Glycosylated Aminocoumarins And Methods Of Preparing And Uses Of Same

  • Published: Jun 2, 2015
  • Earliest Priority: Oct 15 2010
  • Family: 6
  • Cited Works: 5
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  • Cites: 4
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  *US09045517B2*
  US009045517B2                                 
(12)United States Patent(10)Patent No.: US 9,045,517 B2
 Yang et al. (45) Date of Patent:Jun.  2, 2015

(54)Glycosylated aminocoumarins and methods of preparing and uses of same 
    
(75)Inventor: Min Yang,  London (GB) 
(73)Assignee:University College London,  London (GB), Type: Foreign Company 
(*)Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 123 days. 
(21)Appl. No.: 13/879,071 
(22)PCT Filed:Oct.  17, 2011 
(86)PCT No.: PCT/GB2011/052006 
 § 371 (c)(1), (2), (4) Date: Jun.  20, 2013  
(87)PCT Pub. No.:WO20/12/049521 
 PCT Pub. Date:Apr.  19, 2012 
(65)Prior Publication Data 
 US 2013/0274213 A1 Oct.  17, 2013 
(30)Foreign Application Priority Data 
 Oct.  15, 2010     (GB)   1017450.6
Jan.  1, 2013 C 07 H 17 04 F I Jun.  2, 2015 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 07 H 17 075 L I Jun.  2, 2015 US B H C Jan.  1, 2013 C 12 P 19 605 L I Jun.  2, 2015 US B H C
(51)Int. Cl. C07H 017/04 (20060101); C12P 019/60 (20060101); C07H 017/075 (20060101)
(58)Field of Search  None

 
(56)References Cited
 
 U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
 3,153,035  A*10/1964    Archer et al. 536/17.9
 3,547,903  A*12/1970    Hooper et al. 536/17.4

 
 FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 
 
       WO       WO-0/1/87309       A1                11/2001      
       WO       WO-2/006/003456       A2                1/2006      

 OTHER PUBLICATIONS
  
  Patel et al. Chem Commun., 2011, 47, 10569-10571. *
  Keegstra et al. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2001, 4:219-224. *
  Lao et al. The Plant Journal (2014) 79, 517-529. *
  Yang, M. et al. “Probing the Breadth of Macrolide Glycosyltransferases: In Vitro Remodeling of a Polyketide Antibiotic Creates Active Bacterial Uptake and Enhances Potency” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Jul. 6, 2005, 127:9336-9337.
  International Search Report in International Application No. PCT/GB2011/052006, filed Oct. 17, 2011.
 
 
     * cited by examiner
 
     Primary Examiner —Layla Bland
     Art Unit — 1673
     Exemplary claim number — 1
 
(74)Attorney, Agent, or Firm — Saliwanchik, Lloyd & Eisenschenk

(57)

Abstract

There is provided a method of glycosylating an aminocoumarin compound comprising conjugating a sugar to the 4′-OH position of the core of the aminocoumarin compound. Also provided is an aminocoumarin compound glycosylated at the 4′-OH position of the core of the aminocoumarin compound. Further aspects of this invention provide this compound for use in therapy, more particularly for use as an antibiotic, or in anticancer treatment.
5 Claims, 5 Drawing Sheets, and 7 Figures


CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is the U.S. national stage application of International Patent Application No. PCT/GB2011/052006, filed Oct. 17, 2011, which claims priority to United Kingdom Application No. 1017450.6, filed Oct. 15, 2010, the disclosures of each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention relates to methods of glycosylating aminocoumarins, novel glycosylated aminocoumarins obtained by said methods, and novel uses of said aminocoumarins in therapy.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Aminocoumarin antibiotics such as Novobiocin, Coumermycin A1 and Clorobiocin act as bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitors and also possess anticancer activity by binding to the HSP90 chaperone. The 3-amino-4,7-dihydrocoumarin ring is the core moiety present in all of these antibiotics. They bind with high affinity to the GyrB subunit of the DNA gyrase enzyme. The usefulness of aminocoumarins is limited by poor water solubility and poor oral absorption, mainly due to the hydrophobic nature of these antibiotics.
[0004] Glycosyltransferase (GT) catalyses the transfer of sugar moieties from active donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules forming glycosidic bond. GTs are important tools in the synthesis of drugs. An increasing appreciation of carbohydrates as components of natural products has uncovered new opportunities in carbohydrate-based drug design. The exact identity and pattern of glycosyl moieties can influence pharmacology/pharmacokinetics, invoke biological specificity at the molecular/tissue/organism level and even define the precise mechanism of action.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0005] In a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of glycosylating an aminocoumarin compound comprising conjugating a sugar to the 4′-OH position of the core of the aminocoumarin compound.
[0006] In a second aspect of the invention, there is provided an aminocoumarin compound glycosylated at the 4′-OH position of the core of the aminocoumarin compound. Further aspects of this invention provide this compound for use in therapy, more particularly for use as an antibiotic, or in anticancer treatment.
[0007] We have shown that glycosylation can improve anticancer activity, and can alter the antibacterial activity (e.g. convert an agent from bacteriostatic to bactericidal).
[0008] Furthermore, glycosylation advantageously improves aspects of the amino-coumarins compounds such as their toxicity, resistance, solubility and stability.
[0009] WO 2006/003456 discloses methods of attaching a sugar to a substrate comprising contacting the substrate with a macrolide glycoyltransferase enzyme in the presence of a sugar donor. The substrate may be a macrolide antibiotic or coumarin. Antibiotics are specifically mentioned in claim 12. However, macrolide enzymes will not conjugate a sugar at the 4′-OH position of an aminocoumarin. This is evidenced by Yang et al in J. Am, Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 9336-9337, and the supporting information. Compounds 45 and 46 are novobiocin and coumermycin A1 respectively. Pages 57-58, FIGS. 11a, 11b and 11c demonstrate the activities of MGTs against different acceptors. All of the plates with compounds 45 and 46 were red in colour, indicating that none of the MGTs could act on these compounds.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES

[0010] FIG. 1 shows the structures of novobiocin, clorobiocin and coumermycin A1;
[0011] FIG. 2 shows the enzymatic reaction with novobiocin;
[0012] FIG. 3 shows glycosyl_novobiocins, with both glucosyl and galactosyl modifications, synthesised in four steps;
[0013] FIG. 4 shows the IC50 data from Table 1 (Nov=Novobiocin, Gal_Nov=Galactosyl_Novobiocin, Glc_Nov=Glucosyl_Novobiocin);
[0014] FIG. 5 shows the dose-response curves obtained for the tested compounds in a panel of human cancer cell lines after 24 hours of continuous exposure;
[0015] FIG. 6 shows the results of the MIC test, generated from the M.I.C. data of novobiocin and galactosyl_novobiocin against selected microorganisms; and
[0016] FIG. 7 shows the results of the tests for the influence of polyethylenimine (PEI) and plasmids expressing β-glucosidase on the activities of novobiocin and glycosyl_novobiocins against E-coli.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SEQUENCE LISTING

[0017] SEQ ID NO 1 is UGT78D2 (DNA)
[0018] SEQ ID NO 2 is UGT78D2 (amino acid)
[0019] SEQ ID NO 3 is UGT71B1 (DNA)
[0020] SEQ ID NO 4 is UGT71B1 (amino acid)
[0021] SEQ ID NO 5 is UGT71B8 (DNA)
[0022] SEQ ID NO 6 is UGT71B8 (amino acid)
[0023] SEQ ID NO 7 is UGT88A1 (DNA)
[0024] SEQ ID NO 8 is UGT88A1 (amino acid)
[0025] SEQ ID NO 9 is UGT73C6 (DNA)
[0026] SEQ ID NO 10 is UGT73C6 (amino acid)
[0027] SEQ ID NO 11 is UGT73C5 (DNA)
[0028] SEQ ID NO 12 is UGT73C5 (amino acid)
[0029] SEQ ID NO 13 is UGT73C1 (DNA)
[0030] SEQ ID NO 14 is UGT73C1 (amino acid)
[0031] SEQ ID NO 15 is UGT76E1 (DNA)
[0032] SEQ ID NO 16 is UGT76E1 (amino acid)
[0033] SEQ ID NO 17 is UGT73B3 (DNA)
[0034] SEQ ID NO 18 is UGT73B3 (amino acid)
[0035] SEQ ID NO 19 is UGT73B4 (DNA)
[0036] SEQ ID NO 20 is UGT73B4 (amino acid)
[0037] SEQ ID NO 21 is 20n10 (DNA)
[0038] SEQ ID NO 22 is 20n10 (amino acid)
[0039] SEQ ID NO 23 is UGT76E4 (DNA)
[0040] SEQ ID NO 24 is UGT76E4 (amino acid)
[0041] SEQ ID NO 25 is UGT76E3 (DNA)
[0042] SEQ ID NO 26 is UGT76E3 (amino acid)

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION

[0043] In the method according to the first aspect of this invention, a chemical or an enzymatic conjugation reaction may occur. The reaction is glycosylation, i.e. addition of a sugar moiety to the aminocoumarin. Enzymes particularly useful in the invention include plant glycosyltransferases and, in particular the UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), for instance from Arabidopsis thaliana or Oat. UGTs in this family from groups E, D, F and H are particularly preferred. Sugar donors such as UDP-glucose may be used. The use of α-UDPglucose is particularly preferred. Suitable GTs include UGT78D2, 71B8, 71B1, 88A1, 73C5, 73C6, 73C1, 73B3, 73B4, 76E1, 76E4 and 76E3 from Arabidopsis Thaliana and 20n10 from Oat. Glycosyltransferases from Arabidopsis are described in Genome Biol. Vol 2 No 2, pp 3004.1-3004.6, 2001 and Glycobiology Vol 13 No 3, pp 139-145, 2003. Those from oat are described in PNAS, May 25, 2004, Vol. 101, No. 21 8233-8238.
[0044] The enzymatic method of the invention is carried out using a plant glycosyltransferase. These enzymes catalyze the addition of glycosyl group from a UDP-sugar to an aminocoumarin at the 4′-OH position. Suitable enzymes include, but are not limited those expressed in E. Coli.
[0045] Plant enzymes in accordance with the invention include the polypeptides shown in SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26 and variants thereof.
[0046] A variant is an enzyme having an amino acid sequence which varies from that of UGT78D2 (SEQ ID NOs 2), 71B8 (SEQ ID NOs 4), 71B1 (SEQ ID NOs 6), 88A1 (SEQ ID NOs 8), 73C6 (SEQ ID NOs 10), 73C5 (SEQ ID NOs 12), 73C1 (SEQ ID NOs 14), 73B3 (SEQ ID NOs 16), 73B4 (SEQ ID NOs 18), 76E1 (SEQ ID NOs 20), 76E4 (SEQ ID NO 24) or 76E3 (SEQ ID NO 26) from Arabidopsis Thaliana and 20n10 (SEQ ID NOs 22) from Oat.
[0047] A variant of any of SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26 may be a naturally occurring variant which is expressed by organism. Such variants may be identified by looking for aminocoumarin activity in those strains which have a sequence which is highly conserved compared to any of the SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26. Such proteins may be identified by analysis of the polynucleotide encoding such a protein isolated from another organism, for example, by carrying out the polymerase chain reaction using primers derived from portions of any of SEQ ID NOs: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23 or 25.
[0048] Variants of any of SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26 include sequences which vary from SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26 but are not necessarily naturally occurring plant GTs. Over the entire length of the amino acid sequence of any of SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26. A variant will preferably be at least 35% homologous to that sequence based on amino acid identity. More preferably, the polypeptide may be at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80% or at least 90% and more preferably at least 95%, 97% or 99% homologous based on amino acid identity to the amino acid sequence of any of SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26, over the entire sequence. There may be at least 80%, for example at least 85%, 90%, 95% amino acid identity over a stretch of 40 or more, for example 60, 100 or 120 or more, contiguous amino acids (“hard homology”).
[0049] Amino acid substitutions may be made to the amino acid sequence of any of SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26, for example up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, or 30 substitutions. Conservative substitutions may be made, for example, according to the following table. Amino acids in the same block in the second column and preferably in the same line in the third column may be substituted for each other:
[0050] 
[00001] [TABLE-US-00001]
   
    NON-AROMATIC   Non-polar   G A P
        I L V
      Polar-uncharged   C S T M
        N Q
      Polar-charged   D E
        H K R
    AROMATIC     H F W Y
   
[0051] One or more amino acid residues of the amono acid sequence of any of SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26 may alternatively or additionally be deleted. Up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30 residues may be deleted, or more. Variants of any of SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26 include fragments of those sequences. Such fragments retain aminocoumarin activity. Fragments may be at least 100, 200, 250, 300, 350 or 400 amino acids in length. Such fragments may be used to produce chimeric enzymes as described in more detail below. A fragment preferably comprises the catalytic domain of any of SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26.
[0052] Variants of any of SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26 include chimeric proteins comprising fragments or proteins of any SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26.
[0053] One or more amino acids may be alternatively or additionally added to the polypeptides described above. An extension may be provided at the N-terminus or C-terminus of the amino acid sequence of any of SEQ ID NOs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 or 26 or polypeptide variant or fragment thereof. The extension may be quite short, for example, from 1 to 10 amino acids in length. Alternatively, the extension may be longer, for example up to 50 or 100 amino acids. A carrier protein may be fused to an amino acid sequence according to the invention.
[0054] Preferred variants (mutants) of plant glycosyl transferases according to the invention are:

73C5D397E (+)

73C6D397E (+)

73C1D393E (−)

73B4Q374H (−)

73B3Q397H (−)

37C1Q394H (−)

88A1Q384H (+)

71B8Q390H (−)

76E4Q375H (−)

73C1D393EQ394H (+)

[0055] The nomenclature used to label the mutants is as follows: 73C5D397E means that the wild type enzyme is UGT73C5 (the sequence for which is known, and provided herein), wherein the amino acid D (aspartic acid) has been replaced by E (glutamic acid) at position 397.
[0056] Those mutants followed by a “(+)” are particularly preferred as, not only can they use UDP-glucose as a donor, but they can additional use UDP-galactose as a donor.
[0057] The mutants are preferably synthesised using site-directed mutagenesis. Such procedures are known to the person skilled in the art.
[0058] Generally, the aminocoumarin compounds used in this invention have the following formula:
[0059]  [see pdf for image]
R1, R3 and R4 are each independently selected from H, OH, C1-20 alkyl, C1-20 alkenyl, amino, or a halogen;
R2 is an optionally substituted sugar moiety;
R5 is selected from aryl, heteroaryl, C1-20 alkyl, C1-20 alkenyl, H, or C(═O)R6,
wherein R6 is selected from the same groups as R5 or is halo, amino, or OH.
[0060] The aminocoumarin compounds preferably have the following core:
[0061]  [see pdf for image]
In this formula, R1 is an optionally substituted C1-20 alkyl group, hydroxyl, amino or halo group. Preferably, R1 is methyl, or Cl. If R1 is a hydroxyl group, it may be protected with a hydroxyl protecting group.
[0062] Preferred amino coumarins have general formula:
[0063]  [see pdf for image]
In this formula, A is generally a sugar moiety, which may be optionally substituted, and B is generally optionally substituted aryl, heteroaryl, a C1-20 alkyl or C1-20 alkenyl. Any aryl or heteroaryl rings may be monocyclic or multi-cyclic. R1 is an optionally substituted C1-20 alkyl group, hydroxyl, amino or halo group. Preferably, R1 is methyl or Cl.
[0064] Suitable optional substituents for the compounds in this invention include any of the groups listed above for the A, R1 and B groups, carboxy and ester groups. Other possible substituents include C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C3 hydroxyalkyl, C1-C3 alkoxy, C1-C3 haloalkoxy, amino, C1-C3 mono alkylamino, C1-C3 bis alkylamino, C1-C3 acylamino, C1-C3 aminoalkyl, mono (C1-C3 alkyl) amino C1-C3 alkyl, bis(C1-C3 alkyl) amino C1-C3 alkyl, C1-C3-acylamino, C1-C3 alkyl sulfonylamino, halo, nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carboxy, C1-C3 alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, mono C1-C3 alkyl aminocarbonyl, bis C1-C3 alkyl aminocarbonyl, —SO3H, C1-C3 alkylsulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, mono C1-C3 alkyl aminosulfonyl and bis C1-C3-alkyl aminosulfonyl.
[0065] Novobiocin, Clorobiocin and Coumermycin A1 are the three most important aminocoumarin antibiotics produced from various Streptomyces strains. These aminocoumarins share a 3-amino-4,7-dihydroxycoumarin moiety and are shown in FIG. 1. Novobiocin (FIG. 1-a) has a 4-hydroxybenzoate moiety and a deoxy sugar, i.e. a noviose moiety which is essential for biological activity whereas Coumermycin A1 (FIG. 1-c) contains two coumarin noviose moieties attached together by 3-methyl-2,4-dicarboxylpyrrole and also a 5-methyl-2-pyrrolecarbonyl substitution on the noviose moieties. The Novobiocin chemical structure can be divided into three distinct entities: 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxybenzoyl moiety (ring A), a 3-amino-4,7-dihydroxy-coumarin moiety (ring B) substituted with a methyl group and finally a substituted deoxysugar (ring C) with its 3″-OH esterified with carbamoyl group The sub-entity consisting of noviose plus coumarin moiety is referred to as novenamine; the sub entity consisting of a coumarin plus the benzoic acid derivative is referred to as novobiocic acid.
[0066] Typically, in this invention, coumermycin A1 is enzymatically glycosylated, and novobiocin can be both chemically and enzymatically glycosylated.
[0067] The enzymatic reaction with novobiocin is shown in FIG. 2, together with the LC/MS specimen of biocatalysis of novobiocin using GT.
[0068] Suitable sugars for use in this invention include but are not limited to monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides, substances derived from the monosaccharides by oxidation of one or more terminal groups to carboxylic acid and substrates derived from monosaccharides by replacement of one or more hydroxyl groups by a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a thiol group or similar heteroatomic groups.
[0069] In one embodiment, the sugar is a monosaccharide. Monosaccharides are polyhydroxy aldehydes (H—(CHOH)n)—CHO) or polyhydroxyl ketones (H—(CHOH)n—CO—(CHOH)m—H) with three (triose), four (terose), five (pentose), six (hexose), seven (heptose) or more carbon atoms. The monosaccharide may have a terminal, i.e. aldehydic, (potential) carbonyl group (aldose) or a nonterminal, i.e. ketonic, (potential) carbonyl group (ketose). The monosaccharides have more than one (potential) carbonyl group, i.e. may be a daildose, diketose or aldoketose. A potential carbonyl group is a hemiacetal group that arises from the formation of a ring structure.
[0070] The monosaccharide may form a ring structure and be a cyclic hemiacetal or hemiketal. Cyclic forms include oxiroses (C3), Oxetoses (C4), furanoses (C5) pyranoses (C6), septanoses (C7) and octanoses (C8). The position at which the ring closes may vary.
[0071] Monosaccharides may also be modified at various positions, such modifications include, but are not limited to, substitution of an alcoholic hydroxyl group with hydrogen (deoxy sugar), substitution of an alcoholic hydroxyl group or a ring oxygen with an amino group (amino sugar), substitution of a hydroxyl by thiol or a ring oxygen with sulphur (thiosugar), substitution with selenium (selenosugar), substitution of a ring carbon with nitrogen (azasugar), substation of a aldehydic group with a carboxyl group (aldonic acid), substitution of a carbonyl group with an alcoholic group (aldonic acid or ketoaldonic acid) and oxidizing an aldoxe or aldose derivative to a carboxyl group (uronic acid).
[0072] Suitable monosaccharides include, but are not limited to, arabinose, ribose, ribulose, xylose, xyulose, lyxose, allose, altrose, glucose (Glc), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), N-acetylgalacotosamine (GalNAc), fructose (Frc), galactose (Gal), fucose (Fuc), gulose, idose, mannose (Man), sorbose, talose, tagatose, sialic acid, glucuronoic acid and iduronic acid. Preferred monosaccharides are glucose, galactose and mannose. More preferred monosaccharides are glucose and galactose. Preferred sugar donors for enzymatic reactions include, but a not limited to, UDPGlc, UDPGal, UDPGlcNAc, GDPMan, UDPXyl, UDP5S-Glc, UDPMan. These monosaccharides and sugar donors may be modified as set forth above.
[0073] In another embodiment, the sugars comprise a disaccharide. Disaccharides may be derived from the combination of any two of the monosaccharides described above. Suitable disaccharides include, but a not limited to, sucrose (Suc), lactose (Lac), maltose (Mal), isomaltose (Isomal), trehalose (Tre) and cellobiose.
[0074] In another embodiment, the sugar donor comprises a polysaccharide. Polysaccharides are derived from the combination of three or more (for example, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200 or more) monosaccharide units. Suitable polysaccharides include, but are not limited to starch, amylase, amylopectin, glycogen, insulin, cellulose, chitin, glycosaminoglycans, agar, carrageenan, pectin, xantham gum and glucomannan.
[0075] Further examples of suitable sugars are given in WO 2006/003456.
[0076] When the sugar is chemically conjugated to the aminocoumarin Helferich conditions may be used (ie. using Hg(CN)2 as a catalyst). A glycosyl halide may be used as a glycosyl donor. Glycosyl bromides are preferred.
[0077] Chemical glycosylation of novobiocin is illustrated in FIG. 3, which shows glycosyl-novobiocins, with both glucosyl and galactosyl modifications, synthesised in four steps.
[0078] A Lewis acid may be used to promote glycosylation. 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl bromide may be used, with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl bromide as glycosyl donor. Hg(CN)2 used as a catalyst, has been found to promote the 1,2-trans-glycosylation of aminocoumarin novobiocin with THF as solvent both at room temperature and below zero degrees in a stereo-controlled manner with reasonable high yields.
[0079] Reactive functional groups on the glycosyl donor/acceptor can be protected to provide regio-selectivity. Protecting groups on both the glycosyl donor/acceptor can affect reactivity and yield of the glycosylation reaction. Electron withdrawing groups such as acetyl and benzoyl reduce the reactivity of the donor or acceptor, and are therefore referred to as “disarming groups” whereas electron donating groups such as benzyl increase the reactivity of the donor or acceptor, and therefore referred to as “arming groups”.
[0080] With regard to Novobiocin in a particular, it is known that this is a dibasic acid with pKa values of 4.3 and 9.1. These values ensure that the —OH group on the coumarin ring (Ring B) is more reactive than the —OH on benzoic acid derivative (Ring A). For this reason the hydroxyl ring B is thermodynamically more likely to undergo glycosylation than the hydroxyl on ring A.
[0081] However, even with Novobiocin, it is still necessary to activate the glycosyl donor. Before a sugar molecule can be coupled to aglycone during glycosylation it must be activated into a glycosyl donor. This can be done by protecting —OH groups on the sugar molecule with acetyl groups and then brominating the anomeric carbon. Alternative protecting group chemistries can be used, for instance, methyl groups, and benzoyl groups. However, acetyl groups are preferred as acetyl can easily be introduced and removed from molecules. Acetyl groups are participating groups, so can help enhance the stereo-selectivity during the formation of a glycosidic bond. Furthermore, acetyl groups have good solubility in organic solvents and can easily be crystallized.
[0082] The aminocoumarins compounds of the invention may be used in therapy, to treat the same conditions as the un-conjugated compounds. For instance, the aminocoumarins compounds may be used as antibiotics to treat bacterial infections, or in anticancer treatment. Suitable formulations of these compounds are known to those skilled in the art.
[0083] The invention will now be illustrated by the following Examples.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Biocatalysis

[0084] Glucosyl_novobiocin was isolated from UGT73C5 catalyzed reaction using an HPLC with the following procedure:

Solvent A: 99.9% H2O+0.1% formic acid

Solvent B: 99.9% MeOH+0.1% Formic acid

0-1 minutes: 1% B; 1-3 minutes: 50% B, 3-4 minutes: 50% B, 4-14 minutes: 95% B, 14-19 minutes: 95% B, 19-20 minutes: 1% B. Flow rate, 1.5 mL/min, Column: Agilent, ElipseXDB-C18, 5 μM. Retention time: 14.5 min.

[0085] A LC/MS spectrum of biocatalysis of novobiocin using GT was produced (see FIG. 2). In addition MSn spectra were produced and these indicated the glycosylation position. A peak was present at 773 which indicated the formation of glucosylated Novobiocin by glycosyltransferase. The glycosylation position can be determined by MSn. The MS4 (773→730→556→368, 394) indicates the formation of peak at 368 which provides proof of the structure. The structure was further confirmed by NMR.

Example 2

Chemical Glycosylation of Novobiocin

[0086] Glycosyl_novobiocins, with both glucosyl and galactosyl modifications, have been synthesized in four steps. Higher yield and pure stereochemistry products have been obtained via Helferish coupling (see FIG. 3). These steps are detailed below:

Synthesis of β-4′-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-acetyl glucosyl) Novobiocin

[0087]  [see pdf for image]

α-1-Bromine-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-D-glucose

[0088] (285 mg, 0.69 mmol) was added to Novobiocin (1, 400 mg, 0.63 mmol), Hg(CN)2 (159 mg, 0.17 mmol) 4 Å molecular sieve and THF (20 mL) and stirred for 7 days at 0° C. and covered with foil. Solid was removed and disposed carefully. Organic was wash with KI (2M, 2*20 mL), saturated NaHCO3 (2*10 mL) and dried with MgSO4. Organic solvent was removed under reduced pressure after filtration. Residue was purified by flash column (Ethyl acetate: Petroleum Ether: MeOH 16:4:1 v/v/v, Rf=0.3) gave a white powered (520 mg, yield 87%). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): δ=7.81 (1H, d, J=2.0 Hz, H3), 7.77 (1H, dd, J=2.4, 8.4 Hz, H5′), 7.71 (1H, d, J=9.6 Hz, H7), 7.27 (1H, d, J=9.2 Hz, H6′), 6.90 (1H, d, J=8.4 Hz, H6), 5.63 (1H, d, J=3.2 Hz, H1″), 5.60 (1H, d, J=7.6 Hz, H1′″), 5.39 (1H, m, H3″), 5.36 (1H, m, H9), 5.30 (1H, t, J=8.0 Hz, H3′″), 5.26 (1H, t, J=9.2 Hz, H2′″), 5.12 (1H, t, J=9.2 Hz, H4′″), 4.27 (1H, t, J=2.5 Hz, H2″), 4.08 (1H, dd, J=4.1, 13.2 Hz, H6′″), 3.78 (1H, dd, J=2.4, 12.4 Hz, H6′″), 3.63 (1H, m, H5′″), 3.61 (1H, m, H4″), 3.58 (3H, s, H8″), 3.33 (2H, m, H8), 2.34 (3H, s, H11′), 1.99 (3H, s, CH3CO), 1.98 (3H, s, CH3CO), 1.92 (3H, s, CH3CO), 1.89 (3H, s, CH3CO), 1.78 (6H, s, H11, H12), 1.32 (3H, s, H6″), 1.17 (3H, s, H7″); 13CNMR (125 MHz, CD3OD): δ=171.5 (4*CH3CO), 170.0 (C1), 162.9 (Ca), 161.0 (C2′), 160.8 (C4′), 159.5 (C9′), 159.1 (C2), 152.2 (C7′), 133.8 (C10), 130.9 (C3), 130.0 (C5), 128.6 (C5′), 125.1 (C4), 123.6 (C7), 123.3 (C9), 115.7 (C6), 115.3 (C8′), 112.2 (C10′), 111.9 (C6′), 108.9 (C3′) 101.2 (C1′″), 100.2 (C1″), 82.6 (C4″), 80.2 (C5″), 73.9 (C5′″), 73.6 (C2′″), 73.0 (C3′″), 72.8 (C3″), 70.9 (C2″), 69.1 (C4′″), 62.0 (C8″), 61.3 (C6′″), 29.3 (C8), 29.1 (C6″), 26.1 (C11), 23.3 (C7″), 20.6 (4*CH3CO), 18.1 (C12), 8.7 (C11′). HMBC in dicated that H1′″ coupled to C4′. HRMS m/z 943.3335 ([M+H+]+) (Calc. 943.3348).

Synthesis of β-4′-O-glucosyl Novobiocin (2)

[0089]  [see pdf for image]

β-4′-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-acetyl glucosyl)

[0090] Novobiocin (94 mg, 0.1 mmol) were dissolved in anhydrous MeOH (10 mL). NaOMe (1 mg, 0.02 mmol) was added and stirred for 1 minute at room temperature. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure and purified by HPLC as above gave white power (50 mg, 0.06 mmol, with 65% yield). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): δ=7.79 (1H, d, J=9.1 Hz, H5′), 7.76 (1H, s, H3), 7.74 (1H, d, J=7.8 Hz, H7), 7.58 (1H, d, J=9.0 Hz, H6′), 7.16 (1H, d, J=9.6 Hz, H6), 5.51 (1H, d, J=2.7 Hz, H1″), 5.31 (1H, t, J=6.6 Hz, H9), 5.26 (1H, dd, J=3.3, 9.9 Hz, H3″), 4.99 (1H, d, J=8.7 Hz, H1′″), 4.17 (1H, t, J=2.7 Hz, H2″), 3.85 (1H, dd, J=2.1, 11.7 Hz, H6′″), 3.65 (1H, dd, J=5.3, 12.0 Hz, H6′″), 3.52 (1H, m, H5′″), 3.52 (1H, m, H4′″), 3.50 (1H, m, H4′″), 3.49 (3H, s, H8″), 3.48 (1H, m, H3′″), 3.42 (1H, m, H2′″), 3.24 (2H, m, H8), 2.25 (3H, s, H11′), 1.68 (6H, s, H11, H12), 1.28 (3H, s, H6″), 1.09 (3H, s, H7″); 13CNMR (125 MHz, CD3OD): δ=169.0 (C1), 160.1 (Ca), 159.8 (C2′), 159.3 (C4′), 158.8 (C2), 157.7 (C9′), 151.6 (C7′), 132.6 (C10), 132.1 (C5), 129.5 (C4), 129.1 (C3), 128.9 (C6′), 126.8 (C5′), 122.9 (C9), 122.2 (C7), 115.1 (C6), 114.1 (C8′), 113.1 (C10′), 109.3 (C3′) 100.7 (C1′″), 99.2 (C1″), 81.2 (C4″), 78.1 (C5″), 76.9 (C3′″), 76.4 (C4′″), 72.5 (C3″), 69.9 (C2″), 69.8 (C2′″), 60.9 (C8″), 60.9 (C6′″), 60.8 (C5′″), 28.1 (C8), 28.0 (C7″), 24.8 (C11), 21.8 (C6″), 16.8 (C12), 7.6 (C11′). HMBC in dicated that H1′″ coupled to C4′. HRMS m/z 797.2787 ([M+Na+]+) (Calc. 797.2745).

Synthesis of β-4′-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-acetyl galactosyl) Novobiocin

[0091]  [see pdf for image]

α-1-Bromine-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-D-galactose

[0092] (285 mg, 0.69 mmol) was added to Novobiocin (1, 400 mg, 0.63 mmol), Hg(CN)2 (159 mg, 0.17 mmol) 4 Å molecular sieve and THF (20 mL) and stirred for 7 days at 0° C. and covered with foil. Solid was removed and disposed carefully. Organic was wash with KI (2M, 2*20 mL), saturated NaHCO3 (2*10 mL) and dried with MgSO4. Organic solvent was removed under reduced pressure after filtration. Residue was purified by flash column (Ethyl acetate: Petroleum Ether: MeOH 16:4:1 v/v/v, Rf=0.3) gave a white powered (250 mg, yield 42%). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): δ=7.68 (1H, d, J=1.8 Hz, H3), 7.65 (1H, dd, J=1.4, 7.8 Hz, H5′), 7.55 (1H, d, J=9.6 Hz, H7), 7.13 (1H, d, J=8.7 Hz, H6′), 6.76 (1H, d, J=8.6 Hz, H6), 5.50 (1H, d, J=2.5 Hz, H1″), 5.45 (1H, d, J=8.1 Hz, H1′″), 5.33 (1H, dd, J=7.9, 10.3 Hz, H2′″), 5.24 (1H, m, H3″), 5.21 (1H, m, H4′″), 5.22 (1H, m, H9), 5.01 (1H, dd, J=3.3, 10.3 Hz, H3′″), 4.14 (1H, t, J=2.5 Hz, H2″), 3.89 (1H, dd, J=7.6, 10.3 Hz, H6′″), 3.72 (1H, m, H5′″), 3.56 (1H, J=5.1, 10.5 Hz, H6′″), 3.47 (1H, m, H4″), 3.45 (3H, s, H8″), 3.20 (2H, m, H8), 2.21 (3H, s, H11′), 2.02 (3H, s, CH3CO), 1.83 (3H, s, CH3CO), 1.75 (3H, s, CH3CO), 1.71 (3H, s, CH3CO), 1.63 (6H, s, H11, H12), 1.25 (3H, s, H6″), 1.05 (3H, s, H7″); 13CNMR (125 MHz, CD3OD): δ=171.5 (4*CH3CO), 170.0 (C1), 163.0 (Ca), 161.1 (C2′), 160.8 (C4′), 159.5 (C9′), 159.1 (C2), 152.2 (C7′), 133.7 (C10), 130.9 (C3), 130.1 (C5), 128.5 (C5′), 125.0 (C4), 123.4 (C7), 123.3 (C9), 115.7 (C6), 115.3 (C8′), 112.1 (C10′), 111.8 (C6′), 108.5 (C3′) 101.8 (C1′″), 100.2 (C1″), 82.6 (C4″), 80.1 (C5″), 73.0 (C4′″), 72.7 (C5′″), 72.0 (C3′″), 70.8 (C2″), 70.3 (C2′″), 68.0 (C3″), 62.0 (C8″), 61.3 (C6′″), 29.3 (C8), 29.0 (C6″), 26.0 (C11), 23.3 (C7″), 20.5 (4*CH3CO), 18.0 (C12), 8.7 (C11′). HMBC in dicated that H1′″coupled to C4′. HRMS m/z 943.3366 ([M+H+]+) (Calc. 943.3348).

Synthesis of β-4′-O-galactosyl Novobiocin (3)

[0093]  [see pdf for image]

β-4′-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-acetyl galactosyl) Novobiocin

[0094] (94 mg, 0.1 mmol) were dissolved in anhydrous MeOH (10 mL). NaOMe (1 mg, 0.02 mmol) was added and stirred for 1 minute at room temperature. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure and purified by HPLC as above gave white power (50 mg, 0.06 mmol, with 65% yield). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): δ=7.71 (1H, d, J=8.7 Hz, H5′), 7.67 (1H, d, J=1.8 Hz, H3), 7.62 (1H, dd, J=2.3, 8.4 Hz, H7), 7.02 (1H, d, J=8.6 Hz, H6′), 6.71 (1H, d, J=8.3 Hz, H6), 5.45 (1H, d, J=2.3 Hz, H1″), 5.23 (1H, m, H9), 5.25 (1H, m, H3″), 5.13 (1H, s, H1′″), 4.13 (1H, t, J=2.6 Hz, H2″), 4.23 (1H, m, H6′″), 3.43 (1H, m, H6′″), 4.20 (1H, t, J=4.3 Hz, H5′″), 3.50 (1H, m, H4″), 3.84 (1H, t, J=4.5 Hz, H4′″), 3.46 (3H, s, H8″), 3.73 (1H, m, H3′″), 3.55 (1H, m, H2′″), 3.22 (2H, m, H8), 2.21 (3H, s, H11′), 1.64 (6H, s, H11, H12), 1.25 (3H, s, H6″), 1.07 (3H, s, H7″); 13CNMR (125 MHz, CD3OD): δ=170.2 (C1), 159.6 (Ca), 159.3 (C2′), 158.3 (C4′), 158.1 (C2), 155.9 (C9′), 153.3 (C7′), 133.1 (C10), 130.7 (C5), 124.6 (C4), 129.1 (C3), 110.4 (C6′), 123.3 (C5′), 123.9 (C9), 127.0 (C7), 115.3 (C6), 114.5 (C8′), 114.1 (C10′), 108.5 (C3′) 102.8 (C1′″), 99.9 (C1″), 82.3 (C4″), 79.8 (C5″), 72.5 (C3′″), 65.9 (C4′″), 71.7 (C3″), 71.0 (C2″), 73.3 (C2′″), 62.2 (C8″), 64.5 (C6′″), 76.1 (C5′″), 29.0 (C8), 29.3 (C7″), 26.0 (C11), 22.3 (C6″), 17.9 (C12), 8.8 (C11′). HMBC indicated that H1′″ coupled to C4′. HRMS m/z 797.2787 ([M+Na+]+) (Calc. 797.2745).

Example 3

Anti-Proliferative Activity

[0095] The anti-proliferative activities of Novobiocin and its derivatives were evaluated using the MTT assay, (Mosmann et al, J. Immunol. Methods 1983, 65 (1-2), 55-63), which measures the relative inhibition of cell proliferation in cells exposed to the compounds, compared to untreated controls. The cell number is estimated colorimetrically based on the transformation of the yellow MTT reagent (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) to a purple formazan dye by mitochondrial enzymes.
[0096] Human cell lines derived from ovarian cancer (A2780, ECACC 93112519), lung cancer (A549, ATCC CCL-185), breast cancer (MCF7, ATCC HTB-22), pancreatic cancer (MiaPaCa2, ATCC CRL-1420) and brain cancer (U87MG, ATCC HTB-14), were obtained from the European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC, Salisbury, UK). The A2780, A549, MCF7 and MiaPaCa2 cells were grown in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Biosera, UK), 1% L-glutamine and 1% non-essential aminoacids (Gibco, Invitrogen, USA). U87MG cells were grown in Minimal essential medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Biosera, UK), 1% L-glutamine, 1% non-essential aminoacids and 1% Sodium piruvate (Gibco, Invitrogen, USA). Cells were grown in a 5% CO2, 95% humidity incubator. In order to determine the IC50 of the compounds, i.e. the concentration of compound that leads to a 50% inhibition of cell growth, the cells were seeded in 96 well plates in a volume of 100 μl of medium per well to reach 50-60% confluence on the day of the experiment. The compounds were dissolved in methanol at a maximum concentration of 20 mM, and serial decimal dilutions were prepared in methanol. For each compound and each concentration, 5 μl of the methanol solution were added over the cells, growing in 100 μl of cell culture medium per well (n=6). After 24 h of continuous drug exposure, the growth inhibition was determined using the MTT assay (Lancaster Synthesis Ltd, UK). The amount of dye was quantified spectrophotometrically as absorbance at λ=570 nm (ELx808, Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc.). The IC50 values were calculated by a dose-response analysis using the Origin 6.0® software. The values are given in Table 1 below.
[0097] 
[00002] [TABLE-US-00002]
  TABLE 1
 
IC50 values
  IC50/mM   A2780   A549   MCF7   U87MG   MiaPaCa2
 
  Novobiocin   0.19   >1   >1   0.58   0.32
  Galactosyl_Novobiocin   0.10   0.10   0.04   0.03   0.03
  Glucosyl_Novobiocin   0.13   0.06   0.01   0.02   0.01
 
[0098] The data are illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5. FIG. 4 shows the IC50 data from Table 1 (Nov=Novobiocin, Gal-Nov=Galactosyl Novobiocin, Glc-Nov=Glucosyl Novobiocin. FIG. 5 shows the dose-response curves obtained for the tested compounds in a panel of human cancer cell lines after 24 hours of continuous exposure.

Example 4

DNA Gyrase Assay

[0099] The DNA gyrase assay was performed according to the supplier procedure using novobiocin, glucosyl-novobiocin and galactosyl-novobiocin as inhibitors.
[0100] DNA Gyrase (1U) is incubated with relaxed pBR322 (0.5 μg) in a reaction volume of 30 μL at 37□C for 1 hr in TRIS-HCl (35 mM, pH 7.5), KCl (24 Mm), MgCl2 (4 mM), DTT (2 mM), spermidine (1.8 mM), ATP (1 mM), glycerol (6.5%, w/v), albumin (0.1 mg/mL).
[0101] After incubation the mixture was deproteinized with equal volumes of chloroformisoamyl alcohol (24:1) and the end point was determined by separating relaxed and supertwisted plasmid pBR322DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis (0.8% agarose with TBE buffer), running without Ethidium Bromide. After the run the gel is soaked, in tank buffer containing Ethidium Bromide, for 1 and half hours.
[0102] The MIC for novobiocin is about 1 μM which is consistent with literature values. Both glucosyl-novobiocin and galactosyl-novobiocin performed in a similar fashion with MIC values of 3 μM.

Example 5

Activity of Novobiocin and Novobiocin Derivatives Against Escherichia coli

Method:

[0103] The MICs of novobiocin and novobiocin derivatives were determined by micro-broth dilution technique in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth and with an E. coli inoculum of 5×105 CFU/ml. Microtitre plates were incubated aerobically at 37° C. and read after one and four days. The concentration range tested was 128 to 0.5 μg/ml. A cell permeabilising agent, polyethylenimine (PEI) was used to assess the influence of cell membrane (and associated structures) as a barrier to novobiocin entry into the cell. Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (100 μM) was used to induce β-glycosidase and β-galactosidase expression from plasmids pSsβG and pBCSK, respectively. These enzymes can release the native drugs from the conjugates.
[0104] FIG. 6 illustrates the results of the MIC test, generated from the M.I.C. data of novobiocin and glucosyl-novobiocin against selected microorganisms. Strains with (+) indicate there are transferred galactosidase plasmids, (−) indicate no plasmids. Data to the left of the base are MIC in 1 day while those to the right of the base are 4 days results. MICs over maximum (512 μg/ml) are illustrated with the next level (1024 μg/ml) as there are some MICs at 512 μg/ml.
[0105] FIG. 7 illustrates the results of the tests for the influence of a plasmid expressing a β-glucosidase on the activities of novobiocin and novobiocin-Gal against E-coli. Compound 1 is novobiocin and 3 is galactosyl-novobiocin. X-axial indicates the drugs and conditions tested: −−: PEI (−), IPTG (−); −+: PEI (−), IPTG (+); +−: PEI (+), IPTG (−); ++: PEI (+), IPTG (+). Colour: data to the left of the figure are the results of novobiocin (1) while front left show the results from 1 day test and the back left results from 4 days test; data to the right of the figure are the results of galactosyl_novobiocin (3), while front right indicates result from 1 day test and far right from 4 days test. MICs over maximum (128 μg/ml) are illustrated with the next level (256 μg/ml) as there are some MICs at 128 μg/ml.

CONCLUSIONS

[0106] Glycosylated novobiocin has increased anticancer activity up to 100-fold against breast, brain, prostrate, lung and ovarian cancers. Glycosylation does not appear to influence binding to DNA gyrase.
[0107] In the presence of PEI, novobiocin exhibited increased activity (16-32 fold) against Escherichia coli. This was independent of whether β-galactosidase was produced or not and suggests that, in contrast to novobiocin, the outer membrane was not acting as an effective barrier against the galactosyl derivative. Differences in activities in the presence of PEI probably reflect variations in the mode of action between the native drug and galactosyl derivative. This is supported by the observation that, unlike the bacteriostatic agent novobiocin, prolonged incubation (up to 4 days) in the presence of galactosyl-novobiocin did not lead to re-growth at concentrations above the MIC, which may indicate a bactericidal mode of action.
[0108] Glycosyl_novobiocin (2) was less toxic than its precursor; an observation consistent with the glycoslation effect seen with other antimicrobial agents.

Example 6

[0109] A study was conducted with the aim of finding UGTs or UGT mutants, whihx can use UDP-galactose as a sugar donor for certain aminocoumarins.
[0110] A summary of the results is shown below:
[0111] Site directed mutagenesis was conducted in order to form a number of D to E and/or Q to H mutants. The following mutants were synthesised:

73C5D397E (+)

73C6D397E (+)

73C1D393E (−)

73B4Q374H (−)

73B3Q397H (−)

73C1Q394H (−)

88A1Q384H (+)

71B8Q390H (−)

76E4Q375H (−)

73C1D393EQ394H (+)

[0112] The symbol “+” means that the mutants could use UDP-Gal as new donor and “−” denotes a negative result.
[0113] The ability to use UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose as a donor for novobiocin was tested using mass spectrometry (by searching for a peak relating to the glycosyated novobiocin). It was found that all could use UDP-glucose as a donor. It was also found that those mutants marked with a “(+)” could use UDP-galactose as a donor.
(57)

Claims

1. An aminocoumarin compound glycosylated at the 4-OH position of the core of the aminocoumarin compound having the formula
[see pdf for image]
wherein R1, R3 and R4 are each independently selected from H, OH, C1-20 alkyl, C1-20 alkenyl, amino, or a halogen;
R2 is an optionally substituted sugar moiety;
R5 is selected from aryl, heteroaryl, C1-20 alkyl, C1-20 alkenyl, H, or C(═O)R6,
wherein R6 is selected from the same groups as R5 or is halo, amino, or OH; and
wherein X is a sugar selected from glucose and galactose.
2. An aminocoumarin compound according to claim 1 for use in therapy.
3. An aminocoumarin compound according to claim 2 for use as an antibiotic.
4. An aminocoumarin compound according to claim 2 for use in anticancer treatment.
5. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an aminocoumarin compound according to claim 1 and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.
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