Method To Reduce Stool Odor Of Companion Animals

  • Published: Sep 9, 2010
  • Earliest Priority: Nov 26 2003
  • Family: 43
  • Cited Works: 1
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  • Cites: 7
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AU 2004294986 B2
(12) STANDARD PATENT (11) Application No. AU 2004294986 B2 
(19) AUSTRALIAN PATENT OFFICE 
(54) Title 
Method to reduce stool odor of companion animals 
(51) International Patent Classification(s) 
A23K 1/16 (2006.01) A23K 1/18 (2006.01) 
A23K 1/175 (2006.01) A61L 9/013 (2006.01) 
(21) Application No: 2004294986 (22) Date of Filing: 2004.11.24 
(87) WIPO No: W005/053420 
(30) Priority Data 
(31) Number (32) Date (33) Country 
60/525,306 2003.11.26 US 
(43) Publication Date: 2005.06.16 
(44) Accepted Journal Date: 2010.09.09 
(71) Applicant(s) 
Hill's Pet Nutrition, Inc.  
(72) Inventor(s) 
Khoo, Christina;Gross, Kathy;Scherl, Dale 
(74) Agent / Attorney 
FB Rice & Co, Level 23 200 Queen Street, Melbourne, VIC, 3000 
(56) Related Art 
WO 98/56263 
AU 2003266730 
JP 2003-092998 
US 5405836 
WO 00/03606 
GIFFARD C, J. ET AL: "Administration of charcoal, Yucca schidigera and zinc acetate to reduce 
malodorous flatulence in dogs" JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN VETERINARY MEDICAL 
ASSOCIATION, vol. 218, no. 6,15 March 2001 
JP 2003-023973 
WO 01/17634

(12) INTERNATIONAL APPLICATION PUBLISHED UNDER THE PATENT COOPERATION TREATY (PCT) 
(19) World Intellectual Property 
Organization 1111111 1111111111111 I 11 11 11 11 11 ii1111li iili 
International Bureau|11111|111||| 11111 11111111 |11 11111111 111 |111 1111111 |||||111 
(43) International Publication Date (10) International Publication Number 
16 June 2005 (16.06.2005) PCT W O 2005/053420 A3 
(51) International Patent Classification 7: A23K 1/175, 1/18 (81) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of national protection available): AE, AG, AL, AM, 
(21) International Application Number: AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CI, CN, 
PCT/US2004/039795 CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, 
GB, GD, GE, GI, GM, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, 
KG, KP, KR, KZ, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LV, MA, MD, 
MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MZ, NA, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, 
24 November 2004 (24.11.2004) PH, PL, PT, RO, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SY, TJ, TM, 
TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, YU, ZA, ZM, 
(25) Filing Language: English ZW.  
(26) Publication Language: English (84) Designated States (unless otherwise indicated, for every 
kind of regional protection available): ARIPO (BW, GI, 
GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, (30) Priority Data: ZW), Eurasian (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM), 
60/525,306 26 November 2003 (26.11.2003) US European (AT, BE, BG, CI, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, 
FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, 
(71) Applicant (for all designated States except US): HILL'S SI, SK, TR), OAPI (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, 
PET NUTRITION, INC. [US/US]; 400 Southwest 8th GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG).  
Street, Topeka, KS 66603 (US).  
Published: 
(72) Inventors; and with international search report 
(75) Inventors/Applicants (for US only): KHOO, Christina before the expiration of the time limit for amending the 
[US/US]; 1100 Andover Street, Lawrence, KS 66049 (US). claims and to be republished in the event of receipt of 
GROSS, Kathy [US/US]; 3627 NW 94th Street, Topeka, amendments 
KS 66618 (US). SCHERL, Dale [US/US]; 4204 Crofton (88) Date of publication of the international search report: Court, Lawrence, KS 66049 (US). 4 August 2005 
(74) Agents: FORBES, James, C. et al.; Harness, Dickey & For two-letter codes and other abbreviations, refer to the "Guid
Pierce, P.L.C., 7700 Bonhomme, Suite 400, St. Louis, MO ance Notes on Codes and Abbreviations" appearing at the begin
63105 (US). ning of each regular issue of the PCT Gazette.  
(54) Title: METHOD TO REDUCE STOOL ODOR OF COMPANION ANIMALS 
(57) Abstract: A method is provided for reducing stool odor of a companion animal such as a cat or a dog. The method comprises 
causing the animal to ingest a composition comprising a stool odor reducing effective amount of a zinc ion source, for example zinc 
acetate.

WO 2005/053420 PCT/US2004/039795 
METHOD TO REDUCE STOOL ODOR OF COMPANION ANIMALS 
[0001] This application claims priority of U.S. provisional patent application Serial 
No. 60/525,306, filed November 26, 2003, which is incorporated herein by reference in 
its entirety.  
FIELD OF THE INVENTION 
[0002] The present invention relates to a method of reducing stool odor in a 
companion animal.  
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 
[0003] Stool odor in companion animals is an unpleasant reality of living with pets.  
For owners of animals that live indoors, especially cats and dogs that use litter boxes or 
are confined to kennels or other small spaces, this problem is particularly unpleasant. Cat 
litter containing deodorizers has been developed, however this is an imperfect solution to 
the problem. Stool odor in animals is partially a result of indigestion and microbial 
fermentation caused by inappropriate bacterial activity, inflammation and poor digestion 
or motility.  
[0004] Giffard et al. (2001) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 
218(6), 892-896 describe the effect of zinc acetate on flatulence in dogs. Zinc acetate 
reportedly decreased total gas production, number of flatulent episodes and odor of gas.  
[0005] International Patent Publication No. WO 01/17364 discloses a functional 
additive for a pet food that includes a combination of yucca extract, charcoal and a zinc 
salt such as zinc acetate and is said to reduce flatulence odor in a pet animal.  
[0006] Suarez et al. (1998) Gut 43, 100-104 describe use of zinc acetate to reduce 
sulfur gas content from human flatulence.  
[0007] U.S. Patent No. 5,405,836 discloses a breath freshening pet biscuit comprising 
zinc salt topically applied to the biscuit. The zinc reportedly binds volatile sulfur 
compounds found in the mouth forming a non-volatile entity.  
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 
[0008] This invention is directed to methods for reducing stool odor in animals. It is 
contemplated that such methods can be suitable for use in humans and non-human 
animals, more particularly, companion animals such as cats and dogs.  
[0009] The invention is directed, in part, to a method for reducing stool odor in a 
companion animal, the method comprising causing an animal to ingest a composition 
comprising a stool odor reducing effective amount of a zinc ion source. The 
composition can be, for example, a food, supplement, treat, snack or toy.  
[0010] The composition optionally further comprises one or more odor reducing 
agents other than a zinc ion source, for example those disclosed hereinbelow. The 
combination of a zinc ion source and one or more additional odor reducing agents in a 
composition fed to a companion animal can, according to certain embodiments of the 
invention, have a superior effect on reducing stool odor.  
100111 Advantages and benefits of the present invention will be apparent to one 
skilled in the art from reading this specification, 
[0011a] The present invention provides a use of a stool odor reducing effective 
amount of a zinc ion source in the manufacture of a composition to be ingested by a 
companion animal for reducing stool odor of the animal.  
DETAILED DESCRIPTION 
[0012] The term "stool" herein is used generically to refer to feces.  
[0013] The term "zinc ion source" refers to any zinc compound that provides zinc 
ions or releases zinc ions upon ingestion by an animal. The zinc ion source should be 
selected to be in a form acceptable for inclusion in an animal food or for oral 
administration to an animal in an amount contemplated herein, for example it should 
not be toxic or otherwise deleterious to animal health. Zinc ion sources include but are 
not limited to zinc salts, zinc oxide and zinc-polymer complexes.  
[0014] Zinc salts useful herein include but are not limited to zinc acetate, zinc 
citrate, zinc gluconate, zinc ascorbate, zinc glycinate, zinc sulfate, and sodium zinc 
citrate. Where zinc acetate is specifically indicated herein, it will be clear to one skilled 
in the art that any gastrointestinally acceptable zinc ion source, including zinc salts 
other than zinc acetate, can be substituted if desired.  
[00151 It has been found in accordance with this invention that a zinc ion source can 
be surprisingly effective in reducing stool odor in animals when included in the 
animal's diet. Without being held to a particular theory, it is believed that zinc ion 
reduces the level of odor producing compounds including heterocycles, thiols, sulfides, 
indoles, aldehydes and phenols present in feces, and in this way reduces stool odor.  
[0016] It is further contemplated in accordance with the present invention that 
additional odor reducing agent (s), when used in combination with a zinc ion source, 
can be useful in reducing stool odor in companion animals such as cats and dogs. In 
various embodiments, such additional odor reducing agent (s) are selected from the 
group 
WO 2005/053420 PCT/US2004/039795 
consisting of fibers, minerals, herbs and spices, extracts of herbs and spices, probiotics, 
enzymes and proteins.  
[0017] Illustratively, among herbs and spices that can be used together with a zinc ion 
source are rosemary, garlic, caraway, dove wheat, chickweed, banana, marjoram, 
chamomile, nutmeg, allspice, cumin, tarragon, thyme, licorice, basil, celery seed, lemon 
balm, lavender, fennel, anise, nettle, echinacea and yucca, for example Mohave yucca 
(Yucca schidigera). Extracts of herbs and spices that can be used together with a zinc ion 
source illustratively include essential oils, for example selected from the group consisting 
of oils of lemon, peppermint, thyme, vanilla, citrus, cinnamon, eucalyptus, lavender, 
clove and oregano. Additional plant extracts that can be used according to the invention 
are listed in U.S. Patent No. 5,401,502, which is incorporated herein by reference in its 
entirety.  
[0018] Without being held to a particular theory, it is believed that odor binding 
compounds, compounds that mask odors, compounds that reduce odor through microbial 
modulation, anti-inflammatory means, or enzymatic modulation, and compounds that 
reduce odor through modification of nitrogen metabolism or binding of ammonia, when 
used in combination with a zinc ion source, can in some cases have an additive, 
complementary or synergistic effect on reducing stool odor.  
[0019] It is contemplated that the methods of this invention can be useful for a variety 
of animals, including humans and non-human animals such as non-human primates (e.g., 
monkeys, chimpanzees, etc.), companion animals (e.g., dogs, cats, horses, etc.), farm 
animals (e.g., goats, sheep, swine, cattle, etc.), laboratory animals (e.g., mice, rats, etc.), 
birds (e.g., domestic birds such as canaries, parrots, etc. and commercial birds such as 
chickens, ducks, turkeys, etc.), rodents (e.g., hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils, rabbits, 
hedgehogs, ferrets, chinchillas, etc.) and wild, exotic and zoo animals (e.g., wolves, bears, 
deer, etc.).  
[0020] In some embodiments of this invention, the animal is a cat.  
[0021] In other embodiments of this invention, the animal is a dog.  
[0022] This invention contemplates a variety of compositions containing a zinc ion 
source, alone or in combination with other odor reducing agents including those listed 
above. Contemplated compositions include, for example, foods, supplements, treats, 
snacks, toys (typically chewable and consumable toys), beverages and high-moisture gels.  
WO 2005/053420 PCT/US2004/039795 
Alternatively, a composition comprising a zinc ion source can be administered in oral unit 
dosage form such as a pill, tablet, gel, or capsule.  
[0023] In general, the invention will be found useful for food compositions that 
comprise, on a dry matter basis, 0 to about 50% by weight of carbohydrate; about 5% to 
about 70% by weight of protein; about 2% to about 50% by weight fat; and 0 to about 
15% by weight of nutritional balancing agents.  
[0024] A zinc ion source should be present in the composition in an amount effective 
to reduce stool odor when the composition is used according to the present method. For 
example, the amount of the zinc ion source, for example zinc acetate or other zinc salt, in 
a composition of this invention can be an amount providing about 75 to about 3000 ppm 
zinc ion. One of skill in the art will, by routine testing based on the disclosure herein, 
readily establish an amount of a particular zinc ion source equivalent in effectiveness to 
an amount of zinc acetate in the above range.  
[0025] A "zinc acetate equivalent amount" herein is the amount of a particular zinc 
ion source that is equivalent in its stool odor reducing effect to a stated amount of zinc ion 
in the form of zinc acetate.  
[0026] In one embodiment of the invention, the composition is an animal food 
comprising a zinc ion source and fiber. Fibers are important food constituents that help 
modulate gut motility through various mechanisms such as water holding capacity, 
physical bulking, fuel for the gut bacteria, change in viscosity, etc. Example of fibers 
include, but are not limited to, cellulose, hemicellulose, citrus pulp, barley, bran, bananas, 
oat fiber, mannan-oligosaccharide, pectin, xylooligosaccharide, burdock, beet pulp, 
inulin, arabinogalactan, oligosaccharides from gums, galactose, other xylans, fructans 
dextrans, resistant starches, etc. The fibers should generally be present at levels of about 
0.1% to about 20%, for example about 1% to about 11%, by weight of the composition.  
[0027] In various embodiments, the composition of the fiber can be 100% non
fermentable fiber, 100% moderately fermentable fiber or 100% highly fermentable fiber.  
[0028] In other embodiments, the composition of the fiber can include at least about 
0.1% by weight, for example at least about 10%, at least about 20%, or at least about 
60%, of the total fiber composition in the form of non-fermentable fiber. In certain 
embodiments, the fiber comprises about 10% to about 80%, for example about 40% to 
about 60%, by weight of the total fiber composition in the form of fermentable fiber, with 
WO 2005/053420 PCT/US2004/039795 
the balance being non-fermentable fiber.  
[0029] In certain embodiments, the composition of the fiber includes about 5% to 
about 50%, for example about 10% to about 15%, by weight of the total fiber 
composition of moderately fermentable fiber.  
[0030] In certain embodiments, the composition of the fiber includes 0% to about 
20%, for example about 10% to about 15%, by weight of the total fiber composition in 
the form of highly fermentable fiber.  
[0031] Non-fermentable fibers include but are not limited to cellulose, oat fiber, 
hemicellulose and peanut hulls.  
[0032] Moderately fermentable fibers include but are not limited to beet pulp, citrus 
pulp, resistant starches, some gums, galactooligosaccharides, mannan-oligosaccharide, 
burdock, rice bran, soy fiber, oat glucans, etc.  
[0033] Highly fermentable fibers include but are not limited to gums, pectins and 
certain oligosaccharides such as xylooligosaccharides. Gums can include gums produced 
by microorganisms including but not limited to gellan and xanthan gums, and gums 
produced by plants such as acacia (gum arabic).  
[0034] The fiber composition should have an organic matter disappearance or 
fermentability of about 0% to about 80%, although individual fiber components or fibers 
used individually can have fermentability ranging from 0% to 100%. "Organic matter 
disappearance" is the percentage of the organic matter that is lost by fermentation when a 
fiber composition is incubated in vitro with fecal matter from an animal or human for 12
24 hours at or close to physiological body temperature, and is calculated as: 
{1-[(organic matter residue - organic matter blank)/initial organic matter] } x 100.  
[0035] Typically, the zinc ion source and other, optional, odor reducing agent(s) of 
the composition are present at concentrations that do not impart an aroma or flavor that 
causes the animal to perceive the composition to be unacceptable for consumption, or 
otherwise refuse, reject or be inhibited from ingesting the composition. However, even 
where such concentrations are exceeded, a desirable aroma and flavor can often be 
achieved using aroma or flavor enhancers, for example to mask the aroma or flavor of the 
zinc ion source.  
[0036] The zinc ion source and other, optional, odor reducing agent(s) of the 
WO 2005/053420 PCT/US2004/039795 
composition should be present at concentrations that are not deleterious to the animal's 
health. Thus, for example, zinc acetate should be present at a concentration that does not 
cause undesirable effects on digestion, particularly long term effects lasting several days 
or longer. Undesirable effects on digestion can include, for example, constipation or 
diarrhea.  
[0037] In one embodiment, the composition is a food supplement comprising a zinc 
ion source, alone or in combination with one or more additional odor reducing agents.  
Supplements include, for example, a feed or pet food used with another feed or pet food 
to improve the nutritive balance or performance of the total. Contemplated supplements 
include compositions that are fed undiluted as a supplement to other feeds or pet foods, 
offered free choice with other parts of an animal's ration that are separately available, or 
diluted and mixed with an animal's regular feed or pet food to produce a complete feed or 
pet food. The AAFCO, for example, provides a discussion relating to supplements in the 
American Feed Control Officials, Inc. Official Publication, p. 220 (2003). Supplements 
can be in various forms including, for example, powders, liquids, syrups, pills, 
encapsulated compositions, etc.  
[0038] In another embodiment, the composition is a treat comprising a zinc ion 
source, alone or in combination with one or more additional odor reducing agents. Treats 
include, for example, compositions that are given to an animal to entice the animal to eat 
during a non-meal time. Contemplated treats for canines include, for example, dog 
biscuits in the shape of dog bones. Treats can be nutritional, wherein the composition 
comprises one or more nutrients, and can, for example, have a composition as described 
above for food. Non-nutritional treats encompass any other treats that are non-toxic. The 
zinc ion source, for example, can be coated onto the treat, incorporated into the treat, or 
both.  
[0039] In another embodiment, the composition is a toy comprising a zinc ion source, 
alone or in combination with one or more additional odor reducing agents. Toys include, 
for example, chewable toys. Contemplated toys for dogs include, for example, artificial 
bones. The zinc ion source can be present in a coating on the surface of the toy or on the 
surface of a component of the toy, or can be incorporated partially or fully throughout the 
toy, or both. In a contemplated embodiment, the zinc ion source is orally accessible by 
the intended user.  
WO 2005/053420 PCT/US2004/039795 
[0040] Illustrative toys suitable for modification in accordance with the invention are 
disclosed in the patents individually cited below and incorporated herein by reference.  
[0041] U.S. Patent No. 5,339,771 and references disclosed therein.  
[0042] U.S. Patent No. 5,419,283 and references disclosed therein.  
[0043] It should be recognized that this invention contemplates both partially 
consumable toys (e.g., toys comprising plastic components) and fully consumable toys 
(e.g., rawhides and various artificial bones). It should be further recognized that this 
invention contemplates toys for both human and non-human use, particularly for 
companion, farm, and zoo animal use, and particularly for dog or cat use.  
[0044] The terms "treat" and "toy" can be considered interchangeable for the 
purposes of this specification. However, in general a treat is fully edible and a toy in 
accordance with the invention has an edible coating.  
[0045] In another embodiment, the composition is an aqueous pet beverage. The zinc 
ion source is present in such a beverage typically in dissolved form. The beverage 
comprises mainly water and optionally further comprises a flavor enhancing agent such as 
a liver digest.  
[0046] In another embodiment, the composition is a high-moisture gel or "solid 
water" composition, for example substantially as disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 6,528,084 
but with addition of a zinc ion source, typically in dissolved form. Such a composition 
can have a jelly-like consistency similar to that of Jell-O@ dessert.  
[0047] In preparing a composition of the present invention, the components of the 
composition are adjusted so that the zinc ion source, alone or in combination with one or 
more additional odor reducing agents, is present in the composition at a desired 
concentration, typically in an amount providing about 75 ppm to about 3000 ppm of zinc 
ion. The zinc ion source can, for example, be incorporated into the composition during 
formulation processing, such as during and/or after mixing of other components of the 
composition. Distribution of these components into the composition can be accomplished 
by any conventional method including standard mixing procedures.  
[0048] Compositions of the present invention (particularly foods) can be prepared in a 
canned or wet form using conventional pet food processes. Typical requirements for a 
nutritionally adequate food composition are: 
carbohydrate, 0 to about 90%, illustratively about 5% to about 45%, by 
WO 2005/053420 PCT/US2004/039795 
weight; 
protein, about 5% to about 70%, illustratively about 10% to about 60%, by 
weight; 
fat, about 2% to about 50%, illustratively about 5% to about 40%, by weight; 
total dietary fiber, about 0.1% to about 20%, illustratively about 1% to about 
11%, by weight; and 
nutritional balancing agents such as vitamins and minerals, 0 to about 15%, 
illustratively about 2% to about 8%, by weight.  
To these ingredients are added one or more stool odor reducing agents such as zinc 
acetate, in accordance with the invention.  
[0049] Vitamins and minerals should be included in amounts required to avoid 
deficiency and maintain health. The National Research Council, for example, gives 
recommendations for farm animals in Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th Revised 
Edition (1998); Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Revised Edition (1994); Nutrient 
Requirements of Horses, 5th Revised Edition (1989), etc. as published by National 
Academy Press, Washington, DC. AAFCO provides recommendations for dogs and cats 
in the American Feed Control Officials, Inc. Official Publication (2003), at pp. 126-240.  
[0050] In one contemplated embodiment, ground animal (e.g., mammal, poultry, 
and/or fish) proteinaceous tissues are mixed with other ingredients, including for example 
animal fats and vegetable oils, cereal grains, other nutritionally balancing ingredients, 
special purpose additives (e.g., vitamin and mineral mixtures, inorganic salts, cellulose 
and beet pulp, bulking agents, and the like); and water sufficient for processing is also 
added. These ingredients typically are mixed in a vessel suitable for heating while 
blending the components. Heating of the mixture can be effected in any suitable manner, 
such as, for example, by direct steam injection or by using a vessel fitted with a heat 
exchanger. Following addition of the last ingredient, the mixture is heated to a 
temperature of about 10'C to about 100'C. Temperatures outside this range are 
acceptable, but can be commercially impractical without use of other processing aids.  
When heated to the appropriate temperature, the material is typically in the form of a 
thick liquid. The thick liquid is filled into suitable containers such as cans, jars, pouches 
or the like. A lid is applied, and the container is hermetically sealed. The sealed 
containers are then placed into conventional equipment designed to sterilize the contents.  
WO 2005/053420 PCT/US2004/039795 
This is usually accomplished by heating to a temperature of at least about 1 100C for an 
appropriate time, which is dependent on, for example, the temperature used and the 
composition. Products can also be prepared by an aseptic process wherein the contents 
are heated to commercial sterility before being packaged in sterilized containers.  
[0051] Compositions of the present invention (particularly foods) can be prepared in a 
dry form using conventional processes. In one contemplated embodiment, dry 
ingredients, including, for example, animal protein sources, plant protein sources, grains, 
etc., are ground and mixed together. Moist or liquid ingredients, including fats, oils, 
animal protein sources, water, etc., are then added to and mixed with the dry mix. The 
mixture is then processed into kibbles or similar dry pieces. Kibble is often formed using 
an extrusion process in which the mixture of dry and wet ingredients is subjected to 
mechanical work at a high pressure and temperature, and forced through small openings 
and cut off into kibble by a rotating knife. The wet kibble is then dried and optionally 
coated with one or more topical coatings which can include, for example, flavors, fats, 
oils, powders, and the like. Kibble also can be made from the dough using a baking 
process, rather than extrusion, wherein the dough is placed into a mold before dry-heat 
processing. Kibble also can be made from a food matrix undergoing pelletization. It is 
important to note that the zinc ion source, alone or in combination with additional odor 
reducing agents, can be incorporated into the food composition for example by adding the 
zinc ion source to the mixture before extrusion or by coating the extruded kibble or 
pellets with the zinc ion source as an ingredient of a topical coating.  
[0052] Treats of the present invention can be prepared by, for example, an extrusion 
or baking process similar to those described above for dry food. Other processes also can 
be used to either apply a coating comprising a zinc ion source, alone or in combination 
with one or more additional odor reducing agents, on the exterior of existing treat forms, 
or to inject the zinc ion source into an existing treat form.  
[0053] Animal toys of the present invention are typically prepared by coating an 
existing toy with a composition comprising a zinc ion source, alone or in combination 
with one or more additional odor reducing agents.  
EXAMPLES 
[0054] The following examples are merely illustrative, and do not limit this disclosure 
in any way.  
WO 2005/053420 PCT/US2004/039795 
Example 1 
[0055] An experiment was conducted to characterize the effects of zinc acetate on 
stool odor compounds in dogs. To a control food, which was a dry food composed of 
kibbles containing a base level of 150 ppm zinc in the form of zinc acetate, various 
amounts of zinc in the form of zinc acetate were added as a coating on the kibbles. This 
was done by hand coating (sprinkling) fine zinc acetate powder on the kibble in a rotating 
drum in a two-step coating process after all other topical ingredients had been added by 
in-line enrobing. Ten dogs were fed control food with no added zinc, ten dogs were fed 
control food with 400 ppm zinc added, ten dogs were fed control food with 600 ppm zinc 
added, and ten dogs were fed control food with 900 ppm zinc added. The dogs were fed 
one of these diets for three weeks. At the end of three weeks, stool samples were 
collected and analyzed by putting a standard amount of stool in a glass container and 
incubating a solid phase microextraction fiber in the headspace. Volatiles bound to the 
fiber were eluted onto a gas chromatograph for analysis. The compounds were identified 
using a flame ionization chamber.  
[0056] The results are shown in Table 1 below. The numbers indicate relative 
differences as measured by the area under the peak in a chromatogram. The addition of 
zinc to the food resulted in decreased levels of phenols, thiols and sulfides and indoles. In 
some instances, low amounts of zinc were able to decrease the level of the stool odor 
compounds, for example, indoles. In other instances, increasing levels of zinc resulted in 
decreasing levels of the particular odor compound, for example, phenols and thiols.  
Table 1: Effect of added zinc acetate on stool odor compounds 
Control 400 ppm 600 ppm 900 ppm 
food added zinc added zinc added zinc 
Carboxylic acids (x10 4) 5.06 ± 5.33 3.79 ± 3.55 22.7 ± 32.2 27.2 21.2 
Esters (x10 5) 39.8 ± 42.7 34.3 ± 34.0 34.1 ± 34.4 32.6 0.9 
Heterocycles (x104) 1.08 ± 5.97 0.94 ± 0.37 1.19 ± 0.54 1.13 0.49 
Phenols (x10 4) 13.6 ± 8.10 9.62 6.0 9.17 ± 5.64 4.08 3.58 
Thiols/Sulfides (x10 4) 6.16 ± 6.39 8.69 6.16 5.14 ± 2.4 4.91 1.3 
Ketones (x10 6) 256± 124 179 0.89 201 ±66.5 160 63.1 
Aldehydes (x10 3) 0.53 ± 0.39 0.45 0.3 0.56 ± 0.51 1.09 1.29 
Alcohols (x10 5) 10.0 ± 7.55 17.3 12.5 12.3 ± 0.9 23.4 14.3 
Indoles (x10 4) 3.88 ± 2.36 2.64 2.19 2.0 ± 0.86 1.78 2.45 
Example 2 
[0057] An experiment was conducted to characterize the effects of zinc acetate on 
stool odor compounds in cats. To a control food, which was a dry food composed of 
kibbles containing a base level of 160 ppm zinc in the form of zinc acetate, various 
amounts of zinc were added in the form of zine acetate as in Example 1. Eight cats 
were fed control food with no added zinc, eight cats were fed control food with 860 
ppm zinc acetate added, seven cats were fed control food with 1200 ppm zinc acetate 
added, and seven cats were fed control food with 1800 ppm zinc acetate added. The 
cats were fed one of these diets for one month. At the end of the month, stool samples 
were collected and analyzed as described in Example 1.  
[00581 The results are shown in Table 2 below. The numbers indicate relative 
differences as measured by the area under the peak in a chromatogram. The addition of 
zinc to the food resulted in decreased stool levels of heterocycles, indoles, aldehydes 
and phenols. In some cases, a minimum level of zinc was able to decrease stool odor 
compounds, particularly indoles and heterocycles. In other cases, higher levels of zinc 
resulted in a larger decrease, for example in the case of phenol.  
Table 2: Effect of added zinc acetate on stool odor compounds 
Control 860 ppm 1200 ppm 1800 ppm 
food added zinc added zinc added zinc 
Carboxylic acids (1104) 146 ± 114 317 160 225 ± 78.1 146 + 144 
Esters (X104) 59.6 ± 38.8 78,4 i 22.9 76.9 + 47,5 28.7 ± 1.8 
Heterocycles (110) 0.79 ± 0.13 0.62 0.13 0.62 0.22 0.46 ± 0.17 
Phenols (X104) 11.8 ± 9.1 10,3 4.3 12.6 4.7 7.2 ±2.7 
Thiols/Sulfides (x104) 4.47 ± 3.3 6.2 23 7.7 3.4 6.8 ± 3.9 
Ketones (x104) 93.9 ± 72.5 25.6 8.14 60.7* 38.1 42.2 ± 26,2 
Aldehydes (X104) 3.2 + 1.9 5.6 3.6 3,6± 1.7 1.9 ±L1.6 
Alcohols (xi4) 5.6 ± 7.1 13.2 6 27 6.87 10.8 15.1 ± 23.3 
Indoles (x104) 3.5 ± 5.7 0.39 0.3 0.88 0.62 2.3 ± 1.5 
[0059] All patents and publications cited herein are incorporated by reference into 
this application in their entirety.  
[0060] The words "comprise", "comprises", and "comprising" are to be interpreted 
inclusively rather than exclusively.  
[0061] Throughout this specification the word "comprise", or variations such as 
"comprises" or "comprising", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated 
element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps, but not the exclusion of 
any other element, integer or step, or group of elements, integers or steps.  
[0062] Any discussion of documents, acts, materials, devices, articles or the like 
which has been included in the present specification is solely for the purpose of 
providing a context for the present invention. It is not to be taken as an admission that 
any or all of these matters form part of the prior art base or were common general 
knowledge in the field relevant to the present invention as it existed before the priority 
date of each claim of this application.  

THE CLAiMS DEFINING THE INVENTION ARE AS FOLLOWS: 
1. Use of a stool odor reducing effective amount of a zinc ion source in the 
manufacture of a composition to be ingested by a companion animal for 
reducing stool odor of the animal.  
2. The use of Claim 1, wherein the zinc, ion source is present in the composition in 
an amount providing at least about 75 ppm zinc ion and not sufficient to cause 
an adverse effect on digestion of the animal.  
3. The use of Claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the zinc ion source is present in the 
composition in an amount providing about 75 ppm to about 3000 ppm zinc ion, 
4. The use of Claim 1, wherein the zinc ion source is a zinc salt which is selected 
from the group consisting of zinc acetate, zinc citrate, zinc gluconate, zinc 
ascorbate, zinc glycinate, zinc sulfate, and sodium zinc citrate.  
5. The use of Claim 4, wherein the zinc salt is zinc acetate, 
6. The use of Claim 5, wherein the zinc acetate is present in the composition in an 
amount providing at least about 200 ppm zinc ion.  
7. The use of Claim 5, wherein the zinc acetate is present in the composition in an 
amount providing at least about 500 ppm zinc ion.  
8. The use of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the animal is a cat or a dog.  
9. The use of Claim 1, wherein the composition is in the form of a food, a treat, a 
supplement, a beverage, a high-moisture gel, a pill, a table, a gel or a capsule.  
10. The use of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the composition further 
comprises at least one odor reducing agent other than a zinc ion source.  
11. The use of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the at least one odor 
reducing agent other than a zinc ion source is selected from the group consisting 
of fibers, minerals, herbs and spices, extracts of herbs and spices, probiotics, 
enzymes and proteins.  
12. The use of Claim 11, wherein the at least one odor reducing agent other than a 
zinc ion source is a herb or spice selected from the group consisting of 
rosemary, garlic, ginger, caraway, dove wheat, chickweed, banana, marjoram, 
chamomile, nutmeg, allspice, cumin, tarragon, thyme, licorice, basil, celery 
seed, lemon balm, lavender, fennel, anise, nettle, echinacea and yucca.  
13, The use of Claim 10, wherein the at least one odor reducing agent other than a 
zinc ion source is an essential oil selected from the group consisting of oils of 
lemon, peppermint, thyme, vanilla, citrus, cinnamon, eucalyptus, lavender, clove 
and oregano.  
14. The use of Claim 11, wherein the at least one odor reducing agent other than a 
zinc ion source is at least one fiber.  
15. The use of Claim 14, wherein the fiber is selected from the group consisting of 
cellulose, hemicellulose, citrus pulp, barley, bran, banana, oat fiber, oat glucan, 
mannan-oligosaccharide, pectin, xylooligosaccharide, burdock, beet pulp, inulin, 
arabinogalactan and oligosaccharide.  
16. The use of Claim 14 or claim 15, wherein the fiber is present in the composition 
in an amount of about 0.1% to about 20% by weight.  
17. The use of Claim 16, wherein the fiber is present in the composition in an 
amount of about 1% to about 11% by weight.  
18. The use of any one of claims 14 to 17, wherein of the total fiber present in the 
composition is at least about 20% by weight is non-fermentable.  
19. Use of a stool odor reducing effective amount of a zinc ion source in the 
manufacture of a composition substantially as hereinbefore described with 
reference to the examples and excluding, if any, comparative examples.  

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