΐ,) was added to the cells for 10 min at 37 °C. Human MCP-1 (12 L, R&D Diagnostics, #279-MC) was diluted in media and added to each well at a final concentration of 50 ng/mL. Stimulation lasted for 2 min at rt. Pre-warmed FACS Phosflow Lyse/Fix buffer (1 mL of 37 °C) (BD Biosciences, #558049) was added to each well. Plates were then incubated at 37 °C for an additional 10-15 min. Plates were spun at 1500 rpm for 10 min, supernatant was aspirated off, and 1 mL of ice cold 90%> MEOH was added to each well with vigorous shaking. Plates were then incubated either overnight at -70 °C or on ice for 30 min before antibody staining. Plates were spun and washed 2X in PBS + 2% FBS (Gibco). Wash was aspirated and cells were suspended in remaining buffer. Rabbit pAKT (50 Cell Signaling, #4058L) at 1 : 100, was added to each sample for 1 h at rt with shaking. Cells were washed and spun at 1500 rpm for 10 min.

Supernatant was aspirated and cells were suspended in remaining buffer.

Secondary antibody, goat anti-rabbit Alexa 647 (50 Invitrogen, #A21245) at

1 :500, was added for 30 min at rt with shaking. Cells were then washed IX in buffer and suspended in 150 μΐ, of buffer for FACS analysis. Cells need to be dispersed very well by pipetting before running on flow cytometer. Cells were run on an LSR II (Becton Dickinson) and gated on forward and side scatter to determine expression levels of pAKT in the monocyte population.

Gamma Counterscreen: Stimulation of monocytes for phospho-AKT expression in mouse bone marrow - 73 -

Mouse femurs were dissected from five female BALB/c mice (Charles River Labs.) and collected into RPMI + 10% FBS media (Gibco). Mouse bone marrow was removed by cutting the ends of the femur and by flushing with 1 mL of media using a 25 gauge needle. Bone marrow was then dispersed in media using a 21 gauge needle. Media volume was increased to 20 mL and cells were counted using trypan blue exclusion on a hemocytometer. The cell suspension was then increased to 7.5 x 106 cells per 1 mL of media and 100 μΐ^ (7.5 x 105 cells) was aliquoted per well into 4-96-well, deep well dishes (Nunc) to test eight different compounds. Cells were rested at 37 °C for 2 h before treatment with various concentrations (from 10-0.0003 μΜ) of blocking compound. Compound diluted in media (12 μί) was added to bone marrow cells for 10 min at 37 °C. Mouse MCP-1 (12 JJL, R&D Diagnostics, #479- JE) was diluted in media and added to each well at a final concentration of 50 ng/mL. Stimulation lasted for 2 min at rt. 1 mL of 37 °C pre -warmed FACS Phosflow Lyse/Fix buffer (BD Biosciences, #558049) was added to each well. Plates were then incubated at 37°C for an additional 10-15 min. Plates were spun at 1500 rpm for 10 min. Supernatant was aspirated off and 1 mL of ice cold 90% MEOH was added to each well with vigorous shaking. Plates were then incubated either overnight at -70 °C or on ice for 30 min before antibody staining. Plates were spun and washed 2X in PBS + 2% FBS (Gibco). Wash was aspirated and cells were suspended in remaining buffer. Fc block (2 μί, BD Pharmingen, #553140) was then added per well for 10 min at rt. After block, 50 of primary antibodies diluted in buffer; CDl Ib-Alexa488 (BD Biosciences, #557672) at 1 :50, CD64-PE (BD Biosciences, #558455) at 1 :50, and rabbit pAKT (Cell Signaling, #4058L) at 1 : 100, were added to each sample for 1 h at RT with shaking. Wash buffer was added to cells and spun at 1500 rpm for 10 min. Supernatant was aspirated and cells were suspended in remaining buffer. Secondary antibody; goat anti-rabbit Alexa 647 (50 μΐ,, Invitrogen, #A21245) at 1 :500, was added for 30 min at rt with shaking. Cells were then washed IX in buffer and suspended in 100 μΐ, of buffer for FACS analysis. Cells were run on an LSR II (Becton Dickinson) and gated on CDl lb/CD64 double positive cells to determine expression levels of pAKT in the monocyte population. - 74 - AKT in vivo Assay

Vehicle and compounds are administered p.o. (0.2 mL) by gavage (Oral Gavage Needles Popper & Sons, New Hyde Park, NY) to mice (Transgenic Line 3751, female, 10-12 wks Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA) 15 min prior to the injection i.v (0.2 mLs) of anti-IgM FITC (50 ug/mouse) (Jackson Immuno Research, West Grove, PA). After 45 min the mice are sacrificed within a C02 chamber. Blood is drawn via cardiac puncture (0.3 mL) (lcc 25 g Syringes, Sherwood, St. Louis, MO) and transferred into a 15 mL conical vial (Nalge/Nunc International, Denmark). Blood is immediately fixed with 6.0 mL of BD Phosflow Lyse/Fix Buffer (BD Bioscience, San Jose, CA), inverted 3X's and placed in 37 °C water bath. Half of the spleen is removed and transferred to an eppendorf tube containing 0.5 mL of PBS (Invitrogen Corp, Grand Island, NY). The spleen is crushed using a tissue grinder (Pellet Pestle, Kimble/Kontes, Vineland, NJ) and immediately fixed with 6.0 mL of BD Phosflow Lyse/Fix buffer, inverted 3X's and placed in 37 °C water bath. Once tissues have been collected the mouse is cervically-dislocated and carcass to disposed. After 15 min, the 15 mL conical vials are removed from the 37 °C water bath and placed on ice until tissues are further processed. Crushed spleens are filtered through a 70 μιη cell strainer (BD Bioscience, Bedford, MA) into another 15 mL conical vial and washed with 9 mL of PBS. Splenocytes and blood are spun @ 2,000 rpms for 10 min (cold) and buffer is aspirated. Cells are resuspended in 2.0 mL of cold (-20 °C) 90% methyl alcohol (Mallinckrodt Chemicals, Phillipsburg, NJ). MeOH is slowly added while conical vial is rapidly vortexed. Tissues are then stored at -20 °C until cells can be stained for FACS analysis.

Multi-dose TNP immunization

Blood was collected by retro-orbital eye bleeds from 7-8 week old BALB/c female mice (Charles River Labs.) at day 0 before immunization. Blood was allowed to clot for 30 min and spun at 10,000 rpm in serum microtainer tubes (Becton Dickinson) for 10 min. Sera were collected, aliquoted in Matrix tubes (Matrix Tech. Corp.) and stored at -70 °C until ELISA was performed. Mice were given compound orally before immunization and at subsequent time periods based on the life of the molecule. Mice were then immunized with either 50 μg - 75 - of TNP-LPS (Biosearch Tech., #T-5065), 50 μg of TNP-Ficoll (Biosearch Tech., #F-1300), or 100 μg of TNP-KLH (Biosearch Tech., #T-5060) plus 1% alum (Brenntag, #3501) in PBS. TNP-KLH plus alum solution was prepared by gently inverting the mixture 3-5 times every 10 min for 1 h before immunization. On day 5, post-last treatment, mice were C02 sacrificed and cardiac punctured. Blood was allowed to clot for 30 min and spun at 10,000 rpm in serum

microtainer tubes for 10 min. Sera were collected, aliquoted in Matrix tubes, and stored at -70 °C until further analysis was performed. TNP-specific IgGl, IgG2a, IgG3 and IgM levels in the sera were then measured via ELISA. TNP- BSA (Biosearch Tech., #T-5050) was used to capture the TNP-specific antibodies. TNP-BSA (10 μg/mL) was used to coat 384-well ELISA plates (Corning Costar) overnight. Plates were then washed and blocked for 1 h using 10% BSA ELISA Block solution (KPL). After blocking, ELISA plates were washed and sera samples/standards were serially diluted and allowed to bind to the plates for 1 h. Plates were washed and Ig-HRP conjugated secondary antibodies (goat anti-mouse IgGl, Southern Biotech #1070-05, goat anti-mouse IgG2a, Southern Biotech #1080-05, goat anti-mouse IgM, Southern Biotech #1020-05, goat anti-mouse IgG3, Southern Biotech #1100-05) were diluted at 1 :5000 and incubated on the plates for 1 h. TMB peroxidase solution (SureBlue Reserve TMB from KPL) was used to visualize the antibodies. Plates were washed and samples were allowed to develop in the TMB solution approximately 5-20 min depending on the Ig analyzed. The reaction was stopped with 2M sulfuric acid and plates were read at an OD of 450 nm.

For the treatment of ΡΒΚδ-mediated-diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases, the compounds of the present invention may be administered orally, parentally, by inhalation spray, rectally, or topically in dosage unit formulations containing conventional pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants, and vehicles. The term parenteral as used herein includes, subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, intrasternal, infusion techniques or intraperitoneally. - 76 -

Treatment of diseases and disorders herein is intended to also include the prophylactic administration of a compound of the invention, a pharmaceutical salt thereof, or a pharmaceutical composition of either to a subject (i.e., an animal, preferably a mammal, most preferably a human) believed to be in need of preventative treatment, such as, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases and the like.

The dosage regimen for treating ΡΒΚδ-mediated diseases, cancer, and/or hyperglycemia with the compounds of this invention and/or compositions of this invention is based on a variety of factors, including the type of disease, the age, weight, sex, medical condition of the patient, the severity of the condition, the route of administration, and the particular compound employed. Thus, the dosage regimen may vary widely, but can be determined routinely using standard methods. Dosage levels of the order from about 0.01 mg to 30 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, preferably from about 0.1 mg to 10 mg/kg, more preferably from about 0.25 mg to 1 mg/kg are useful for all methods of use disclosed herein.

The pharmaceutically active compounds of this invention can be processed in accordance with conventional methods of pharmacy to produce medicinal agents for administration to patients, including humans and other mammals.

For oral administration, the pharmaceutical composition may be in the form of, for example, a capsule, a tablet, a suspension, or liquid. The pharmaceutical composition is preferably made in the form of a dosage unit containing a given amount of the active ingredient. For example, these may contain an amount of active ingredient from about 1 to 2000 mg, preferably from about 1 to 500 mg, more preferably from about 5 to 150 mg. A suitable daily dose for a human or other mammal may vary widely depending on the condition of the patient and other factors, but, once again, can be determined using routine methods.

The active ingredient may also be administered by injection as a composition with suitable carriers including saline, dextrose, or water. The daily parenteral dosage regimen will be from about 0.1 to about 30 mg/kg of total body - 77 - weight, preferably from about 0.1 to about 10 mg/kg, and more preferably from about 0.25 mg to 1 mg/kg.

Injectable preparations, such as sterile injectable aq. or oleaginous suspensions, may be formulated according to the known are using suitable dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents. The sterile injectable preparation may also be a sterile injectable solution or suspension in a non-toxic parenterally acceptable diluent or solvent, for example as a solution in 1,3- butanediol. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that may be employed are water, Ringer's solution, and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils are conventionally employed as a solvent or suspending medium. For this purpose any bland fixed oil may be employed, including synthetic mono- or diglycerides. In addition, fatty acids such as oleic acid find use in the preparation of injectables.

Suppositories for rectal administration of the drug can be prepared by mixing the drug with a suitable non-irritating excipient such as cocoa butter and polyethylene glycols that are solid at ordinary temperatures but liquid at the rectal temperature and will therefore melt in the rectum and release the drug.

A suitable topical dose of active ingredient of a compound of the invention is 0.1 mg to 150 mg administered one to four, preferably one or two times daily. For topical administration, the active ingredient may comprise from 0.001% to 10% w/w, e.g., from 1% to 2% by weight of the formulation, although it may comprise as much as 10%> w/w, but preferably not more than 5% w/w, and more preferably from 0.1% to 1% of the formulation.

Formulations suitable for topical administration include liquid or semi- liquid preparations suitable for penetration through the skin (e.g., liniments, lotions, ointments, creams, or pastes) and drops suitable for administration to the eye, ear, or nose.

For administration, the compounds of this invention are ordinarily combined with one or more adjuvants appropriate for the indicated route of administration. The compounds may be admixed with lactose, sucrose, starch powder, cellulose esters of alkanoic acids, stearic acid, talc, magnesium stearate, magnesium oxide, sodium and calcium salts of phosphoric and sulfuric acids, - 78 - acacia, gelatin, sodium alginate, polyvinyl-pyrrolidine, and/or polyvinyl alcohol, and tableted or encapsulated for conventional administration. Alternatively, the compounds of this invention may be dissolved in saline, water, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, ethanol, corn oil, peanut oil, cottonseed oil, sesame oil, tragacanth gum, and/or various buffers. Other adjuvants and modes of administration are well known in the pharmaceutical art. The carrier or diluent may include time delay material, such as glyceryl monostearate or glyceryl distearate alone or with a wax, or other materials well known in the art.

The pharmaceutical compositions may be made up in a solid form

(including granules, powders or suppositories) or in a liquid form (e.g., solutions, suspensions, or emulsions). The pharmaceutical compositions may be subjected to conventional pharmaceutical operations such as sterilization and/or may contain conventional adjuvants, such as preservatives, stabilizers, wetting agents, emulsifiers, buffers etc.

Solid dosage forms for oral administration may include capsules, tablets, pills, powders, and granules. In such solid dosage forms, the active compound may be admixed with at least one inert diluent such as sucrose, lactose, or starch. Such dosage forms may also comprise, as in normal practice, additional substances other than inert diluents, e.g., lubricating agents such as magnesium stearate. In the case of capsules, tablets, and pills, the dosage forms may also comprise buffering agents. Tablets and pills can additionally be prepared with enteric coatings.

Liquid dosage forms for oral administration may include pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and elixirs containing inert diluents commonly used in the art, such as water. Such compositions may also comprise adjuvants, such as wetting, sweetening, flavoring, and perfuming agents.

Compounds of the present invention can possess one or more asymmetric carbon atoms and are thus capable of existing in the form of optical isomers as well as in the form of racemic or non-racemic mixtures thereof. The optical isomers can be obtained by resolution of the racemic mixtures according to conventional processes, e.g., by formation of diastereoisomeric salts, by treatment with an optically active acid or base. Examples of appropriate acids are tartaric, - 79 - diacetyltartaric, dibenzoyltartaric, ditoluoyltartaric, and camphorsulfonic acid and then separation of the mixture of diastereoisomers by crystallization followed by liberation of the optically active bases from these salts. A different process for separation of optical isomers involves the use of a chiral chromatography column optimally chosen to maximize the separation of the enantiomers. Still another available method involves synthesis of covalent diastereoisomeric molecules by reacting compounds of the invention with an optically pure acid in an activated form or an optically pure isocyanate. The synthesized diastereoisomers can be separated by conventional means such as chromatography, distillation, crystallization or sublimation, and then hydrolyzed to deliver the enantiomerically pure compound. The optically active compounds of the invention can likewise be obtained by using active starting materials. These isomers may be in the form of a free acid, a free base, an ester or a salt.

Likewise, the compounds of this invention may exist as isomers, that is compounds of the same molecular formula but in which the atoms, relative to one another, are arranged differently. In particular, the alkylene substituents of the compounds of this invention, are normally and preferably arranged and inserted into the molecules as indicated in the definitions for each of these groups, being read from left to right. However, in certain cases, one skilled in the art will appreciate that it is possible to prepare compounds of this invention in which these substituents are reversed in orientation relative to the other atoms in the molecule. That is, the substituent to be inserted may be the same as that noted above except that it is inserted into the molecule in the reverse orientation. One skilled in the art will appreciate that these isomeric forms of the compounds of this invention are to be construed as encompassed within the scope of the present invention.

The compounds of the present invention can be used in the form of salts derived from inorganic or organic acids. The salts include, but are not limited to, the following: acetate, adipate, alginate, citrate, aspartate, benzoate,

benzenesulfonate, bisulfate, butyrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, digluconate, cyclopentanepropionate, dodecylsulfate, ethanesulfonate, glucoheptanoate, glycerophosphate, hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, fumarate, hydrochloride, - 80 - hydrobromide, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate, lactate, maleate, methansulfonate, nicotinate, 2-naphthalenesulfonate, oxalate, palmoate, pectinate, persulfate, 2-phenylpropionate, picrate, pivalate, propionate, succinate, tartrate, thiocyanate, tosylate, mesylate, and undecanoate. Also, the basic nitrogen- containing groups can be quaternized with such agents as lower alkyl halides, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl chloride, bromides and iodides; dialkyl sulfates like dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, and diamyl sulfates, long chain halides such as decyl, lauryl, myristyl and stearyl chlorides, bromides and iodides, aralkyl halides like benzyl and phenethyl bromides, and others. Water or oil-soluble or dispersible products are thereby obtained.

Examples of acids that may be employed to from pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts include such inorganic acids as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid and such organic acids as oxalic acid, maleic acid, succinic acid and citric acid. Other examples include salts with alkali metals or alkaline earth metals, such as sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium or with organic bases.

Also encompassed in the scope of the present invention are

pharmaceutically acceptable esters of a carboxylic acid or hydroxyl containing group, including a metabolically labile ester or a prodrug form of a compound of this invention. A metabolically labile ester is one which may produce, for example, an increase in blood levels and prolong the efficacy of the corresponding non-esterified form of the compound. A prodrug form is one which is not in an active form of the molecule as administered but which becomes therapeutically active after some in vivo activity or biotransformation, such as metabolism, for example, enzymatic or hydro lytic cleavage. For a general discussion of prodrugs involving esters see Svensson and Tunek Drug Metabolism Reviews 165 (1988) and Bundgaard Design of Prodrugs, Elsevier (1985). Examples of a masked carboxylate anion include a variety of esters, such as alkyl (for example, methyl, ethyl), cycloalkyl (for example, cyclohexyl), aralkyl (for example, benzyl, p- methoxybenzyl), and alkylcarbonyloxyalkyl (for example, pivaloyloxymethyl).

Amines have been masked as arylcarbonyloxymethyl substituted derivatives which are cleaved by esterases in vivo releasing the free drug and formaldehyde - 81 -

(Bungaard J. Med. Chem. 2503 (1989)). Also, drugs containing an acidic NH group, such as imidazole, imide, indole and the like, have been masked with N- acyloxymethyl groups (Bundgaard Design of Prodrugs, Elsevier (1985)).

Hydroxy groups have been masked as esters and ethers. EP 039,051 (Sloan and Little, 4/1 1/81) discloses Mannich-base hydroxamic acid prodrugs, their preparation and use. Esters of a compound of this invention, may include, for example, the methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters, as well as other suitable esters formed between an acidic moiety and a hydroxyl containing moiety.

Metabolically labile esters, may include, for example, methoxymethyl, ethoxymethyl, iso-propoxymethyl, a-methoxyethyl, groups such as a-((Ci-C4)- alkyloxy)ethyl, for example, methoxyethyl, ethoxyethyl, propoxyethyl, iso- propoxyethyl, etc.; 2-oxo-l ,3-dioxolen-4-ylmethyl groups, such as 5-methyl-2- oxo-l ,3,dioxolen-4-ylmethyl, etc.; C1-C3 alkylthiomethyl groups, for example, methylthiomethyl, ethylthiomethyl, isopropylthiomethyl, etc.; acyloxymethyl groups, for example, pivaloyloxymethyl, a-acetoxymethyl, etc.; ethoxycarbonyl- 1 -methyl; or a-acyloxy-a-substituted methyl groups, for example a-acetoxyethyl.

Further, the compounds of the invention may exist as crystalline solids which can be crystallized from common solvents such as ethanol, N,N-dimethyl- formamide, water, or the like. Thus, crystalline forms of the compounds of the invention may exist as polymorphs, solvates and/or hydrates of the parent compounds or their pharmaceutically acceptable salts. All of such forms likewise are to be construed as falling within the scope of the invention.

While the compounds of the invention can be administered as the sole active pharmaceutical agent, they can also be used in combination with one or more compounds of the invention or other agents. When administered as a combination, the therapeutic agents can be formulated as separate compositions that are given at the same time or different times, or the therapeutic agents can be given as a single composition.

The foregoing is merely illustrative of the invention and is not intended to limit the invention to the disclosed compounds. Variations and changes which are obvious to one skilled in the art are intended to be within the scope and nature of the invention which are defined in the appended claims. - 82 -

From the foregoing description, one skilled in the art can easily ascertain the essential characteristics of this invention, and without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, can make various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it to various usages and conditions.

- 83 -

1. A compound having the structure

Y is N(R8), O or S;

n is 0, 1 , 2 or 3;

R1 is a direct-bonded, Ci_4alk-linked, OCi_2alk- linked, Ci_2alkO-linked or O-linked saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 5-, 6- or 7-membered monocyclic or 8-, 9-, 10- or 1 1-membered bicyclic ring containing 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S atom, substituted by 0, 1 , 2 or 3 substituents independently selected from halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa, wherein the available carbon atoms of the ring are additionally substituted by 0, 1 or 2 oxo or thioxo groups;

R2 is selected from H, halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, ORa, NRaRa, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa,

-S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa; - 84 -

R3 is selected from H, halo, nitro, cyano, Ci_4alk, OCi_4alk, OCi_4haloalk, NHCi_4alk, N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk or Ci_4haloalk;

R4 is, independently, in each instance, halo, nitro, cyano, Ci_4alk, OCi_4alk, OCi_4haloalk, NHCi_4alk, N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk, Ci_4haloalk or an unsaturated 5-, 6- or 7-membered monocyclic ring containing 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S, substituted by 0, 1 , 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, Ci_4alk, Ci_3haloalk, -OCi_4alk, -NH2, -NHCi_4alk,

R5 is, independently, in each instance, H, halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, or Ci_6alk substituted by 1 , 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, cyano, OH,

OCi_4alk, Ci_4alk, Ci_3haloalk, OCi_4alk, NH2, NHCi_4alk, N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk; or both R5 groups together form a C3_6spiroalk substituted by 0, 1 , 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, cyano, OH, OCi_4alk, Ci_4alk, Ci_3haloalk, OCi_4alk, NH2, NHCi_4alk, N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk;

R6 is H, halo, NHR9 or OH;

R7 is selected from H, halo, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra,

-C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa,

-N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra,

-N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkORa and Ci_6alk, wherein the Ci_6alk is substituted by 0, 1 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa,

-OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa, and the Ci_6alk is additionally substituted by 0 or 1 saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 5-,

6- or 7-membered monocyclic rings containing 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from - 85 -

N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S, wherein the available carbon atoms of the ring are substituted by 0, 1 or 2 oxo or thioxo groups, wherein the ring is substituted by 0, 1 , 2 or 3 substituents independently selected from halo, nitro, cyano, Ci_4alk, OCi_4alk, OCi_4haloalk, NHCi_4alk, N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk and Ci_4haloalk; or R7 and R8 together form a -C=N- bridge wherein the carbon atom is substituted by H, halo, cyano, or a saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 5-, 6- or 7-membered monocyclic ring containing 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 atoms selected from N, O and S, but containing no more than one O or S, wherein the available carbon atoms of the ring are substituted by 0, 1 or 2 oxo or thioxo groups, wherein the ring is substituted by 0, 1 , 2, 3 or 4 substituents selected from halo, Ci_6alk,

Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa and -NRaC2_6alkORa; or R7 and R9 together form a -N=C- bridge wherein the carbon atom is substituted by H, halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, ORa, NRaRa, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa,

-C(=0)NRaRa, -C (=NRa)NRaRa, -S(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2Ra, -S(=0)2NRaRa;

R9 is H, Ci_6alk or Ci_4haloalk;

R10 is H, halo, Ci_3alk, Ci_3haloalk or cyano;

R11 is selected from H, halo, Ci_6alk, Ci_4haloalk, cyano, nitro, -C(=0)Ra, -C(=0)ORa, -C(=0)NRaRa, -C(=NRa)NRaRa, -ORa, -OC(=0)Ra, -OC(=0)NRaRa, -OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -OC2_6alkNRaRa, -OC2_6alkORa, -SRa, -S(=0)Ra,

-S(=0)2Rb, -S(=0)2NRaRa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -N(Ra)C(=0)ORa,

-N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra,

-N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkNRaRa, -NRaC2_6alkORa, -NRaC2_6alkS02Rb, -CH2C(=0)Ra, -CH2C(=0)ORa, -CH2C(=0)NRaRa, -CH2C (=NRa)NRaRa,

-CH2ORa, -CH2OC(=0)Ra, -CH2OC(=0)NRaRa, -CH2OC(=0)N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, - 86 -

-CH2OC2_6alkNRaRa, -CH2OC2_6alkORa, -CH2SRa, -CH2S(=0)Ra, -CH2S(=0)2Rb, -CH2S(=0)2NRaRa, -CH2S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra, -CH2S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -CH2S(=0)2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -CH2NRaRa, -CH2N(Ra)C(=0)Ra,

-CH2N(Ra)C(=0)ORa, -CH2N(Ra)C(=0)NRaRa, -CH2N(Ra)C(=NRa)NRaRa, -CH2N(Ra)S(=0)2Ra, -CH2N(Ra)S(=0)2NRaRa, -CH2NRaC2_6alkNRaRa,

-CH2NRaC2_6alkORa, -CH2RC, -C(=0)Rc and -C(=0)N(Ra)Rc;

Ra is independently, at each instance, H or Rb;

Rb is independently, at each instance, phenyl, benzyl or Ci_6alk, the phenyl, benzyl and Ci_6alk being substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, Ci_4alk, Ci_3haloalk, -OH, -OCi_4alk, -NH2, -NHCi_4alk, -N(Ci_4alk)Ci_ 4alk; and

Rc is a saturated or partially-saturated 4-, 5- or 6-membered ring containing 1, 2 or 3 heteroatoms selected from N, O and S, the ring being substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, Ci_4alk, Ci_3haloalk, -OCi_4alk, -NH2, -NHCi_4alk, -N(Ci_4alk)Ci_4alk.

2. A method of treating rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disorders, inflammatory eye disorders,

inflammatory or unstable bladder disorders, skin complaints with inflammatory components, chronic inflammatory conditions, autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), myestenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, multiples sclerosis, Sjoegren's syndrome and autoimmune hemolytic anemia, allergic conditions and hypersensitivity, comprising the step of administering a compound according to Claim 1.

3. A method of treating cancers, which are mediated, dependent on or associated with pi 105 activity, comprising the step of administering a compound according to Claim 1.

4. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound according to Claim 1 and a pharmaceutically-acceptable diluent or carrier.

Download Citation


Sign in to the Lens

Feedback